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B.E. Project Report
Submitted in partial fulﬁllment of the requirement of University of Mumbai For the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics Engineering) by Rahul Singh (06EE2012) Pratik Tidke (08EE1047) Tanmay Ghawale (08EE1057) Rakesh Gurudu (08EE1075)
Under the guidance of Prof. S.M. Labde
Department of Electronics Engineering Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology, Sector 7, Nerul , Navi Mumbai (Afﬁliated to University of Mumbai) December 2012
Ramrao Adik Education Society’s
Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology
(Afﬁliated to the University of Mumbai) Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyanagar, Sector 7, Nerul, Navi Mumbai 400 706.
This is to certify that, the project report titled “Microcontroller Based Highway Speed Sensing and Automatic Breaking System” is a bonaﬁde work done by Rahul Singh (06EE2012) Pratik Tidke (08EE1047) Tanmay Ghawale (08EE1057) Rakesh Gurudu (08EE1075) and is submitted in the partial fulﬁllment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics Engineering to the University of Mumbai.
Head of Department
for his spirited guidance and inspiration. We thank all those who have contributed directly or indirectly to this work.D. Prof. Ramesh Vasappanavara for his support and encouragement.Acknowledgments With great pleasure. We are thankful to our Principal Dr. It has helped us to work in right direction to attain desired objective. Prof. M. we avail this opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude to or guide. . Sharmila Petkar who devoted her valuable time and helped us in all possible ways towards successful completion of this work. We are thankful to Head of Electronics Department. We have a deep sense of admiration for her innate goodness and inexhaustible enthusiasm. Patil because of whom we learnt some practical experience from difﬁculties involved in making this project and greatly value his advice. We are also thankful to our Project Coordinator. We extend thanks to our friends who have done lots of nice things for us. Prof.M. Labde . S.
A speed limit control system involving road monitors and speed limit controls in the vehicle which receive signals from road transmitters installed in illuminated signs such as highway signs. accidents are occurred frequently. college. Every zone like school. pedestrians in high ways or hospitals etc may have transmitter tag to transmit the zone information by RF signals.A receiver module placed in the vehicle receives the zone information. and further includes a monitoring and transmitting assembly for police. which is to be used to alert the driver with buzzer and to vary the speed of the vehicle.A road speed control system for preventing motorists from speeding on roads. Therefore to avoid such accidents. RF transmitter and RF receiver modules. shopping mall signs.Abstract ”HIGHWAY SPEED SENSING AND AUTOMATIC BREAKING SYSTEM” Nowadays people are driving very fast. rural signs. the invaluable human life lost. using RF modules. Practically the actuator may be used to control the throttle of the vehicle. Hence. this project was designed to alert the driver and to control the speed of the vehicle automatically using AT89S52 microcontroller. and residential street signs that can automatically lower and restrain the vehicle to the posted maximum MPH speed limit. and also includes a vehicle speed control assembly being adapted to be disposed in a vehicle. A demo module was developed in the lab using DC motor. The objective of this project work is to use 89S52 microcontroller to alert the driver about zone to be crossed and control the speed of vehicle automatically. iii . trafﬁc lights. The road speed control system includes roadside transmitter/receiver members being adapted to be erected along roadsides where speed limits on roads change. because of the small mistakes while driving.
. . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 6 8 iv . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . Pin Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . .List of Figures 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receiver Block diagram . . . . . Transmitter Block Diagram . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .1 Pin Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 HT-12 E Encoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 System Block Diagram . . . . . .1 Future Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii iv 1 2 4 4 5 5 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 . . . . . 4. . . 3. 4. . . . . 4 System Description 4. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 433 MHz RF Transmitter STT-433 4. . . . . 5 Conclusion 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 433 MHz RF Receiver STR-433 . . . . . . . .Contents Abstract List of Figures 1 Introduction 2 Objective 3 Block Diagram 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Transmitter Block Diagram . . . . . .2 Receiver Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . .5 HT-12D Decoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
you will ﬁnd that the causalities are more every year than that of 1970 Indo -Pak war. and if you see the statistics. One relay to sound alarm to driver. could save the many precious lives. limit40. limit20 and no horn area. they will transmit the corresponding alert message to the driver. are the major cause. Receiver will be kept in the vehicles and transmitters would be installed on the road. limit 80. Experts say. Receiver section will have a 2X16 LCD.It will consist of a transmitter and a receiver system. and a relay circuit having three relays. which will display the alert message. are provided? Whenever these switches are pressed. increased motorist population. long working hours. Which could be operated by trafﬁc Cops. but if we could alert the driver on the highway. instead four switches. The factors are beyond one’s control.Chapter 1 Introduction Every year. It will not use any speed sensing device. One relay for the auto breaking circuit and one relay to disable horn in the no horn area 1 . we ﬁnd more and more road accidents due to increased trafﬁc on the roads. stressful life.
