Face recognition has advantages over other biometric methods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been widely used for the face recognition algorithm. PCA has limitations such as poor discriminatory power and large computational load. Due to these limitations of the existing PCA based approach, we used a method of applying PCA on wavelet subband of the face image and two methods are proposed to select best of the eigenvectors for recognition. The proposed methods select important eigenvectors using genetic algorithm and entropy of eigenvectors. Results show that compared to traditional method of selecting top eigenvectors, proposed method gives better results with less number of eigenvectors.

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Face recognition has advantages over other biometric methods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been widely used for the face recognition algorithm. PCA has limitations such as poor discriminatory power and large computational load. Due to these limitations of the existing PCA based approach, we used a method of applying PCA on wavelet subband of the face image and two methods are proposed to select best of the eigenvectors for recognition. The proposed methods select important eigenvectors using genetic algorithm and entropy of eigenvectors. Results show that compared to traditional method of selecting top eigenvectors, proposed method gives better results with less number of eigenvectors.

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95 | P a g e

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Selection of Eigenvectors for Face Recognition

Manisha Satone

Sinhgad College of Engineering

Pune,India

G.K.Kharate

University of Pune

Pune, India

AbstractFace recognition has advantages over other

biometric methods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has

been widely used for the face recognition algorithm. PCA has

limitations such as poor discriminatory power and large

computational load. Due to these limitations of the existing PCA

based approach, we used a method of applying PCA on wavelet

subband of the face image and two methods are proposed to

select best of the eigenvectors for recognition. The proposed

methods select important eigenvectors using genetic algorithm

and entropy of eigenvectors. Results show that compared to

traditional method of selecting top eigenvectors, proposed

method gives better results with less number of eigenvectors.

Keywordsface recognition; PCA; wavelet transform; genetic

algorithm

I. INTRODUCTION

Many recent events, exposed defects in most sophisticated

security systems. Therefore, it is necessary to improve security

systems based on the body or behavioral characteristics, called

biometrics. With the interest in the development of human and

computer interface and biometric identification, human face

recognition has become an active research area. Face

recognition offers several advantages over other biometric

methods. Nowadays, Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

has been widely adopted for the face recognition algorithm.

Yet still, PCA has limitations such as poor discriminatory

power and large computational load [1].

In view of the limitations of the existing PCA-based

approach, here we used a method of applying PCA on wavelet

subband of the face image and two methods are proposed to

select a best eigenvectors for recognition. In the proposed

method, face image is decomposed into a number of subbands

with different frequency components using the wavelet

transform (WT). Out of the different frequency subbands, a

mid-range frequency subband image is selected. The

resolution of the selected subband is 16x16. The proposed

method works on lower resolution, instead of 128 x 128

resolution of the original image. Working on lower resolution

images, reduces the computational complexity. Experimental

results show that applying PCA on WT sub-image with mid-

range frequency components gives better recognition accuracy

and discriminatory power than applying PCA on the entire

original image [2][3]. In PCA, all the eigenvectors are not

equally informative. This paper proposes two methods of

eigenvector selection. In comparison with the traditional use

of PCA, the proposed methods select the eigenvectors based

on genetic algorithm and entropy of eigenvectors.

Paper is organized as follows: Section II reviews the

wavelet. Section III reviews the background of PCA and

eigenfaces. Section IV is about the eigenvector selection.

Experiments and results are discussed in Sections V and

conclusion in section VI.

II. WAVELET TRANSFORM

Multiresolution methods are powerful tools, which are

widely used in feature extraction, image compression and

denoising applications. Wavelet decomposition is a widely

used multiresolution technique in image processing. Wavelet

analysis has generated a great interest in both theoretical and

applied mathematics, and the wavelet transform has proven to

be an effective tool for data analysis, numerical analysis, and

image processing. Wavelets are functions which give different

frequency components of data. They have advantages over

fourier methods in analyzing physical situations where the

signal contains discontinuities and sharp spikes. The

advantages of WT are good time and frequency localizations

[4].

WT is chosen to be used in image frequency analysis and

image decomposition because of the following reasons:

The resolutions of the images can be reduced by

decomposing an image using WT. Working on a lower

resolution image reduces computational complexity.

Wavelet transform provides local information in both space

domain and frequency domain.

