This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1. Do you agree Can you tell me Socrates, can virtue be taught [introduction to ethics] Plato Ans. Can Virtue Be Taught? Reflections on Plato’s Meno Dialogue can virtue be taught? Plato, through the voice of character Socrates, concludes that virtue cannot be taught and is a faculty given by the gods (in secular language, it is inborn The question asked in Plato’s Meno dialogue is whether virtue can be taught. Quite rightly, the answer is in the negative But I think Plato could have framed the questions a bit differently, which may have given him a different answer; instead of asking whether virtue can be taught, he might have done better to ask whether virtue could be learned. The big difference here is that asking whether x can be taught implies that there must be a teacher and a student. Asking whether something can be learned implies only that there is a student (life or experience may be a ‚teacher.‛) To ask whether I was taught math is to ask whether an instructor instructed me in math. To ask whether I learned math is to ask whether I learned it, leaving open whether I was taught it by a math teacher or learned it myself either from a book or by some other means. We all recognize, I think, the rightness of Plato’s suggestion that virtue cannot be taught. We can imagine, and perhaps know examples of, someone being able to recite ‚rules‛ of virtue (be honest, be fair, etc) while not being able to, or having the virtue to, put these ideas into practice. From my own experience of teaching students with Asperger’s syndrome, I have seen students who knew certain ‘rules‛ of virtue but not be able to translate this into practice. In this sense, virtue cannot be taught in the same way that musicality cannot be taught. One can learn about virtue or about music but still lack the ability to be virtuous or musical. This is in large part because knowing how to be virtuous, like knowing how to be musical, is partly instinctual. When a drummer ‚knows‛ when to insert a particular groove in a particular spot in a song, she will probably tell you that she is acting largely on instinct (though the groove itself may be learned, its application is a matter of judgment). In the same way, knowing when, say, when to protect a guilty friend in the name of honor, or give a friend up in the name of honesty, is a matter of judgment (though those two virtues of honesty and honor may have been taught).
So, virtue can’t really be taught. But can it be learned? I think that it can, at least in part. Even though students in school may not have a ‚virtue 1″ class, we all know that students are good at picking up on their surroundings and being influenced by those around them. This is why we all recognize the importance of who our kids ‚hang around with‛ – because we recognize that students learn from those around them, even when those around them have no intention to be teachers. In fact, it was often stressed to me when I was a teacher that I was to set an example for students and hold to strict ethical conduct, in part, because I was – like it or not – a teacher of moral behavior. students learn virtue another way: by experience. Once students learn what moral behavior is from those around them, they try these ideas out on the world. They learn from their moral mistakes; being caught in a lie and disappointing a friend teaches them not to lie. Being egregiously wrong about something one was confident in may teach the value of humility, etc. Sometimes, it also happens where experience will adjust a person’s sense of virtue by having an unvirtuous thing happen to them. Someone who is a petty thief may rethink their idea of virtue when they have something stolen from them and reflect on the pain it caused. Someone who brags may be confronted with others who brag, which can lead to reflections on how annoying the tendency is. All of this is to say that while virtue may not be taught, this does not mean that it can be learned. Plato does allude to the idea that virtue is inborn To some degree, of course, this is true; some people seem to be born with an extraordinary capacity for virtues like compassion, etc. Others seem to be born with little to no moral conscience without which virtue is very difficult. This does not mean that virtue can’t be learned; only that its foundation is inborn. Just like we recognize the idea that one can be ‚instructed in‛ virtues but fail to put them in practice (or desire to), we should recognize the converse: that people are capable of refining their views of virtue, that people may become more virtuous by reflective practice, and that it sometimes even happens where a person’s view of how to act virtuously changes drastically over time. So, I do think that Plato’s question of whether virtue can be taught should have been rephrased to ask whether virtue can be learned.
