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BRAKES

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BRAKES
CONTENTS
page page

ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE . . . . . . 51 ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . 8 DISC BRAKE ROTOR SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE . . . . . . . . . . . 27 DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE . . . . . . . . . . . 34 DRUM BRAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MASTER CYLINDERBRAKE FLUID BRAKELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

PARKING BRAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDAL STOPLAMP SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE . . . . 44 SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

GENERAL INFORMATION INDEX


page Antilock Brake Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Brake Fluid/Lubricants/Cleaning Solvents . . . . . . . . . 1 Brake Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 page Brake Warning Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Hydraulic and Vacuum Components . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Wheel Brake Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

WHEEL BRAKE UNITS


AN models are equipped with power assist front disc and rear drum brakes. The front brake units consist of single piston calipers and vented disc brake rotors. The rear drum brakes are dual shoe, servo style units with automatic adjuster mechanism and cable operated parking brakes.

BRAKE WARNING LIGHTS


A red warning light is used to alert the driver if a pressure differential exists between the front and rear hydraulic systems. The light also alerts the driver when the parking brakes are not released. The light is located at the left side of the instrument cluster. An amber warning light is used for the antilock brake system. It is adjacent to the red indicator light in the instrument cluster. The amber light alerts the driver if an antilock system fault occurs.

HYDRAULIC AND VACUUM COMPONENTS


All models are equipped with a vacuum operated power brake booster, a dual reservoir master cylinder and a combination valve. The valve consists of a front brake metering (hold-off) valve and a front/rear brake pressure differential valve and switch.

BRAKE FLUID/LUBRICANTS/CLEANING SOLVENTS


Recommended fluid for AN models is Mopar brake fluid or equivalent meeting SAE J1703 and DOT 3 standards. When servicing rear brakes, use Mopar multi mileage grease to lubricate caliper slide surfaces, drum brake pivot pins and shoe contact points on the backing plates. Use GE 661 or Dow 111 silicone grease on caliper bushings and mounting pins. Use fresh brake fluid or Mopar brake cleaner to clean or flush brake system components. These are the only cleaning materials recommended.

ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEMS


Two antilock brake systems are available on AN models. A rear wheel antilock brake system (RWAL) is standard. An all-wheel antilock brake system (ABS) is available as an option. The RWAL and ABS systems are designed to retard wheel lockup during periods of high wheel slip when braking. Retarding wheel lockup is accomplished by modulating fluid pressure to the wheel brake units. Refer to the antilock brake sections for operation and service information.

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BRAKES
HAZARD. NEVER CLEAN BRAKE COMPONENTS WITH COMPRESSED AIR OR BY DRY BRUSHING. USE A VACUUM CLEANER SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED TO REMOVE ASBESTOS FIBERS. IF A SUITABLE VACUUM CLEANER IS NOT AVAILABLE, PERFORM CLEANING OPERATIONS WITH A WATER DAMPENED CLOTH. DO NOT CREATE DUST BY SANDING, OR GRINDING BRAKELINING. DISPOSE OF ALL DUST AND DIRT SUSPECTED OF CONTAINING ASBESTOS FIBERS IN SEALED BAGS OR CONTAINERS. FOLLOW ALL RECOMMENDED PRACTICES PRESCRIBED BY THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) FOR HANDLING, PROCESSING, AND DISPOSITION OF MATERIAL THAT MAY CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS.

CAUTION: Never use gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, motor oil, transmission fluid, or any fluid containing mineral oil to clean the system components. These fluids damage rubber cups and seals. If system contamination is suspected, check the fluid for dirt, discoloration, or separation into distinct layers. Drain and flush the system with new brake fluid if contamination is suspected.

BRAKE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


WARNING: SOME AFTERMARKET BRAKELINING MAY CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS. THIS SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WHEN SERVICING A VEHICLE HAVING PRIOR BRAKE SERVICE. WEAR A RESPIRATOR WHEN CLEANING BRAKE PARTS BECAUSE ASBESTOS FIBERS CAN BE A HEALTH

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS INDEX


page Combination Valve Testing . . . . . . Component Inspection . . . . . . . . . Diagnosing Parking Brake Problems Diagnosing Service Brake Problems Diagnosis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . Master Cylinder/Power Booster Test ... ... .. .. ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 6 4 3 6 Power Booster Check Valve Test . . . . . . Power Booster Vacuum Test . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Brake Check . . . . . . . . . . . . Road Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Brake Warning Light Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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DIAGNOSIS PROCEDURES
The diagnosis information in this section covers service brake components only. Antilock brake component diagnosis is covered in the antilock brake diagnosis section. Service brake components include front/rear brakeshoes, disc brake calipers, wheel cylinders, brake drums, support plates, brakelines, master cylinder, power brake booster, and parking brake components. Brake diagnosis involves determining if the problem is related to a mechanical, hydraulic, vacuum, or electrically operated component. A preliminary check, road testing and component inspection can all be used to determine a problem cause. Road testing will either verify proper brake operation or confirm the existence of a problem. Component inspection will then identify the actual causal part.

SERVICE BRAKE WARNING LIGHT ILLUMINATION


The first diagnosis step is observation of the warning light. Illumination of the red light indicates a hydraulic problem in either the front or rear brake system. It may also indicate that the parking brakes are still applied. An amber warning light indicates a problem in the antilock system. Refer to the antilock brake diagnosis section. If neither warning light is illuminated, the problem will be related to a mechanical, hydraulic, or vacuum component such as a brakeshoe, rotor, caliper, master cylinder, or brake booster.

PRELIMINARY BRAKE CHECK


The next step in brake diagnosis should be a preliminary check. This involves inspecting fluid level, parking brake action, wheel and tire condition, leak checking and testing brake pedal response. Preliminary Brake Check Procedure (1) If amber antilock light is illuminated, refer to Antilock Brake System Diagnosis. However, if red warning light is illuminated, or if neither warning light is illuminated, continue check procedure.

(2) Inspect condition of tires and wheels. Damaged wheels and worn, damaged, or underinflated tires can cause pull, shudder, tramp, and a condition similar to grab. (3) If complaint was based on noise when braking, check suspension components. Jounce front and rear of vehicle and listen for noise that might be caused by loose, worn or damaged suspension or steering components. (4) Inspect brake fluid level and condition. Note that fluid level in disc brake reservoir section will decrease in proportion to lining wear. This is a normal condition. (a) If fluid level is abnormally low, look for evidence of leaks at calipers, wheel cylinders, brakelines and master cylinder. (b) If fluid appears contaminated, drain out a sample. If fluid is separated into layers, or obviously contains oil or a substance other than brake fluid, the system seals and cups will have to be replaced and the hydraulic system flushed. (5) Check parking brake operation. Verify free movement and full release of cables and foot pedal or hand lever. Also note if vehicle was being operated with parking brake partially applied. (6) Check brake pedal operation. Pedal should have adequate free play and not bind at any point of travel. If pedal lacks free play, check pedal and power booster for being loose or for bind condition. Do not road test until condition is corrected. (7) If components checked appear OK, and brake action is sufficient to stop vehicle, proceed to road test. However, if brake action is impaired, do not road test vehicle. Instead, raise vehicle on hoist and disassemble/repair as needed.

ROAD TESTING
A road test will confirm or deny the existence of a problem. The final diagnosis procedure involves road test analysis and a visual inspection of brake components. (1) If complaint involved low brake pedal, make several low speed stops and note if pedal returns to

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SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS


A decrease in fluid level in the master cylinder reservoirs may only be the result of normal lining wear. Fluid level will decrease in proportion to wear. It is a result of the outward movement of caliper and wheel cylinder pistons to compensate for normal wear. Top off the reservoir fluid level and check brake operation to verify proper operation.

normal height. If pedal drops off, or brake action is impaired, immediately return to shop and begin repair. (2) Check brake pedal response with transmission in Neutral and engine running. Pedal should remain firm under steady foot pressure. (3) During road test, make normal and firm brake stops in 20-35 mph range. Note faulty brake operation such as pull, grab, drag, noise, low pedal, hard pedal, fade, pedal pulsation, etc. (4) Inspect brake components and refer to problem diagnosis information for causes of various brake conditions.

COMPONENT INSPECTION
Fluid leak points and dragging brake units can usually be located without removing any components. The area around a leak point will be wet with fluid. The components at a dragging brake unit (wheel, tire, rotor) will be quite warm or hot to the touch. Other brake problem conditions will require component removal for proper inspection. Raise the vehicle and remove the necessary wheel brake components for better visual access. During component inspection, pay particular attention to heavily rusted/corroded brake components (e.g. rotors, caliper pistons, brake return/holddown springs, support plates, etc.). Heavy accumulations of rust may be an indicator of rust and corrosion damage to a brake component. It is wise to remove surface rust in order to accurately determine the depth of rust penetration and damage. Light surface rust is fairly normal and not a major concern (as long as it is removed). However, heavy rust buildup, especially on high mileage vehicles, may actually cover structural damage to such important components as: brakelines; rotors; support plates; and brake booster.

SPONGY PEDAL A spongy pedal is most often caused by air in the system. Thin brake drums or substandard brake lines and hoses can also cause a spongy pedal. The proper course of action is to bleed the system and replace thin drums and suspect quality brake lines and hoses. HARD PEDAL OR HIGH PEDAL EFFORT A hard pedal or high pedal effort may be due to lining that is water soaked, contaminated, glazed, or badly worn. The power booster or check valve could also be faulty. Test the booster and valve as described in this section. BRAKE DRAG Brake drag occurs when the lining is in constant contact with the rotor or drum. Drag can occur at one wheel, all wheels, fronts only, or rears only. It is a product of incomplete brakeshoe release. Drag can be minor or severe enough to overheat the linings, rotors and drums. Brake drag also has a direct effect on fuel economy. If undetected, minor brake drag can be misdiagnosed as an engine or transmission/torque converter problem. Minor drag will usually cause slight surface charring of the lining. It can also generate hard spots in rotors and drums from the overheat-cool down process. In most cases, the rotors, drums, wheels and tires are quite warm to the touch after the vehicle is stopped. Severe drag can char the brake lining all the way through. It can also distort and score rotors and drums to the point of replacement. The wheels, tires and brake components will be extremely hot. In severe cases, the lining may generate smoke as it chars from overheating. Some common causes of brake drag are: seized or improperly adjusted parking brake cables loose or damaged wheel bearing seized caliper or wheel cylinder piston caliper binding on corroded bushings or rusted slide surfaces loose caliper mounting bracket drum brakeshoes binding on worn-damaged support plates misassembled components

DIAGNOSING SERVICE BRAKE PROBLEMS


PEDAL FALLS AWAY A brake pedal that falls away under steady foot pressure is generally the result of a system leak. The leak point could be at a brakeline, fitting, hose, or caliper. Internal leakage in the master cylinder caused by worn or damaged piston cups, may also be the problem cause. If leakage is severe, fluid will be evident at or around the leaking component. However internal leakage in the master cylinder will not be physically evident. Refer to the cylinder test procedure in this section. LOW PEDAL If a low pedal is experienced, pump the pedal several times. If the pedal comes back up, worn lining and worn rotors or drums are the likely causes.

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS


If brake drag occurs at all wheels, the problem may be related to a blocked master cylinder return port or faulty power booster (binds-does not release). An improperly installed or adjusted stoplamp switch can also cause brake drag. If the switch is positioned so it prevents full pedal return, a partial apply and drag will occur.

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BRAKES DO NOT HOLD AFTER DRIVING THROUGH DEEP WATER PUDDLES This condition is generally caused by water soaked lining. If the lining is only wet, it can be dried by driving with the brakes lightly applied for a mile or two. However, if the lining is both wet and dirty, disassembly and cleaning will be necessary. BRAKE NOISE
Squeak/Squeal Brake squeak or squeal may be due to linings that are wet or contaminated with brake fluid, grease, or oil. Glazed linings and rotors with hard spots can also contribute to squeak. Dirt and foreign material embedded in the brake lining can also cause squeak/ squeal. A very loud squeak or squeal is frequently a sign of severely worn brake lining. If the lining has worn through to the brakeshoes in spots, metal-to-metal contact occurs. If the condition is allowed to continue, rotors can become so scored that replacement is necessary. Thump/Clunk Thumping or clunk noises during braking are frequently not caused by brake components. In many cases, such noises are caused by loose or damaged steering, suspension, or engine components. However, calipers that bind on the slide pins can generate a thump or clunk noise. In addition, worn out, improperly adjusted, or improperly assembled rear brakeshoes can also produce noise a thump noise. Chatter/Shudder Brake chatter, or shudder is usually caused by loose or worn components, or glazed/burned lining. Rotors with hard spots can also contribute to chatter. Additional causes of chatter are out-of-tolerance rotors, brake lining not securely attached to the shoes, loose wheel bearings and contaminated brake lining.

BRAKE FADE Brake fade is a product of overheating caused by brake drag. Brake overheat and fade can also be caused by riding the brake pedal, making repeated high deceleration stops in a short time span, or constant braking on steep mountain roads. Refer to the Brake Drag information in this section for causes. PEDAL PULSATION Pedal pulsation is caused by components that are loose, or beyond tolerance limits. Disc brake rotors with excessive lateral runout or thickness variation, or out of round brake drums are the primary causes of pulsation. Other causes are loose wheel bearings or calipers and worn, damaged tires. PULL A front pull condition could be the result of contaminated lining in one caliper, seized caliper piston, binding caliper, loose caliper, loose or corroded slide pins, improper brakeshoes, or a damaged rotor. A worn, damaged wheel bearing or suspension component are further causes of pull. A damaged front tire (bruised, ply separation) can also cause pull. A common and frequently misdiagnosed pull condition is where direction of pull changes after a few stops. The cause is a combination of brake drag followed by fade at one of the brake units. As the dragging brake overheats, efficiency is so reduced that fade occurs. Since the opposite brake unit is still functioning normally, its braking effect is magnified. This causes pull to switch direction in favor of the normally functioning brake unit. When diagnosing a change in pull condition, remember that pull will return to the original direction if the dragging brake unit is allowed to cool down (and is not seriously damaged). REAR BRAKE GRAB OR PULL Rear grab or pull is usually caused by an improperly adjusted or seized parking brake cable, contaminated lining, bent or binding shoes and support plates, or improperly assembled components. This is particularly true when only one rear wheel is involved. However, when both rear wheels are affected, the master cylinder or proportioning valve could be at fault.

BRAKELINING CONTAMINATION Brakelining contamination is usually a product of leaking calipers or wheel cylinders, driving through deep water puddles, or lining that has become covered with grease and grit during repair. WHEEL AND TIRE PROBLEMS Some conditions attributed to brake components may actually be caused by a wheel or tire problem. A damaged wheel can cause shudder, vibration and pull. A worn or damaged tire can also cause vibration or pull. Severely worn tires with very little tread left can produce a grab-like condition as the tires lose and recover traction.

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SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS


adjuster screws seized adjuster screws reversed holddown or return springs misassembled or lack tension wheel cylinder pistons seized Brake drums that are machined oversize are difficult to identify. If oversize drums are suspected, the diameter of the braking surface will have to be checked with an accurate drum gauge. Oversize drums will cause low brake pedal and lack of parking brake holding ability. Improper parking brake strut and lever installation will result in unsatisfactory parking brake operation. Intermixing the adjuster screws will cause drag, bind and pull along with poor parking brake operation. Parking brake adjustment and parts replacement procedures are described in the Parking Brake section.

Flat-spotted tires can cause vibration and wheel tramp and generate shudder during brake operation. A tire with internal damage such as a severe bruise or ply separation can cause pull and vibration.

