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# Objectives In this course you will learn the following • Importance of computation of deflection.

• Computation of deflection using moment area method. 4.1) Introduction When a structure is subjected to the action of applied loads each member undergoes deformation due to which the axis of structure is deflected from its original position. The deflections also occur due to temperature variations and lack-of-fit of members. The deflections of structures are important for ensuring that the designed structure is not excessively flexible. The large deformations in the structures can cause damage or cracking of non-structural elements. The deflection in beams is dependent on the acting bending moments and its flexural stiffness. The computation of deflections in structures is also required for solving the statically indeterminate structures. In this chapter, several methods for computing deflection of structures are considered.

4.2 Moment Area Method

The moment-area method is one of the most effective methods for obtaining the bending displacement in beams and frames. In this method, the area of the bending moment diagrams is utilized for computing the slope and or deflections at particular points along the axis of the beam or frame. Two theorems known as the moment area theorems are utilized for calculation of the deflection. One theorem is used to calculate the change in the slope between two points on the elastic curve. The other theorem is used to compute the vertical distance (called tangential deviation) between a point on the elastic curve and a line tangent to the elastic curve at a second point. Consider Figure 4.1 showing the elastic curve of a loaded simple beam. On the elastic curve tangents are drawn on points A and B . Total angle between the two tangents is denoted as . In order to find out , consider the incremental change in angle over

an infinitesimal segment located at a distance of from point B . The radius of curvature and bending moment for any section of the beam is given by the usual bending equation

where R is the radius of curvature; E is the modulus of elasticity; I is the moment of inertia; and M denotes the bending moment. The elementary length and the change in angle are related as,

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Substituting R from Eq. (4.2) in Eq. (4.1) (4.3) The total angle change which is expressed as can be obtained by integrating Eq. (4.3) between points A and B

(4.4a) or, Area of M / EI diagram between A and B (4.4b)

The difference of slope between any two points on a continuous elastic curve of a beam is equal to the area under the M / EI curve between these points. The distance dt along the vertical line through point B is nearly equal to. (4.5)

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Integration of dt between points A and B yield the vertical distance the tangent from point A on the elastic curve. Thus

between the point B and

(4.6) since the quantity M /EI represents an infinitesimal area under the M /EI diagram and distance from that area to point B, the integral on right hand side of Eq. (4.6) can be interpreted as moment of the area under the M/EI diagram between points A and B about point B . This is the second moment area theorem. If A and B are two points on the deflected shape of a beam, the vertical distance of point B from the tangent drawn to the elastic curve at point A is equal to the moment of bending moment diagram area between the points A and B about the vertical line from point B , divided by EI . Sign convention used here can be remembered keeping the simply supported beam of Figure 4.1 in mind. A sagging moment is the positive bending moment diagram and has positive area. Slopes are positive if measured in the anti-clockwise direction. Positive deviation that the point B lies above the tangent from the point A . indicates

Example 4.1 Determine the end slope and deflection of the mid-point C in the beam shown below using moment area method .

Solution: The M / EI diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 4.2(a). The slope at A , obtained by computing the using the second moment area theorem i.e.

can be

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(clockwise direction) The slope at B can be obtained by using the first moment area theorem between points A and B i.e.

(anti-clockwise) (It is to be noted that the . The negative sign is because of the slope being in the clockwise direction. As per sign convention a positive slope is in the anti-clockwise direction) The deflection at the centre of the beam can be obtained with the help of the second moment area theorem between points A and C i.e.

(downward direction) Example 4.2 Using the moment area method, determine the slope at B and C and deflection at C of the cantilever beam as shown in Figure 4.3(a). The beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load over entire length and point load at the free end Solution: The moment curves produced by the concentrated load, W and the uniformly distributed load,w are plotted separately and divided by EI (refer Figures 4.3(b) and (c)). This results in the simple geometric shapes in which the area and locations of their centroids are known. Since the end A is fixed, therefore, points A and C . Applying the first moment-area theorem between

( negative sign is due to hogging moment)

(clockwise direction) The slope at B can be obtained by applying the first moment area theorem between points B and C i.e.

–

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5 . = moment of areas under M / EI curves between A and C in Figures 4.com .3(d)).(clockwise direction) The deflection at C is equal to the tangential deviation of point C from the tangent to the elastic curve at A (see Figure 4.3(b) and (c) about C (downward direction) .Trial :: http://www.docudesk.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer ..

