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## Applications of 555 as a one-shot multivibrator Water-level fill control

The circuit diagram of the water-level fill control is shown in figure (a) of the diagram given below. When the start switch is closed (Reset = 0) the output is low. When it is opened the output goes high to actuate the pump. The operation time of the pump is determined by the equation T = 1.1RC .

Start of pumping V0

Completion of pumping

Upon the completion of the time interval, the output of the 555 returns to its low state, turning the pump off. The height of the water level is set by the timing interval, which is set by RA and C. In the event of a potential overflow, the overfill switch must place a ground on reset pin, which causes the timers output to go low and stops the pump. Touch Switch One-shot multivibrator is used as shown in figure (b) above, for this purpose. When you scratch your feet to build up a static charge, and touch the finger plate, the 555 will

3 produce a single-shot output pulse. If the electrical noise level is high (for example due to fluorescent) the 555 may oscillate when you touch the plate. Reliable and consistent triggering will occur if the thumb is placed on the ground plate and tap with the fingers of the same hand on the finger plate.

## The counter timers XR 2240

When a timer circuit is operated as an oscillator and the resultant output is used to drive a counter, the resultant circuit is called a counter timer. Digital counters have one input and several binary outputs. The timing diagram below represents the input and output waveforms of a 3 bit counter. If the space time and the mark time of a single output period of Q1 are both equal (to T) as shown below, it is clear that such a counter is capable of producing outputs with longer space times (Base time periods),T, 2T, 4T,...... nT. 0 Input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Outputs Q1 T T

Q2

2T

Q3

4T

4 Under this situation each output terminal is rated in terms of the basic oscillator period T. Some counters are designed so that their outputs can be connected together. This capability is achieved by incorporating the concept of open collector output. When such outputs are connected together time base width of the resultant output is the sum of the individual time base widths (pulses). Fo0r example if the first, second and third output terminals are connected together, the resultant is one output pulse for every 1T + 2T + 4T = &t oscillator periods. For example the wired AND outputs of the above Q outputs are shown below. VCC

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q inputs

## Wired AND output 7T

A counter with this capability is said to be programmable because the user can program the counter to give output pulse for any combination of timer outputs.

## The XR 2240 Programmable timer counter

XR 2240 consists of a modified 555 timer, an 8-bit binary counter and a control circuit.

A positive going trigger pulse is applied to trigger input11 which starts the 555 time base oscillator. A positive going pulse on reset pin 10 will stop the oscillator. The threshold voltage for both trigger and reset terminals is about 1.4 V. The time base period T for one cycle of the 555 oscillator is set by an external RC network connected to the timing pin 13. T is calculated from
T = RC

Where R is in ohms, C in farads, and T in seconds. R can range from 1 k to 10 M , and C from 0.05 to 1000 F . Thus the period of the 555 can range from microseconds to hours The output of the time base oscillator is available at pin 14 and also drives the 8-bit counter.

Counter operation
A simplified schematic of the 8-bit binary counter is shown below. Output of the 555 time base is shown as a switch. One side of the switch is connected to ground while the other side is wired to a 20 k pull-up resistor. A regulated positive voltage is available at pin 15. Each negative going edge from 555 advances the 8-bit counter by one count.

7 Normally the 2240 is in its reset position. That is all 8 output pins (pin 1 to 8) act like open circuits, as shown by the output switch models in the above figure. Pull-up resistors ( 10 k ) should be installed, as shown, to those terminals that are going to be used. If the

terminals 1 and 4 are used as shown in figure, they will then be high in the reset condition. When the 2240 is triggered (pulse applied to pin no11), all output switches of the counter are closed by the controlled circuit and the outputs 1to 8 go low. Thus the counter begins its counting with all outputs essentially grounded. At the end of every time base period, the 555 steps the counter once. The counters T switch on terminal 1 opens after the first time base period (output 1 goes high) and closes after the second time base period. This counting action of the counter is shown in part (b) of the above figure. Output pin 2 is labeled 2T in figure (a) above. It is seen from figure (b) that the output on pin 2 has stayed low two time base periods (2T). Thus the second output stays low for twice the time interval of the first output. This can be generalized to all the outputs of the counter. The table below shows the time base period corresponding to each output terminal in terms of T. Terminal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time base period T 2T 4T 8T 16T 32T 64T 128T

Self assessment questions (SAQs) Question 1 After triggering, how long will the following output terminals stay low? (a) pin 3; (b) pin 4 : (c) pin 7 ; (d) pin 8 Take R = 100 k , and C = 0.01 F Answers: (a) 4ms ; (b) 8 ms : (c) 64 ms ; (d) 128 ms

## Programming the outputs

The outputs are designed to be used either individually or wired together as shown below.

9 Here we see that as long as either pin 4 or pin 5 is low, V0 will be low. Only when both outputs go high (output switches open) will the output go high. SAQ 2 Calculate the timing cycle for a circuit where pins 3,6, and 7 are jumpered to a common bus. Take R = 1 M and C = 1 F Answer; 100s Timer/Counter applications Timing applications Monostable operation The 2240 wired for monostable operation with programmable facility is shown in figure below.

