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Integrating ICT in the Teaching-Learning Process

Christian Li Luen Ching


Department of Computer Education Mauritius Institute of Education

Presentation Contents
Introduction to ICT Constructivist approach to teaching/learning Traditional and New teaching environment Benefits of ICT integration in the classroom General trends in the use of ICT in education Research findings ICT and Primary Mathematics
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Introduction to ICT
ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) ICT generally relates to those technologies that are used for accessing, gathering, manipulating and presenting or communicating information The technologies could include hardware (e.g., computers and other devices), software applications, and connectivity (e.g., access to the Internet, local networking infrastructure, videoconferencing)
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Constructivist approach to teaching/learning


According to the constructivist theory, the learners form or construct what they learn and comprehend in their own way, and actively participate in lessons Can ICT be used to enhance the learning environment?

Use of ICT tools


ICT tools can be used by teachers in order to:
Support learners (with respect to learning

activities) Create a constructivist learning environment Contribute to the relevant learning communities

Traditional and New teaching environments


Traditional learning environments
Teacher-centred instruction Single sense stimulation Single path progression Single media Isolated work Information delivery Passive learning Factual knowledge based learning Reactive response Isolated, artificial context

Constructivist approach to teaching


Student-centred learning Multisensory stimulation Multi path progression Multimedia Collaborative work Information exchange Active/exploratory/inqui ry based learning Critical thinking and informed decision-making Proactive/planned action Authentic, real-world context
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Benefits of ICT integration in the classroom


Different learning styles are incorporated into teaching Learners play an active role in learning ICT increases the attention span of learners ICTs can provide real-life experiences ICT encourages collaborative learning ICT improves presentation of work ICT supports higher order thinking skills
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General trends in the use of ICT in education


1. Generally, full integration of ICT in education is still very rare.
Highly interactive multimedia or hypermedia are not yet widely used. Online activities involving an intranet or the Internet are used for information and communication purposes rather than tools for interactive education

General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


2. New, mixed modes of learning are merging
Face-to-face and online learning activities, lectures,videos, multimedia and telecommunication purposes rather than tools for interactive education

General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


3. Distance education is now being delivered in two different ways
Synchronous mode where participants are using ICTs to communicate at the same time Asynchronous mode where participants are learning or communicating independently, i.e. at different times whenever they are online

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


4. ICTs have become a driving force of education reform and they are an integrative part of natural education policies and plans

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


5. The introduction of ICTs in schools has brought about a more positive attitude to school among learners
ICT and web-based learning offers greater diversity of learning goals, projects, activities, and exercises than traditional classroom offerings, student interest and motivation

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


6. Online classroom tend to be more successful if ICT is combined with an appropriate pedagogy
Successful experiences showed that there has been a decrease in teacher-led activities as well as a decrease in the amount of frontal instruction and a move toward more project activities and independent learning as a result of ICT use.

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


7. Online learning enables learners to have more control over educational content and activities.
Online environments put the learner at the centre of the educational experience

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


8. The interactive feature of learning resources enables learners to become increasingly engaged in the construction of content
Teachers have access to vast amounts of information and teaching resources posted on the Internet and has helped teachers handle day-today teaching challenges

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


9. Online learning provides built-in technical tools that make learning easier
For example, the language used for searching information and materials are intuitive and immediate and need not to be learnt by the user

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


10. ICTs help to break the professional isolation from which many teachers suffer.
ICTs open a whole world of lifelong upgrading through distance education, asynchronous learning, and training on demand

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


11. The use of networked computers to promote group learning activities is becoming more and more popular
Computer technologies in education are moving from individualized self-learning to distancedelivered group learning methods.