and also providing front and rear receiver units. said radio wave signal indicating a maximum speed for that particular road.Chapter 2 Objective Our objective is to build a road speed control system comprising: • A roadside transmitter/receiver members for positioning along roadside where speed limits on roads change • A vehicle speed control assembly for disposing in a vehicle • A monitoring and transmitting assembly for police Wherein each of said roadside transmitter/receiver members emits a radio wave signal upon a road. each of said roadside transmitter/receiver members including means for directing a respective said radio wave signal upon a portion of the road where the speed limit changes depending upon direction of the vehicle. and a road speed sensor • Detecting signal by said front and rear receiver units from said roadside transmitting/receiving members as to speed limit • Detecting speed of the vehicle by said road speed sensor • Comparing the signal as to speed limit with the speed of the vehicle by said microprocessor unit 2 . each of said roadside transmitter/receiver members including means for receiving signals as to a speed of the vehicle. A method of using a road speed control system includes the steps of: • Providing roadside transmitting/receiving members along roadside. and a microprocessor units.
• Reducing the speed of the vehicle by said throttle control module to that of the speed limit as identiﬁed by the signal. 3 .
1: System Block Diagram 4 .1 System Block Diagram Figure 3.Chapter 3 Block Diagram 3.
Capacitor c3 and r2 gives the required reset pulse to the reset pin1 of the microcontroller.3 Transmitter Block Diagram Transmitter consists of a microcontroller and 433mhz transmitter module . Capacitor c4.capacitor c1 and r2 gives the reset pulse to microcontroller reset pinX1 along with two 33 pf capacitor gives required the clock pulse to microcontroller.2 Receiver Block Diagram Receiver consists of a microcontroller ic2 and 216 LCD device for display purpose.3. Alternatively a reset switch is also provided to manually reset the microcontroller.2: Receiver Block diagram 3. Figure 3. c5 along with the crystal x1 gives the clock pulses to microcontroller. this serially received data is displayed on the LCD. 5 .
3: Transmitter Block Diagram 6 .Figure 3.
Transistor Q4 and Q5 are drivers for relay K3. 9.1 Pin Description Alarm switch connected to p1. break relay and no horn relay. Data shifted out serially at the rate of 300bits per second. The transmitter will transmit this data to air. Limit 20 and No horn are the four keys connected to microcontroller pin 67. a break relay. Microcontroller will read the corresponding message from the area and shift out serially from the pin number 3 of the microcontroller.0 pin 13 will Data transmitted from the transmitter is received by the 433mhz receiver and output from this receiver is connected to pin 2 of the microcontroller IC 2. Limit 80. One side of the keys is connected to ground. If no key is pressed all these pins will stay high. no horn normally close contact will open and driver will be prohibited to sound horn.These three relays are alarm relay. Entire circuit is driven by 9V battery IC 1 is 7 . so whenever any key is pressed. 8.this serially received data is displayed on the LCD. that particular pin of the microcontroller will become low and microcontroller will detect key press. Driver has an option to switch off the alarm after he sees the alarm message on the LCD.0 pin 13 will switch off the alarm relay.Chapter 4 System Description 4. Corresponding messages are stored into microcontroller rom area. Limit 40. Pin 7. Whenever the vehicle is in no horn zone.8 and 9 of the microcontroller controls the operation of the relay. Alarm switch connected to p1. Output data from the pin 3 of the microcontroller is connected to the data in pin 2 of the 433mhz transmitter. Whenever vehicle receives any warning signal on his LCD an alarm will also sound which will be operated by the sound relay. Whenever speed limit is above 80 km/hour break relay will be operated and break relay will operate and break will be applied.