DIAGNOSING PARKING BRAKE PROBLEMS


Adjustment Mechanism Parking brake adjustment is controlled by a cable tensioner. The cable tensioner, once adjusted at the factory, will not need further adjustment under normal circumstances. There are only two instances when adjustment is required. The first is when a new tensioner, or cables have been installed. And the second, is when the tensioner and cables are disconnected for access to other brake components. Parking Brake problem Causes In most cases, the actual cause of an improperly functioning parking brake (too loose/too tight/wont hold), can be traced to a drum brake component. The leading cause of improper parking brake operation, is excessive clearance between the brakeshoes and the drum surface. Excessive clearance is a result of: lining and/or drum wear, oversize drums, or inoperative shoe adjuster components. Excessive parking brake lever travel (sometimes described as a loose lever or too loose condition), is the result of worn brakeshoes/drums, improper brakeshoe adjustment, or misassembled brake parts. A too loose condition can also be caused by inoperative brakeshoe adjusters. If the adjusters are misassembled, they will not function. In addition, since the adjuster mechanism only works during reverse stops, it is important that complete stops be made. The adjuster mechanism does not operate when rolling stops are made in reverse. The vehicle must be brought to a complete halt before the adjuster lever will turn the adjuster screw. A condition where the parking brakes do not hold, will most probably be due to a wheel brake component. Items to look for when diagnosing a parking brake problem, are: rear brakeshoe wear rear brake drum wear drums machined beyond allowable diameter (oversize) parking brake front cable not secured to pedal parking brake rear cable seized parking brake strut reversed parking brake strut not seated in both shoes parking brake lever not seated in secondary shoe parking brake lever or brakeshoe bind on support plate brakeshoes reversed

COMBINATION VALVE TESTING


TESTING METERING VALVE Metering valve operation can be checked visually and with the aid of a helper. Observe the metering valve stem while a helper applies and releases the brakes. If the valve is operating correctly, the stem will extend slightly when the brakes are applied and retract when the brakes are released. If the valve is faulty, replace the entire combination valve as an assembly. TESTING PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH (1) Have helper sit in drivers seat to apply brake pedal and observe red brake warning light. (2) Raise vehicle on hoist. (3) Connect bleed hose to a rear wheel cylinder and immerse hose end in container partially filled with brake fluid. (4) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor and observe warning light. (a) If warning light illuminates, switch is operating correctly. (b) If light fails to illuminate, check circuit fuse, bulb and wiring. Repair as necessary and repeat test steps (3) and (4). (5) If warning light still fails to illuminate, check brakelight and parking brake switches and wiring with test lamp. Repair or replace parts as necessary and test differential pressure switch operation again. (6) If warning light still does not illuminate, switch is faulty. Replace combination valve assembly, bleed brake system and verify proper switch and valve operation.

MASTER CYLINDER/POWER BOOSTER TEST


(1) Start engine and check booster vacuum hose connections. Hissing noise indicates vacuum leak. Correct any vacuum leak before proceeding.

SERVICE BRAKE DIAGNOSIS


(2) Stop engine and shift transmission into Neutral. (3) Pump brake pedal until all vacuum reserve in booster is depleted. (4) Press and hold brake pedal under light foot pressure. (a) If pedal holds firm, proceed to step (5). (b) If pedal does not hold firm and falls away, master cylinder is faulty (internal leakage). (5) Start engine and note pedal action. (a) If pedal falls away slightly under light foot pressure then holds firm, proceed to step (6). (b) If no pedal action is discernible, power booster or vacuum check valve is faulty. Install known good check valve and repeat steps (2) through (5). (6) Rebuild booster vacuum reserve as follows: Release brake pedal. Increase engine speed to 1500 rpm, close the throttle and immediately turn off ignition. (7) Wait a minimum of 90 seconds and try brake action again. Booster should provide two or more vacuum assisted pedal applications. If vacuum assist is not provided, perform booster and check valve vacuum tests.

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Fig. 1 Typical Vacuum Check Valve And Seal

POWER BOOSTER CHECK VALVE TEST


(1) Disconnect vacuum hose from check valve. (2) Remove check valve and valve seal from booster (Fig. 1). (3) Hand operated vacuum pump can be used for test (Fig. 2). (4) Apply 50.5-67.3 kPa (15-20 inches vacuum) at large end of check valve (Fig. 1). (5) Vacuum should hold steady. If gauge on pump indicates any vacuum loss, valve is faulty and must be replaced.

Fig. 2 Typical Hand Operated Vacuum Pump

POWER BOOSTER VACUUM TEST


(1) Connect a vacuum gauge to the booster check valve with a short length of hose and a T-fitting (Fig. 3). (2) Start and run engine at idle speed for 60 seconds. (3) Clamp hose shut between vacuum source and check valve (Fig. 3). (4) Stop engine and observe vacuum gauge. (5) If vacuum drops more than 1 inch vacuum (3.368 kPa) in 15 seconds, the booster diaphragm or the check valve is faulty.

Fig. 3 Typical Booster Vacuum Test Connections

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ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS INDEX


page page Combination Valve Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Diagnosis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Generating RWAL Flash Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 RWAL Diagnostic Connector Location . . . . . . . . . . . 8 RWAL Diagnostic Fault Flash Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 RWAL Fault Code Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 RWAL Fault Code Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

ABS Diagnostic Connector Location . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ABS System Normal and Fault Conditions . . . . . . . . 9 ABS/RWAL Control Module Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ABS/RWAL Fault Condition Causes . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ABS/RWAL Warning Light Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Antilock Valve Service and Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Clearing RWAL Fault Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

DIAGNOSIS PROCEDURES
ABS System Antilock diagnosis involves checking only those components that form the antilock system. Diagnosis involves three basic steps which are: observation of the warning light display visual examination for low fluid, leaks, or damaged wires circuit check with DRB scan tool Visual examination includes a check of reservoir fluid level and condition of the system components. This includes inspection of the sensor wires and electrical connections. Things to look for are leaks, loose connections, or obvious component damage. Circuit checking involves using the DRB scan tool to identify a faulty circuit or component. RWAL System An RWAL system malfunction will be indicated by illumination of the amber warning lamp. If a problem occurs, system diagnosis should begin with a fluid level check followed by a visual examination of the system electrical and hydraulic connections. If obvious defects (low fluid, leaks, loose connections, etc.) are not evident, road test the vehicle. A road test should help determine if a malfunction is actually related to an antilock component. During the road test, note if other conditions are evident such as a low pedal, pull, grab, or similar condition. Remember that brake malfunctions such as low fluid, system leaks, or parking brakes partially applied will affect antilock system operation. The idea is to determine if a malfunction is actually related to an antilock component. If a visual inspection and road test do not indicate the problem cause, check the system fault flash codes. Refer to the system fault code information in this section.

ABS DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR LOCATION


The ABS diagnostic connector is located under the instrument panel near the steering column. The connector is a 4 or 6-way style and is either black, or light blue in color. The connector is the ABS access point for the DRB scan tool. System circuits can be tested after the scan tool is attached.

RWAL DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR LOCATION


The RWAL diagnostic connector is also the service data link connector (Fig. 1). It is a black, 2-way connector attached to the single 18 ga. black with white tracer wire, from terminal 12 on the control module. The data link wires are plugged into this connector. The connector is positioned on the passenger side cowl panel. The module is located under the passenger side of the instrument panel, or on the passenger side kick panel.

Fig. 1 RWAL Diagnostic (Data Link) Connector Location

ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS ABS SYSTEM NORMAL AND FAULT CONDITIONS
Wheel/Tire Size And Input Signals Antilock system operation depends on accurate signals from the wheel speed sensors. Ideally, the vehicle wheels and tires should all be the same size and type to ensure accurate signals and satisfactory operation. Operating Sound Levels On the all wheel ABS system, the pump/motor and antilock valve solenoids may produce some sound as they cycle. This is a normal condition and should not be mistaken for faulty operation. Under most conditions, pump and solenoid valve operating sounds will not be audible. Vehicle Response In Antilock Mode During antilock braking, the front/rear solenoid valves cycle rapidly in response to antilock control module inputs. The driver may experience a slight pulsing sensation in the brake pedal and vehicle as the solenoid valves modulate fluid pressure as needed. This is a normal condition. Steering Response A modest amount of steering input is required during extremely high deceleration braking, or when braking on differing traction surfaces. An example of differing traction surfaces would be when the left side wheels are on ice and the right side wheels are on relatively dry pavement. Loss Of Sensor Input Wheel speed sensor malfunctions will most likely be due to loose connections, damaged sensor wires, or incorrect sensor air gap. An additional fault would be a result of sensor and tone ring misalignment or physical damage. A faulty sensor (open, shorted) can be located with the flash codes or the DRB scan tool on all wheel antilock models.

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Light Illuminates During Brake Stop A system fault such as loss of speed sensor signal or solenoid failure, will cause the amber warning light to illuminate. The most effective procedure here is to check for obvious damage first. Then check the electronic components with the DRB scan tool, or flash codes.

ABS/RWAL CONTROL MODULE DIAGNOSIS


The electronic module controls all phases of antilock system operation. The module also differentiates between normal and antilock mode braking. The module monitors and processes signals generated by the system sensors at all times. The module operating program includes a self check routine that tests each of the system components. A failure of the self check program will cause illumination of the amber warning light. The light will also illuminate if a solenoid or other system component fails during the dynamic phase of initialization. If a system malfunction should occur, do not immediately replace the control module. A blown system fuse, bad ground, or loss of feed voltage will cause system faults similar to a module failure. Never replace the module unless flash code, or scan tool diagnosis indicates replacement is actually necessary.

ANTILOCK VALVE SERVICE AND DIAGNOSIS


The front and rear antilock valves are serviced only as assemblies. However, neither valve should be replaced unless a fault has been confirmed. On the rear wheel antilock system, verify fault conditions with the diagnostic flash codes. On models with the all wheel ABS system, use the DRB scan tool to verify a fault condition.

RWAL DIAGNOSTIC FAULT FLASH CODES


The microprocessor in the electronic control module has a self test feature. This feature is activated whenever the ignition switch is in the On and Run positions. If a system fault is detected, the control module illuminates the antilock light and stores the fault code in the microprocessor memory. If a fault code is generated, the module will retain the code after turning the ignition switch to Off position. System faults are identified by a series of flash codes that operate through the antilock warning light. Temporarily grounding the antilock diagnostic connector will produce the flash code sequence. Refer to Fault Code Identification in this section.

ABS/RWAL WARNING LIGHT DISPLAY


Light Illuminates At Startup The amber antilock light illuminates at startup as part of the system self check feature. The light illuminates for 2-3 seconds then goes off as part of the normal self check routine. Light Remains On After Startup An system fault is indicated when the light remains on after startup. Diagnosis with the flash codes or DRB scan tool will be necessary to determine the faulty component.

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ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS

RWAL FAULT CODE CAPACITY


The microprocessor memory will store and display only one fault code at a time. The stored code can be displayed by grounding the antilock diagnostic connector.

GENERATING RWAL FLASH CODES


To generate flash codes, first disconnect the data link wires from the diagnostic connector. Then momentarily ground the connector with a jumper wire and immediately observe the flash code display. Flash codes are displayed at the antilock warning light.

RWAL FAULT CODE IDENTIFICATION


To determine a fault code, momentarily ground the diagnostic connector and count the number of times the antilock indicator lamp flashes. Fault codes and typical malfunctions are outlined in Figure 2. The initial flash will be a long flash followed by a number of short flashes. The long flash indicates the beginning of the fault number sequence and the short flashes are a continuation of that sequence. You must count the long flash along with the short flashes for an accurate fault code count.

CLEARING RWAL FAULT CODES


To clear a fault code, disconnect the control module connector or disconnect the battery for a minimum of five seconds. During system retest, wait 30 seconds to be sure the fault code does not reappear.

ABS/RWAL FAULT CONDITION CAUSES


Antilock system faults can be generated by a circuit, or component malfunction, or even by the driver. Circuit, or component malfunctions will most frequently be related to wire harness problems. Look for loose connections, corroded terminals, damaged wires, or loss of continuity due to connectors filled with water or dirt. Blown circuit fuses and poor ground connections are also common causes for system faults. A misadjusted, or faulty stop lamp switch will also cause a system fault. Wheel speed sensor and control module failures, although infrequent, will be indicated by testing with flash codes, or the DRB scan tool. The faulty part should not be replaced until diagnosis indicates this is necessary. The driver can induce system faults by riding the brake pedal, pumping the brake pedal, or leaving the parking brakes partially applied. These conditions will cause the antilock warning light to illuminate, despite the fact that a fault has not actually occurred. Another driver induced RWAL fault involves holding the brake pedal in an applied position while

Fig. 2 RWAL Flash Codes


starting the engine. This practice causes the stoplamp switch to be in a closed position when the engine is started. With the switch closed, the RWAL system self check feature will not be completed. The result is illumination of both warning lights and trouble code 11 registered in system memory.

COMBINATION VALVE TESTING


TESTING METERING VALVE Metering valve operation can be checked visually and with the aid of a helper. Observe the metering

ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


valve stem while a helper applies and releases the brakes. If the valve is operating correctly, the stem will extend slightly when the brakes are applied and retract when the brakes are released. If the valve is faulty, replace the entire combination valve as an assembly.

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TESTING PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH (1) Have helper sit in drivers seat to apply brake pedal and observe red brake warning light. (2) Raise vehicle on hoist. (3) Connect bleed hose to a rear wheel cylinder and immerse hose end in container partially filled with brake fluid. (4) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor and observe warning light.

(a) If warning light illuminates, switch is operating correctly. (b) If light fails to illuminate, check circuit fuse, bulb and wiring. Repair as necessary and repeat test steps (3) and (4). (5) If warning light still fails to illuminate, check brakelight and parking brake switches and wiring with test lamp. Repair or replace parts as necessary and test differential pressure switch operation again. (6) If warning light still does not illuminate, switch is faulty. Replace combination valve assembly, bleed brake system and verify proper switch and valve operation.

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MASTER CYLINDERBRAKE FLUIDBRAKELINES MASTER CYLINDERBRAKE FLUIDBRAKELINES INDEX


page page Master Cylinder Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . Master Cylinder Installation . . . . . . . . . Master Cylinder Removal . . . . . . . . . . Master Cylinder Reservoir Replacement Recommended Brake Fluid . . . . . . . . . .... .... .... ... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 13 13 12

Brake Fluid Contamination . . . . Brakelines and Hoses . . . . . . . . Correct Brake Fluid Level . . . . . General Service Information . . . Importance of Clean Brake Fluid

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GENERAL SERVICE INFORMATION


A two piece master cylinder is used on AN models. The cylinder body containing the primary and secondary pistons is made of aluminum. The removable fluid reservoir is made of nylon reinforced with glass fiber (Fig. 1). The reservoir and grommets are the only serviceable parts. The fluid compartments of the nylon reservoir are interconnected to permit fluid level equalization. However, the equalization feature does not affect circuit separation in the event of a front/rear brake malfunction. The reservoir compartments are designed to retain the necessary quantity of fluid needed to operate the functioning circuit. Care must be exercised when removing/installing the master cylinder brakelines. The threads in the fluid ports can be damaged if care is not exercised. Start all brake line fittings by hand to avoid cross threading. The aluminum body section of the master cylinder is not a repairable component. If diagnosis indicates that an internal malfunction has occurred, the aluminum body section must be replaced as an assembly.

Use new brake fluid only, to top off the master cylinder or refill the system. Never use reclaimed fluid, unmarked or unspecified fluid, fluid not meeting SAE/DOT standards, fluid marked 70R1, or fluid from a container that has been left open for any length of time. Using non recommended or unspecified fluid can result in brake failure after hard prolonged braking.

CORRECT BRAKE FLUID LEVEL


Always clean the master cylinder reservoir and caps before checking fluid level. If not cleaned, dirt could enter the fluid. The fluid fill level is indicated on the driver side of the master cylinder reservoir (Fig. 2). The correct fluid level is to the bottom of the ring indicators in the reservoir filler openings. If necessary, add fluid to the proper level.

Fig. 2 Location Of Master Cylinder Fluid Level Information

IMPORTANCE OF CLEAN BRAKE FLUID


The RWAL/ABS antilock system brake fluid must be clean and free of any type of contamination. Foreign material in the fluid, or non-recommended fluid will cause system malfunctions. Clean the reservoir and caps thoroughly before checking level, or adding fluid. Cap open brakelines and hoses during service to prevent dirt entry. Dirt or foreign material circulating within the system will lead to component malfunctions. Clean the reservoir and caps before checking level and use clean, fresh brake fluid only.