(anti-clockwise direction) Applying second moment area theorem between A and C .com .Example 4.3 Determine the end-slopes and deflection at the center of a non-prismatic simply supported beam. (clockwise direction) Applying first moment area theorem between A and C .6 .docudesk.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . Applying second moment-area theorem between points A and B . Solution: The M/EI diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 4. The beam is subjected to a concentrated load at the center.Trial :: http://www..4(b). .

7 . therefore.com ..Trial :: http://www. (downward direction) .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .(downward direction) Example 4.5(b).5 (a). points A and B (refer Figure 4. Since the end A is fixed.docudesk.5(c)) . Applying the first moment-area theorem between (clockwise direction) Applying second moment area theorem between points A and B . Solution: The bending moment diagram is shown in Figure 4.4 Determine the slope and deflection at the hinge of the beam shown in the Figure 4.

As the point A is fixed implying that theorem between points A and B .5 Determine the vertical deflection and slope of point C of the rigid-jointed plane frame shown in the Figure 4.Applying second moment area theorem between points B and D .com . Solution: The M/EI and deflected shape of the frame are shown in the Figures 4. Applying first moment area (anti-clockwise direction) Applying second moment area theorem between points B and C The vertical displacement of point C .6(a).. (anti-clockwise direction) From the first moment area theorem between points B and D (clockwise direction) Example 4. respectively.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .docudesk. (looking from the left side) .6(a) and (b).Trial :: http://www.8 .

Conjugate Beam Method The conjugate beam method is an extremely versatile method for computation of deflections in beams.com . The loading diagram showing the elastic loads acting on the conjugate beam is simply the bending-moment diagram of the actual beam divided by the flexural rigidity EI of the actual beam. called "conjugate beam. There are two major steps in the conjugate beam method.. V is the shear. The first step is to set up an additional beam. the resulting shear and moment in the beam are the slope and displacement of the real beam.7. and bending moments are given by where M is the bending moment.Trial :: http://www. The deflection of (the centerline of) the actual beam at any point is equal to the “ bending moment ” of the conjugate beam at the corresponding point. The positive shearing force and bending moment are shown below in Figure 4. This elastic load is downward if the bending moment is sagging. respectively.” and the second step is to determine the “ shearing forces ” and “ bending moments ” in the conjugate beam. Table 4. This slope is positive or anti-clockwise if the “ shearing force ” is positive — to rotate the beam element anti-clockwise — in beam convention . Similarly.1 shows the corresponding conjugate beam of different types of actual beams. and w ( x ) is the intensity of distributed laod. there is a corresponding support condition for the conjugate beam. shear.docudesk. The slope of (the centerline of) the actual beam at any cross-section is equal to the “ shearing force ” at the corresponding cross-section of the conjugate beam. For each existing support condition of the actual beam. This deflection is downward if the “ bending moment ” is positive — to cause top fiber in compression — in beam convention .9 . we have the following A comparison of two set of equations indicates that if M / EI is the loading on an imaginary beam. The relationships between the loading.(downward direction) Applying first moment area theorem between point B and C (anti-clockwise direction Objectives In this course you will learn the following Computation of deflection using conjugate beam method. The actual beam as well as the conjugate beam are always in static equilibrium condition . The imaginary beam is called as the “ conjugate beam ” and has the same length as the original beam. .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .

Trial :: http://www.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .docudesk.Table 4.1 Real and Conjugate beams for different structures REAL SRUCTURE CONJUGATE STRUCTURE .10 .com ..

. .Example 4.11 .6 Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the of a cantilever beam AB of length L and uniform flexural rigidity EI.Trial :: http://www.com .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . A concentrated force P is applied at the free end of beam.docudesk.

8(c).Solution: The conjugate beam of the actual beam is shown in Figure 4.8(b).docudesk. A linearly varying distributed upward elastic load with intensity equal to zero at A and equal to PL/EI at B.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer ..12 . The free-body diagram for the conjugate beam is shown in Figure 4. The reactions at A of the conjugate beam are given by .com .Trial :: http://www.