Wavelet transform can be performed for every scale and

translation, resulting in Continuous Wavelet Transform

(CWT), or only in multiples of scale and translation intervals,

resulting in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). CWT

provides redundant information and requires a lot of

computations, DWT is generally preferred. A two-dimensional

wavelet transform is derived from two one-dimensional

wavelet transform by taking tensor products. The

implementation of WT is carried out by applying a one-

dimensional transform to the rows of the original image data

and the columns of the row transform data respectively.

Using wavelet transform, an image is decomposed into

four subbands. The band LL is a coarser approximation to the

original image. The band gives the edges along horizontal

directions, whereas band HL record the edges along the

vertical directions. The HH band records the diagonal edges

present in the image. This is the first level decomposition.

Further decomposition can be conducted on the LL subband.

After applying a 3-level wavelet transform, an image is

decomposed into subbands of different frequency components.

Figure 1 shows 1-level and 3- level wavelet decomposition. In

this paper, Daubechies wavelet D4 is adopted for image

decomposition. G.C. Feng, P.C. Yuen and D.Q. Dai [5] has

(IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications,

Vol. 4, No.3, 2013

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shown that Daubechies wavelet D4 is better than other

wavelets. Therefore, Daubechies wavelet D4 is adopted for

image decomposition in our system.

Nastar et al. [2][3] have found the relationship between

variations in facial appearance and their deformation

spectrum. They found that facial expressions and small

occlusion affect the intensity manifold locally. Under the

frequency-based representation, only the high frequency

spectrum was affected, whereas changes in illumination

affected the intensity manifold globally, in which only the low

frequency spectrum was affected. When there was a change in

human face, all frequency components were affected. Based

on Nastar et al.'s findings, we used subbands containing mid-

range frequencies. Among subbands 1 to 4, subbands 2 to 4

were the mid-range frequency subbands. Further experimental

results in [5] showed that applying PCA on subband 4 gave

better recognition accuracy and class separability compared

with applying PCA on the whole image, or applying PCA on

subbands 1, 2 or 3. Hence we have chosen subband 4.

LL

LH

HL

HH

(a)

(b)

Fig.1. (a) 1-level wavelet decomposition and (b) 3-level wavelet

decomposition

III. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

To linearly project an image in a low-dimensional space,

PCA [6] is used where images are represented in eigenpace.

This space is spanned by eigenvectors corresponding to the

largest eigenvalues of the training images. After an image has

been projected in the eigenspace, a feature vector containing

the coefficients of the projection is used to represent the

image. These features can be called as eigenfeatures [6].

Representing each image I (x, y) as a NxN vector Ii , first,

the average face is computed:

1

1

R

i

i

I

R

=

=

(1)

Where R is the number of faces in the training set.

Next, the difference of each face from the average face

is computed:

i i

I | = .

(2)

Then the covariance matrix is estimated by:

1

1

R

T T

i i

i

C AA

R

||

=

= =

(3)

Where, A=[

1

2

3

4

]

The eigenspace can then be defined by computing the

eigenvectors

i

of C.

Since C is very large (N

2

X N

2

) , computing its

eigenvectors will be very expensive. Instead, we can compute

v

i

, the eigenvectors of A

T

A, an R X R matrix.

Then,

i

can be computed from v

i

as follows:

,

1

1.....

R

i ij j

j

v j R |

=

= =

(4)

Given a new image, I , we subtract the mean (=I ) and

compute the projection:

1

k

R

i i

i

wu |

=

=

(5)

Where

T

i i

w u | = are the coefficients of the projection.

Using projection coefficients images can be represented as

linear combinations of the eigenvectors. The projection

coefficients define a compact image representation. The

eigenspace representation of images is very powerful and it

has been used in various applications.

IV. THE IMPORTANCE OF EIGENVECTOR SELECTION

Feature selection is the first and one of the most important

steps in pattern recognition. The aim of feature selection is

driving an optimal subset of features from a given space

leading to high classification performance.

In the eigenspace, all the eigenvectors are not equally

informative. It has been found in several studies that different

eigenvectors encode different kind of information [7][8].

Generally, in most of techniques the order of the

eigenvalues determines the importance of eigenvectors, but as

it is discussed in researches such as [9][10] ,this order is not

always suitable to describe the data. For example, the first few

eigenvectors seem to encode lighting while other eigenvectors

seem to encode features such as glasses or moustaches [7].

Although many of the eigen-features are very important for

face recognition, they might actually confuse the classifier in

other applications. In this study, we consider GA and entropy

of eigenvectors to select a good subset of eigen-features in

order to improve face recognition performance. It reduces

computation and increases recognition rate also.