Fig. 1 Two-Piece Master Cylinder Assembly

RECOMMENDED BRAKE FLUID


The only brake fluid recommended for AN models is Mopar brake fluid, or an equivalent fluid meeting SAE J1703 and DOT 3 standards.

MASTER CYLINDERBRAKE FLUIDBRAKELINES BRAKE FLUID CONTAMINATION


Oil in the fluid will cause brake system rubber seals to soften and swell. The seals may also become porous and begin to deteriorate. If fluid contamination is suspected, drain off a sample from the master cylinder. A suction gun or similar device can be used for this purpose. Empty the drained fluid into a glass container. Contaminants in the fluid will cause the fluid to separate into distinct layers. If contamination has occurred, the system rubber seals, hoses and cups must be replaced and the system thoroughly flushed with clean brake fluid.

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(4) Note or mark position of reservoir before removal. Side of reservoir with fluid level information on it goes toward driver side of engine compartment. (5) Remove reservoir by firmly rocking it from side to side (Fig. 4). Continue rocking until reservoir comes out of grommets.

MASTER CYLINDER REMOVAL


(1) Disconnect brakelines at master cylinder (Fig. 2). (2) Remove ground wire from combination valve bracket (Fig. 2). (3) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder to mounting studs on power brake booster (Fig. 3). (4) Slide combination valve bracket off cylinder mounting studs. Loosen or disconnect brake lines at rear antilock valve and combination valve if necessary. (5) Remove master cylinder.

Fig. 4 Removing/Installing Master Cylinder Reservoir


(6) Remove and discard reservoir grommets. (7) Install new reservoir grommets in master cylinder. (8) Lubricate grommets with clean brake fluid. CAUTION: The reservoir can be installed backwards if care is not exercised. Install the reservoir so the fluid fill information is facing the driver side of the engine compartment (Fig. 2). (9) Start reservoir into grommets. Rock reservoir side to side until fully seated. Reservoir bottom surface should touch grommets. (10) Bleed master cylinder before installing it on vehicle. Refer to procedure in this section.

MASTER CYLINDER BLEEDING


Master cylinder bleeding should be performed on the bench before installation in the vehicle. Required bleeding tools include bleed tubes and a wooden dowel (Fig. 5). The bleed tubes can be fabricated, or purchased locally.

Fig. 3 Master Cylinder Mounting

MASTER CYLINDER RESERVOIR REPLACEMENT


(1) Clean reservoir exterior and master cylinder body. (2) Remove reservoir caps and drain all fluid from reservoir. (3) Mount master cylinder in vise. Clamp vise jaws on aluminum body.

CYLINDER BLEEDING PROCEDURE (1) Remove protective caps from master cylinder outlet ports and mount master cylinder assembly in a vise. (2) Attach bleed tubes to cylinder outlet ports and insert bleed tubes in reservoir fluid compartments (Fig. 4). (3) Fill reservoir with fresh Mopar DOT 3 brake fluid. (4) Press cylinder pistons inward with wood dowel. Then release pistons and allow them to return under spring pressure.

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MASTER CYLINDERBRAKE FLUIDBRAKELINES BRAKELINES AND HOSES


BRAKELINE AND HOSE INSPECTION Flexible rubber hose is used at both front brakes and at the rear axle junction block. Inspect the hoses whenever the brake system is serviced, at every engine oil change, or whenever the vehicle is in for service. Inspect the hoses for surface cracking, scuffing, or worn spots. Replace any brake hose immediately if the fabric casing of the hose is exposed due to cracks or abrasions. Also check brake hose installation. Faulty installation can result in kinked, twisted hoses, or contact with the wheels and tires or other chassis components. All of these conditions can lead to scuffing, cracking and eventual failure. The steel brake lines should be inspected periodically for evidence of corrosion, twists, kinks, leaks, or other damage. Heavily corroded lines will eventually rust through causing leaks. In any case, corroded or damaged brake lines should be replaced. Brake line routing and connections are outlined in Figures 6, 7 and 8. BRAKE LINE AND HOSE REPLACEMENT Factory replacement brake lines and hoses are recommended to ensure quality, correct length and superior fatigue life. Care should be taken to make sure that brake line and hose mating surfaces are clean and free from nicks and burrs. Also remember that right and left brake hoses are not interchangeable. Use new copper seal washers at all caliper connections (Fig. 7). Be sure brake line connections are properly made (not cross threaded) and securely tightened. Some front brake hoses have integral retaining clamps (Fig. 6). Be sure these clamps are properly attached as they keep the hose away from suspension components.

(5) Continue bleeding operations until air bubbles are no longer visible in fluid. (6) Remove bleed tubes. (7) If cylinder will not be installed right away, install protective caps in cylinder outlet ports. Caps will keep dirt out of cylinder.

Fig. 5 Master Cylinder Bleeding

MASTER CYLINDER INSTALLATION


(1) Position master cylinder on brake booster mounting studs. (2) Slide combination valve bracket onto cylinder mounting studs. (3) Install and tighten cylinder mounting nuts to 28 Nm (250 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Connect brake lines to master cylinder. Tighten line fittings to 19 Nm (170 in. lbs.) torque. (5) Connect ground wire to combination valve bracket. (6) Tighten any brakelines at combination valve and rear antilock valve, if loosened or disconnected. (7) Fill and bleed brake system.

MASTER CYLINDERBRAKE FLUIDBRAKELINES

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Fig. 6 Front Brakeline Routing

Fig. 7 Front Brakeline Connections

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MASTER CYLINDERBRAKE FLUIDBRAKELINES

Fig. 8 Front Brakeline Connections (With ABS)


BRAKELINE EMERGENCY REPAIR Mopar preformed replacement brakelines are recommended and preferred for all repairs. However, doublewall steel line can be used for emergency repair when factory replacement parts are not readily available. Special, heavy duty tube bending and flaring equipment is required to prepare double wall brake line. Special bending tools are needed to avoid kinking or twisting metal brake line. In addition, special flaring tools are needed to provide the inverted-type, double flare required on metal brake lines. Use Flaring Tool C-4047 to provide the inverted, double flare (Fig. 9). Heavy duty tube bending tools are available through the dealer tool program.
Flaring Procedure (1) Cut off damaged tube with Tubing Cutter C-3478-A or an equivalent tool. (2) Ream cut edges of tubing to ensure proper flare. (3) Install replacement tube nut on section of tube to be repaired. (4) Insert tube in flaring tool. Center tube in area between vertical posts. (5) Place gauge form A over end of tube (Fig. 9). (6) Push tubing through flaring tool jaws until tube contacts recessed notch in gauge that matches tube diameter. (7) Squeeze flaring tool jaws to lock tubing in place. (8) Insert plug on gauge A in tube. Then swing compression disc over gauge and center tapered flaring screw in recess of compression disc. (9) Tighten tool handle until plug gauge is seated on jaws of flaring tool. This will start inverted flare (Fig. 9). (10) Remove plug gauge and complete inverted flare (Fig. 9). (11) Remove flaring tools and verify that inverted flare is correct.

Fig. 9 Inverted Flare Tools

POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALSTOPLAMP SWITCH POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALSTOPLAMP SWITCH INDEX
page Brake Pedal Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Brake Pedal Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 General Service Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

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page Power Brake Booster Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Power Brake Booster Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Stoplamp Switch Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 A suspended-type brake pedal is used. The pedal is attached to the pedal support bracket with a pivot bolt and bushings (Fig. 1). The booster push rod is attached to the pedal with a clip. The pedal, bushings, pivot pin and support bracket are all serviceable components.

GENERAL SERVICE INFORMATION


All AN models are equipped with power assist brakes. A single diaphragm, power brake booster is used for all applications (Fig. 1). The booster unit consists of a single housing divided into two chambers by a diaphragm. The outer edge of the diaphragm is secured to the housing. The booster push rod, which connects the booster to the brake pedal and master cylinder, is attached to the center of the diaphragm. A check valve is used in the booster outlet connected to the engine intake manifold. Power assist is generated by utilizing a combination of vacuum and atmospheric pressure to boost brake assist. The power brake booster is not a repairable component. The booster must be replaced as an assembly if diagnosis indicates a malfunction has occurred.

POWER BRAKE BOOSTER REMOVAL


(1) Disconnect brakelines at master cylinder (Fig. 2). (2) Remove ground wire from combination valve bracket (Fig. 2). (3) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder to mounting studs on power brake booster (Fig. 2). (4) Slide combination valve bracket off cylinder mounting studs. Loosen or disconnect brake lines at rear antilock valve and combination valve if necessary. (5) Remove master cylinder.

Fig. 1 Power Booster And Brake Pedal Components

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POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALSTOPLAMP SWITCH


(2) Remove pedal pivot pin locknut and slide pin out of support bracket and pedal. (3) Remove pedal and bushings.

BRAKE PEDAL INSTALLATION


(1) Inspect pedal bushings. Replace bushings if worn or damaged. (2) Lubricate pedal bushings and pivot pin with Mopar multi mileage grease, Lubriplate, or a silicone grease. (3) Install bushings in pedal and position pedal in support. (4) Insert pivot pin through support and pedal bushings. Install and tighten pivot pin locknut to 41 Nm (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Install booster push rod on brake pedal and install push rod retainer clip.

STOPLAMP SWITCH ADJUSTMENT


The stoplamp switch has a self adjusting feature. An initial adjustment is only necessary when the switch has been replaced, or removed for service access to other components.

Fig. 2 Master Cylinder Mounting


(6) Disconnect vacuum lines at booster. (7) Remove clip securing booster push rod to brake pedal. (8) Remove nuts from booster mounting studs. (9) Remove booster and gasket from dash panel (Fig. 1).

POWER BRAKE BOOSTER INSTALLATION


(1) Position gasket on booster studs. (2) Guide booster studs into dash panel holes and seat booster on panel. (3) Install and tighten booster attaching nuts to 28 Nm (250 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Install booster push rod on brake pedal. Secure rod to pedal with retaining clip. (5) Install booster check valve if removed and connect vacuum hose to check valve. (6) Position master cylinder on brake booster mounting studs. (7) Slide combination valve bracket onto cylinder mounting studs. (8) Install and tighten cylinder mounting nuts to 28 Nm (250 in. lbs.) torque. (9) Connect brake lines to master cylinder. Tighten line fittings to 19 Nm (170 in. lbs.) torque. (10) Connect ground wire to combination valve bracket (Fig. 3). (11) Tighten any brakelines at combination valve and rear antilock valve, if loosened or disconnected. (12) Fill and bleed brake system.

SWITCH INITIAL ADJUSTMENT (1) Push and hold brake pedal in applied position. (2) Push switch forward until fully seated against bracket (Fig. 3). (3) Release brake pedal. (4) Lightly pull brake pedal rearward until master cylinder push rod bottoms against master cylinder internal stop. This action will set switch plunger at proper stroke length.
CAUTION: Do not use excessive force to move the pedal rearward and do not overextend the pedal and push rod. Stoplamp Switch Replacement (1) Remove steering column opening cover.

BRAKE PEDAL REMOVAL


(1) Remove clip securing booster push rod to brake pedal (Fig. 1).

Fig. 3 Stoplamp Switch Mounting

POWER BRAKE BOOSTERBRAKE PEDALSTOPLAMP SWITCH


(2) Remove screws attaching air duct (that goes over steering column), to air conditioning/defroster adapter duct. Then move air duct aside slightly for access to switch and bracket. (3) Unseat switch wire harness plastic retainer from pedal support. Pull or pry retainer out of support with pliers, or other suitable tool. (4) Remove small nut and washer that attaches switch bracket brake support. (5) Push brake pedal forward, and work switch and bracket out of support. Then disconnect switch wires and remove and switch and bracket as assembly. (6) If switch is to be replaced, transfer bracket to new switch.

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(7) Work switch and bracket up toward pedal support and connect harness wires to switch. (8) Position switch and bracket in support. Install bracket retaining nut and washer. Tighten nut to 7 Nm (60 in. lbs.) torque. Be sure bracket tang is seated in support. (9) Check switch operation before proceeding any further. If brakelights fail to illuminate or remain on, switch bracket is not seated, switch is not fully engaged in mounting bracket, switch plunger is not aligned with striker, or wire harness is not fully connected. Reposition switch, bracket or striker as needed. (10) Align and install air duct and steering column cover.

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DRUM BRAKES DRUM BRAKES INDEX


page page Brakeshoe Removal . . . . . . Cleaning and Inspection . . . General Information . . . . . . Rear Drum Brake Adjustment Wheel Cylinder Installation . Wheel Cylinder Overhaul . . . Wheel Cylinder Removal . . . Wheel Nut Tightening . . . . . .... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 21 20 24 24 24 24 25

Brake Drum Installation . . . . . . Brake Drum Refinish Limits . . . Brake Drum Refinishing . . . . . Brake Drum Removal . . . . . . . Brake Drum Runout . . . . . . . . Brake Support Plate Installation Brake Support Plate Removal . Brakeshoe Installation . . . . . . .

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GENERAL INFORMATION
The drum brake units used for all applications are dual shoe, internal expanding units with an automatic self adjusting mechanism (Figs. 1 and 2). Nine inch brakes are used on standard models. Ten inch brakes are used on models with heavy duty option packages. Cast wheel cylinders are used for all applications. The cylinders are serviceable components and can be overhauled. The cylinder bores can be lightly polished with crocus cloth but must not be honed.

Fig. 2 Ten-Inch Brake Assembly


(a) Remove rear plug from access hole in support plate. (b) Insert thin screwdriver into access hole and push adjuster lever away from adjuster screw star wheel. (c) Insert Adjusting Tool C-3784 into brake adjusting hole and turn adjuster star wheel to retract brakeshoes. (4) Remove brake drum. (5) Inspect brakelining for wear, misalignment, or evidence of leakage from axle or wheel cylinder.

Fig. 1 Nine-Inch Brake Assembly

BRAKESHOE REMOVAL
(1) Remove rear wheel and brake drum. (2) Remove shoe return springs with Brake Spring Plier Tool C-3785 (Fig. 3). (3) Remove adjuster cable. Slide cable eye off anchor pin. Then unhook and remove cable from adjuster lever.

BRAKE DRUM REMOVAL


(1) Raise vehicle and remove wheel and tire. (2) Remove clip nuts securing brake drum to wheel studs. (3) If drum is difficult to remove, retract brakeshoes as follows:

DRUM BRAKES

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Fig. 3 Removing/Installing Shoe Return Springs


(4) Remove cable guide from secondary shoe and anchor plate from anchor pin. (5) Remove adjuster lever. Disengage lever from spring by sliding lever forward to clear pivot and work lever out from under spring. (6) Remove adjuster lever spring from pivot. (7) Disengage and remove shoe spring from brakeshoes. (8) Disengage and remove adjuster screw assembly from brakeshoes. (9) Remove brake shoe retainers, springs and pins with Brake Spring Plier Tool C-4070, (Fig. 4).

Fig. 5 Removing/Installing Strut And Spring


(14) Disengage parking brake lever from parking brake cable.

CLEANING AND INSPECTION


Clean the brake components, including the support plate and wheel cylinder exterior, with a water dampened cloth or with Mopar brake cleaner. Do not use any other cleaning agents. Replace the brakeshoes if riveted lining is worn to within 0.78 mm (0.031 in.) of the rivet heads, or if bonded lining is less than 1.59 mm (0.062 in.) thick. Examine the lining contact pattern to determine if the shoes are bent or the drum is tapered. The lining should exhibit contact across the entire lining width. Shoes exhibiting contact only on one side should be replaced and the drum checked for runout or taper. Clean and inspect the adjuster screw assembly. Replace the assembly if the star wheel threads are damaged, or the components are severely rusted or corroded. Discard the brake springs and retainer components if worn distorted, or collapsed. Also replace the springs if a brake drag condition had occurred. Overheating will distort and weaken the springs. Inspect the brakeshoe contact pads on the support plate (Fig. 6). Remove light rust and scale from the pads with fine sandpaper. However, replace the support plate if any of the pads are worn or rusted through. Also replace the plate if it is bent or distorted.