When the trigger input goes high, the output bus goes low for a timing cycle period equal to Tsum (=12T according to the above figure). At the end of the timing cycle, the output bus goes high. The connection from the output bus via a 51 k resistor to reset pin 10, forces the timer to reset itself when the output bus goes high. Thus after each trigger pulse, the 2240 generates a timing interval selected by the program switches.

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SAQ3 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Calculate the base time period T for the circuit shown above What is the timing cycle (nT) for the switch positions shown in figure above? What is the minimum programmable timing cycle? What is the maximum programmable timing cycle?

## Free-Running Oscillator with synchronized outputs (Astable operation)

The circuit diagram of a free running oscillator constructed with a 2240 is given below.

The reset terminal (pin 10) of 2240 is grounded; therefore the 2240 is active and will stay in its timing cycle once it is started. When the power is applied, RR and CR couple a positive going pulse into the trigger input 11 to start the internal time base oscillator. The CR type charging of the capacitor will provide a small time delay before the actual time of triggering. (C,R connection to pins 10 and 11 may be removed to allow the oscillator to be started with a positive going trigger pulse at pin 11 .To stop oscillations, apply a positive going pulse to reset pin 10).

11 Each output is wired through an individual pull-up resistor, and a rectangular wave output is then available at each counter output. Frequency available at each input is one-half the frequency available at the preceding pin. SAQ 4 What frequencies are present at (a) output 1; (b) output 2 ; (c) output 3; (d) output 4? How would you modify the output network to obtain frequencies smaller than f8

## Binary pattern signal generator

A binary pattern similar to the one given below can be generated by the circuit shown.

+15 V 5 M R 13 C 1 F 16

20 k

+15 V 10 k

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14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

## XR 2240 Trigger Reset 11 10

It is wired similar to the monostable timer, but without self Reset. The output is a train of pulses that depends on which program switches are closed. The period of the pulse pattern is set by the highest program switch that is closed. For example, if 4T (pin 3) and 1T (pin 1) switches are closed, the pulse pattern is repeated by

12 every 2 4T = 8T seconds. See figure below. Note there is an output pulse only when there are high output pulses from each line.

Frequency Synthesizer
The circuit of the frequency synthesizer is given below. It is capable of generating any one of 2555related frequencies. Each frequency is selected by closing the desired program switches to program a particular frequency at output Vo. To understand circuit operation, assume that the output bus goes high. This will drive reset pin 10 high and couple a positive-going pulse into trigger pin 11. (The pulse will promptly activate the reset input, but it will activate the trigger after a little delay determined by the RC time constant.) The reset terminal going positive resets the 2240 (with all outputs going high). The positive pulse that appears on the trigger input, a little later, re-triggers the 2240 time base oscillator, to begin generation of a time period that depends on which program switches are closed. For example, assume that the switches T and 4T are closed. See figure below. The timing for these switches is shown in figure (b). The output bus stays low for 4T from pin 3 plus 1T from pin 1 before going high (to initiate a reset-retrigger sequence as noted above). The time period and frequency of the output signal Vo are thus expressed by Period = Tsum + T

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And

f =

1 period

where Tsum is found by adding the time base rating for each output terminal connected to the output bus. SAQ 5 Find the output frequency of the signal Vo produced by the above circuit.

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## Circuit diagram of a useful programmable timer is given in the figure above..

15 The basic timing interval of the circuit adjusted by timing capacitor C and timing resistor R. and is adjusted for T=5.0s A 16 pin, eight-circuit DIP switch is used to select the desired time interval. Close 1 for 5s timer, 2 for 10s timer 3 for 20s timer ----------------8 for 1280s = 21 min and 20 s timer The basic timing interval can be changed by picking new values for R and/or C. Circuit operation Start switch SS is opened momentarily, driving the trigger pin 11 high to start the time base oscillator of the timer. All outputs of the XR2240 go low. This low is extended to the (-) input of the 311op-amp (open collector type) comparator by any closed select switch(es) S1 through S8. When the output bus is high, the (-) input has a higher voltage than the (+) input and hence Vo of the comparator is at 0 V (Note: The potential divider connected to the (+) input should be between the ground and the +12 V power supply, and not between the output bus and the ground is shown in the figure. It appears to be a mistake in the diagram). With the arrival of the counter output (low), the (-) input of the comparator becomes low with (+) input still carrying a positive voltage. This transition will make Vo of the comparator positive and the relay to turn on, providing power to the appliance. After the time base period, the output bus will go high resetting the 2240 via 51 k resistor. Resetting makes all the outputs of 2240 go high which will make comparator output to go low releasing the relay and switching off the appliance. To turn off the appliance during the timing interval, simply move the common wire terminal A of the relay to terminal C. The supply voltage must be regulated to obtain repeatable results.