2. Different schools of thought? Which school you believe? why?(give reason) (anita havn’t gave ppt yet) 3. What are ethical issues in Indian context , brief some of them
Ethical Issues in Business There are a million ethical issues in today's businesses and unfortunately there is no perfect decision measurement for all these issues. The ethical issues in international businesses are much more complicated and much more delicate, along with being tenfold in numbers. This article deals with the current ethical issues in businesses and attempts to look for ways in which one can tackle them. their various ethical issues in the business that affect all business workplaces, whether they are local or international. Let us have a look at the ethical issues in business, that are listed below. In business ethics, there is hardly a proper line which can be held on to like the bible, for ethics often sacrifices profits and the idea is to find the optimal balance between the two, so that the business conscience is clear and the profits are reasonable. Business Ethics Business ethics is a behavior that all businesses stick to. Also known as corporate ethics or professional ethics, it incorporates moral guidelines as also the problems a business entity frequently faces. The term 'business ethics' became popular in the U.S. in the early 1970s. The Society for Business Ethics, a global institute that deals with business ethics and application of moral principles was formed in 1980. Businesses started specifying their ethical principles from the late 1980s, perhaps to stay away from scandals in businesses. In a Free, Unregulated Self-Ethics Model If business ethics and values are left to the self of business houses and entrepreneurs, society may have many dead weight losses to bear. A few producers can collectively increase market prices, a few strong buyers may collectively reduce demand till prices fall and a single entity can capture the entire supply chain and refuse its services to the free market and reserve them for the best price. To top it, the labor market can unite and ask for unreasonable increases in wages and the public transport unions can stand up for price hikes. Who decides whether all this is reasonable and hence ethical, or unreasonable and thus unethical? Who decides that a person who already earns
millions in profits is not entitled to reducing worker wages to earn higher margins because it is unethical? Let us now move on to certain routine ethical issues that almost every business has to face. Industry Wide Ethical Issues Following is a list of industry wide ethical issues. The problem with these is that they are not only routine and frequent, but they are also more widespread, i.e. throughout the whole industry rather than being confined to a particular business. Bribing powerful officials in order to get bids and tenders accepted and bribing competitor employees to get informational leaks is a serious ethical issue in business. In fact, it is a crime that is legally punishable in most countries today. Labor related issues like 1.gender discrimination at workplace, 2.employee harassment 3.minority community participation 4.working conditions and child labor are also some general ethical issues. Business practices like sourcing of materials, quality of inputs in production, compromising on certain aspects like product quality, safety, etc. and deception in packaging, quantity or size also fall in the purview of business ethics. 6. Some industries consciously omit the details of the side effects of the usage of their products from the product packaging while some indulge in controversial practices like animal testing and these too are some of the ethical issues in businesses. Forcing labor to work at below minimum wages, violation of worker rights and not complying with health, safety and environmental standards are some common current ethical issues. 8. Company Specific Ethical Issues
Showing honesty, integrity and openness in consumer relationships, addressing warranty and guarantee claims in an open and transparent manner and involving the company in some kind of social welfare causes is an ethical business practice that many are yet to follow. Unethical business practices like dumping good at loss making prices just to earn market shares or to oust a new competitor from business, colluding with competitors to fix higher prices, using high pressure selling tactics, using deceptive advertising, etc. are also some things that need to be looked at. Some stronger ethical issues are related to practices that are not easily detected, like releasing products that have built-in obsolescence (to generate further demand for future products) and indulging in accounting manipulations to generate secret reserves or to show higher or lower profits as per convenience. There are many more ethical issues in business and some of them are so common that they even crop up on a daily basis. Making ethical choices is sometimes the hardest thing, especially when the one losing out is you or your business, yet, for the greater good and for the sake of differentiating humanity from animal kind, one has to look at business as well as personal ethics and evaluate them from time to time. For example, if all businesses just looked at current profits and production and ignored the call of the environment, the person losing out on all this is man and his society. Looking at all the ethical issues in business and finding the optimal solutions for them, by taking well-thought out and rational decisions based on all possible parameters will help everyone, the society, the consumer, the environment and more importantly, even the business.
4. Different levels of moral development. (anita havn’t gave ppt yet)
5. Financial dilemma? Explain with example Dilemma : A situation that requires a choice between options that are or seem equally unfavorable or mutually exclusive. A dilemma is a situation in which a choice must be made between alternative courses of action or argument. FINANCIAL DILEMMA EXAMPLE The U.S. is having difficulty returning to prosperity because of several major dilemmas. In the long run, we need to adopt actions that slash our rising deficit and debts, but those actions are opposed to the behavior we need to implement right now to overcome high unemployment and low growth. This dilemma, plus disagreement in Congress about which way to go, has produced policy paralysis.
One baffling dilemma facing us is our need to reduce our consumption spending in the long run, in the face of retailers’ and other employers’ need for more consumption now to stimulate their growth and hire more workers.