Fig. 4 Removing/Installing Shoe Retainers, Springs and Pins


(10) plate. (11) (12) shoe. (13) Remove secondary brakeshoe from support Remove strut and anti rattle spring (Fig. 5). Remove parking brake lever from secondary Remove primary shoe from support plate.

BRAKESHOE INSTALLATION
(1) Lubricate anchor pin and brakeshoe contact surfaces of support plate (Fig. 6). Use Mopar multipurpose grease, bearing grease, or Lubriplate. (2) Lubricate adjuster screw socket, nut, button and screw thread surfaces with Mopar spray lube or Lubriplate.

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DRUM BRAKES
marked L (left) and R (right) for identification (Fig. 8). The passenger side adjuster screw has left hand threads and the driver side screw has right hand threads.

Fig. 8 Adjuster Screw Components Fig. 6 Shoe Contact Surfaces On Support Plate
(3) Attach parking brake cable to lever. Then connect lever to secondary shoe. Use new U-clip to secure lever. (4) Install primary shoe on support plate. Secure shoe with new holddown spring, retainers and pin (Fig. 7). (5) Install spring on parking brake strut and engage strut in primary shoe (Fig. 7). (6) Install secondary shoe on support plate (Fig. 7). Insert strut in shoe and guide shoe onto anchor pin. Secure shoe with new holddown spring, retainers and pin. (10) Install adjuster lever spring on rear shoe pin. Position adjuster lever on pin and slide hooked end of spring over lever to hold it in place. (11) Raise adjuster lever upward and attach adjuster cable spring to lever. Be sure spring is securely attached to lever and that lever remains seated on shoe pin. (12) Connect the shoe spring to lower part of each brakeshoe. Hooked end of spring goes in rear shoe. (13) Install cable guide in secondary shoe and position cable around guide. (14) Insert hooked end of rear shoe return spring through cable guide and into spring hole in brakeshoe. Then seat spring on anchor pin with brake spring pliers. (15) Install front shoe return spring. (16) Verify adjuster operation. Pull adjuster cable upward. Cable should lift lever and rotate start wheel when cable is released. Be sure adjuster lever properly engages star wheel teeth. (17) Adjust brakeshoes to drum with brake gauge as described in Service Adjustments section.

BRAKE DRUM REFINISHING


The brake drums can be resurfaced on a drum lathe when necessary. Initial machining cuts should be limited to 0.12 mm (0.005 in.) at a time as heavier feed rates can produce taper and surface variation. Final finish cuts of 0.025 - 0.038 mm (0.001 - 0.0015 in.) are recommended and will provide the best surface finish. Refinishing a drum with hard spots is not recommended. This type of drum should be replaced. Be sure the drum is securely mounted in the lathe before machining operations. A damper strap should always be used around the drum to reduce vibration and avoid chatter marks.

Fig. 7 Brakeshoe Installation


(7) Install anchor plate on support plate anchor pin. (8) Install adjuster cable eyelet on anchor pin. (9) Lubricate and assemble adjuster screw components (Fig. 8). Then install and engage adjuster screw in brakeshoes. Be sure adjuster screw star wheel is positioned closest to rear shoe. CAUTION: Be sure the adjuster screws are installed on the correct brake unit. The adjuster screws are

BRAKE DRUM REFINISH LIMITS


The maximum allowable diameter of the drum braking surface is usually stamped or cast into the

DRUM BRAKES
drum outer edge (Fig. 9). Generally, a nine inch drum can be machined to a maximum of 230.1 mm (9.060 in.) and a ten inch drum to 255.5 mm (10.060 in.). Always replace the drum if machining would cause drum diameter to exceed indicated size limit.

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(2) Remove axle shaft and retainer. Refer to Group 3 for procedures. (3) Remove primary brakeshoe for access to parking brake cable if necessary. (4) Compress parking brake cable retainer tabs with a hose clamp (Fig. 10). Then push retainer and cable through and out of support plate.

Fig. 10 Removing Parking Brake Cable From Support Plate Fig. 9 Location Of Brake Drum Maximum Allowable Diameter
(5) Disconnect brake line at wheel cylinder. (6) Remove wheel cylinder and brakeshoes from support plate. (7) Remove bolts attaching support plate to axle and remove support plate.

BRAKE DRUM RUNOUT


Measure drum diameter and runout with an accurate gauge. The most accurate method of measurement involves mounting the drum in a brake lathe and checking variation and runout with a dial indicator. Variations in drum diameter should not exceed 0.076 mm (0.003 in). Drum runout should not exceed 0.20 mm (0.008 in) out of round. Refinish the drum if runout or variation exceed these values.

BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE INSTALLATION


(1) If new support plate is being installed, apply bead of silicone sealer around wheel cylinder mounting surface. Then transfer wheel cylinder to new support plate. (2) Lubricate brake shoe contact surfaces of support plate with Mopar multi mileage grease. (3) Apply bead of silicone sealer around axle mounting surface of support plate. (4) Install support plate on axle flange. Tighten attaching bolts to 47-81 Nm (35-60 ft. lbs.). (5) Install brakeshoes. (6) Install parking brake cable in support plate. (7) Install axle shaft and retainer. (8) Start brakeline in wheel cylinder and install cylinder on support plate. Tighten brakeline fitting after cylinder installation. (9) Connect parking brake cable to lever on secondary shoe and install brakeshoes on support plate. (10) Adjust brakeshoes to drum with brake gauge. (11) Install brake drum and wheel and tire. (12) Bleed brake system.

BRAKE DRUM INSTALLATION


(1) Clean drum with Mopar brake cleaning solvent or with a soap and water solution only. Do not use any other cleaning agents. (2) Adjust brake shoes to drum. Turn adjuster screw star wheel in small increments until drum is slip fit on shoes. (3) Install and secure drum to wheel studs with new clip nuts. (4) Install rubber access plugs in support plate if removed. (5) Install wheel and tire.

BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE REMOVAL


(1) Remove wheel and tire and brake drum.

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DRUM BRAKES
the cylinder if the bore is scored, pitted or heavily corroded. Honing the bore to restore the surface is not recommended. Inspect the cylinder pistons. The piston surfaces should be smooth and free of scratches, scoring and corrosion. Replace the pistons if worn, scored, or corroded. Do not attempt to restore the surface by sanding or polishing. Discard the old piston cups and the spring and expander. These parts are not reusable. The original dust boots may be reused but only if in good condition.

WHEEL CYLINDER REMOVAL


(1) Raise vehicle and remove wheel and brake drum. (2) Disconnect brakeline at wheel cylinder. (3) Remove brakeshoe return springs and move shoes out of engagement with cylinder push rods. (4) Remove cylinder attaching bolts and remove cylinder from support plate.

WHEEL CYLINDER OVERHAUL


WHEEL CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY (FIGS. 11 AND 12). (1) Remove push rods and boots. (2) Push pistons, cups and expander spring out of cylinder bore. (3) Remove cylinder bleed screw.

ASSEMBLING WHEEL CYLINDER (1) Lubricate wheel cylinder bore, pistons, piston cups and expander spring with fresh brake fluid. (2) Install first piston in cylinder bore. Then install cup in bore and against piston. Be sure lip of piston cup is facing inward (toward spring and expander) and flat side is against piston. (3) Install expander spring followed by remaining piston cup and piston. (4) Install boots on each end of cylinder and insert push rods in boots. Press boots onto cylinder ends in vise if necessary. (5) Install cylinder bleed screw.

WHEEL CYLINDER INSTALLATION


Fig. 11 Wheel Cylinder Components (Nine-Inch Brake)
(1) Apply small bead of Mopar silicone sealer around cylinder mounting surface of support plate. (2) Start brakeline fitting in cylinder by hand. (3) Mount cylinder on support plate and install cylinder attaching bolts. (4) Tighten brakeline fitting in wheel cylinder. (5) Install wheel brake components. (6) Install brake drum and wheel. (7) Bleed brakes. (8) Lower vehicle.

REAR DRUM BRAKE ADJUSTMENT


Fig. 12 Wheel Cylinder Components (Ten-Inch Brake)
WHEEL CYLINDER CLEANING AND INSPECTION Clean the cylinder and pistons with clean brake fluid or brake cleaner only. Do not use any other cleaning agents. Dry the cylinder and pistons with compressed air. Do not use rags or shop towels to dry the cylinder components. Lint from cloth materials will adhere to the cylinder bores and pistons. Inspect the cylinder bore. Light discoloration and dark stains in the bore are normal and will not impair cylinder operation. If desired, the bore can be lightly polished but only with crocus cloth. Replace
The rear drum brakes are equipped with a self adjusting mechanism. Under normal circumstances, the only time adjustment is required is when the brakeshoes are replaced, removed for access to other parts, or when one or both drums are replaced. Adjustment can be performed with a standard brake gauge, or with Adjusting Tool C-3784. Both methods are described in the following procedures.

ADJUSTMENT WITH BRAKE GAUGE (1) Verify that the left/right automatic adjuster lever and cable are properly connected. Also verify that the parking brakes are fully released and the cables are slack. (2) Insert the brake gauge in the drum. Expand the gauge until the gauge inner legs contact the drum braking surface. Then lock the gauge in position (Fig. 13).

DRUM BRAKES

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ADJUSTMENT WITH TOOL C-3784 (1) Release parking brakes fully, if applied. Be sure there is slack in the cables. (2) Raise vehicle so rear wheels are free to turn. (3) Remove rubber plugs from access holes in rear brake support plates. (4) Insert Drum Brake Adjusting Tool C-3784 through access hole and engage it in adjuster screw star wheel. Turn star wheel counterclockwise (move tool upward) until a slight drag is felt when road wheel is rotated. (5) Insert a thin screwdriver or length of welding rod into support plate access hole and push adjuster lever out of engagement with star wheel (Fig. 15). Do not bend the lever or distort the lever spring.

Fig. 13 Adjusting Gauge To Brake Drum


(3) Reverse the gauge and install it on the brakeshoes (Fig. 4). Position the gauge legs at the shoe centers as shown. If the gauge does not fit (too loose/ too tight), adjust the shoes. (4) Pull the shoe adjuster star wheel away from the automatic adjuster lever. (5) Turn the adjuster star wheel (by hand) to expand or retract the brakeshoes. Continue adjustment until the gauge outside legs are a light drag-fit on the shoes (Fig. 14).

Fig. 15 Adjusting Rear Brakeshoes With Tool C-3784


(6) Hold adjuster lever away from star wheel. Then back off star wheel until shoe drag on drum is eliminated. (7) Repeat above adjustment at the opposite wheel. Be sure adjustment is equal. (8) Install access hole plugs in support plate. (9) Adjust the parking brake after wheel brake adjustment. (10) Make final adjustment. Drive vehicle and make one forward stop followed by one reverse stop. Repeat procedure 8-10 times to actuate adjuster mechanism and equalize adjustment. Bring vehicle to complete standstill at each stop. Incomplete, rolling stops will not activate the automatic adjusters.

Fig. 14 Adjusting Brakeshoes To Gauge


(6) Repeat adjustment at the opposite brakeshoe assembly. (7) Install the brake drums and wheels and lower the vehicle. (8) Make final adjustment. Drive vehicle and make one forward stop followed by one reverse stop. Repeat procedure 8-10 times to actuate adjuster mechanism and equalize adjustment. Bring vehicle to complete standstill at each stop. Incomplete, rolling stops will not activate the automatic adjusters.

WHEEL NUT TIGHTENING


The wheel attaching nuts must be tightened properly to ensure efficient brake operation. Overtightening, or uneven tightening can distort brake drums. Impact wrenches are not recommended for tightening wheel nuts. A torque wrench should be used for this purpose at all times.

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DRUM BRAKES

The correct tightening sequence is important in avoiding drum distortion. The correct sequence is in a diagonal crossing pattern. Seat the wheel and install the wheel nuts finger tight. Tighten the nuts in sequence to 1/2 the required torque. Then repeat the tightening sequence to final specified torque.

DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE INDEX


page Brakeshoe Installation . . . . . . . Brakeshoe Removal . . . . . . . . Caliper Assembly . . . . . . . . . . Caliper Cleaning and Inspection .... .... .... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 28 32 31 Caliper Disassembly Caliper Installation . Caliper Removal . . . General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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page . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 32 30 27

GENERAL INFORMATION
Two-wheel drive AN models are equipped with single piston disc brake calipers. The calipers move laterally on pins that attach the caliper to the mounting adapter. Abutment surfaces machined in the brakeshoes and mounting adapter maintain fore and aft alignment. The calipers are fully serviceable components and can be overhauled when necessary. Non metallic caliper pistons are used for all applications. The pistons are made of a phenolic resin material. Two-wheel drive models are equipped with a disc brake rotor and hub assembly. The rotor hub is supported on the steering knuckle spindle by the wheel bearings. The rotor braking surfaces are ventilated and can be machined to restore surface finish when necessary. The disc brakeshoes are held in position by retaining springs. The inboard shoe spring is an integral part of the shoe. The outboard shoe is spring is removable. Two slide pins secure the caliper to the caliper adapter. The adapter, which is also removable, is attached to the steering knuckle (Fig. 1).

DISC BRAKELINING WEAR COMPENSATION The caliper piston seal controls the amount of piston extension needed to compensate for normal lining wear. In operation, the seal is deflected outward under fluid pressure (Fig. 2). When fluid pressure is released, the seal relaxes and retracts the piston. The amount of retraction is determined by lining wear. Generally, the amount is just enough to maintain contact between the piston and inboard shoe and a zero or very slight clearance at the rotor. The fluid level in the disc brake reservoir will decrease as lining wear occurs. This is a normal condition and only requires that enough fluid be added to restore proper level. SHOE AND LINING WEAR LIMITS Combined shoe and lining thickness should be measured at the thinnest part of the assembly. Re-

Fig. 1 Disc Brake Components (2-Wheel Drive)

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DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE


clamp screw on outboard brakeshoe. Then tighten clamp until piston is bottomed in caliper bore. (7) Remove caliper slide pins (Fig. 4). Use 3/8 in. or 10 mm socket to remove pins, as necessary.

Fig. 2 Piston Seal Wear Compensation


place the brakeshoes when overall thickness is approximately 6 mm (1/4 in.) or less. The brakeshoes are replaceable components but must be replaced on both front wheels at the same time. This is necessary to maintain braking balance. Never replace the shoes on one side only. Replacing the shoes at only one wheel will cause uneven braking and pull.

Fig. 4 Caliper Mounting


(8) Lift caliper and inboard brakeshoe upward out of adapter and off rotor (Fig. 5).

BRAKESHOE REMOVAL
(1) Clean master cylinder reservoir and filler caps. (2) Remove filler caps and drain approximately 1/4 of fluid from reservoir. Use clean suction gun or similar device to remove fluid. (3) Raise and support front of vehicle. (4) Remove front wheel and tire assemblies. (5) Remove outboard retaining spring from caliper (Fig. 3). Push spring ends downward and pull spring ends out of caliper to remove.

Fig. 5 Caliper And Brakeshoe Removal


(9) Support caliper on box, mechanics stool, or secure it to chassis with wire. Do not allow brake hose to support caliper weight. (10) Remove outboard shoe from adapter or from caliper (Fig. 6). (11) Remove inboard shoe from caliper (Fig. 7). Tilt shoe outward until retainer springs clear piston and remove shoe.

Fig. 3 Removing Outboard Shoe Spring


(6) Bottom each caliper piston with large C-clamp. Position clamp frame on rear of caliper and position

DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE

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Fig. 6 Outboard Brakeshoe Removal/Installation

Fig. 8 Disc Brakeshoe Inspection Points

Fig. 7 Inboard Brakeshoe Removal/Installation


BRAKESHOE AND CALIPER INSPECTION Inspect condition of the outboard shoe spring (Fig. 3). Replace the spring if bent, distorted, or broken. Inspect the brakeshoes (Fig. 8). Replace the shoes if the lining material is worn, cracked, or burned. Also replace the shoes if bent, warped, or if the inboard shoe retainer spring is damaged. Inspect condition of the shoe tangs (Fig. 8). The tang notches are important as they position the shoes in the adapter. The tangs also allow the shoes to slide on the adapter ledge surface for wear adjustment. Replace the shoes as a set if a tang on either shoe is bent, worn, or damaged. Inspect the area around the caliper boot, piston and interior of the caliper frame (Fig. 9). If evidence of fluid leakage in this area is noted, the caliper will require overhaul to correct the leak. Inspect condition of the caliper piston dust boot (Fig. 9). If the boot is cut, cracked, or torn, an overhaul is required to replace the boot. Inspect the caliper slide pins, slide pin bushings and boots (Fig. 10). Replace any of these parts if worn or damaged.