.9(b).Trial :: http://www. The loading on the beam varies parabolically with maximum value as . sagging moment) .e.com . equal to the “shearing force” and the “bending moment” the fixed end A of the conjugate beam in Figure 4.docudesk.The slope at A . Note that points downward because A (i. .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .13 . and the deflection at the free end A of the actual beam in Figure at 4. causes tension in bottom fiber of the beam at Example 4.8(d) are respectively.8(d). Solution: The vertical reaction at A in the real beam is given by The bending moment at any point X at a distance x from A is given by The corresponding conjugate beam and loading acting on it are shown in Figure 4.7 Determine the slope at A and deflection of B of the beam shown in Figure 4.9(a) using the conjugate beam method.

docudesk.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .14 .. The loading is upward linearly distributed load with maximum value of at B.8 Determine the deflection at the free end of the beam shown in Figure 4. Solution: (a) Conjugate beam method The corresponding conjugate beam and loading are shown in Figure 4. (downward direction Example 4. (clockwise direction) The deflection of B in the real beam will be equal to the bending moment at B in conjugate beam i. thus.Trial :: http://www. in the original beam will be equal to the shear force at A in the conjugate beam. Taking moment about point B. the vertical reaction at A in the conjugate beam is given by The bending moment at C (by taking moment about C ) is given by .com .10 using conjugate beam method and verify by moment area method.e.10(b).The slope at A .

Trial :: http://www.e.(sagging type) Hence..com .docudesk. applying moment area theorem between point A and C . the deflection of point C will be equal to in the downward direction (b) Verification by moment-area method Applying second moment area theorem between points A and B will give the slope at A i.15 . Further.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .

9) . Application of PVW to beams and frames.16 .(clockwise direction) Since (downward direction) Objectives In this course you will learn the following Computation of deflection using principle of virtual work ( PVW ). These forces and virtual displacements must satisfy the principle of conservation of energy i. While the body is displaced.com . Further. Application to pin-jointed structure..11(b) and referred as .Trial :: http://www.11(a). (4. consider a small element within the structural system and stresses on the surfaces caused by the P forces are shown in Figure 4. Principle of Virtual Work Consider a structural system subjected to a set of forces ( … referred as P force) under stable equilibrium condition as shown in Figure 4. These displacements are imaginary and fictitious as shown by dotted line.8) (4.e. Simplified PVW for beams and frames using multiplication of bending moment diagram. Let the body undergoes to a set of compatible virtual displacement .docudesk.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . the real forces acting on the body move through these displacements.

12) will directly provide the displacement of point C due to applied external forces. The displacement of C in the required ditection be elements deform by an amount . In order to use the above principle for practical applications.e. moving through the and the internal . the right hand side of Eq.9) can be written as (4.Trial :: http://www. (4. Let the structure acted upon by a virtual force is subjected to real displacements then the Eq. (4. Similarly for finding out a rotation. unit load). we have to interchange the role of the forces and displacement.11) can be re-written as (4. (4. (4. On the other hand.12) where f denotes the internal force in the members due to virtual unit load.10) (4. Using Eq. The right hand side of Eq. If a system in equilibrium under a system of forces undergoes a deformation.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . ( ). (4.12(a) and subjected to P force and it is required to find the displacement of point C in the direction specified.13) where interested denotes the internal force in the members due to virtual unit moment applied in the direction of . (4. Next apply the external (real) loads acting on the structures as shown in Figure 4.12(a) with the virtual force remain in the position.11) represents the internal work =1 (i. This method is also known as unit load method.. the work done by the external forces ( P ) equals the work done by the internal stresses due to those forces.10) This is the principle of complimentary virtual work and used for computing displacements.12) will take (4.17 . The Eq. First apply a virtual force at C in the required direction.11) The left hand side of Eq. the corresponding Eq.This is the principle of virtual work. place as at any point of a loaded structure. (4.docudesk. Consider a structure shown in Figure 4.11) denotes the external work done by the virtual force real dispolacement done by the virtual internal element forces d f moving through the displacement Since is arbitrary and for convenience let .com . .

