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Engineering

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The beam engine, a major driver in the Industrial Revolution, underscores the importance of engineering in modern history. This model is on display at the main building of the ETSIIM in Madrid, Spain.

Engineering is the science, skill, and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and also build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes. The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET)[1] has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation or safety to life and property. [2][3] One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Ingenieur or European Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized sub disciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.
Contents
[hide]

1 History o 1.1 Ancient era o 1.2 Renaissance era o 1.3 Modern era 2 Main branches of engineering 3 Methodology o 3.1 Problem solving o 3.2 Computer use 4 Social context 5 Relationships with other disciplines o 5.1 Science o 5.2 Medicine and biology o 5.3 Art o 5.4 Other fields 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

[edit]History Main article: History of engineering Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects.

The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1325, when an engine'er (literally, one who operates anengine) originally referred to "a constructor of military engines."[4] In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e., a mechanical contraption used in war (for example, a catapult). Notable exceptions of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g., the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The word "engine" itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning "innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention."[5] Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering[3] entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such nonmilitary projects and those involved in the older discipline of military engineering. [edit]Ancient

era

Model of a Roman water-powered grain-mill described byVitruvius.

The Pharos of Alexandria, the pyramids in Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts,Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacn and the cities and pyramids of the Mayan, Inca and Aztec Empires, the Great Wall of China, theBrihadeshwara temple of Tanjavur and tombs of India, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of the ancient civil and military engineers. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep.[3] As one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser (the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630-2611 BC.[6] He may also have been responsible for the first known use of columns in architecture[citation needed]. Ancient Greece developed machines in both the civilian and military domains. The Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer,[7][8]and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design thegear trains of the Industrial revolution, and are still widely used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering.[9] Chinese, Greek and Roman armies employed complex military machines and inventions such as artillery which was developed by the Greeks around the 4th century B.C.,[10] the trireme, the ballista and the catapult. In the Middle Ages, the Trebuchet was developed. [edit]Renaissance era The first electrical engineer is considered to be William Gilbert, with his 1600 publication of De Magnete, who coined the term "electricity".[11] The first steam engine was built in 1698 by mechanical engineer Thomas Savery.[12] The development of this device gave rise to the industrial revolution in the coming decades, allowing for the beginnings of mass production. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the eighteenth century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. [edit]Modern

era

The International Space Stationrepresents a modern engineering challenge from many disciplines.

Electrical engineering can trace its origins in the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the 1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday, Georg Ohmand others and the invention of the electric motor in 1872. The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the development of electronics to such an extent that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any other Engineering specialty. [3] The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad.[3] John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer, and often regarded as the "father" of civil engineering. He was an English civil engineerresponsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse (175559) where he pioneered the use of 'hydraulic lime' (a form of mortar which will set under water) and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse. His lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeaton's Tower. He is important in the history, rediscovery of, and development of modern cement, because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime; work which led ultimately to the invention of Portland cement. Chemical Engineering, like its counterpart Mechanical Engineering, developed in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution.[3] Industrial scale manufacturing demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created, dedicated to the development and large scale manufacturing of chemicals in new industrial plants. [3] The role of the chemical engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes.[3] Aeronautical Engineering deals with aircraft design while Aerospace Engineering is a more modern term that expands the reach envelope of the discipline by including spacecraftdesign.[13] Its origins can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the turn of the century from the 19th century to the 20th although the work of Sir George Cayley has recently been dated as being from the last decade of the 18th century. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. [14] The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering) awarded in the United States went to Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S.[15] Only a decade after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, there was extensive development of aeronautical engineering through development of military aircraft that were used inWorld War I . Meanwhile, research to provide fundamental background science continued by combining theoretical physics with experiments. In 1990, with the rise of computer technology, the first search engine was built by computer engineer Alan Emtage. [edit]Main

branches of engineering

Main article: List of engineering branches Engineering, much like other science, is a broad discipline which is often broken down into several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with differing areas of engineering work. Although initially an engineer will usually be trained in a specific discipline, throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multidisciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Engineering is often characterized as having four main branches:[16][17] Chemical engineering The application of physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering principles in order to carry out chemical processes on a commercial scale. Civil engineering The design and construction of public and private works, such as infrastructure (airports, roads, railways, water supply and treatment etc.), bridges, dams, and buildings. Electrical engineering The design and study of various electrical and electronic systems, such as electrical circuits, generators, motors, electromagnetic/electromechanical devices,electronic devices, electronic circuits, optical fibers, optoelectronic devices, computer systems, telecommunications, instrumentation, controls, and electronics. Mechanical engineering The design of physical or mechanical systems, such as power and energy systems, aerospace/aircraft products, weapon

systems, transportation productsengines, compressors, powertrains, kinematic chains, vacuum technology, and vibration isolation equipment. Beyond these four, sources vary on other main branches. Historically, naval engineering and mining engineering were major branches. Modern fields sometimes included as major branches include aerospace, petroleum, systems, audio engineering, architectural, biosystems, biomedical,[18] industrial, materials science[19] and nuclear engineering.[20][citation
needed]

