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Outline 1. Introduction 2. History 3. Current status of democracy in Pakistan 4. Future currents 5. Conclusion Once Lincoln said that democracy is “Government of the people, by the people, for the people” It is the most basic form of Government which is praised by many in our times. The adults have their say in the important decision making of their lives and this is how the rules of the Government are made. The adults of a nation give their votes to the leader and the leaders then drive the Government for the betterment of the people. From the day of inception of Pakistan, the people are struggling for a better form of Government and they have selected Democracy as the best one. But it‟s a misfortune for the people of Pakistan that the democracy could not continue for long and it is derailed off and on. Military rules have dented Pakistan‟s Democracy 3 times in the history of just 65 years. People like Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto struggled a lot for the revival and sustainability of Democracy. Different types of democracies prevail in Pakistan at different times. The constitution of Pakistan is now a backing a Parliamentary form of Government but in the previous constitutions like 1962 and 1956, we had Presidential form of Government. The constitution at this moment is an amended version of 1973, which is following the Parliamentary form of Government. According to Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Quaid-e-Azam, “Pakistan is made for the betterment of the people living in it. People will themselves select their Leader and it’s the responsibility of the Leader to fulfill the needs of the people and work day and night for this Motherland.” According to the Democratic index of 2011, Pakistan is on the 106th number in the world with a democratic score of just 4.55. Norway is at the top of the chart with a score of above 9.5. Leaders in Pakistan also promise the well being of the people of Pakistan in their speeches. They use to use the word „Welfare State‟ for Pakistan but still they are unable to perform the same. The citizens of Pakistan are important component of the Democracy in the country. They choose their leaders through voting and the leaders then steer the Government in their own way. So, citizen can be blamed if the democracy in the Pakistan is not working well. They are the one who are responsible for the selection, so they are the base of the system. They should select people who are more capable and better among all. On a concluding note, we can say that Democracy is one of the best systems of Government for Pakistan, according to many. It is denied by many critics on sound bases but still Pakistan need its continuation for the betterment of the country. We really need to work hard for the better system implementation of Democracy in Pakistan which is the dire need of this time. Word Praised Inception Sustainability Constitution Implementation Meaning Word Drive Struggling Revival Steer Meaning Word Betterment Misfortune Prevail Denied Meaning
The rising prices is the main cause of social unrest in the country. Hoarders create an artificial shortage of goods and then sell things at rising prices. Introduction 2. and every week. The rising prices has adversely affected the people with fixed incomes. Pakistan is a developing country and the people are generally poor. hoarding. vegetables. fruits. steel and coal. Prices are rising in petrol. hoarding of goods by traders. Curbing measures 5. pulses.Price Hike Outline 1. The most important factor which is responsible for price-rise is the mentality of the people to become millionaire in a night. the prices are soaring sky-high and the problem of price rise is becoming very acute day by day. Effects 4. The black money made in this way plays an important role in the country‟s economy. The pressure of population growth is also one of its causes. Anti-social elements are being identified and punished. there is general rising prices of all commodities. Almost every month. earthquakes and famine and also wars. In turn. these have enormously raising prices of essential commodities like food grains. weak administration and defective system of the distribution of essential commodities are other major causes of price rise in Pakistan. Food production is also increasing. Action is being taken against hoarders and black marketers. black-marketing. The Government is trying to check the Priceline. Word Soaring Commodities Bribery Profiteering Defective Hoarders Meaning Word Sky-high Adversely Famine Tendencies Distribution Drought Meaning Word Acute Calamities Hoarding Mentality Artificial Meaning . petroleum products. Such rise in prices might be due to natural calamities like floods. corruption. Export of goods also creates scarcity in the country. An action plan is in operation against drought conditions. Production is being increased. More demand but less production and supply is another cause of the rising prices. cloth. Most people find it difficult to eat two square meals a day. diesel. Conclusion In our country. It is hoped that the government will soon take the other necessary steps to control rising prices. The other reasons of the soaring prices may be bribery. There are many causes responsible for rise in prices. They are facing great difficulties because of rising prices. Owing to this tendency a vast majority of people have to suffer untold hardships. dry fruits. smuggling. More taxes. spices and edible oils. the middle-class people will not be able to maintain their position in society. If the present position continues. High prices have very bad effect on the people. cement. These rising prices increase the cost of living. It is deplorable that a small group of businessmen earn a lot of money by unfair means of hoarding essential goods. profiteering and many other anti-national and anti-social tendencies. Causes 3.