13 and subjected to external force P 1 . is required.docudesk.1 Application to Pin-Jointed Structures Consider a pin-jointed structure as shown in Figure 4.. P 2 and P 3 .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .com .Trial :: http://www. let the .18 . Under the action of the real external load.4. Let the vertical displacement of point C .4.

com . The summation will provide the desired displacement. Example 4.9 Find the horizontal and vertical deflection at joint C of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure 4. AE is constant for all members. 4. (4. Compute the product for all members. Compute the axial force in various members (i.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . .. These can be obtained by considering the equilibrium of various joints as marked in Figure 4.14(b). Solution: Calculate forces i. 5. The axial force shall be taken as positive if tensile and negative if compressive. Apply a unit vertical load at C and substituting in Eq. Compute the axial force in various members (i. force in various members of the truss due to the applied loading.e.Trial :: http://www.19 .e. 2.12) leads to ( L and The basic steps to be followed for finding the displacements of the pin-jointed structure are 1.axial force in typical member be and therefore.14. ) due to applied external forces. required displacement of the point. ) due to unit load applied in the direction of 3.e. The positive implies that the desired displacement is in the direction of applied unit load and negative quantity will indicate that the desired displacement is in the opposite direction of the applied unit load. the deformation of the member AE are the length and axial rigidity of typical member).docudesk.

20 . Vertical displacement of joint C .Table 4.2 Member AB BC CD DA AC Length L L L L -P 0 -P 0 0 0 -1 0 For L 0 0 PL 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 PL 0 0 For L The computation of for two desired displacements of pin-jointed frame are shown in Table 4.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .2. Horizontal displacement of joint C .Trial :: http://www. .docudesk..com .

3 kN.31 mm = 8.000 for all the Solution: The axial rigidity of the members. The area of cross-section.3 Table 4..com .8. find the horizontal and vertical displacement of the joint D .Trial :: http://www.10 For the pin-jointed structure shown in the Figure 4. The computation of the Member Length L(m) AB BC CD DE EF CE BF 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 - For L 1920 480 480 120 1080 480 480 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 For L 0 0 0 0 0 The horizontal deflection of = 55.Example 4. and E =200. apply a unit load as shown in Figure 4.docudesk. desired displacements is presented in Table 4.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .15.16(b). . A =500 members.31 mm Application to beams and frames In order to find out the vertical displacement of C of the beam shown in Figure 4.16(a).2 mm The vertical deflection of = .21 .

Compute the bending moment (i.e.docudesk.The internal virtual work is considered mainly due to bending and caused due to internal moments under going the rotation due to the applied loading. Example 4.22 .12) for the displacement of C (4. ) due to unit load applied in the direction of required 3.. Compute the bending moment (i. The bending moment shall be taken as positive if sagging and negative if hogging (in case of beams). .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . 2. 4.com . Compute the integral over the entire members of the beam or frame which will provide the desired displacement.e.Trial :: http://www. The positive implies that the desired displacement is in the direction of applied unit load and negative quantity will indicate that the desired displacement is in the opposite direction of the applied unit load. displacement or slope. the Eq.15) The basic steps to be followed for finding the displacement or slope of a beams and frames are summarized as 1. (4. Since the where will take a shape of is the moment due to applied loading.11 Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the cantilever beam AB with length L and constant flexural rigidity EI. ) due to applied external forces. (internal virtual work done by shearing forces and axial forces is small in comparison to the bending moments and hence ignored).

-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .Trial :: http://www. The vertical deflection of point A is given by Slope at the free end: Apply a unit couple at point A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.12. The slope at A is given by Example 4..Solution: Deflection under the Load .17(c).docudesk. .17(b). Determine mid-span deflection and end slopes of a simply supported beam of span L carrying a udl w per unit length.Apply a vertical unit load at point A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.com . Consider any point X at a distance of x from A .23 . Consider any point X at a distance of x from A .

docudesk.Trial :: http://www.18(b).-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .Solution: Mid-span deflection : Apply a unit load at mid span as shown in Figure 4.18(c).24 . Consider any point X at a distance of x from A (0< x < L ) (0< x < L/2 ) ( L /2< x < L ) The vertical deflection of point C is given by End slopes : Applying a unit couple at A as shown in Figure 4.com .. Consider any point X at a distance of x from A (0< x < L ) (0< x < L/2 ) The slope at A is given by .