1 2 6

9 3 4

5 7

8

10

(IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications,

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A. Eigenvector Selection using GA

Selecting a set of eigenvectors for best classification

performance is an optimization problem which can be solved

by using the genetic algorithm (GA). GAs are inspired by the

mechanisms of natural selection [11]. GAs operates iteratively

on a population of structures, each of which represents a

candidate solution to the problem, encoded as a string of

symbols called chromosome. A randomly generated set of

chromosomes forms the initial population from which the GA

starts its search.

Each image is represented as a vector of eigen-features

which are the coefficients of the linear expansion of the image

in the eigenspace. In our encoding scheme, the chromosome is

a bit string whose length is determined by the number of

eigenvectors. Each eigenvector, computed using PCA, is

associated with one bit in the string. If the i

th

bit is 1, then the

i

th

eigenvector is selected, otherwise, that component is

ignored. The goal of feature subset selection is to use less

features to achieve the same or better performance. If we

select only two eigenvectors then in chromosome only two

bits are 1, all others are 0. Each chromosome thus represents a

different eigen-feature subset.

The initial population is generated randomly. We will end

up with a population where each individual contains for

example two number of 1s only. The 1s are randomly

scattered in the chromosome. Each chromosome is tested to

see how good it is at solving the problem at hand and assign a

fitness score accordingly.

The fitness score is a measure of how good that

chromosome is at solving the problem at hand. The fitness of

chromosome is measured in terms of recognition accuracy.

Individuals with higher accuracy will outweigh individuals

with lower accuracy. Mutation is the chance that a bit within a

chromosome will be flipped. In proposed method only

predefined numbers of bits are flipped. Chromosome with best

fitness function is selected for face recognition.

Following are the steps to carryout genetic algorithm.

- Initialized the first population randomly (Only

predefined number of bits are 1, all others are 0).

- Begin the evolution loop until the stoppings criteria

(maximum number of trials) are reached.Here

maximum numbers of trials are 200.

- For each chromosome in the population multiply the

chromosome gene values to Eigenfaces.

- For each chromosome compute the fitness function.

- Apply the selection operator and select the fitted

chromosomes population to generate the intermediate

population.

- Apply mutation operators to form the next generation.

B. Feature Selection Using Entropy of Eigenvectors

Entropy is a statistical measure of randomness that can be

used to characterize the texture of the input image. Entropy is

defined as

2

1

log

n

i i

i

E P P

=

=

(6)

Where P

i

is probability of occurrence of pixel value i.

In this paper method based on entropy ranking is used. To

evaluate the importance and obtain the ranking list of

eigenvectors each eigenvector is removed in turn and the

corresponding entropy of the rest of the eigenvectors set is

computed. If the removal of an eigenvector causes more

disorder in the system than another, it shows more importance

and higher rank of this eigenvector. For recognition only top

ranking eigenvectors are selected.

V. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS

The experiment is performed on ORL, GTAV and YALE

databases. Face database from AT&T (Olivetti) Research

Laboratories, Cambridge (ORL database) [12] contains 40

individuals with each person having ten frontal images. So

there are total 400 images in database. There are variations in

facial expressions such as open or closed eyes, smiling or no

smiling, and glasses or no glasses. All images are 8-bit

grayscale of resolution 112 X 92 pixels. For testing of

proposed methods we used 340 images (6 images per person)

for training and 160 images (4 images per person) for

testing. Image features are extracted using D4 wavelet

transform. Four level decomposition is carried out on images

and LL subband A3 of each level is used for further

processing.

For genetic algorithm base eigenvector selection,

experiment is performed in two steps. First A4 subbands of

randomly selected 20 images from 160 images are used for

testing. Using genetic algorithm best eigenvectors are selected.

In second step best eigenvectors selected in first step are used

for recognition of all 160 test images. For eigenvector

selection using entropy, calculations are done by considering

all eigenvectors and then by removing each eigenvector in

turn. Top eigenvectors which are causing more difference in

entropy after removing are used for reducing dimensionality in

PCA.