farmers and ranchers could probably double the population of helpful birds. Field and farmstead windbreaks. Because birds have higher body temperatures. he would eat 181⁄3 pounds of food in a day. 2. They usually consume as much or more than their own weight in soft-bodied insects every day. according to Joe Cannon. 4. What are some of the ways to increase beneficial form of wildlife? There are many ways possible to increase wildlife in beneficial form but only a few are noted here like living. exhaust. EPA‟s assistant administrator for Air and Radiation. and greater energy than most other animals. Of course. while consumers save about 7 cents a gallon at the pumps. fences. living fences. What harms the use of leaded gas can have on the engines? According to Joe Cannon. Studies show that most people who engage in fuel switching do so to save money — about 7 cents a gallon. birds daily eat more than their own weight. According to Joe Cannon. but they are of great value. shrub buffers. What EPA is determined about? EPA is determined about the use of leaded gas in those vehicles which is primarily designed for the use of unleaded gas. (words : 61) Original Passage The food habits of birds make them especially valuable to agriculture. birds cannot control insects completely. EPA‟s assistant administrator for Air and Radiation. How much money can be saved by fuel switching? As per some of the studies on fuel switching. degrade the oil. Nestling birds make extremely rapid growth. due to some of their native abilities. about 7 cents per gallon can be saved by fuel switching. What aspects of bird are useful for agriculture? The food habits of birds are making them very useful for agriculture. please name them? Two kinds of birds are discussed in the above passage namely. the use of leaded gas in the car will more quickly foul the spark plugs. assigned to them by nature. More than 1 million tons of hydrocarbons and 12 million tons of carbon monoxide were spewed from the tailpipes of cars with defective emission control systems during fiscal year 1983. . shrub buffers. these people are victims of faulty economics. Young robins have been observed to gain eight times their original weight the first eight days of their life.Original Passage The use of leaded gasoline in vehicles designed for unleaded gasoline can increase tailpipe emissions 200 to 800 percent. Cannon estimates that people who substitute leaded for unleaded gasoline will end up paying 12 cents a gallon in extra maintenance and repairs. One young robin. weighing three ounces. and foul the oxygen sensor in new cars. grass waterways. consumed 165 cutworms weighing 51⁄2 ounces in one day. more rapid digestion. By using soil and water-conserving practices. 2. in addition to ruining the catalytic converter. farm ponds and grass waterways. How many kinds of the birds are discussed in the passage. moreover. Insect-eating birds must fill their stomachs five to six times daily because they digest their food so fast and because of the large amount of indigestible material in insects.” he said. However. which is increasing tailpipe emissions. Because insects are not fully digestible. EPA assistant administrator for Air and Radiation. wear out the exhaust system. 3. (Words: 201) Questions: 1. they require more food. they ultimately pay 12 cents a gallon more to repair the resulting damage to the car‟s ignition. If a 10-pound baby ate at the same rate. almost whole of the engine very rapidly require the overhauling. 3. requiring huge amounts of food. insect-eating birds may eat nearly twice their weight in these pests. and lubricating systems. Make a précis of the passage? Précis Because of their rapid metabolism. this can corrupt the working of spark plug and exhaust system will be in danger. nestling and insecteating. and farm ponds are only a few of the many land-use practices useful in attracting and increasing beneficial forms of wildlife. Make a précis of the passage? Précis Using leaded instead of unleaded gasoline contributes to a 200 to 800 percent increase in air polluting emissions. EPA has determined. “In the long run. (words : 159) Questions: 1. 4.