Solution: Vertical deflection of B : Apply a unit load at B as shown in Figure 4.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .Trial :: http://www. Consider any point X at a distance of x from C (0< x < a + b ) (0< x < a + b ) The rotation of point B is given by .docudesk.25 .13 Determine vertical deflection and rotation of point B of the beam shown in Figure 4.Due to symmetry (anti-clockwise direction) Example 4.19(a).com . The beam is subjected to a couple at C . in the upward direction) Rotation of B : Apply a unit couple at B as shown in Figure 4. Consider any point X at a distance of x from C (0< x < a + b ) (0< x < b ) = (b < x < a + b ) The vertical deflection of point B is given by (i.e.19(b)..19(c).

Determine horizontal deflection of C and slope at A of a rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure 4.14. EI .Example 4.20(b).Trial :: http://www. Both members of the frame have same flexural rigidity.docudesk..20(a). Solution: Horizontal deflection Consider AB : ( x measured A ) of C : Apply a unit load C as shown in Figure 4.26 .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . Consider BC : ( x measured C ) .com .

20(d).-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .The horizontal deflection of point C is given by Rotation at A : Applying a couple at A as shown in Figure 4.com .27 .Trial :: http://www. Consider AB : ( x measured A ) Consider BC : ( x measured C ) .docudesk..

The various steps for this method for finding deflections of the beams and frame are: 1. .A1.Trial :: http://www.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . for a uniform beam section (i.e. Draw the bending moment diagram of given beam or frame due to applied external loading (i. EI is constant) such integrals can be readily derived depending upon the various shapes of the bending moment diagrams.28 .docudesk.com .. (4. However.e.e. The computation of integral is given in the Table 4. diagram).15) in which the bending deflection of the beams and frames are obtained by the and ) over a length of the members.The slope at A is given by Moment diagrams multiplication method for beams and frames Recall the Eq. integration of the two bending moments variations (i.

diagram).21(b).21 Figure 4. Draw the corresponding bending moment diagram due to unit load applied in the direction of interested deflection (i. Deflection under the Load : Apply a vertical unit load in place of W .A1..Trial :: http://www.docudesk.2.com . Compute the desired deflection by computing the 4.e.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . diagram) due to concentrated load W is shown in Figure 4. The bending moment diagram due to this load is shown in Figure 4.21(c). The vertical deflection under the load is obtained by multiplying the bending moment diagrams of Figure 4.15 Determine the deflection under the load and point D of a simply supported beam with overhang as shown in Figure 4. with the help of results shown in Table Example 4.A1) Deflection of the free end : Apply a unit vertical load acting upward at point D of the beam. The bending moment diagram due to this load is shown in Figure 4.29 .e.21(d).21 Solution: Bending moment diagram (i.21(b) and (d) and is given by .21(b) and (c) and is given by (refer Table 4. The vertical deflection under the load is obtained by multiplying the bending moments diagrams of Figure 4.

22(b).M.16 Using the diagram multiplication method.A1) Example 4.e. determine the deflection under the load and end slopes of a non-prismatic simply supported beam.Trial :: http://www. Deflection at C is given by multiplying the diagrams of Figure 4.(refer Table 4.22 (b) and (d) as follows ..com .22(d). Solution: Bending moment (B.30 .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .) diagram (i. The slope at A is given by multiplying the diagrams of Figure 4.22 (b) and (c) as follows Slope at A : Apply a unit couple at A acting in the clockwise direction and plot the bending moment diagram of the beam as shown in Figure 4. shown in Figure 4.docudesk. diagram) due to concentrated load W on the beam is Mid-span deflection : Apply a unit load in the downward direction at C .

17 Using the diagram multiplication method.docudesk. The slope at B is given by multiplying the diagrams of Figure 4.23(b) and (c). determine the horizontal displacement and rotaion of point C of the rigid-jointed plane frame shown in Figure 4.D.M. Both the members of the frame have same EI value. .(clockwise direction) Slope at B : Apply a unit couple at B acting in the anti-clockwise direction and plot the bending moment diagram of the beam as shown in Figure 4. Solution: The free-body and bending moment diagram (B.Trial :: http://www.) of the frame due to applied loading are shown in Figures 4.23.31 .com ..-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .22 (b) and (e) as follows Example 4.22(e). respectively.

.com .Trial :: http://www.22 (c) and (g) as follows (anti-clockwise direction) . The slope at C is given by multiplying the diagrams of Figure 4.22 (c) and (e) as follows Rotation of C : Apply a unit couple at C as shown in Figure 4.23(f) and plot the bending moment diagram as shown in Figure 4.23(e). The horizontal deflection at C is given by multiplying the diagrams of Figure 4.23(d) and plot the bending moment diagram as shown in Figure 4.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .Horizontal deflection of C : Apply a horizontal force at C as shown in Figure 4.32 .docudesk.23(g).