In this state. LCD 1 gives the visual indication whenever any key is pressed.stabilized oscillator.1: Pin Diagram 5V regulator which gives regulated 5V dc required for microcontroller and 433mhz transmitter module. Its minimum data rate 200BPS and maximum is 3KBPS. OOK (on off keying) modulation is a binary form of amplitude modulation.Figure 4. 8 . fully suppressing the carrier. The transmitter employs a SAW. the transmitter current is very low.5 to 12V supply.2 433 MHz RF Transmitter STT-433 It is low cost RF transmitter. and operates from 1. the transmitter is off. It has good temperature adaptability (from -20C to +60C). 4. Small in size consumes 11mA at 3V. When a logical 0 (Data line low) is being sent. ensuring accurate frequency control for best range performance.
Data rate could be controlled by the oscillator startup time. A super regenerative detector is a gain stage with positive feedback greater than unity so that it oscillates. This rate is chosen to be super audible but much lower than the main oscillation rate. and requires better power consumption than FSK transmitters for transmitting 1. Any RF input signal at the frequency of the main oscillation will aid the main oscillation in restarting. charging the RC circuit. increasing the gain. High Q oscillators which have very stable center frequency take longer to startup than low Q oscillators. the module current consumption is at its highest. whose sensitivity is -105dBm. The startup time of the oscillator determines the maximum data rate that the transmitter can send. and the emitter current will be higher. operating voltage is 5V and the operating current is typically 3.less than 1 mA. Data rate of the receiver is 3 Kbits/s. the gain will be lowered over time proportional to the RC time constant until the oscillation eventually dies. If the amplitude of the RF input increases. In this state. It exhibits a 1/ln response because of the exponentially rising nature of oscillator start-up. and ultimately the oscillation starts again. Therefore. the main oscillation will stay on for a longer period of the time. about 11mA with a 3V power supply. When the oscillation dies. we can detect the original base-band signal by simply low pass ﬁltering the emitter current. In this way. OOK is the modulation method needs no power when it transmits a 0. Detection is accomplished by measuring the emitter current of the gain stage. OOK data rate is limited by the startup time of the oscillator. 4.regenerative AM detector to demodulate the incoming AM carrier. the current draw of the gain stage decreases. When alogical 1 is being sent. It generates virtually no emission. the carrier is fully on. The STR .92MHz. SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) resonators are fundamental frequency devices that resonate at frequencies much higher than the crystals. the oscillation of the gain stage is turned on and off at a rate set by the RC time constant. basically the transmitter is a negative resistance LC oscillator. 9 . In the transmitter SAW stabilized oscillator is used. It is low cost.3 433 MHz RF Receiver STR-433 The receiver module requires no external RF components except for the antenna.5mA and requires no external parts. An RC time constant is included in the gain stage so that when the gain stage oscillates.433  uses a super . The average emitter current is not very linear as a function of the RF input level. Receiver frequency is about 433. whose center frequency is tightly controlled by a SAW resonator.