New specialties sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches. A new or emerging area of application will commonly be defined temporarily as a permutation or subset of existing disciplines; there is often gray area as to when a given sub-field becomes large and/or prominent enough to warrant classification as a new "branch." One key indicator of such emergence is when major universities start establishing departments and programs in the new field. For each of these fields there exists considerable overlap, especially in the areas of the application of sciences to their disciplines such as physics, chemistry and mathematics. [edit]Methodology

Design of a turbine requires collaboration of engineers from many fields, as the system involves mechanical, electro-magnetic and chemical processes. The blades, rotor and stator as well as the steam cycle all need to be carefully designed and optimized.

Engineers apply mathematics and sciences such as physics to find suitable solutions to problems or to make improvements to the status quo. More than ever, engineers are now required to have knowledge of relevant sciences for their design projects. As a result, they may keep on learning new material throughout their career. If multiple options exist, engineers weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements. The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. It is usually not enough to build a technically successful product; it must also meet further requirements. Constraints may include available resources, physical, imaginative or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as requirements for cost, safety, marketability, productibility, and serviceability. By understanding the constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits within which a viable object or system may be produced and operated. [edit]Problem solving Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, logic, economics, and appropriate experience or tacit knowledge to find suitable solutions to a problem. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential solutions. Usually multiple reasonable solutions exist, so engineers must evaluate the different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets their requirements. Genrich Altshuller, after gathering statistics on a large number of patents, suggested that compromises are at the heart of "low-level" engineering designs, while at a higher level the best design is one which eliminates the core contradiction causing the problem. Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes, scale models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive tests, and stress tests. Testing ensures that products will perform as expected. Engineers take on the responsibility of producing designs that will perform as well as expected and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failure. However, the greater the safety factor, the less efficient the design may be.

The study of failed products is known as forensic engineering, and can help the product designer in evaluating his or her design in the light of real conditions. The discipline is of greatest value after disasters, such as bridge collapses, when careful analysis is needed to establish the cause or causes of the failure. [edit]Computer

use

A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. Solutions to the flow require modellingof the combined effects of the fluid flow andheat equations.

As with all modern scientific and technological endeavors, computers and software play an increasingly important role. As well as the typical business application software there are a number of computer aided applications (Computer-aided technologies) specifically for engineering. Computers can be used to generate models of fundamental physical processes, which can be solved using numerical methods. One of the most widely used tools in the profession is computer-aided design (CAD) software which enables engineers to create 3D models, 2D drawings, and schematics of their designs. CAD together with Digital mockup (DMU) and CAE software such as finite element method analysis or analytic element method allows engineers to create models of designs that can be analyzed without having to make expensive and time-consuming physical prototypes. These allow products and components to be checked for flaws; assess fit and assembly; study ergonomics; and to analyze static and dynamic characteristics of systems such as stresses, temperatures, electromagnetic emissions, electrical currents and voltages, digital logic levels, fluid flows, and kinematics. Access and distribution of all this information is generally organized with the use of Product Data Management software.[21] There are also many tools to support specific engineering tasks such as computer-aided manufacture (CAM) software to generate CNCmachining instructions; Manufacturing Process Management software for production engineering; EDA for printed circuit board (PCB) and circuit schematics for electronic engineers; MRO applications for maintenance management; and AEC software for civil engineering. In recent years the use of computer software to aid the development of goods has collectively come to be known as Product Lifecycle Management (PLM).[22] [edit]Social

context
This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (July 2010)

Engineering is a subject that ranges from large collaborations to small individual projects. Almost all engineering projects are beholden to some sort of financing agency: a company, a set of investors, or a government. The few types of engineering that are minimally constrained by such issues are pro bono engineering and open design engineering. By its very nature engineering is bound up with society and human behavior. Every product or construction used by modern society will have been influenced by engineering design. Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility. Many engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the public at large. Engineering projects can be subject to controversy. Examples from different engineering disciplines include the development of nuclear weapons, the Three Gorges Dam, the design and use of Sport utility vehicles and the extraction of oil. In response, some western engineering companies have enacted serious corporate and social responsibility policies. Engineering is a key driver of human development.[23] Sub-Saharan Africa in particular has a very small engineering capacity which results in many African nations being unable to develop crucial infrastructure without outside aid. The