Fig. 9 Caliper Inspection Points

Fig. 10 Caliper Slide Pin, Bushing And Boot

BRAKESHOE INSTALLATION
(1) Clean and lubricate slide surfaces of caliper mounting adapter (Fig. 11). Use wire brush to clean surfaces. Then apply coating of Mopar multi mileage grease to slide surfaces and to threads of slide pin holes. (2) Clean caliper slide pins with brake cleaner or brake fluid. Then apply coating of silicone grease to pins. Minor rust or corrosion can be polished from pins with crocus cloth. However, replace

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DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE

Fig. 13 Correct Position Of Outboard Shoe Spring

CALIPER REMOVAL
Fig. 11 Caliper Adapter Slide Surfaces
the pins if severely rusted, or corroded. (3) Install caliper slide pin bushings and boots if removed (Fig. 10). (4) Install inboard shoe (Fig. 7). Be sure spring is fully seated in caliper piston. (5) Install outboard shoe in caliper mounting adapter. (6) Carefully lower caliper into place over rotor and outboard brakeshoe. (7) Align caliper in adapter and start caliper slide pins by hand. Do not cross thread pins. (8) Check position of brakeshoes (Fig. 12). Verify that shoe tabs are squarely seated on ledge surfaces of caliper adapter. (9) Final-tighten caliper slide pins to 25-35 Nm (18-26 ft. lbs.). (1) Raise vehicle and remove front wheels. (2) Remove outboard shoe spring (Fig. 3). (3) Disconnect brake hose at caliper. Discard hose fitting washers if worn, or damaged (Fig. 14).

Fig. 14 Caliper Brake Hose Connection


(4) Remove caliper slide pins. (5) Remove caliper and brakeshoes from rotor and adapter.

CALIPER DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove brakeshoes from caliper (Figs. 6 and 7). Discard shoes if worn, or damaged. (2) Drain old brake fluid out of caliper into drain pan. (3) Remove piston dust boot (Fig. 15). Use screwdriver to push boot out of groove. (4) Pad outboard shoe side of caliper interior with a minimum 2.54 cm (1 in.) thickness of shop towels (Fig. 16). Towels will prevent piston damage when piston is comes out of bore. (5) Remove caliper piston with short bursts of compressed air. Apply air pressure through fluid inlet port of caliper (Fig. 16).

Fig. 12 Checking Brakeshoe Seating


(10) Install outboard shoe spring (Fig. 13). Be sure spring is hooked under each adapter ledge and that spring ends are fully seated in caliper holes as shown. (11) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (12) Lower vehicle. (13) Top off master cylinder fluid level. (14) Apply brakes several times to seat caliper pistons and brakeshoes. Be sure firm pedal is obtained before moving vehicle.

DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE

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(6) Remove caliper piston seal with wood pencil or plastic tool (Fig. 17). Do not use metal tools as they will scratch piston bore.

Fig. 17 Removing Caliper Piston Seal Fig. 15 Removing Piston Dust Boot
CAUTION: Do not blow the piston out of the caliper. This procedure will usually result in severe piston damage. Use only enough air pressure to ease the piston out of the bore. In addition, never attempt to catch the piston as it leaves the caliper bore. This practice will result in personal injury. (7) Remove caliper slide pin bushings and boots (Fig. 18).

CALIPER CLEANING AND INSPECTION


Clean the caliper and piston with clean brake fluid or Mopar brake cleaning solvent only. Do not use gasoline, kerosene, thinner, or any similar type of solvent. These products will leave a residue that could damage the piston, seal, or piston bore. Wipe the caliper and piston dry with lint free towels or use low pressure compressed air. Inspect the piston and piston bore. Replace the caliper if the bore is corroded, rusted, or scored. Do not hone the caliper piston bore. Replace the caliper if the bore is damaged. Inspect the caliper piston (Fig. 18). The piston is made from a phenolic resin (plastic material) and should be smooth and clean. Replace the piston if cracked or scored. Do not attempt to restore a scored piston surface by sanding or polishing. The piston must be replaced if damaged. CAUTION: If the caliper piston must be replaced, install the same type of piston in the caliper. Never interchange phenolic resin and steel caliper pistons. The pistons, seals, seal grooves, caliper bores and piston tolerances are different for resin and steel pistons and calipers. Do not intermix these components at any time.

Fig. 16 Caliper Piston Removal

Inspect the caliper bushings and boots. Replace the boots if cut or torn. Clean and lubricate the bushings with GE 661, Dow 111, or similar silicone grease if necessary.

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DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE

Fig. 18 Disc Brake Caliper Components (2-Wheel Drive Models)

CALIPER ASSEMBLY
(1) Lubricate slide pin boots and bushings with GE, or Dow silicone grease. Then install boots and bushings in caliper. (2) Coat caliper piston bore, piston and new piston seal with fresh brake fluid. (3) Install new piston seal in caliper bore. Press seal into groove with finger (Fig. 19). Lubricate seal and caliper bore with additional, fresh brake fluid after seal installation.

(a) Slide boot over piston until boot lip seats in piston groove (Fig. 20). (b) Push retainer part of boot forward until folds in boot snap into place (Fig. 21).

Fig. 20 Sliding Boot Onto Piston


(6) Start caliper piston into bore with a twisting motion. When piston is started in seal, push piston only part way into bore (Fig. 22). Maintain uniform pressure on piston to avoid cocking it. (7) Press caliper piston to bottom of bore. (8) Seat piston dust boot with Installer Tool 7868, or C-4842 and Tool Handle C-4171 (Fig. 23). (9) Install caliper bleed screw and bleed screw cap if removed (Fig. 24).

Fig. 19 Installing Caliper Piston Seal


(4) Apply light coat of GE 661, Dow 111 or similar silicone grease to edge and groove of caliper piston and edge of dust boot. (5) Install new dust boot on caliper piston as follow:

CALIPER INSTALLATION
(1) Install brake shoes in caliper.

DISC BRAKES2-WHEEL DRIVE

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Fig. 21 Snapping Boot Folds Into Place

Fig. 23 Seating Piston Dust Boot

Fig. 22 Installing Caliper Piston And Boot


(2) Install caliper and shoes over rotor and into adapter. Be sure ends of brakeshoes are properly seated on adapter slide surfaces. (3) Align caliper in adapter and start caliper slide pins into adapter by hand. (4) Tighten caliper slide pins to 30 Nm (22 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Connect brake hose to caliper (Fig. 14). Use new washers to attach hose fitting if original washers are scored, worn, or damaged.

Fig. 24 Installing Caliper Bleed Screw And Cap


(6) Fill and bleed brake system. (7) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (8) Remove supports and lower vehicle. (9) Pump brake pedal to seat caliper pistons and brakeshoes. Then verify firm pedal before moving vehicle. (10) Check master cylinder fluid level again and top off if necessary.

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DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE INDEX


page page Caliper Disassembly Caliper Installation . Caliper Removal . . . General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 40 37 34

Brakeshoe and Caliper Inspection Brakeshoe Installation . . . . . . . . . Brakeshoe Removal . . . . . . . . . . Caliper Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . Caliper Cleaning and Inspection .

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GENERAL INFORMATION
Four-wheel drive AN models are equipped with single piston, slider type disc brake calipers. The calipers slide laterally on pins that attach the caliper to the steering knuckle (Fig. 1). The brakeshoes ride on ledges machined in the steering knuckle. The shoe mounting ears are notched to seat on these ledges. The notched ears also maintain fore and aft position of the shoes. A retainer spring on each brakeshoe maintains shoe position in the caliper. The single piston used in each caliper is non-metallic. The pistons are made of a phenolic resin material. Ventilated, disc brake rotors are used for all applications. The rotors are serviceable and can be machined to restore the surface finish when necessary. The calipers are fully serviceable components and can be overhauled when necessary. The brakeshoes

are replaceable components but must be replaced on both front wheels at the same time to maintain braking balance. Never replace the shoes on only one side.

BRAKELINING WEAR COMPENSATION The caliper piston seal controls the amount of piston extension needed to compensate for normal lining wear. In operation, the seal is deflected outward under fluid pressure (Fig. 2). When fluid pressure is released, the seal relaxes and retracts the piston. The amount of retraction is determined by lining wear. Generally, the amount is just enough to maintain contact between the piston and inboard shoe and a zero or very slight clearance at the rotor. The fluid level in the front brake reservoir will decrease as lining wear occurs. This is a normal condition and only requires adding enough fluid to restore proper level.

Fig. 1 Disc Brake Components (4-Wheel Drive)

DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE

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Fig. 2 Piston Seal Wear Compensation


SHOE AND LINING WEAR LIMITS Combined shoe and lining thickness should be measured at the thinnest part of the assembly. Replace the brakeshoes when overall thickness is approximately 6 mm (1/4 in.) or less. Replace the brakeshoes at both front wheels when necessary. Replacing the shoes at only one wheel will cause uneven braking and pull.

Fig. 4 Removing/Installing Outboard Brakeshoe

BRAKESHOE REMOVAL
(1) Clean master cylinder reservoir and filler caps. (2) Remove reservoir filler caps and drain approximately 1/4 of fluid from reservoir. Use clean suction gun or similar device to drain fluid. (3) Raise and support vehicle. (4) Remove front wheel and tire assemblies. (5) Bottom caliper pistons in bores with large C-clamp. Position clamp frame on rear of caliper and clamp screw on outboard brakeshoe. (6) Remove caliper slide pins. (7) Remove caliper and brakeshoes (Fig. 3).

Fig. 5 Removing/Installing Inboard Brakeshoe


(10) Support caliper on stool or suspend it from suspension component with wire. Do not allow brake hose to support caliper weight.

BRAKESHOE AND CALIPER INSPECTION


Inspect the brakeshoes (Fig. 6). Replace the shoes if the lining material is worn, cracked, burned or damaged in any way. Also replace the shoes if bent, warped, or if the inboard shoe retainer spring is damaged. Inspect condition of the shoe tangs (Fig. 6). The tang notches are important as they position the shoes in the adapter. The tangs also allow the shoes to slide on the adapter ledge surface for wear adjustment. Replace the shoes (as a set) if a tang on either shoe is worn or damaged. Inspect the area around the caliper boot, piston and interior of the caliper frame (Fig. 7). If evidence of fluid leakage in this area is noted, the caliper will require overhaul to correct the leak. Inspect condition of the caliper piston dust boot (Fig. 6). If the boot is cut, cracked, or torn, an overhaul is required to replace the boot.

Fig. 3 Removing Caliper And Brakeshoes


(8) Remove outboard brakeshoe (Fig. 4). Pry one end of shoe retainer spring away from caliper. Then tilt shoe upward and rotate it out of caliper. (9) Remove inboard shoe by tilting shoe outward until retainer spring is clear of caliper piston (Fig. 5).

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DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE


(3) Install inboard shoe (Fig. 5). Be sure retainer spring is firmly seated in caliper piston. (4) Insert outboard brakeshoe in caliper (Fig. 9).

Fig. 6 4WD Disc Brakeshoe Inspection Points

Fig. 9 Inserting Outboard Shoe In Caliper


(5) Seat ends of outboard shoe retainer spring in caliper (Fig. 10).

Fig. 7 Caliper Inspection Points


Inspect the caliper slide pins, slide pin bushings and boots (Fig. 8). Replace any of these parts if worn or damaged.

Fig. 10 Seating Outboard Shoe Retainer Spring


(6) Install caliper and brakeshoes over rotor and into adapter. Be sure shoe tangs are properly seated on adapter ledges. (7) Install and tighten caliper slide pins to 25-35 Nm (18-26 ft. lbs.) torque. Start the slide pins by hand before tightening. Do not cross thread the pins. (8) Install wheel and tire assembly. (9) Lower vehicle. (10) Top off master cylinder fluid.

Fig. 8 Caliper Slide Pin, Bushing And Boot

BRAKESHOE INSTALLATION
(1) Clean slide surfaces of adapter ledges with a wire brush. Then lubricate surfaces with Mopar multi mileage grease. (2) Install new slide pin boots and sleeves if necessary.

DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE


(11) Apply brakes several times to seat shoes and caliper pistons. Do not move vehicle until firm brake pedal is obtained.

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CALIPER REMOVAL
(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove front wheel and tire assemblies. (3) Disconnect brake hose at caliper. Discard hose fitting washers if worn, or damaged (Fig. 11).

Fig. 12 Removing Piston Dust Boot

Fig. 11 Caliper Brake Hose Connection


(4) Remove caliper slide pins. (5) Remove caliper and brakeshoes from rotor and adapter.

CALIPER DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove brakeshoes from caliper (Figs. 4 and 5). Discard shoes if worn, or damaged. (2) Drain old brake fluid out of caliper into drain pan. (3) Remove piston dust boot (Fig. 12). Use screwdriver to push boot out of groove. (4) Pad outboard shoe side of caliper interior with a minimum 1 inch thickness of shop towels (Fig. 13). Towels will prevent piston damage when piston is comes out of bore. (5) Remove caliper piston with short bursts of compressed air. Apply air pressure through fluid inlet port of caliper (Fig. 13). CAUTION: Do not blow the piston out of the caliper. This procedure will usually result in severe piston damage. Use only enough air pressure to ease the piston out of the bore. In addition, never attempt to catch the piston as it leaves the caliper bore. This practice will result in personal injury.

Fig. 13 Caliper Piston Removal


(6) Remove caliper piston seal with wood pencil or plastic tool (Fig. 14). Do not use metal tools as they will scratch piston bore. (7) Remove caliper slide pin bushings and boots. (8) Remove caliper bleed screw and cap.

CALIPER CLEANING AND INSPECTION


Clean the caliper and piston with clean brake fluid or Mopar brake cleaning solvent only. Do not use gasoline, kerosene, thinner, or any similar type of sol-

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DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE


and piston tolerances are different for resin and steel pistons and calipers. Do not intermix these components at any time. Inspect the caliper bushings and boots (Fig. 15). Replace the boots if cut or torn. Clean and lubricate the bushings with GE 661, Dow 111, or similar silicone grease if necessary.

CALIPER ASSEMBLY
(1) Lubricate slide pin boots and bushings with GE, or Dow silicone grease. Then install the boots and bushings in caliper. (2) Coat caliper piston bore, piston and new piston seal with clean brake fluid. (3) Install new piston seal in caliper bore. Press seal into groove with finger (Fig. 16). Lubricate seal and caliper bore with additional, fresh brake fluid after seal installation.

Fig. 14 Removing Caliper Piston Seal


vent. These products leave a residue that can damage the piston, seal, or piston bore. Wipe the caliper and piston dry with lint free towels, or use low pressure compressed air. Inspect the caliper piston bore (Fig. 15). Replace the caliper if the bore is corroded, rusted, or scored. Do not hone the caliper piston bore. Replace the caliper if the bore is damaged. Inspect the caliper piston (Fig. 15). The piston is made from a phenolic resin (plastic material) and should be smooth and clean. Replace the piston if cracked or scored. Do not attempt to restore a scored piston surface by sanding or polishing. The piston must be replaced if damaged. CAUTION: If the caliper piston must be replaced, install the same type of piston in the caliper. Never interchange phenolic resin and steel caliper pistons. The pistons, seals, seal grooves, caliper bores

Fig. 16 Installing Caliper Piston Seal

Fig. 15 Caliper Components (4-Wheel Drive)

DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE


(4) Apply light coat of GE 661, Dow 111 or similar silicone grease to edge and groove of piston and dust seal. Grease acts as corrosion protection for these areas. (5) Install new dust boot on caliper piston as follow: (a) Slide boot over piston until boot lip seats in piston groove (Fig. 17). (b) Push retainer part of boot forward until folds in boot snap into place (Fig. 18).