Over even the greatest reputations it closes with barely a bubble. concentrate upon that one. but vain very vain'. One may imagine that a man who blew the trumpet for his living would be glad to play the violin for his amusement. Make a précis of the passage? Précis Members of the House of Commons are vain though the proceedings of the House never encourage it. as the house of commons. Choose well. No attention is paid to the reputation of the member. 3. The boy learns enough Latin to detest it. still they are vain. and ponds to attract them to an area. and yet so refreshingly. The speaker calls on you by name. 'I can stand many things. We are all anxious to exaggerate our own importance. Thus there is nothing to feed their vanity. enough German to exhibit a diploma. even if you only know it enough to read it with pleasure. Do not be content until you find yourself reading in it with real enjoyment. both expressed and concealed. so openly trample on each other's egotisms. replied. is a sensible advantage. So it is with reading in another language than your own. in the hope of catching the speaker's eye the very moment I sit down. when asked his opinion of men. Is second language an advantage? . the speaker calls them by name. Whilst speaking of the House I have never failed to notice one man. this is the very nature of the House of Commons that even college chums cannot escape from this overpowering feeling. And House of Commons proves that no man is necessary. And yet the vanity of politicians is enormous. in the House of Commons. There is a great deal of vanity. The mere form of speech excites the activity of separate brain cells. who hung upon my words. Lord Melbourne. 'Good fellows. Hardly are you through the first sentence when your oldest friend. But this solitary auditor is not in the least interested either in me or in my speech. Our educationists are too often anxious to teach children so many different languages that they never get far enough in any one to drive any use or enjoyment from their study. The process of reading for pleasure in another language rests the mental muscles. and desperately anxious to make reputations for ourselves and to have our names associated with some subject . (Words: 217) Questions: 1. 4. but not this'. I often wonder why. 2. (words : 53) Original Passage I know no place where the great truth that no man is necessary is brought home to the mind so remorselessly. as much as to say. it enlivens the mind by a different sequence and emphasis of ideas. on whom everything I was saying seemed to be making the greatest impression. it is with the motive to get a chance to speak.to pose as its patron and friend. (words : 317) Questions: 1. Yet for all this vanity thrives in the House . ostentatiously walks out of the House. who was paying me the compliment of the closest attention. who never took his eyes off me. Why is the college chum changed in the House of Common? It is a very common practice that no one in your friend while you are in the politics. How much vanity is in the House of Common? There is a great deal of vanity overt and covert is there in the House of Commons. dense and thorny shrubs.though what it feeds on I cannot say. relieving in the most effective manner the fatigue of those in hackneyed use. gives you a stony stare and seizing his hat in his hand.Residents can double the numbers of insect-eaters by providing coniferous trees. and is eager to leap to his feet. You rise to address the House. choose wisely and choose one. If any one pays attention or praises the speech of another member. (words : 103) Original Passage To have a second language at your disposal. and the only reason why he listens so intently and eyes me so closely is that he has made up his mind to follow me. In fact members are given no importance. at all events. The closest friends may walk out as others express their views. enough Greek to pass an examination. enough French to get from Calasis to Paris. for I cannot imagine a place where men so habitually disregard each other's feelings. Their feelings are ignored and even crushed. What is the reason behind this vanity? According the author the reason behind vanity is that we want to show our important in any case. your college chum the man you have appointed guardian of your infant children. rises in his place. but not enough of any to secure the enormous boon of access to a second literature. enough Spanish or Italian to tell which is which.
wise and only one and then stick to that one selection. 2. But the educationalists choose many languages to the children. (words : 63) . it is very beneficial for a person. How to choose the best literature of second language? As per the author‟s requirement choose well. So it is very difficult for children to learn more. The boy can choose well wisely and concentrate upon that one.Yes if a language is on your disposal other than your own. 4. 3. Make a précis of the passage? Précis It is enough to choose the second language any one. The process of reading should be made pleasure from that language choosing the second language may be the own choice of the student. Having enough knowledge of second language what is still lacking by the students? Students have gotten enough of second language but still they are lacking in going through the literature of second language.