During the 1990s, total consumer spending amounted to 62 percent of gross domestic product. In the 2000s, the share rose to 71 percent.
We were living beyond our means by using our homes as banks and importing low-cost items from China. This is still a major cause of our trade deficit. We need to reduce our consumption and increase our savings to end excessive imports. But cutting consumption now will worsen the prosperity of most retailers and manufacturers by causing further rising unemployment.
Moreover, Republicans in Washington, D.C. strongly oppose any attempts to stimulate the economy through more government spending. Also, they refuse to increase government revenues through higher taxes on the wealthy. Yet in the 1990s President Clinton raised tax rates on the wealthy from 27 percent to 40 percent without slowing down a strong job-creating boom.
A second dilemma concerns what to do about the banks considered ‚too big to fail‛ that received bailouts from the federal government. Almost no top officials in those banks suffered serious personal losses in spite of the giant injuries they inflicted on everyone else. None have been indicted for fraud or subjected to large fines, while millions holding assets that the banks sold them have experienced huge losses.
No wonder most Americans are outraged by big banks and Wall Street!
Those groups prosper by borrowing at 1 percent from the Federal Reserve and investing at 5 percent in Treasury bonds, paying themselves huge bonuses, yet they are not lending much to borrowers needing capital. If we leave these bankers without penalties for forcing the government to bail them out, they will take excessive risks once again, knowing the government will save them.
Today, the largest 10 U.S. banks contain 84 percent of all assets held by all 7,830 institutions insured by the FDIC; the other 99.9 percent of banks hold only 16 percent! In 1995, before the Glass-Steagall Act was repealed, the top 10 banks held only 42 percent—half as much as today. The Obama administration, up to now heavily staffed by former Wall Street executives, has refused to subject these big banks to any legal attacks or penalties, or to try breaking them up. True, the FDIC is
seeking to force big banks to develop rapid liquidation plans. But I am not convinced this administration is willing to really reduce the incentives for big banks to repeat their recent flagrant risk-taking.
Another dilemma exists in housing markets due to the large numbers of homes being foreclosed, mainly because many home values fell far below the values of owners’ mortgages. Housing starts plunged 71 percent from their high of over 2 million in 2005 to approximately 600,000 this year. Foreclosure filings are still hovering around 2 to 3 million per year.
The overhang of foreclosed and unsold homes in the nation’s housing markets, plus continuing high construction unemployment, are preventing any speedy return to housing prosperity. The government’s attempts to encourage housing recovery are not working because succeeding would require permitting many home owners to take major write-downs in their mortgage principles and payments. But the mortgage holders—including many banks—refuse to take big ‚haircuts,‛ they would rather go through foreclosure, hoping for a better deal.
Another real estate dilemma concerns the large debts that are outstanding on many commercial properties. Most banks are reluctant to extend enough credit to permit borrowers to pay off the loans they used to finance commercial properties, since values of those properties have fallen sharply.
Therefore, many lenders ‚extend and pretend‛ that those loans can be more fully repaid in the future. Yet the federal government can do little because the amounts of money involved are so large. Some deals are returning in commercial markets, but a majority of the excessive loans made in the early 2000s are still out there, not fully refinanced.
These and other dilemmas complicate the possible ways of getting our economy out of this still painful recession. It is unclear how we can act strongly enough in the short run to get us back into prosperity, yet also reduce our spending in the long run to attack our burgeoning debt. The policy gridlock in
Washington is no help. It is going to be several more hard years before we can overcome these dilemmas.
5. What is Gandhiyan view of ethics? Indian dimension of business.
6. Define corporate governance? Explain framework in detail?
1. Definition:PROCESSES AND STRUCTURE BY WHICH BUSINESS AND AFFAIRS OF CORPORATE SECTOR IS DIRECTED AND MANAGED 2. OBJECTIVE OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ARE AS FOLLOWS a) TO BUILD UP AN ENVIRONMENT OF TRUST AND CONFIDENCE AMONGST THOSE HAVING COMPETING AND CONFLICTING INTEREST b) TO ENHANCE SHAREHOLDERS’ VALUE AND PROTECT THE INTEREST OF OTHER STAKEHOLDERS BY ENHANCING THE CORPORATE PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY. 3. Global initiatives to implement corporate governance
7. Explain and distinguish different school of corporate governance. (Chart representation.) 8. Explain revise clause 49 in detail. (it is in ppt)
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.