Application of strain energy method for different types of structure.com . 1 Calculation of Strain Energy When external loads are applied on an elastic body they deform. It must be remembered that its use is limited to the calculation of displacement in linear elastic structures caused by applied loads.e (4. In the special case.Trial :: http://www.docudesk.25. when the structure is linear elastic and the deformations are caused by external forces only. dx . Consider a small differential element of length.18) The total strain energy in the entire beam will be . The work done is transformed into elastic strain energy U that is stored in the body.. (the complementary energy U * is equal to the strain energy U ) the displacement of structure in the direction of force expressed by is (4. These can then be used in the computation of deflections.24. We will develop expressions for the strain energy for different types of loads.Objectives In this course you will learn the following Deflection by strain energy method Evaluation of strain energy in member under different loading.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .24 Member subjected to axial force Bending Moment: Consider a beam of length L and flexural rigidity EI subjected to a general loading as shown in Figure 4. strain-displacement relationships are very useful in computing energy-related quantities such as work and strain energy.16) This equation is known as Castigliano's theorem. The energy stored in the small element is given by (4.17) Figure 4. The use of this theorem is equivalent to the virtual work transformation by the unit-load theorem. Deflection by Strain Energy Method The concepts of strain. The strain energy stored in the member will be equal to the external work done by the axial force i.33 . Axial Force : Consider a member of length L and axial rigidity AE subjected to an axial force P applied gradually as shown in the Figure 4.

Solution: The force in various members of the frame is shown in Figure 4. Twisting Moment: The strain energy stored in the member due to twisting moment is expressed by (4.26(a). Example 4.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .18 Find the horizontal deflection at joint C of the pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure 4.20) where V is the shearing force.(4. and GJ is the torsional rigidity of the member.19) Figure 4.25 Member under bending Shear Force: The strain energy stored in the member due to shearing force is expressed by (4.com .Trial :: http://www.4. and is the shearing rigidity of the member.21) where T is the twisting moment.34 .. Calculation of strain energy of the frame is shown in Table 4.docudesk. AE is constant for all members.26(b). .

Trial :: http://www.35 . Solution: ..19 A bar of uniform cross-section is bent into a quadrant of circle of radius R . Determine the vertical and horizontal deflection at A .com .4 Member AB BC BD CD Length ( L ) L L L Force ( P ) P P 0 0 Horizontal displacement of joint C . At the free end it carries a vertical load W . One end of the bent is fixed and other is free.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . Example 4.docudesk.Table 4.

Vertical displacement of A : The vertical displacement of A is given by For evaluation of the total strain energy in the system. ..Trial :: http://www. consider a small element Figure.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . From the Castigliano's theorem.docudesk.36 . F at A as shown in Figure 4. apply a horizontal force.com . the . Thus. The bending moment at this element.27(b). as shown in the Since there is no horizontal force acting at point A . the horizontal displacement of A due to applied external load W is given by The bending moment at the small element horizontal displacement of A is . Thus.

-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .com .28. is the energy stored in the member BC . The flexibility of the spring is . Deflection under the load is given by (downward) where is the total strain energy stored in the system. is the energy stored in the member AB .Trial :: http://www..(i.docudesk. Consider member AB : ( x measured from A ) Consider member BC : ( x measured from C ) .20 Determine the deflection of the end A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.37 . and Strain energy in the spring is given by = strain energy in the spring.e. deflection is in direction) Example 4. Solution: Reactions at support B and C are (upward) and Force in the spring = Reaction.

-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .38 . Bending Deflection due to Temperature Variation Consider a beam member (refer Figure 4.22) where = temperature at the top of the beam. over The deflection of the beam due to temperature variation is shown in Figure 4..Trial :: http://www.Thus.docudesk. The deflection of point A. It is assumed that temperature varies linearly through the depth. d and is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material. .com . and = temperature at the bottom of the beam.29) subjected to temperature gradient the depth of beam such that (4.29(b). Objectives In this course you will learn the following Bending deflection of beams due to temperature variation.