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Fig. 19 Installing Caliper Piston And Boot

Fig. 17 Sliding Boot Onto Piston

Fig. 18 Snapping Boot Folds Into Place


(6) Start caliper piston in bore with a twisting motion. When piston is started in seal, push piston only part way into bore (Fig. 19). Maintain uniform pressure on piston to avoid cocking it in bore. (7) Press caliper piston to bottom of bore. (8) Seat piston dust boot with Installer Tool 7868, or C-4842 and Tool Handle C-4171 (Fig. 20). (9) Install caliper bleed screw and bleed screw cap if removed (Fig. 21).

Fig. 20 Seating Piston Dust Boot

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DISC BRAKES4-WHEEL DRIVE

CALIPER INSTALLATION
(1) Install brake shoes in caliper. (2) Install caliper and shoes over rotor and into ledges in steering knuckle. Be sure ends of brakeshoes are properly seated on slide surfaces of ledges. (3) Align caliper in adapter and start caliper slide pins into adapter by hand. (4) Tighten caliper slide pins to 30 Nm (22 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Connect brake hose to caliper. Use new washers to attach hose fitting if original washers are scored, worn, or damaged. (6) Fill and bleed brake hydraulic system. (7) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (8) Remove supports and lower vehicle. (9) Pump brake pedal to seat shoes and verify firm pedal before moving vehicle. (10) Check master cylinder fluid level again and top off if necessary.

Fig. 21 Installing Caliper Bleed Screw And Cap

DISC BRAKE ROTOR SERVICE DISC BRAKE ROTOR SERVICE INDEX


page Rotor Rotor Rotor Rotor Installation . . . . . . . Minimum Thickness Refinishing . . . . . . Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 42 42 41 Rotor Runout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotor Thickness Variation and Taper Rotor Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheel Nut Tightening . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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page . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 43 41 43

ROTOR TYPES
A disc brake rotor is used for 4-wheel drive applications (Fig. 1). A disc brake rotor and hub assembly is used for 2-wheel drive applications (Fig. 1). Both rotor types are cast metal with built in ventilating ribs between the rotor braking surfaces. The rotor braking surfaces on both rotor types can be sanded, or machined to restore surface finish when necessary. However, a rotor should be replaced if machining would cause rotor thickness to fall below usable minimum. On 2-wheel drive models with ABS brakes, the tone wheel for the front speed sensor is pressed onto the rotor hub. Because the tone wheel is only serviced as part of the complete rotor and hub assembly, extra care will be required in handling to avoid damage. Refer to the rotor removal and installation procedures in this section.

ROTOR REMOVAL
(1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove wheel cover and wheel and tire assembly. (3) Remove caliper and brakeshoe assembly but do not disconnect brake line. Support caliper on stool, or box. Do not allow brake hose to support caliper weight. (4) On 2-wheel drive models, remove grease cap, cotter pin, nut lock,nut, thrust washer and outer wheel bearing. Then remove rotor and hub assembly (Fig. 1). CAUTION: On 2-wheel drive models with ABS brakes, the tone wheel for the front wheel sensor is located on the rotor hub (Fig. 2). Exercise care when handling the rotor during service. The entire rotor and hub assembly will have to be replaced if the tone wheel becomes damaged during handling. (5) On 4-wheel drive models, remove stamped rotor retainer nuts or clips and remove rotor (Fig. 1). (6) On 2-wheel drive models, if rotor will be refinished, remove wheel bearings from rotor hub so rotor can be mounted on brake lathe arbor.

Fig. 1 Disc Brake Rotor Mounting


(b) Secure rotor with new clip nuts. (c) Install brakeshoes and caliper (d) Install wheel and tire and tighten wheel nuts until snug. (2) On 2-wheel drive models: (a) On models with ABS brakes, check condition of tone wheel on rotor hub. Entire assembly will have to be replaced if tone wheel is damaged (wheel is not available as separate part). (b) Repack and install wheel bearings in hub, if removed. Then install new grease seal. Do not reuse old seal.

ROTOR INSTALLATION
(1) On 4-wheel drive models: (a) Install rotor on wheel studs.

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DISC BRAKE ROTOR SERVICE

Fig. 2 Front Sensor Tone Wheel Location (2-Wheel Drive Models With ABS)
(c) Install rotor on spindle and install bearing thrust washer and adjusting nut. (d) Install brakeshoes and caliper. Then install wheel and tire on rotor hub. (e) Adjust wheel bearings. Rotate wheel while tightening adjusting nut to properly seat bearings. Correct end play is from zero to maximum of 0.076 mm (0.003 in.). (f) Install nut lock and cotter pin (note preferred cotter pin position shown in Figure 1). Then apply coating of wheel bearing grease to interior of grease cap and seat cap in rotor hub. (3) On all models: (a) Install brakeshoes and caliper. (b) Lower vehicle. (c) Final tighten wheel nuts to 120 Nm (88 ft. lbs.) torque.

ROTOR REFINISHING
Rotor braking surfaces can be refinished by sanding and/or machining in a disc brake lathe. The lathe must be capable of machining both rotor surfaces simultaneously with dual cutter heads (Fig. 2). Equipment capable of machining only one side at a time will produce a tapered rotor. The lathe should also be equipped with a grinder attachment or dual sanding discs for final cleanup or light refinishing (Fig. 3). If the rotor surfaces only need minor cleanup of rust, scale, or minor scoring, use abrasive discs to clean up the rotor surfaces. However, when a rotor is scored or worn, machining with cutting tools will be required. CAUTION: Do not refinish a rotor if machining would cause the rotor to fall below minimum allowable thickness. The final finish on the rotor should be a non-directional, cross hatch pattern (Fig. 4). Sanding discs will produce this finish.

Fig. 3 Rotor Refinishing Equipment

ROTOR MINIMUM THICKNESS


Measure rotor thickness at the center of the brakeshoe contact surface. Replace the rotor if it is worn below minimum thickness, or if refinishing would reduce thickness below the allowable minimum. Rotor minimum thickness is usually specified on the rotor hub (Fig. 5).

ROTOR RUNOUT
Check rotor lateral runout with a dial indicator (Fig. 6). Excessive lateral runout will cause brake pedal pulsation and rapid, uneven wear of the brakeshoes. Maximum allowable rotor runout for all models is 0.102 mm (0.004 inch).

DISC BRAKE ROTOR SERVICE

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Fig. 6 Checking Rotor Thickness Variation And Runout

Fig. 4 Correct Final Surface Finish Of Rotor

A dial indicator, or machinist calipers can be used to check rotor taper. A tapered rotor is usually caused by improper machining and should be replaced.

WHEEL NUT TIGHTENING


The wheel attaching nuts must be tightened properly to ensure efficient brake operation. Overtightening the nuts or tightening them in the wrong sequence can cause distortion of the rotors. Impact wrenches are not recommended for tightening wheel nuts. A torque wrench should be used for this purpose at all times. The correct tightening sequence is important in avoiding rotor distortion. The correct sequence is in a diagonal crossing pattern. Seat the wheel and install the wheel nuts finger tight. Tighten the nuts in sequence to 1/2 the required torque. Then repeat the tightening sequence to final specified torque.

Fig. 5 Location Of Rotor Minimum Thickness Limit

ROTOR THICKNESS VARIATION AND TAPER


Variations in rotor thickness will cause pedal pulsation, noise and shudder. A tapered rotor will cause pulsation and wear brakeshoe lining on an angle. Measure rotor thickness at 8 to 12 points around the rotor face (Fig. 6). Position the micrometer approximately 19 mm (3/4 in.) from the rotor outer circumference for each measurement as shown. Thickness should not vary by more than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) from point to point on the rotor. Refinish or replace the rotor if necessary.

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RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE INDEX
page page Rear Antilock Valve Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RWAL System Brake Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RWAL System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RWAL System Manual Brake Bleeding Procedure RWAL System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Sensor Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Sensor Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . 48 . . 44 . 49 . . 45 . . 48 . . 48

Combination Valve Installation . . . . . Combination Valve Operation . . . . . Combination Valve Removal . . . . . . Electronic Control Module Installation Electronic Control Module Removal . General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Antilock Valve Installation . . . .

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47 46 47 48 48 44 47

GENERAL INFORMATION
The RWAL brake system is standard on all AN models. The system is controlled by a separate electronic control module. The RWAL system retards rear wheel lockup during periods of high wheel slip and deceleration. Retarding lockup is accomplished by modulating fluid pressure to the rear brake units. Rear brake fluid pressure is modulated according to wheel speed, degree of wheel slip and rate of deceleration. A sensor in the rear axle housing converts differential rotating speed into electronic signals. The signals are transmitted to the electronic control module for processing. The control module determines rate of deceleration and wheel slip from these signals.

RWAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


System components include (Fig. 1): electronic control module rear antilock valve speed sensor and exciter ring antilock warning lamp A standard master cylinder and vacuum power brake booster are used for all applications. Electronic Control Module The electronic module controls operation of the solenoids in the rear brake antilock valve. The module is separate from other electrical circuits in the vehicle and operates independently. The module is located on the passenger side cowl panel under the dash. The antilock valve, speed sensor and indicator lamps are all in circuit with the module. The module contains a microprocessor that operates the system and performs system diagnostic checks. Speed sensor inputs are constantly monitored and interpreted by the module. The module determines wheel speed and rate of deceleration from these inputs and activates the appropriate solenoid in the hydraulic valve when necessary.

Fig. 1 Rear Wheel AntiLock Brake System


The module microprocessor also contains a self test program. The program is activated when the ignition switch is turned to the On position. In this mode, the module checks indicator light operation, the system electrical circuits and the antilock valve solenoids. The brake warning and antilock indicator lamps are illuminated for approximately two seconds during the system self test cycle. Rear Antilock Valve The rear antilock valve controls rear brake fluid pressure during antilock braking. The valve is operated by the electronic control module. The valve is attached to the combination valve bracket (Fig. 2). The valve contains two solenoid valves that are inactive during periods of normal braking. The solenoid valves are activated only when braking effort and rate of wheel slip and deceleration are high (antilock mode). During normal braking the valves allows free flow of brake fluid to the rear brake units. In antilock

RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


mode, the valve will decrease, hold, or increase fluid apply pressure as needed.

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Fig. 3 Speed Sensor Location Fig. 2 Rear Brake Antilock And Combination Valves
Speed Sensor And Exciter Ring A speed sensor is used to transmit speed and rate of deceleration inputs to the electronic control module (Fig. 3). The sensor is actuated by an exciter ring on the differential case. The sensor is mounted at the top of the rear axle housing directly over the gear-type exciter ring (Fig. 3). The exciter ring is pressed onto the differential case adjacent to the ring gear. The exciter ring is the sensor trigger mechanism. Exciter ring rotation causes the teeth on the ring to interrupt the magnetic field around the sensor pole. The rate of interruption is converted into speed signals which are transmitted to the control module. The sensor is not adjustable and must be replaced whenever diagnosis indicates a fault has occurred. Antilock Warning Lamp The amber antilock warning lamp is located in the instrument cluster adjacent to the red service brake warning lamp. The antilock lamp illuminates only when an RWAL fault occurs. The antilock lamp is also used for troubleshooting purposes. The lamp is in circuit with the control module which has a self test program. If a system fault occurs, the program will flash the lamp when the diagnostic connector is grounded. The flash codes are used to identify a problem circuit, or component. Combination Valve A combination valve is used with the rear wheel antilock system. The valve is attached to a bracket bolted to the master cylinder mounting studs. The valve bracket is also used to secure the rear wheel antilock valve (Fig. 2). The mounting bracket and combination valve are serviced as an assembly. The valve is permanently attached to the bracket. The valve contains a front disc brake metering valve and a pressure differential valve and switch. The differential switch is in circuit with the red brake warning light.

RWAL SYSTEM OPERATION


During light, to moderate brake applications, rear wheel deceleration and/or slip is not sufficient to activate the RWAL system components. Brake fluid apply pressure to the rear wheels remains normal and is not modulated. However, when braking effort, degree of wheel slip, and rate of deceleration approach programmed limits, sensor inputs will cause the module to activate the system. Normal Braking Mode In normal braking mode, the antilock solenoid valves are inactive. The valves are open allowing normal fluid flow to the rear wheel cylinders. Start Of Antilock Mode Braking When high pedal effort braking occurs, the decrease in exciter wheel rotating speed is noted and converted into an electronic signal by the sensor. The signal is transmitted to and processed by the control module. The module determines that acceptable limits of wheel slip/deceleration are about to be exceeded. At this point, the module activates the antilock solenoid valves.

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RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


nent and must be replaced if diagnosis indicates a fault. (1) Disconnect and remove battery for easier access to valves and lines, if desired. (2) Disconnect rear brakeline from antilock valve (Fig. 4). (3) Disconnect line to front brakes at combination valve (Fig. 2). (4) Disconnect ground wire at combination valve bracket (Fig. 4). (5) Remove nuts that attach combination valve bracket to master cylinder mounting studs (Fig. 4).

The module transmits the signal that activates the solenoid valves. The valves then decrease, or isolate fluid apply pressure to the rear wheel cylinders as needed to modulate fluid pressure. Closing the valves prevents further fluid flow to the rear wheel cylinders. This action isolates the rear brakes from the master cylinder. The net effect is to decrease rear brake apply pressure to the point where the wheels will continue to rotate but not lock. When rear brake pressure requirements return to normal levels, the solenoid valves are inactivated. This action allows the resumption of normal fluid flow to the wheel cylinders. Solenoid Valve Cycle Times Activation (opening/closing) of the solenoid valves is not static during antilock mode braking. Valve operation is continuous as they are rapidly cycled in response to sensor inputs and control module commands. Cycle times are measured in milliseconds. As the demand for antilock mode brake operation is decreased, the module deactivates the hydraulic valve components to restore normal brake operation.

COMBINATION VALVE OPERATION


Pressure Differential Switch The pressure differential switch is connected to the brake warning light. The switch is triggered by movement of the switch valve. The purpose of the switch is to monitor fluid pressure in the separate front/rear brake hydraulic circuits. A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either hydraulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shuttle forward or rearward in response to the pressure differential. Movement of the switch valve will push the switch plunger upward. This closes the switch internal contacts completing the electrical circuit to the warning light. The switch valve will remain in an actuated position until repair restores system pressures to normal levels. Metering Valve The metering valve is used to balance brake action between the front disc and rear drum brakes. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes until the rear brakeshoes are in full contact with the drums. The valve is designed to maintain front brake fluid pressure at 21-207 kPa (3-30 psi) until the hold-off limit of approximately 807 kPa (117 psi) is reached. At this point, the metering valve opens completely permitting full fluid apply pressure to the front disc brake calipers.

Fig. 4 Disconnecting Front/Rear Brake Connecting Lines


(6) Disconnect wire harness connectors at antilock and combination valves (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5 Harness Connector Locations


(7) Disconnect lines at master cylinder. (8) Slide combination valve bracket off booster studs.

REAR ANTILOCK VALVE REMOVAL


The rear antilock valve is serviced as an assembly. The valve is not a repairable compo-

RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


(9) Remove rear antilock valve, combination valve and bracket and attached brakelines as an assembly (Fig. 6).

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(5) Attach ground wire to combination valve bracket (Fig. 4). Make sure ground wire is securely attached and free of corrosion. A poor connection here will cause a system fault. (6) Connect brakelines to master cylinder, rear antilock valve and combination valve. (7) Tighten brakeline fittings to 16-23 Nm (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (8) Connect wire harnesses to antilock and combination valves. (9) Install and connect battery. (10) Bleed brakes as described at end of this section.