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General trends in the use of ICT in education (Contd)


12. ICTs are altering the function of libraries and are intrinsically changing the role of librarians.
Reference to the wealth of learning resources that are readily available on the Internet

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Research Project
Ways forward with ICT: Effective Pedagogy using Information and Communications Technology for Literacy and Numeracy in Primary Schools
Conducted by a team from Newcastle University, Durham University and CEM Centre, Durham University (Curriculum Evaluation and Management Centre)
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00001369.htm

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Context
The research was commissioned with the aim of helping practising teachers in existing classrooms tackle particular teaching and learning issues in literacy and numeracy with the aid of ICT. It therefore reports on how existing technology, already commonly available in schools, can support this goal in a manner which is consistent with the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. The intention is to describe effective pedagogy with ICT

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Aims of the Research


The project investigated the contribution that ICT can make to effective teaching and learning in literacy and numeracy in primary schools. This project was a two year research and development project funded by the Teacher Training Agency (TTA).
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Report Contents
Section 1: An outline of the project Section 2: Describing and illustrating examples of effective pedagogy using ICT for literacy and numeracy in primary schools Section 3: The initial survey and questionnaire Section 4: Observing what happens in classrooms, with and without ICT

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Report Contents (Contd)


Section 5: Some relationships between teachers thinking and their practice Section 6:Supporting the development of effective practice Section 7:Conclusions and implications Section 8:References

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Overall findings
ICT offers the potential to improve standards of attainment in literacy and mathematics. In making effective choices about when, when not and how to use ICT to strengthen their teaching the crucial issue is how teachers can harness ICT effectively.
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Factors which teachers need to take into account


clear identification of how ICT will be used to meet specific objectives within subjects of the curriculum to improve pupils attainment; ensuring that pupils have adequate ICT skills to achieve those subject specific objectives; a planned match of pedagogy with the identified purpose of ICT activities and learning outcomes (e.g. by the use of ICT to demonstrate or model learning by a teacher or pupil);

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Factors which teachers need to take into account (Contd)


finding appropriate starting points for development for particular teachers in accordance with their teaching styles and approaches; adequate access to, and intensity of use of, the necessary equipment by pupils and teachers; effective technical back-up and support to overcome any difficulties encountered (e.g. for printers on networks) and the provision of adequate resources (including apparently trivial issues such as supplies of ink cartridges).

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In Mathematics, ICT can enhance teaching and learning by enabling pupils to:
explore, describe and explain number patterns practise and consolidate their number skills explore and explain patterns in data: for example, by accessing, displaying and interpreting readymade sets of data, displaying quickly a bar chart or pictogram estimate and compare measures of length or distance, angle, time, and so on
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In Mathematics, ICT can enhance teaching and learning by enabling pupils to: experiment with and discuss properties of patterns in shape and space develop their mathematical vocabulary, logical thinking and problem-solving skills (National Numeracy Strategy Framework)

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Research findings in ICT and Mathematics learning


Current digital technologies have the potential to enhance primary children's mathematical learning. Calculators and computers can be used as tools in mathematics to perform routine processes or to explore mathematical ideas (Way & Beardon, 2003)
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Research findings in ICT and Mathematics learning (cont)


The preponderance of research evidence supports the fact that calculator use for instruction and testing enhances learning and the performance of arithmetic concepts and skills, problem solving, and attitudes of students (Hembree & Dessart, 1992, p. 30)
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Research findings in ICT and learning (cont)


Pupils consistently displayed high levels of interest, motivation and enjoyment when involved in ICT-related activities. They remained on task for sustained periods of time in meaningful activities.

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Research findings in ICT and Mathematics learning (cont)


Pupils responded well to opportunities to take more personal responsibility for their own learning

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Research findings in ICT and learning (cont)


Pupils displayed high levels of collaboration and co-operation when working in pairs or groups on shared tasks

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Motivation
Tasks that have variety and diversity are more likely to facilitate an interest in learning and mastery orientation. Students are more likely to approach and engage in learning in a manner consistent with a mastery goal when they perceive a meaningful reason for engaging in the activity (Ames, 1992).
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Conclusion
Broadly speaking, educators, policy makers and researchers all seem to agree on the potential of ICT to have a significant and positive impact on education.

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