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OD Interventions

Is it sufficient to focus HRD Effort on Individuals or should we consider interventions at Group & Organizational level?

How can we assist Individual, Groups, & Organizations in dealing with Change?

Is it really possible to transform an entire Organization? What might a High Performing Work System look like?

OD is defined as

Planned Activity

Effects Entire Organization

Requires support from all levels

Aims to improve Organizational Effectiveness and Health

Goals flow from Deliberate Interventions

Key Characteristics of OD..

Initiated in Response to Need/Problem like Turnover, Absenteeism, Low Job Satisfaction Often conducted by Outside Consultant-Gives Independence Views Organization as a System- Interdependence Involves Extensive Planning: deal with Resistance, Systematic Diagnosis, Develop Change Plan Based on Behavioral Science Knowledge: large Range Available Process Often Experiential

The Core Business of OD is..

Construct a great Organization

To ensure the organizations strategic ambition can be delivered To ensure during turbulent change, the organization capability is maintained, aligned & improved. To ensure organizations health is maintained or further develop through planned change effort.

Which will nurture and grow the Human Spirit

So that the Organization will remain relevant and fit for its constituents

Intervention is defined as
A coming between or among members or groups of an organization for the purpose of effecting change The practice of planned change, putting theory into practice, changing the status quo

A set of sequenced or planned actions or events intended to help the organization increase its effectiveness.

Key Characteristics of Interventions..

Goal Specificity


Level of Change Target

Internal & External Support


Purpose of OD Interventions

To disrupt the Status Quo

Deliberate and Intentional in Nature

Designed to change an Organization towards greater effectiveness

How does OD Add Value?

Reason of OD

1. Knowledge Explosion 2. Competitor Pressure 3. Changing Employee Demands 4. Legislation

1. Identified Problems (Turnover, Absenteeism etc) 2. Natural Growth Stages

Stages of Organizational Life/Growth

Key Characteristics structure Communication Planning Policy Formalization Decision Making Leadership Stage 1: Inception No Formal Structure Face-to-Face Little Little Individual Generalist Stage 2: High Growth Centralized Technology Informal Developing Developing Analytical Tools Specialist Older/ Raid Growth Stage 3: Maturity Decentralized Formal -Committee Strategic Lots Professional Specialist/ Strategist Slowing Growth

Organization Age-Size Young/ Small

Major Interventions Techniques

Individual or Interpersonal Level

Team or Group Level

OD Intervention Techniques

Intergroup Level

Total Organizational System Level

Three Basic Approach to OD

Behavioral Approach
Better Utilization of Human Resources Improving the Level of Morale, Motivation & Commitment of Members

Structural Approach
Relates the element of the Organization to one another. Includes Downsizing, Decentralization & Centralizatio

Technical Approach
Changes in Machinery, Methods, Automation, Job Design Change have helped companies to be more Productive

Types of OD Interventions
Category Individual Team Intergroup Total Organizational System 1. Goal Setting 2. Survey Research & Feedback 3. Action Research 4. Total Quality Management 5. Reengineering


1. Laboratory Planning 2. Career Planning 3. Stress Management 4. Managerial Grid 5. MBO

1. Team Building 2. Process Consultation 3. Quality Control 4. Role Negotiation 5. Role Analysis 6. Third Party Interventions 7. Goal Setting

1. Intergroup Dev 2. Third Party Intervention 3. Organization Mirror 4. Third Party Consultation

Types of OD Interventions
Category Individual Team Intergroup Total Organizational System 1. Survey Research & Feedback 2. Action Research 3. TQM 4. High Performing Systems 5. Reengineerin g


1. Job 1. Job 1. Job Enrichment Enrichment Enrichment 2. Stress 2. Team 2. Goal Setting Management building 3. TQM 3. MBO 3. Role Negotiation 4. Self Managed Work Teams 5. Role Analysis

Types of OD Interventions
Category Individual Team Intergroup Total Organizational System 1. Survey Research & Feedback 2. Action Research 3. TQM 4. High Performing Systems 5. Reengineeri ng


Job Design

1. Job Design 2. Quality Control

1. Job Design 2. TQM

1. Organizational Development can be difficult Reluctance/Resistance to Change 2. Success is most likely with: An appropriate model of Change The appropriate method of Interventions A system approach 3. Need a dual focus on Organizational performance and employees well being