attainment of many of the Millennium Development Goals requires the achievement of sufficient engineering capacity to develop infrastructure and sustainable technological development.[24] All overseas development and relief NGOs make considerable use of engineers to apply solutions in disaster and development scenarios. A number of charitable organizations aim to use engineering directly for the good of mankind: Engineers Without Borders Engineers Against Poverty Registered Engineers for Disaster Relief Engineers for a Sustainable World Engineering for Change Engineering Ministries International[25] [edit]Relationships

with other disciplines

[edit]Science Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has never been. Theodore von Krmn[26][27][28] There exists an overlap between the sciences and engineering practice; in engineering, one applies science. Both areas of endeavor rely on accurate observation of materials and phenomena. Both use mathematics and classification criteria to analyze and communicate observations. Scientists may also have to complete engineering tasks, such as designing experimental apparatus or building prototypes. Conversely, in the process of developing technology engineers sometimes find themselves exploring new phenomena, thus becoming, for the moment, scientists. In the book What Engineers Know and How They Know It,[29] Walter Vincenti asserts that engineering research has a character different from that of scientific research. First, it often deals with areas in which the basic physics and/or chemistry are well understood, but the problems themselves are too complex to solve in an exact manner. Examples are the use of numerical approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations to describe aerodynamic flow over an aircraft, or the use of Miner's rule to calculate fatigue damage. Second, engineering research employs many semiempirical methods that are foreign to pure scientific research, one example being the method of parameter variation[citation needed]. As stated by Fung et al. in the revision to the classic engineering text, Foundations of Solid Mechanics: "Engineering is quite different from science. Scientists try to understand nature. Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature. Engineers stress invention. To embody an invention the engineer must put his idea in concrete terms, and design something that people can use. That something can be a device, a gadget, a material, a method, a computing program, an innovative experiment, a new solution to a problem, or an improvement on what is existing. Since a design has to be concrete, it must have its geometry, dimensions, and characteristic numbers. Almost all engineers working on new designs find that they do not have all the needed information. Most often, they are limited by insufficient scientific knowledge. Thus they study mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and mechanics. Often they have to add to the sciences relevant to their profession. Thus engineering sciences are born." [30] Although engineering solutions make use of scientific principles, engineers must also take into account safety, efficiency, economy, reliability and constructability or ease of fabrication, as well as legal considerations such as patent infringement or liability in the case of failure of the solution. [edit]Medicine

and biology

Leonardo da Vinci, seen here in a self-portrait, has been described as the epitome of the artist/engineer.[31] He is also known for his studies on human anatomy andphysiognomy.

The study of the human body, albeit from different directions and for different purposes, is an important common link between medicine and some engineering disciplines. Medicine aims to sustain, enhance and even replace functions of the human body, if necessary, through the use of technology. Modern medicine can replace several of the body's functions through the use of artificial organs and can significantly alter the function of the human body through artificial devices such as, for example, brain implants and pacemakers.[32][33] The fields of Bionics and medical Bionics are dedicated to the study of synthetic implants pertaining to natural systems. Conversely, some engineering disciplines view the human body as a biological machine worth studying, and are dedicated to emulating many of its functions by replacing biology with technology. This has led to fields such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy logic, androbotics. There are also substantial interdisciplinary interactions between engineering and medicine.[34][35] Both fields provide solutions to real world problems. This often requires moving forward before phenomena are completely understood in a more rigorous scientific sense and therefore experimentation and empirical knowledge is an integral part of both. Medicine, in part, studies the function of the human body. The human body, as a biological machine, has many functions that can be modeled using Engineering methods.[36] The heart for example functions much like a pump,[37] the skeleton is like a linked structure with levers,[38] the brain produces electrical signalsetc.[39] These similarities as well as the increasing importance and application of Engineering principles in Medicine, led to the development of the field of biomedical engineering that uses concepts developed in both disciplines. Newly emerging branches of science, such as Systems biology, are adapting analytical tools traditionally used for engineering, such as systems modeling and computational analysis, to the description of biological systems. [36] [edit]Art

A drawing for a booster engine forsteam locomotives. Engineering is applied to design, with emphasis on function and the utilization of mathematics and science.

There are connections between engineering and art;[40] they are direct in some fields, for example, architecture, landscape architecture andindustrial design (even to the extent that these disciplines may sometimes be included in a University's Faculty of Engineering); and indirect in others.[40][41][42][43]

The Art Institute of Chicago, for instance, held an exhibition about the art of NASA's aerospace design.[44] Robert Maillart's bridge design is perceived by some to have been deliberately artistic.[45] At the University of South Florida, an engineering professor, through a grant with theNational Science Foundation, has developed a course that connects art and engineering.[41][46] Among famous historical figures Leonardo Da Vinci is a well known Renaissance artist and engineer, and a prime example of the nexus between art and engineering.[31][47] [edit]Other fields In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed for the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering, which deal with forming political and social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles. Financial engineering has similarly borrowed the term. [edit]See

also

Engineering portal

Main article: Outline of engineering Lists List of basic engineering topics List of engineering topics List of engineers Engineering society List of aerospace engineering topics List of basic chemical engineering topics List of electrical engineering topics List of genetic engineering topics List of mechanical engineering topics List of nanoengineering topics List of software engineering topics Glossaries Glossary of engineering Glossary of areas of mathematics Glossary of chemistry terms