it should be a 50 Ohm microchip. Each address/ data input can be set to one of the two logic states. Other features are listed as follows: • Low standby current 0.7microF tantalum capacitor.12V.4 HT-12 E Encoder HT-12E is the encoder  capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12. Power supply is another important factor to work with any passive components. which converts the base band analog signal from the super-regenerative detector to a CMOS/TTL compatible output. The data slicer on the STR-433 is optimized for use with PEM encoded data. The STR-433 is designed to operate from a 5V power supply. These capacitor should be placed as close to the power pins as possible. Applications that use NRZ data encoding typically involve microcontrollers.4V . AC coupling also limits the minimum and maximum pulse width. Because the data slicer is AC coupled to the audio output. Any time a trace is longer than 1/8th the wave length of the frequency it is carrying. there is a minimum data rate. The power supply should be bypassed using 0. The STR-433 is designed for continuous duty operation. housed in 18 pin DIP. 4. Its operating voltage is 2. Another important block in the receiver is Data slicer.ESR ceramic capacitor and a 4. including printed antennas integrated directly on to the PCB and simple single core wire of about 17cm. STR-433 support most antenna type.N data bits. It is crucial that this power supply be very quiet. it can take up to 750 ms for the data output become valid.The steep slope of algorithm near zero results in high sensitivity to small input signals. From the time power is applied. the performance of the different antennas varies. The Duty cycle of that square wave will generally be either 33 percent (a zero) or 88 percent (a one). The most common source for NRZ data is from a UART 89S52 Microcontroller based Speed Control 5 embedded in a microcontroller.1microA at VDD=5V • Minimum transmission is four words 10 . Typically data is encoded on the transmit side using pulse width modulation (PWM) or non return to zero (NRZ). though it will work with NRZ data if certain encoding rules are followed. Data is sent as a constant rate square wave. it is fabricated using CMOS technology. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal.1microF low .
when it is high means. The VT pin indicates the status of transmission. This decoder is capable of decoding information that consists of N bits of address and 12-N bits of data. 11 . For proper operation a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen. if no error or unmatched codes are found.5 HT-12D Decoder HT-12D decoders  receive serial addresses and data programmed series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using RF or an IR transmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses.• Built in oscillator needs only 5 • Data code has positive polarity • Minimal external components 4. it is valid transmission. the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins.
either alone or in any combination thereof. and further includes a monitoring and transmitting assembly for police. In this respect. suggested. There has thus been outlined. The general purpose of the present invention. the present invention provides a new road speed control system construction wherein the same can be utilized for preventing motorists from speeding on roads. rendered obvious. before explaining at least one embodiment of the invention in detail. To attain this. is to provide a new road speed control system which has many of the advantages of the road speed limiter mentioned heretofore and many novel features that result in a new road speed control system which is not anticipated. which will be described subsequently in greater detail. The invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced and carried out in various ways. Also. it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology 12 . the present invention generally comprises roadside transmitter/receiver members being adapted to be erected along roadside where speed limits on roads change. There are additional features of the invention that will be described hereinafter and which will form the subject matter of the claims appended hereto. rather broadly. it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and to the arrangements of the components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings. the more important features of the invention in order that the detailed description thereof that follows may be better understood. or even implied by any of the prior art road speed limiter.Chapter 5 Conclusion In view of the foregoing disadvantages inherent in the known types of road speed limiter now present in the prior art. and in order that the present contribution to the art may be better appreciated. and also includes a vehicle speed control assembly being adapted to be disposed in a vehicle.
which is measured by the claims. thereby making such road speed control system economically available to the buying public. 5. • Gives more accuracy. nor is it intended to be limiting as to the scope of the invention in any way. The abstract is neither intended to deﬁne the invention of the application. Advantages • As all operation is controlled through software human interfacing is minimized. An even further object of the present invention is to provide a new road speed control system which is susceptible of a low cost of manufacture with regard to both materials and labor. to determine quickly from a cursory inspection the nature and essence of the technical disclosure of the application. either alone or in any combination thereof. works continuously and gives consistency. and which accordingly is then susceptible of low prices of sale to the consuming public. • Too little space is required for it to set for any operation at any location. It is another object of the present invention to provide a new road speed control system which may be easily and efﬁciently manufactured and marketed. the purpose of the foregoing abstract is to enable the public generally. rendered obvious. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a new road speed control system which is of a durable and reliable construction. engineers and practitioners.1 Future Scope Further. • The system used is microcontroller based. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a new road speed control system which has many of the advantages of the road speed limiter mentioned heretofore and many novel features that result in a new road speed control system which is not anticipated. 13 . • It is an Autonomous device. suggested. • As human interfacing is minimized maintenance is lowered. or even implied by any of the prior art road speed limiter. and especially the scientists.employed herein are for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting.
14 . • There is also facility of changing password card.• LCD display which makes very easy to understand the operation taking place. Limitations • It only works on programming. • Moderate price. • Simple circuit which can easily be understood. • Reset button is available for resetting the system. • It has a limited range.
Bibliography 15 .