25) The equation (4. the moment induced in the beam will be given by (4. Temperature deflections of a cantilever beam: from the simple Consider a cantilever beam as shown in Figure 4.25) is obtained by equating the right hand side of equation (4. The strain at top and bottom of the small elements are (4.Trial :: http://www.39 . and v = 0 will give the values of arbitrary constants as .24) to bending theory.The slope and deflection of the free end of the cantilever beam are . Integrating the equation (4.30 subjected to temperature gradient over the depth.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .com .23b) The curvature of the beam is given by (4.23a) (4.27) Boundary conditions: At x = 0. If the beam is restrained from rotation..24) can be used for finding out the bending deflection in beams due to temperature variation.24) The equation (4.26) (4.24) (4.Consider a small element of length dx .docudesk.

truss. The Maxwell-Betti law also has applications in the construction of influence lines diagrams for statically indeterminate structures.28a) (4.31 explains the Maxwell-Betti Law of reciprocal displacements in which.Trial :: http://www. Using this theorem.40 .28a) Objectives In this course you will learn the following Maxwell-Betti Law of reciprocal deflection. form a symmetric matrix and this will reduce the number of deflection computations. The Maxwell-Betti law. which applies to any stable elastic structure (a beam. formulated to solve indeterminate structures by the flexibility method.com . Illustrative examples for proving law of reciprocal deflection Maxwell-Betti Law of Reciprocal Deflections Maxwell-Betti Law of real work is a basic theorem in the structural analysis. or frame. The Figure 4. the displacement is equal to the displacement .. . it will be established that the flexibility coefficients in compatibility equations.docudesk. states: The deflection of point A in direction 1 due to unit load at point B in direction 2 is equal in the magnitude to the deflection of point B in direction 2 produced by a unit load applied at A in direction 1.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . for example) on unyielding supports and at constant temperature.(4.

in Figure 4.com .. Let us evaluate the total work done by the two forces are applied in different order to the zero to their final value.In order to prove the reciprocal theorem. Let a vertical force at point B produces a vertical deflection at point A and point B as shown in Figure 4. and when they . Case 1: applied and followed by is gradually applied ….41 . consider the simple beams shown in Figure 4.32.docudesk. Similarly.32(a).-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . (a) Work done when s …. (b) Work done when is gradually applied with in place at at points A and B .32(b) the application of a vertical force at point A produces a vertical deflections and respectively.Trial :: http://www.

Thus. . respectively.29) Case2: applied and followed by is gradually applied (c) Work done when ….31) depicts the statement of the Maxwell-Betti law i.21 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the direction 1 and 2 of the pin-jointed structure shown in Figure 4.Trial :: http://www.31) If . The Maxwell-Betti theorem also holds for rotations as well as rotation and linear displacement in beams and frames.e.com . Solution: Apply the forces and in the direction 1 and 2. the equation (4.docudesk.. The calculation of total strain energy in the system is given in Table 4.30) Since the final deflected position of the beam produced by the two cases of loads is the same regardless of the order in which the loads are applied. The total work done by the forces is also the same regardless of the order in which the loads are applied.42 .33(a).Total work done by the two forces for case 1 is (4. equating the total work of Cases 1 and 2 give (4. Example 4.5. (d) Work done when is gradually applied with in place Total work done by the two forces for case 2 is (4.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer .

22 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the cantilever beam shown in Figure 4..34(a).-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . .Trial :: http://www. hence the Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement is proved. Example 4.Table 4.docudesk.5 Member AB AC Length L L Force P -( P1 ) Since .43 .com .

-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . and in the directions 1 and 2. The total strain energy stored is Consider any point X at a distance x from B .44 . .23 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the rigid-jointed plane frame with reference to marked direction as shown in Figure 4. respectively.Trial :: http://www. EI is same for both members. the Maxwekk-Betti law of reciprical displacement is proved.. Since .Solution: Apply the forces calculated below. Example 4.com .35(a).docudesk.

45 .com . respectively as shown in Figure 4.Solution: Apply the forces and in the directions 1 and 2.-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . Consider AB : ( x measured from A ) Consider BC : ( x measured from B ) Thus .docudesk..35(b).Trial :: http://www.

Trial :: http://www.46 .-46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer . proves the Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacements.The displacement in the direction 1 due to unit load applied in 2 is The displacement in the direction 2 due to unit load applied in 1 is Since .docudesk. ..com .