Related subjects Controversies over the term Engineer Design Earthquake engineering Engineer Engineering economics Engineering education Engineers Without Borders Forensic engineering Global Engineering Education Industrial design Infrastructure Open hardware Reverse engineering Science and technology Structural failure Sustainable engineering Women in engineering Planned obsolescence

[edit]References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ^ ABET History ^ Engineers' Council for Professional Development. (1947). Canons of ethics for engineers ^ a b c d e f g h Engineers' Council for Professional Development definition on Encyclopaedia Britannica (Includes Britannica article on Engineering) ^ Oxford English Dictionary ^ Origin: 12501300; ME engin < AF, OF < L ingenium nature, innate quality, esp. mental power, hence a clever invention, equiv. to in- + -genium, equiv. to gen- begetting; Source: Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2006. ^ Barry J. Kemp, Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2005, p. 159 ^ "The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project", The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Retrieved 2007-07-01 Quote: "The Antikythera Mechanism is now understood to be dedicated to astronomical phenomena and operates as a complex mechanical "computer" which tracks the cycles of the Solar System." ^ Wilford, John. (July 31, 2008). Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B.C.. New York Times. ^ Wright, M T. (2005). "Epicyclic Gearing and the Antikythera Mechanism, part 2". Antiquarian Horology 29 (1 (September 2005)): 5460. ^ Britannica on Greek civilization in the 5th century Military technology Quote: "The 7th century, by contrast, had witnessed rapid innovations, such as the introduction of the hoplite and the trireme, which still were the basic instruments of war in the 5th." and "But it was the development of artillery that opened an epoch, and this invention did not predate the 4th century. It was first heard of in the context of Sicilian warfare against Carthage in the time of Dionysius I of Syracuse." ^ Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000, CD-ROM, version 2.5. ^ Jenkins, Rhys (1936). Links in the History of Engineering and Technology from Tudor Times . Ayer Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 0-8369-2167-4. ^ Imperial College: Studying engineering at Imperial: Engineering courses are offered in five main branches of engineering: aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical. There are also courses in computing science,

6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

29. 30. 31.

32. 33. 34.

35. 36.

37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

software engineering, information systems engineering, materials science and engineering, mining engineering and petroleum engineering. ^ Van Every, Kermit E. (1986). "Aeronautical engineering". Encyclopedia Americana. 1. Grolier Incorporated. pp. 226. ^ Wheeler, Lynde, Phelps (1951). Josiah Willard Gibbs the History of a Great Mind. Ox Bow Press. ISBN 1-881987-116. ^ Journal of the British Nuclear Energy Society: Volume 1 British Nuclear Energy Society - 1962 - Snippet view Quote: In most universities it should be possible to cover the main branches of engineering, ie civil, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineering in this way. More specialised fields of engineering application, of which nuclear power is ... ^ The Engineering Profession by Sir James Hamilton, UK Engineering Council Quote: "The Civilingenior degree encompasses the main branches of engineering civil, mechanical, electrical, chemical." (From the Internet Archive) ^ Bronzino JD, ed., The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8493-2121-2 ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1525/hsps.2001.31.2.223 ^ http://www.careercornerstone.org/pdf/nuclear/nuceng.pdf ^ Arbe, Katrina (2001.05.07). "PDM: Not Just for the Big Boys Anymore". ThomasNet. ^ Arbe, Katrina (2003.05.22). "The Latest Chapter in CAD Software Evaluation". ThomasNet. ^ PDF on Human Development ^ MDG info pdf ^ Home page for EMI ^ Rosakis, Ares Chair, Division of Engineering and Applied Science. "Chair's Message, CalTech.". Retrieved 15 October 2011. ^ Ryschkewitsch, M.G. NASA Chief Engineer. "Improving the capability to Engineer Complex Systems Broadening the Conversation on the Art and Science of Systems Engineering". p. 8. Retrieved 15 October 2011. ^ American Society for Engineering Education (1970). Engineering education. 60. American Society for Engineering Education. p. 467. "The great engineer Theodore von Karman once said, "Scientists study the world as it is, engineers create the world that never has been." Today, more than ever, the engineer must create a world that never has been..." ^ Vincenti, Walter G. (1993). What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History . Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3974-2. ^ Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics, YC Fung and P. Tong. World Scientific. 2001. ^ a b Bjerklie, David. "The Art of Renaissance Engineering." MIT's Technology Review Jan./Feb.1998: 54-9. Article explores the concept of the "artist-engineer", an individual who used his artistic talent in engineering. Quote from article: Da Vinci reached the pinnacle of "artist-engineer"-dom, Quote2: "It was Leonardo da Vinci who initiated the most ambitious expansion in the role of artist-engineer, progressing from astute observer to inventor to theoretician." (Bjerklie 58) ^ Ethical Assessment of Implantable Brain Chips. Ellen M. McGee and G. Q. Maguire, Jr. from Boston University ^ IEEE technical paper: Foreign parts (electronic body implants).by Evans-Pughe, C. quote from summary: Feeling threatened by cyborgs? ^ Institute of Medicine and Engineering: Mission statement The mission of the Institute for Medicine and Engineering (IME) is to stimulate fundamental research at the interface between biomedicine and engineering/physical/computational sciences leading to innovative applications in biomedical research and clinical practice. ^ IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology: Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering... ^ a b Royal Academy of Engineering and Academy of Medical Sciences: Systems Biology: a vision for engineering and medicine in pdf: quote1: Systems Biology is an emerging methodology that has yet to be defined quote2: It applies the concepts of systems engineering to the study of complex biological systems through iteration between computational and/or mathematical modelling and experimentation. ^ Science Museum of Minnesota: Online Lesson 5a; The heart as a pump ^ Minnesota State University emuseum: Bones act as levers ^ UC Berkeley News: UC researchers create model of brain's electrical storm during a seizure ^ a b Lehigh University project: We wanted to use this project to demonstrate the relationship between art and architecture and engineering ^ a b National Science Foundation:The Art of Engineering: Professor uses the fine arts to broaden students' engineering perspectives ^ MIT World:The Art of Engineering: Inventor James Dyson on the Art of Engineering: quote: A member of the British Design Council, James Dyson has been designing products since graduating from the Royal College of Art in 1970. ^ University of Texas at Dallas: The Institute for Interactive Arts and Engineering ^ Aerospace Design: The Art of Engineering from NASAs Aeronautical Research ^ Princeton U: Robert Maillart's Bridges: The Art of Engineering: quote: no doubt that Maillart was fully conscious of the aesthetic implications... ^ quote:..the tools of artists and the perspective of engineers.. ^ Drew U: user website: cites Bjerklie paper