COMBINATION VALVE REMOVAL


The combination valve and valve mounting bracket are serviced as an assembly; the bracket and valve are permanently attached. The combination valve is not a repairable component and must be replaced whenever diagnosis indicates a fault. (1) Disconnect and remove battery for easier access to valves and lines. (2) Disconnect rear brakeline at antilock valve (Fig. 4). (3) Disconnect front brakeline at combination valve (Fig. 4). (4) Disconnect ground wire at combination valve bracket (Fig. 4). (5) Remove nuts that attach combination valve bracket to booster studs (Fig. 4). (6) Disconnect wire harness connectors at antilock and combination valves (Fig. 5). (7) Disconnect lines at master cylinder. (8) Slide combination valve bracket off booster mounting studs. (9) Remove rear antilock valve, combination valve and bracket and attached brakelines as assembly (Fig. 6). (10) Remove line that connects antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 7). (11) Remove bolt attaching rear antilock valve to combination valve bracket (Fig. 7). Then remove antilock valve from bracket. (12) If combination valve will be replaced, remove brake lines from valve (Fig. 8). They will be transferred to new valve during installation.

Fig. 6 Antilock And Combination Valve Assembly Removal


(10) Remove line that connects antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 7). (11) Remove bolt attaching antilock valve to combination valve bracket (Fig. 7). (12) Remove antilock valve from combination valve bracket.

Fig. 7 Rear Antilock Valve Attachment

REAR ANTILOCK VALVE INSTALLATION


(1) Install antilock valve on combination valve bracket (Fig. 7). Be sure antilock valve attaching bolt is securely tightened. (2) Install line that connects rear antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 7). Tighten line fittings to 16-23 Nm (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (3) Install combination valve and bracket assembly on booster mounting studs (Fig. 6). (4) Install and tighten nuts that attach combination valve to booster studs to 23-28 Nm (200-250 in. lbs.) torque.

COMBINATION VALVE INSTALLATION


(1) If new combination valve is being installed, transfer brakelines to new valve. (2) Install antilock valve on combination valve bracket (Fig. 7). (3) Install line that connects antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 7). Tighten line fittings to 16-23 Nm (140-200 in. lbs.) torque.

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RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

Fig. 8 Combination Valve And Integral Bracket


(4) Install valve and bracket assembly on booster mounting studs (Fig. 7). (5) Install and tighten nuts that attach combination valve bracket to booster studs to 23-28 Nm (200250 in. lbs.) torque. (6) Attach ground wire to combination valve bracket (Fig. 4). Make sure ground wire is securely attached and free of corrosion. A poor connection here will cause a system fault. (7) Connect brakelines to master cylinder, antilock valve and combination valve. (8) Tighten brakeline fittings to 16-23 Nm (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (9) Connect wire harnesses to antilock valve and combination valve. (10) Install and connect battery. (11) Bleed brakes as described at end of this section.

Fig. 9 Rear Speed Sensor Mounting


(5) Install and tighten sensor attaching bolt to 19-29 Nm (170-230 in. lbs.). (6) Lower vehicle.

ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE REMOVAL


(1) Remove passenger side sill plate and cowl cover. (2) Remove screws attaching control module to cowl side panel (Fig. 10). (3) Disconnect wiring from control module and remove module from vehicle.

ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE INSTALLATION


(1) (2) (3) (4) Connect wiring to control module. Position module on cowl side panel. Install screws attaching module to cowl panel. Install cowl panel trim cover and sill plate.

SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL


(1) Raise vehicle on hoist. (2) Remove bolt securing sensor and shield to differential housing (Fig. 9). (3) Remove sensor and shield from differential housing (Fig. 9). (4) Disconnect sensor wire harness and remove sensor.

RWAL SYSTEM BRAKE BLEEDING


Bleeding Equipment RWAL system bleeding can be performed manually, or with vacuum/pressure equipment. Refer to the vacuum and pressure bleeding information in this section. Brake Bleeding Precautions Observe the following precautions while brake bleeding: Use recommended brake fluid meeting SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards only. Use fresh, clean fluid from a sealed container at all times. Do not pump brake pedal at any time while bleeding. Air in system will be compressed into small bub-

SPEED SENSOR INSTALLATION


(1) Connect harness to sensor. Be sure seal is securely in place between sensor and wiring connector. (2) Install O-ring on sensor (if removed). (3) Insert sensor in differential housing. (4) Install sensor shield.

RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

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Fig. 10 RWAL Control Module Mounting


bles that are distributed throughout hydraulic system. This will make a second and third bleeding operation necessary. Bleed only one valve, or wheel brake unit at a time and use a bleed hose on each caliper/wheel cylinder bleed screw. Attach one end of bleed hose to bleed screw and insert opposite end in glass container partially filled with brake fluid (Fig. 11). Glass container makes it easier to see air bubbles as they exit the bleed hose. Be sure end of bleed hose is immersed in fluid. Immersing hose end in fluid prevents air from being drawn back fluid. Do not allow the master cylinder to run out of fluid during bleed operations. An empty cylinder will allow additional air to be drawn into the system. Check the cylinder fluid level frequently and add fluid as needed.

Fig. 11 Typical Fluid Container And Bleed Hose Setup


right rear wheel left rear wheel right front wheel left front wheel (6) Bleed master cylinder first, combination valve second, and RWAL valve third. Bleed cylinder and valves at brakeline fittings one at a time. Procedure is as follows: (a) Loosen brakeline fitting (or caliper/wheel cylinder bleed fitting) 1/2 to 3/4 turn. (b) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor. Observe fluid stream from fitting, or bleed screw. (c) Tighten bleed fitting and have helper release brake pedal. Be sure to tighten fitting or bleed screw before releasing brake pedal. (d) Repeat bleeding operation until fluid exiting fitting (or bleed screw), is clear and free of bubbles. (7) Bleed first wheel brake unit. Start at left rear wheel and follow sequence recommended in step (6). Repeat bleeding operation at each wheel until fluid exiting bleed screw is clear and free of bubbles. (8) Top off master cylinder and verify proper brake operation before moving vehicle.

RWAL SYSTEM MANUAL BRAKE BLEEDING PROCEDURE


(1) If master cylinder has been overhauled or a new cylinder will be installed, bleed cylinder on bench before installation. This shortens bleed time and ensures proper cylinder operation. (2) Wipe master cylinder reservoir and filler caps clean with shop towels. Use Mopar brake cleaner if exterior of reservoir and filler caps are extremely dirty. (3) Remove reservoir filler caps and fill reservoir with Mopar, or equivalent quality DOT 3 brake fluid. (4) If calipers, or wheel cylinders were overhauled, open all caliper and wheel cylinder bleed screws. Then close each bleed screw as fluid starts to drip from it. Top off master cylinder reservoir once more before proceeding. (5) Recommended brake bleeding sequence is: master cylinder combination valve rear antilock valve

VACUUM BLEEDING If vacuum bleeding equipment is being used, it is not necessary to hold the front brake metering valve open. Simply bleed the brakes following the bleed equipment manufacturers instructions. PRESSURE BLEEDING If pressure bleeding equipment will be used, the front brake metering valve will have to be held open to bleed the front brakes. The valve stem is located

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RWAL BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


Do pressure bleed without a proper master cylinder adapter. The wrong adapter can lead to leakage, or drawing air back into the system. Fill the bleeder tank with recommended fluid and purge air from the tank lines before bleeding. Do not exceed the tank manufacturers pressure recommendations. In most cases, a tank pressure of 15-20 psi is more than sufficient for bleeding purposes.

in the forward end of the combination valve. The stem must either be pressed inward, or held outward slightly. a spring clip tool or helper is needed to hold the valve stem in position. Follow the manufacturers instructions carefully when using pressure equipment. Some precautions are: Make sure the front brake metering valve in the combination is held open. A spring clip tool is best for securing the valve stem in an open position.

ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE INDEX
page ABS Brake Bleeding Recommendations . . . . . . ABS Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABS Electronic Control Module Installation . . . . ABS Electronic Control Module Removal . . . . . ABS Manual Brake Bleeding Procedure . . . . . . ABS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination Valve Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination Valve Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination Valve Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front Antilock Valve Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . Front Antilock Valve Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front Brake Speed Sensor Installation (2-Wheel Drive Models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 51 59 59 60 54 57 55 57 55 55

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page Front Brake Speed Sensor Installation (4-Wheel Drive Models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front Brake Speed Sensor Removal (2-Wheel Drive Models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front Brake Speed Sensor Removal (4-Wheel Drive Models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Antilock Valve Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Antilock Valve Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Brake Speed Sensor Installation . . . . . . . . . . Rear Brake Speed Sensor Removal (All) . . . . . . . . Tone Wheel Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 58 59 57 56 59 59 58

. . . 58 electrical harnesses combination valve diagnostic connector Front Antilock Valve The front antilock valve consists of a solenoid valve body and pump/motor unit combined into a single assembly (Fig. 2).

ABS COMPONENTS
The optionally available ABS system is an allwheel antilock brake system (Fig. 1). ABS system components include: rear antilock valve rear wheel speed sensor and exciter ring front wheel speed sensors and tone rings front antilock valve electronic control module

Fig. 1 ABS System Major Components

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ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


normal braking. The solenoid valves are activated only when braking effort and rate of wheel slip and deceleration exceed normal braking limits.

The valve is mounted on the driver side inner fender panel. The valve and motor assembly are attached to a one piece mounting bracket. The valve body contains the solenoid valves that modulate brake fluid pressure during antilock braking. The valves are operated by the antilock system electronic control module. The front antilock valve provides two channel pressure control of the front brakes. One channel controls the left front brake and the second channel controls the right front brake. Each front brake is controlled independently. The solenoid valves are cycled open and closed as needed during antilock braking. The valves are not static. They are cycled rapidly and continuously to modulate pressure and control wheel slip and deceleration. The pump and motor unit are controlled by the electronic module. The pump supplies the additional fluid volume needed during antilock braking.

Fig. 3 Rear Antilock Valve Location


Combination Valve The combination valve used with the ABS system contains a front disc brake metering valve and a front/rear pressure differential valve and switch. The metering valve controls fluid apply pressure to the front disc brake calipers. Caliper apply pressure is temporarily limited until the rear drum brakeshoes contact the drum surface. This feature provides balanced front/rear braking. The pressure differential valve is connected to the front and rear brake hydraulic systems. A leak in either part of the system will actuate the valve causing it to shuttle toward the leaking side of the system. Movement of the valve trips the plunger type warning switch. The switch then closes the electrical circuit to the red warning light in the instrument panel. The combination valve is permanently attached to its mounting bracket. The valve bracket is also used to mount the rear brake antilock valve (Fig. 4). Combination valve operation and testing is fully described in the antilock system diagnosis section. Refer to this information when diagnosing system faults. ABS Electronic Control Module A separate electronic control module is used to monitor and operate the ABS system. The module is located in the engine compartment and is attached to the forward side of the front brake antilock valve (Fig. 5). The module controls antilock valve solenoid operation during all phases of antilock braking. Module electrical include wheel signals speed from the front and rear sensors

Fig. 2 Front Antilock Valve


Rear Antilock Valve The rear antilock valve is mounted on the combination valve bracket (Fig. 3). The bracket is secured to the master cylinder mounting studs on the power brake booster. The valve modulates rear brake fluid pressure during antilock braking. The valve is controlled by the ABS electronic control module. Two solenoid valves within the valve body isolate, decrease, or increase rear brake fluid apply pressure as needed during antilock braking. The valve body solenoid valves are inactive during periods of normal braking. The solenoids allow free flow of brake fluid to the rear brake units during

ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

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Fig. 4 Combination Valve And Integral Mounting Bracket

The sensors convert wheel speed into an electrical signal. The signal is transmitted to the electronic control module for processing. The trigger mechanism for each front wheel sensor is a gear type, tone wheel. On 4-wheel drive models, the tone wheels are mounted on the axle shafts. On 2-wheel drive models, the tone wheels are mounted on the inboard side of the disc brake rotor hub (Fig. 6). A single sensor is used to monitor rear wheel speed and rate of deceleration. The sensor is mounted at the top of the rear axle housing (Fig. 7). The trigger mechanism for the sensor is an exciter ring pressed onto the differential case. The ring is pressed onto the case next to the ring gear. The teeth on the tone wheels and exciter ring interrupt the senor magnetic field as they rotate. Rate of interruption is converted into speed signals which are transmitted to the electronic control module. The front and rear sensors are fixed and not adjustable. A front or rear sensor must be replaced when diagnosis indicates a fault has occurred.

Fig. 5 ABS Electronic Control Module Location


ABS Diagnostic Connector The ABS diagnostic connector is located under the instrument panel near the steering column. The connector is a six-way style and is either black, or blue in color. The connector is the access point for the DRB scan tool. The system circuits can be checked once the scan tool is attached to the connector. Wheel Speed Sensors And Tone Wheels Three wheel-speed sensors are used in the allwheel antilock system. A single sensor is used for both rear wheels. Separate sensors are used for the front wheels.

Fig. 6 Front Speed Sensor Location


Master Cylinder And Power Brake Booster A standard master cylinder and vacuum power brake booster are used with the ABS system (Fig. 8). The same master cylinder and booster are used with both antilock systems.

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ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


modulate brake fluid apply pressure during antilock braking. The valves are operated by the antilock electronic module. The front brake antilock valve provides two channel pressure control of the front brakes. Each front wheel brake unit is controlled separately. Two solenoid valves are used in each control channel. The rear brake antilock valve controls the rear wheel brakes in tandem. The rear brake valve contains two solenoid valves. During antilock braking, the solenoid valves are opened and closed as needed. The valves are not static. They are cycled rapidly and continuously to modulate pressure and control wheel slip and deceleration. The pump/motor assembly on the front antilock valve provides the fluid volume needed during antilock braking. The pump is operated by an integral electric motor. The DC type motor is controlled by the ABS control module.

Fig. 7 Rear Speed Sensor Location

ABS OPERATION IN NORMAL BRAKING MODE The ABS control module monitors wheel speed sensor inputs continuously while the vehicle is in motion. However, the module will not activate any ABS components as long as sensor inputs indicate normal braking. During normal braking, the master cylinder, power booster and wheel brake units all function as they would in a vehicle without ABS. The solenoid valves are not activated. ABS OPERATION IN ANTILOCK BRAKING MODE The ABS module activates the system whenever sensor signals indicate the onset of high wheel slip. High wheel slip can be described as the point where wheel rotation begins approaching zero (or lockup) during braking. The antilock system retards lockup during high slip conditions by modulating fluid apply pressure to the wheel brake units. Brake fluid apply pressure is modulated according to wheel speed, degree of slip and rate of deceleration. A sensor at each wheel converts wheel speed into electrical signals. These signals are transmitted to the module for processing and determination of wheel slip and deceleration rate. The ABS system has three fluid pressure control channels. The front brakes are controlled separately and the rear brakes in tandem. A speed sensor input signal indicating high slip conditions activates the control module antilock program. The solenoid valves are not static during antilock braking. They are cycled continuously to modulate pressure. Solenoid cycle time in antilock mode can be measured in milliseconds.

Fig. 8 Master Cylinder And Power Brake Booster

ABS OPERATION
The all-wheel ABS system is a three channel design. The front wheel brakes are controlled individually and the rear wheel brakes in tandem (Fig. 9). The ABS system is designed to retard wheel lockup during periods of high wheel slip when braking. Retarding wheel lockup is accomplished by modulating fluid pressure to the wheel brake units. The antilock electrical system is separate from other electrical circuits in the vehicle. A specially programmed electronic control module is used to operate the system components. The front and rear antilock valves contain electrically operated solenoid valves. The solenoid valves

ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE COMBINATION VALVE OPERATION


Pressure Differential Switch The pressure differential switch is connected to the brake warning light. The switch is triggered by movement of the switch valve. The purpose of the switch is to monitor fluid pressure in the separate front/rear brake hydraulic circuits. A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either hydraulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shuttle forward or rearward in response to the pressure differential. Movement of the switch valve will push the switch plunger upward. This closes the switch internal contacts completing the electrical circuit to the warning light. The switch valve will remain in an actuated position until repair restores system pressures to normal levels. Metering Valve The metering valve is used to balance brake action between the front disc and rear drum brakes. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes until the rear brakeshoes are in full contact with the drums. The valve is designed to maintain front brake fluid pressure at 21-207 kPa (3-30 psi) until the hold-off limit of 807 kPa (117 psi) is reached. At this point, the metering valve opens completely permitting full fluid apply pressure to the front disc brakes.