Same experiment is performed on GTAV [13] and YALE

[14] database. In GTAV, 92 images are used as test images

and 138 images are used for training. In YALE database 1900

images are used as test images and 570 images are used for

training. Similarity measurement between the test image and

the training images in the library was performed to determine

whether the input test image was matched with any of the

images in the library. Here Euclidean distance is used for

similarity measurement. Given the test image representation X

and the training image representation Y, the similarity

measurement d(X,Y) between the two images X and Y is

defined by,

(7)

Table 1. shows the recognition rate for different number

of eigenvectors for ORL database.Table 2 and Table 3 shows

recognition rate for GTAV and YALE databases respectively.

(IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications,

Vol. 4, No.3, 2013

98 | P a g e

www.ijacsa.thesai.org

TABLE I. % RECOGNITION RATE FOR ORL DATABASE

No. of

Eigenvectors

% Recognition Rate

Top Eigenvectors

Genetic

Algorithm

Entropy of

Eigenvectors

2 47.5 52.5 37.5

4 79.375 81.25 81.25

6 83.125 90.625 85.00

8 81.875 93.75 90.00

10 81.875 95.00 88.125

12 81.875 96.875 90.00

20 85.625 96.875 90.00

TABLE II. % RECOGNITION RATE FOR GTAV DATABASE

No. of

Eigenvectors

% Recognition Rate

Top Eigenvectors

Genetic

Algorithm

Entropy of

Eigenvectors

2 80.43 81.52 76.08

4 89.13 91.30 82.60

6 86.95 90.625 89.13

8 84.78 93.75 90.21

10 93.4 95.00 94.56

12 94.56 97.82 94.56

20 96.73 98.91 97.82

TABLE III. % RECOGNITION RATE FOR YALE DATABASE

No. of

Eigenvectors

% Recognition Rate

Top Eigenvectors

Genetic

Algorithm

Entropy of

Eigenvectors

2 37.00 49.00 35.00

4 76.00 79.00 79.00

6 78.00 81.50 80.00

8 78.42 81.50 80.00

10 79.00 85.00 82.00

12 80 86.00 83.00

20 80 86.00 83.00

VI. CONCLUSION

Generally, in most of techniques in PCA the order of the

eigenvalues determines the importance of eigenvectors, but

this order is not always suitable to describe the data. In this

paper two methods using genetic algorithm and entropy of

eigenvectors are proposed to select best eigenvectors.

With less number of eigenvectors, proposed methods

increase the recognition rate. Methods are implemented on A4

subband of wavelet transform which reduces computation.

REFERENCES

[1] B. Moghaddam, W Wahid and A pentland, Beyond eigenfaces:

Probabilistic matching for face recognition, Proceeding of face and

gesture recognition, pp. 30 35, 1998.

[2] C. Nastar, The image shape spectrum for image retrieval, Technical

report, No. 3206, INRIA, June 1997.

[3] C. Nastar, B Moghaddam and A Pentland, Flexible images: matching

and recognition using learned deformations, Computer Vision and

Image Understanding, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. 179-191, 1997.

[4] I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets, CBMS-NSF series in

Applied Mathematics, Vol.61,SIAM Press, Philadelphia, 1992.

[5] G. C. Feng , P C Yuen and D Q Dai, Human Face Recognition Using

PCA on Wavelet Subband, J. Electron. Imaging 9, 226, 2000.

[6] M. Turk and A. Pentland. Eigenfaces for recognition, Journal of

cognitive neuroscience. vol 3, no.1 pp. 71-86, 1991.

[7] W. Yambor, B. Draper, and R. Beveridge, Analyzing PCA-based Face

Recognition algorithms: Eigenvector Selection and Distance Measures,

2nd Workshop on Empirical Evaluation in Computer Vision,2000.

[8] D. Valentin et al, Principal Component and Neural Network Analyses

of Face Images: What can be Generalized in Gender Classification?,

Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 41, pp. 398-413, 1997.

[9] T. Xiang and S. Gong, "Spectral clustering with eigenvector selection,"

Pattern Recognition, vol. 41, pp. 1012-1029, 2008.

[10] F. Zhao, et al., "Spectral clustering with eigenvector selection based on

entropy ranking," Neurocomputing, vol. 73, pp. 1704-1717, 2010.

[11] D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine

Learning, Addison Wesley, 1989.

[12] ORL database

http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/dtg/attarchive/facedatabase.html.

[13] F.Tarrs, A. Rama, GTAV Face Database.

http://gps-tsc.upc.es/GTAV/ResearchAreas/UPCFaceDatabase/

GTAVFaceDatabase.htm

[14] [Yale University Face Database, 2002.

http://cvc.yale.edu/projects/yale faces /yalefaces.html

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