Engineer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Engineer (disambiguation).

Engineer
Conference of Engineers at the Menai Straits Preparatory to Floating one of the Tubes of the Britannia Bridge, by John Seymour Lucas, 1868 Occupation Names Activity sectors Engineer Applied sciences Description Competencies Education required Mathematics, scientific knowledge, management skills Engineering education

An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, safety and cost. [1][2] The word engineer is derived from the Latin roots ingeniare ("to contrive, devise") and ingenium("cleverness").[3][4] Engineers are grounded in applied sciences, and their work in research and development is distinct from the basic research focus ofscientists.[2] The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human needs.[1]
Contents
[hide]

1 Roles and expertise o 1.1 Design o 1.2 Analysis o 1.3 Specialization and management 2 Ethics 3 Education 4 Regulation 5 Perception 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

[edit]Roles

and expertise

[edit]Design Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems, conducting and narrowing research, analyzing criteria, finding and analyzing solutions, and making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating, applying, and transferring information.[5] Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various different information behaviours, including 14% actively searching for information. [6] Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements. Their crucial and unique task is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. [edit]Analysis

Engineers conferring on prototype design, 1954

Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in testing, production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, and test output to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, and re-combining the components. They may analyse risk.[7][8][9][10] Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, and to control the efficiency of processes. [edit]Specialization and management Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines.[1] Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, and each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering, and materials engineering includes ceramic, metallurgical, and polymer engineering. Engineers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials.[1] Several recent studies have investigated how engineers spend their time; that is, the work tasks they perform and how their time is distributed among these. Research[11][12] suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers work: (1) technical work (i.e., the application of science to product development); (2) social work (i.e., interactive communication between people); (3) computer-based work; (4) information behaviours. Amongst other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study[12] found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, and 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, and 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is also an information intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55.8% of their time engaged in various different information behaviours, including 14.2% actively seeking information from other people (7.8%) and information repositories such as documents and databases (6.4%)[11]. The time engineers spend engaged in such activities is also reflected in the competencies required in engineering roles. In addition to engineers core technical competence, research has also demonstrated the critical nature of their personal attributes, project management skills, and cognitive abilities to success in the role[13]. [edit]Ethics Main article: Engineering ethics

The Challenger disaster is held as a case study of engineering ethics.

Engineers have obligations to the public, their clients, employers and the profession. Many engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the public at large. Each engineering discipline and professional society maintains a code of ethics, which the members pledge to uphold. Depending on their specializations, engineers may also be governed by specific statute, whistleblowing, product liability laws, and often the principles of business ethics.[14][15][16] Some graduates of engineering programs in North America may be recognized by the Iron Ring or Engineer's Ring, a ring made of iron or stainless steel that is worn on the little finger of the dominant hand. This tradition began in 1925 in Canada with The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer, where the ring serves as a symbol and reminder of the engineer's obligations for the engineering profession. In 1972, the practice was adopted by several colleges in the United States including members of the Order of the Engineer. [edit]Education Main article: Engineering education Most engineering programs involve a concentration of study in an engineering specialty, along with courses in both mathematics and the physical and life sciences. Many programs also include courses in general engineering. A design course, sometimes accompanied by a computer or laboratory class or both, is part of the curriculum of most programs. Often, general courses not directly related to engineering, such as those in the social sciences or humanities, also are required. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions and some research and development programs, but is not required for the majority of entry-level engineering jobs. Many experienced engineers obtain graduate degrees in engineering or business administration to learn new technology and broaden their education. Numerous high-level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. Accreditation is the process by which engineering program are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met. The Washington Accord serves as an international accreditation agreement for academic engineering degrees, recognizing the substantial equivalency in the standards set by many major national engineering bodies. In the United States, post-secondary degree programs in engineering are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology. [edit]Regulation Main article: Regulation and licensure in engineering In many countries, engineering tasks such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, industrial equipment, machine design and chemical plants, must be approved by a licensed professional engineer. Most commonly titled Professional Engineer is a license to practice and is indicated with the use of post-nominal letters; PE or P.Eng. These are common in North America, European Engineer (Eur Ing) in Europe. The practice of engineering in the UK is not a regulated profession other than the control of the titles of Chartered Engineer (CEng) and Incorporated Engineer (IEng). The title CEng is in use in much of the Commonwealth. Many engineers in the UK also include semi skilled trades to engineering technicians. This is seen by some as a misuse of the title, giving a false image of the profession. A growing movement in the UK is to legally protect the title 'Engineer' so that only professional engineers can use it, a DirectGov petition,[17] has been started to further this cause. In the United States, licensure is generally attainable through combination of education, pre-examination (Fundamentals of Engineering exam), examination (Professional Engineering Exam),[18] and engineering experience (typically in the area of 5+ years). Each state tests and licenses Professional Engineers. Currently most states do not license by specific engineering discipline, but rather provide generalized licensure, and trust engineers to use professional judgement regarding their individual competencies; this is the favoured approach of the professional societies. Despite this, however, at least one of the examinations required by most states is actually focused on a particular discipline; candidates for licensure typically choose the category of examination which comes closest to their respective expertise. In Canada, the profession in each province is governed by its own engineering association. For instance, in the Province of British Columbia an engineering graduate with four or more years of post graduate experience in an engineering-related field and passing exams in ethics and law will need to be registered by the Association for Professional Engineers and Geoscientists (APEGBC)[19] in order to become a Professional Engineer and be granted the professional designation of P.Eng allowing one to practice engineering. In Continental Europe, Latin America, Turkey and elsewhere the title is limited by law to people with an engineering degree and the use of the title by others is illegal. In Italy, the title is limited to people who both hold an engineering degree and have passed a professional qualification examination (Esame di Stato). In Portugal, professional engineer titles and accredited engineering degrees are regulated and certified by the Ordem dos Engenheiros. In the Czech Republic, the title "engineer" (Ing.) is given to people with a (masters) degree in chemistry, technology or economics for historical and traditional reasons. In Greece, the academic title of "Diploma Engineer" is awarded after completion of the five-year engineering study course and the title of "Certified Engineer" is awarded after completion of the four-year course of engineering studies at a Technological Educational Institute (TEI).

[edit]Perception

Statue of engineer Robert Fulton at the United States Capitol

The perception of engineering varies across countries and continents. In the United States, continental western Europe, eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and Canada engineering and engineers are held in very high esteem. British school children in the 1950s were brought up with stirring tales of 'the Victorian Engineers', chief amongst whom were the Brunels, the Stephensons, Telford and their contemporaries. In Canada, a 2002 study by the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers revealed that engineers are the third most respected professionals behind doctors and pharmacists.[20] In the Indian subcontinent, Russia and China, engineering is one of the most sought after undergraduate courses, inviting thousands of applicants to show their ability in highly competitive entrance examinations. In Egypt, the educational system makes engineering the second-most-respected profession in the country (after medicine); engineering colleges at Egyptian universities require extremely high marks on the General Certificate of Secondary Education (Arabic: al-Thnawiyyah al-`mmah)on the order of 97 or 98% and are thus considered (with colleges of medicine, natural science, and pharmacy) to be among the "pinnacle colleges" ( kullyt al-qimmah). The definition of what engineering is varies across countries. In the UK "engineering" is defined as an industry sector consisting of employers and employees loosely termed as "engineers" who range from semi skilled trades to chartered engineers. In the US and Canada, engineering is defined as a regulated profession whose practice and practitioners are licensed and governed by law. In some English speaking countries engineering has been seen as a somewhat dry, uninteresting field in popular culture and has also been thought to be the domain of nerds.[21] For example, the cartoon character Dilbert is an engineer. In science fiction, engineers are often portrayed as highly knowledgeable and respectable individuals who understand the overwhelming future technologies often portrayed in the genre. Several Star Trek characters are engineers. One difficulty in increasing public awareness of the profession is that average people, in the typical run of ordinary life, do not ever have any personal dealings with engineers, even though they benefit from their work every day. By contrast, it is common to visit a doctor at least once a year, the accountant at tax time, the pharmacist for drugs, and, occasionally, even a lawyer. In companies and other organizations in the UK there is a tendency to undervalue people with advanced technological and scientific skills compared to celebrities, fashion practitioners, entertainers and managers. In his book The Mythical Man-Month,[22] Fred Brooks Jr says that managers think of senior people as "too valuable" for technical tasks, and that management jobs carry higher prestige. He tells how some laboratories, such as Bell Labs, abolish all job titles to overcome this problem: a professional employee is a "member of the technical staff." IBM maintain a dual ladder of advancement; the corresponding managerial and engineering / scientific rungs are equivalent. Brooks recommends that structures need to be changed; the boss must give a great deal of attention to keeping his managers and his technical people as interchangeable as their talents allow.

List of engineering branches


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Engineering is the discipline, art, and profession that applies scientific theory to design, develop, and analyze technological solutions. In the contemporary era, engineering is generally considered to consist of the major basic branches of chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.[1] There are numerous other engineering subdisciplines and interdisciplinary subjects that are derived from concentrations, combinations, or extensions of the major engineering branches.
Contents
[hide]

1 Chemical engineering 2 Civil engineering 3 Electrical engineering 4 Mechanical engineering 5 Interdisciplinary and specialized fields 6 See also 7 References

[edit]Chemical

engineering
Scope Focuses on the manufacturing of biomolecules. Major specialties

Chemical engineering comprises the application of physical and biological sciences to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Subdiscipline Biomolecular engineering

Materials engineering Involves the properties of matter and its applications to engineering

Molecular engineering Focuses on the manufacturing of molecules.

Ceramic engineering, the theory and processing of raw oxide material (e.g. alumina oxide), and advanced material that are polymorphic, polycrystalline, oxide, and non-oxide ceramics Crystal engineering, the design and synthesis of molecular solid-state structures

Process engineering Focuses on the design, operation, control, and optimization of chemical processes

Petroleum refinery engineering, the design of processes related to the manufacture of refined products Plastics engineering, the design of the production process of plastics products Paper engineering, the design of the production process of paper products

[edit]Civil

engineering
Scope Major specialties

Civil engineering comprises the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and natural built environments. Subdiscipline


The application of engineering to the improvement and protection of the environment

Environmental engineering

Ecological engineering, the design, monitoring and construction of ecosystems Fire protection engineering, the application of engineering to protect people and environments from fire and smoke Sanitary engineering, the application of engineering methods to improve sanitation of human communities Hydraulic engineering, the planning, development and maintenance of water resources and the application of hydrology Municipal or urban engineering, civil engineering applied to municipal issues such as water and waste management, transportation networks, subdivisions, communications,

Subdiscipline

Scope

Major specialties hydrology, hydraulics, etc.

Geotechnical engineering

Concerned with the behavior of geological materials at the site of a civil engineering project

Mining engineering, the exploration, extraction and processing of raw materials from the earth Earthquake engineering, the behaviour of structures subject to seismic loading Wind engineering, the analysis of wind and its effects on the built environment Architectural engineering, application of engineering principles to building design and construction Ocean engineering, the design of offshore structures Traffic engineering, a branch of transportation engineering focusing on the infrastructure necessary for transportation Highway engineering Railway systems engineering

Structural engineering

The engineering of structures that support or resiststructural loads

Transport engineering

The use of engineering to ensure safe and efficient transportation of people and goods

[edit]Electrical Subdiscipline

engineering
Scope Major specialties

Electrical engineering comprises the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism.

Computer engineering The design and control of computing devices with the application of electrical systems The design of circuits that use the electromagnetic properties of electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The design of instruments and systems that utilize the properties of electromagnetic radiation. The generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, and the design of devices such as transformers, electric generators, electric motors, high voltage engineering and power electronics.

Software engineering, The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. Control engineering, focuses on the modeling of dynamic systems and the design ofcontrollers using electrical circuits, digital signal processors and microcontrollers Telecommunications engineering

Electronic engineering

Optical engineering

Power engineering

[edit]Mechanical

engineering
Scope Major specialties

Mechanical engineering comprises the design, analysis and usage of heat and mechanical power for the operation of machines and mechanical systems. Subdiscipline Acoustical engineering Manufacturing engineering Thermal engineering Vehicle engineering Concerns heating or cooling of processes, equipment, or enclosed environments The design, manufacture and operation of the systems and equipment that propel and Concerns the manipulation and control of vibration, especially vibration isolation and the reduction of unwanted sounds

Automotive engineering, the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles,

Subdiscipline control vehicles

Scope

Major specialties

automobiles, buses and trucks Aerospace engineering, the design of aircraft, spacecraft and other air vehicles Naval architecture, the design, construction, operation and support of marine vehicles and structures

[edit]Interdisciplinary Discipline

and specialized fields


Scope Major specialties

The application of engineering principles to agricultural fields such as farm power and machinery, biological material process, bioenergy, farm structures, and agricultural natural resources

Agricultural engineering

Bioprocess engineering, the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products from biological materials Food engineering, concerns food processing, food machinery, packaging, ingredient manufacturing, instrumentation, and control. Aquaculture engineering, the study of cultured aquatic species and the production systems used in their culture.

Applied engineering

The field concerned with the application of management, design, and technical skills for the design and integration of systems, the execution of new product designs, the improvement ofmanufacturing processes, and the management and direction of physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization. Applied Engineering degreed programs typically include instruction in basic engineering principles, project management, industrial processes, production and operations management, systems integration and control, quality control, and statistics.[2]

Automation/Control systems/Mechatronics/Robotics Computer-aided Drawing & Design (CADD) Construction Electronics General Graphics Manufacturing Nanotechnology


Biological engineering The application of engineering principles to the fields of biology and medicine.

Biomedical engineering, the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical and biological sciences Genetic engineering, the design and development of techniques to directly manipulate an organism's genes Biochemical engineering, the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules Tissue engineering Protein engineering, the development of useful or valuable proteins Mechanical engineering, HVAC: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning Refrigeration Plumbing or public health (MEP) engineering: Waterservices, drainage and plumbin g Electrical engineering, Artificial lighting and emergency lighting, ICT: Communication lines, telephones and IT networks Low voltage (LV) systems, containment,

Building services engineering, technical building services, architectural engineering, or building engineering is Building services the engineering of the internal engineering environment and environmental impact of a building. It essentially brings buildings and structures to life.

Discipline

Scope

Major specialties distribution,distribution boards and switchgear Lightning protection Security, CCTV, and alarm systems Vertical transportation: Escalators and lifts Fire engineering, including fire detection and fire protection Natural lighting design Building facades engineering Energy supply - gas, electricity and renewable sources Solar engineering, Solar Energy Engineering includes designing and building services based on solar energy, solar energy product development, solar PV systems, Solar Product Manufacturing and Solar Systems Integration. Wind engineering, Wind engineering analyzes effects of wind in the natural and the built environment and studies the possible damage, inconvenience or benefits which may result from wind. In the field of structural engineering it includes strong winds, which may cause discomfort, as well as extreme winds, such as in a tornado, hurricane or heavy storm, which may cause widespread destruction Manufacturing engineering, the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing, to research and develop the tool, processes, machines and equipment, and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with optimal expenditure. Component engineering, the process of assuring the availability of suitable components required to manufacture a product. Systems engineering, focuses on issues such as logistics, the coordination of different teams, automatic control of machinery for complex engineering projects Construction engineering, the planning and management of construction projects Textile Engineering, The design and analysis of logistical and resource systems, product design, and development. Safety engineering, assuring that a life-critical system behaves as needed even when pieces fail Reliability engineering, optimising asset maintenance to minimise whole of life cost Robotics Instrumentation engineering Avionics, the design of electronics and systems on board an aircraft or spacecraft


Energy engineering is a broad field of engineering dealing with energy efficiency, energy services, facility management, plant engineering, environmental compliance and alternative energy technologies. Domain of Energy Engineering expertise combines selective subjects from the fields Chemical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. It is an interdisciplinary program which has relativity with electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering

Energy engineering


Industrial engineering The design and analysis of logistical and resource systems.


A hybrid of mechanical and electrical engineering, Commonly intended to examine the design of automation systems. The practice of engineering on the nanoscopic scale The application of nuclear processes to engineering

Mechatronics

Nanoengineering Nuclear engineering

Petroleum engineering The application of engineering principles to drilling for and producing crude oil and natural gas

Reservoir engineering, the application of scientific principles to study the flow of fluids in underground reservoirs so as to obtain a high economic recovery. Drilling engineering, the design and application of equipment and techniques to drill wells. Production engineering, the design and application of

Discipline

Scope

Major specialties equipment and techniques to bring well fluids to the surface and then separate out the various components.