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Fig. 9 Brakeline/Harness Connections At Front Antilock Valve

FRONT ANTILOCK VALVE REMOVAL


The front antilock valve is serviced as an assembly. Neither the valve body or pump/motor are repairable components. The complete assembly must be replaced if diagnosis indicates a fault. (1) Disconnect battery negative cable. (2) Disconnect brakelines at front antilock valve (Fig. 9. (3) Disconnect harness wires at front antilock valve (Fig. 9) (4) Remove screw and nuts attaching front antilock valve to stud plate (Fig. 10). (5) Lift front antilock valve upward off studs and remove valve and bracket as assembly.

Fig. 10 Front Antilock Valve Mounting

FRONT ANTILOCK VALVE INSTALLATION


(1) Align and seat front antilock valve bracket on mounting studs (Fig. 10). (2) Install and tighten front antilock valve attaching screw and stud nuts (Fig. 10). Tighten nuts to 10-13 Nm (92-112 in. lbs.) torque. Tighten screw to 19-25 Nm (170-220 in. lbs.) torque. (3) Connect harness wires to connector on front antilock valve (Fig. 9).

(4) Connect front brakelines to front antilock valve (Fig. 9). Tighten brakeline fittings to 16-23 Nm (140200 in. lbs.). (5) Connect battery. (6) Bleed brake system as described at end of this section.

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ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

REAR ANTILOCK VALVE REMOVAL


The rear antilock valve is serviced as an assembly. The valve is not a repairable component and must be replaced if diagnosis indicates a fault. (1) Disconnect and remove battery for easier access to valves and lines. (2) Disconnect rear brakeline at rear antilock valve (Fig. 11). (3) Disconnect front brakeline at combination valve (Fig. 11).

Fig. 13 Harness Connector And Mounting Nut Locations


(8) Slide combination valve bracket off booster studs (Fig. 14). (9) Remove rear antilock valve, combination valve and bracket and attached brakelines as assembly (Fig. 14).

Fig. 11 Disconnecting Front/Rear Brake Connecting Lines


(4) Disconnect harness wires at rear antilock and combination valves (Fig. 12). (5) Disconnect ground wire at combination valve bracket. Wire may be attached at top of bracket (Fig. 12) or at lower end of bracket (Fig. 13).

Fig. 12 Ground Wire Location


(6) Remove nuts that attach combination valve bracket to booster studs (Fig. 13). (7) Disconnect lines connecting rear antilock valve to master cylinder (Fig. 14).

Fig. 14 Removing Rear Antilock And Combination Valve Assembly

ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


(10) Remove line that connects rear antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 15). (11) Remove bolt attaching rear antilock valve to combination valve bracket (Fig. 15). (12) Remove rear antilock valve from combination valve bracket.

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Fig. 15 Rear Antilock Valve Attachment

REAR ANTILOCK VALVE INSTALLATION


(1) Install antilock valve on combination valve bracket (Fig. 15). (2) Install line that connects antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 15). (3) Install valve and bracket assembly on brake booster studs (Fig. 14). (4) Install and tighten nuts that attach combination valve bracket to booster studs to 23-28 Nm (200250 in. lbs.) torque. (5) Attach ground wire to combination valve bracket (Figs. 12 and 13). Be sure wire connection is secure and clean, otherwise a fault will occur. (6) Connect brakelines to master cylinder, antilock valve and combination valve. (7) Tighten brakeline fittings to 16-23 Nm (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (8) Connect wire harnesses to rear antilock and combination valves. (9) Install and connect battery. (10) Bleed brake system as described at end of this section.

(2) Disconnect rear brakeline at rear antilock valve (Fig. 11). (3) Disconnect line that connects front antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 11). Disconnect line at combination valve fitting. (4) Disconnect harness connectors at antilock and combination valves (Fig. 12). (5) Disconnect ground wire at combination valve bracket (Fig. 12). (6) Remove nuts that attach combination valve bracket to brake booster studs (Fig. 12). (7) Disconnect lines from rear antilock valve to master cylinder (Fig. 13). (8) Slide combination valve bracket off master cylinder mounting studs (Fig. 13). Then remove rear antilock valve, combination valve and bracket and attached brakelines as assembly (Fig. 13). (9) Remove line that connects rear antilock valve to combination valve. (10) Remove bolt attaching rear antilock valve to combination valve bracket. (11) Remove rear brake antilock valve from combination valve bracket. (12) If combination valve will be replaced, remove connecting lines from valve. Retain lines as they will be transferred to new valve.

COMBINATION VALVE INSTALLATION


(1) If new combination valve is being installed, transfer lines that connect valve to master cylinder to new valve (Fig. 16). Leave line fittings loose. Do not fully tighten fittings at this time.

COMBINATION VALVE REMOVAL


The combination valve and valve mounting bracket are serviced as an assembly. The bracket and valve are permanently attached and should not be separated. The combination valve is not a repairable component and must be replaced whenever diagnosis indicates a fault. (1) Disconnect and remove battery for easier access to valves and lines.

Fig. 16 Combination Valve Connecting Line Installation

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ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

(2) Install rear antilock valve on combination valve bracket (Fig. 14). Tighten valve attaching bolt securely. (3) Install line that connects front antilock valve to combination valve (Fig. 14). Do not fully tighten line fitting at this time. (4) Install valve and bracket assembly on booster studs (Fig. 13). (5) Install and tighten nuts that attach combination valve bracket to booster studs to 23-28 Nm (200250 in. lbs.) torque. (6) Attach ground wire to combination valve bracket (Figs. 12 and 13). Make sure ground wire is securely attached and that connection is clean and free of corrosion. A poor ground connection will cause a system fault. (7) Connect brakelines to master cylinder, antilock valve and combination valve. (8) Tighten brakeline fittings at antilock valve to 13-20 Nm (115-175 in. lbs.). Tighten all remaining line fittings to 16-23 Nm (140-200 in. lbs.) torque. (9) Connect wire harnesses to antilock and combination valves. (10) Install and connect battery. (11) Bleed brake system as described in this section.

TONE WHEEL SERVICE


The tone wheels on the disc brake rotor hub or front axle shaft are not serviceable parts. On 4-wheel drive models, it will be necessary to replace the axle shaft if the tone wheel is damaged. On 2-wheel drive models, it will be necessary to replace the hub and rotor assembly if the tone wheel is damaged.

Fig. 17 Front Brake Speed Sensor Mounting

FRONT BRAKE SPEED SENSOR INSTALLATION (2-WHEEL DRIVE MODELS)


(1) Guide sensor wire through splash shield, around control arm and through grommet hole in fender panel. Do not seat grommet in fender panel at this time. (2) Position sensor in splash shield and install sensor attaching bolts. Tighten bolts to 18-25 Nm (160220 in. lbs.) torque. CAUTION: Special bolts are used to attach the front sensor. The bolts have a special shoulder, thread length and surface treatment. If the original bolts must be replaced, use the replacement bolts listed in the parts catalogue only. Do not use substitute bolts under any circumstances. (3) Secure sensor wire retaining clamps to control arm and fender panel with screws. (4) Seat sensor wire grommet in inner fender panel. (5) In engine compartment, connect sensor wire to harness connector. Make sure wire is routed away from hot or rotating underhood components. (6) Install disc brake hub and rotor assembly. (7) Install disc brake caliper. (8) Install wheel and tire assembly.

FRONT BRAKE SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL (2-WHEEL DRIVE MODELS)


(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove front wheel. (3) Remove disc brake caliper. (4) Remove disc brake hub and rotor assembly. (5) Remove bolts attaching sensor to splash shield and steering knuckle (Fig. 17). Retain sensor bolts. They are special and must be reused if in good condition. (6) Remove clamps securing sensor wire to control arm and inner fender panel. (7) Unseat grommet securing sensor wire in fender panel. (8) In engine compartment, disconnect sensor wire from harness connector. (9) Remove clamps securing sensor wire to engine compartment body panels. (10) Work sensor wire out of engine compartment and through fender panel grommet hole. Then slide wire out of steering knuckle splash shield and it from vehicle.

ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE


(9) Check sensor wire routing one more time. Turn steering wheel back and forth to verify that wire is clear of steering and suspension components. Reroute wire if necessary. (10) Remove supports and lower vehicle.

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REAR BRAKE SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL (ALL)


(1) Raise vehicle on hoist. (2) Disconnect sensor wire from rear sensor on axle housing (Fig. 18). (3) Disconnect sensor wire from harness connector at driver side frame rail. (4) Unclip sensor wire from rear brake hose and remove sensor wire from vehicle.

FRONT BRAKE SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL (4-WHEEL DRIVE MODELS)


(1) Raise and support vehicle. (2) Remove front wheel and tire assembly. (3) Remove bolts attaching sensor to steering knuckle (Fig. 16). Retain sensor attaching bolts. They are special and must be reused if in good condition. (4) Remove clamps securing sensor wire to control arm and inner fender panel (Fig. 17). (5) Unseat grommet securing sensor wire in fender panel. (6) In engine compartment, disconnect sensor wire from harness connector. (7) Remove clamps securing sensor wire to engine compartment body panels. (8) Work sensor wire out of engine compartment, through fender panel grommet hole and out of vehicle.

FRONT BRAKE SPEED SENSOR INSTALLATION (4-WHEEL DRIVE MODELS)


(1) Guide sensor wire around upper control arm and through grommet hole in fender panel. Do not seat grommet in fender panel at this time. (2) Position sensor on steering knuckle and install sensor attaching bolts. Tighten bolts to 18-25 Nm (160-220 in. lbs.) torque. CAUTION: Special bolts are used to attach the front sensor. The bolts have a special shoulder, thread length and surface treatment. If the original bolts must be replaced, use the replacement bolts listed in the parts catalog only. Do not use substitute bolts under any circumstances. (3) Secure sensor wire retaining clamps to control arm and fender panel with clamp screws (Fig. 17). (4) Seat sensor wire grommet in inner fender panel. (5) In engine compartment, connect sensor wire to harness connector. Make sure wire is routed away from hot or rotating underhood components. (6) Install wheel and tire assembly. (7) Check sensor wire routing one more time. Turn steering wheel back and forth to verify that wire is clear of steering and suspension components. Reroute wire if necessary. (8) Remove supports and lower vehicle.

Fig. 18 Rear Brake Speed Sensor Mounting

REAR BRAKE SPEED SENSOR INSTALLATION


(1) Connect sensor wire to rear sensor and harness connector at frame rail. (2) Secure sensor wire to rear brake hose with clips provided. (3) Lower vehicle.

ABS ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE REMOVAL


(1) Disconnect upper harness connector from module. (2) Lift connector locking handle to release main harness connector from module (Fig. 19). Rotate handle upward to clear connector. (3) Lift connector up and out of retaining lugs on module (Fig. 20). (4) Remove screws attaching module to mounting bracket and remove module.

ABS ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE INSTALLATION


(1) stall (2) Seat Position module in mounting bracket and inmodule attaching screws (Fig. 21). Connect main harness connector to module. connector in module retaining lugs and start

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ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

Fig. 19 Releasing Main Harness Connector

Fig. 21 ABS Electronic Control Module Installation


combination valve rear antilock valve front antilock valve left rear wheel right rear wheel right front wheel left front wheel Use Mopar brake fluid, or an equivalent meeting SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards, to fill and bleed the system. Bleed only one brake component at a time. Clean the master cylinder filler caps and reservoir before adding fluid. Use a bleed hose at each caliper/cylinder bleed screw. Attach one end of the hose to the screw and insert the opposite end in glass container partially filled with brake fluid (Fig. 22). A glass container makes it easier to see air bubbles as they exit the bleed hose. Be sure the end of the bleed hose remains immersed in fluid. This prevents air from being drawn back into the system. Be sure to tighten each brakeline fitting, or bleed screw once bleeding is completed. Loose fittings and bleed screws allow air to re-enter the system. Do not allow the master cylinder to run out of fluid when bleeding the brakes. An empty cylinder will allow air to be drawn back into the system. Check fluid level frequently during bleeding operations.

Fig. 20 Removing Main Harness Connector From Module


connector into module. Then rotate connector locking handle downward into locked position to seat and retain connector. (3) Connect upper harness wires to module.

ABS BRAKE BLEEDING RECOMMENDATIONS


Bleeding Equipment ABS brake bleeding can be performed manually, or with vacuum/pressure equipment. Refer to the vacuum and pressure bleeding information in this section. Brake Bleeding Precautions Recommended bleed sequence is: master cylinder

ABS MANUAL BRAKE BLEEDING PROCEDURE


(1) Bleed new or overhauled master cylinder on bench before installation. This shortens overall

ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

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Fig. 22 Typical Fluid Container And Bleed Hose


bleed time and ensures proper cylinder operation. Refer to procedure in Master Cylinder Service section. (2) If master cylinder was not serviced, remove caps and fill reservoir with fresh Mopar, or equivalent quality brake fluid. (3) Bleed master cylinder first, combination valve second, and rear antilock valve third. Bleed cylinder and valves at brakeline fittings one at a time. Procedure is as follows: (a) Loosen brakeline fitting about 1-1/2 turns. (b) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor. Observe condition of fluid coming out of brakeline fitting. (c) Tighten brakeline fitting and have helper release brake pedal. Be sure to tighten fitting before helper releases brake pedal. (d) Repeat steps (b) and (c) until fluid coming out of fitting, is clear and free of bubbles. (4) There are two bleed procedures for the front antilock valve. If a new front valve is being installed, bleed the valve as described in step (5). If the original front valve is still in the vehicle, bleed the valve as described in step (6). (5) If a new front antilock valve assembly was installed, bleed new valve as follows: (a) Loosen bleed plug on new front valve about 1/4 to one full turn (Fig. 30). Plug must be open to fully bleed upper and lower sections of front antilock valve. (b) Remove cap from bleed valve stem (Fig. 23). (c) Install Valve Depressor Tool 6670 on bleed valve stem (Figs. 23 and 24). To install tool, slide notched side of tool onto boss that surrounds bleed valve stem (Fig. 24). Stem must be held inward (in open position) to fully bleed upper section of new valve assembly.

(d) Tighten thumbscrew on bleed Tool 6670 just enough to push valve stem inward about 0.51 0.76 mm (0.020 - 0.030 in.). (e) Apply brake pedal. Pedal will fall off significantly when bleed plug is properly open and bleed valve stem is correctly unseated (pressed inward) by tool. (f) Stroke brake pedal rapidly 5-10 times. This action will fill upper and lower sections of valve rapidly. (g) Bleed new valve assembly at each brakeline fitting one at a time. Remember to close valve bleed plug before each brake pedal stroke. Continue bleeding until fluid flowing from fittings is clear and free of bubbles. (h) Remove depressor tool from valve stem and install cap on stem. Then tighten bleed plug to 7-9 Nm (60-84 in. lbs.) torque. (6) If original front antilock valve assembly is being used, bleed plug and bleed valve do not have to be open during bleeding operations. Just bleed the valve assembly at each brakeline fitting one at a time. (7) Bleed first wheel brake unit. Start at left rear wheel and follow sequence recommended in step (3). Repeat bleeding operation at each wheel until fluid coming out of bleed screw is clear and free of bubbles. (8) Top off master cylinder reservoir fluid level. Then verify proper brake operation before moving vehicle.

VACUUM BLEEDING If vacuum bleeding equipment is being used, it is not necessary to hold the front brake metering valve open. Simply bleed the brakes following the equipment manufacturers instructions. PRESSURE BLEEDING If pressure bleeding equipment will be used, the front brake metering valve will have to be held open to bleed the front brakes. The valve stem is located in the forward end of the combination valve. The stem must either be pressed inward, or held outward slightly. a spring clip tool or helper is needed to hold the valve stem in position. Follow the manufacturers instructions carefully when using pressure equipment. Make sure the front brake metering valve in the combination is held open. A spring clip tool is best for securing the valve stem in an open position. Do pressure bleed without a proper master cylinder adapter. The wrong adapter can lead to leakage, or drawing air back into the system.

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ABS BRAKE OPERATION AND SERVICE

Fig. 24 Front Antilock Valve Bleed Tool Installation


Do not exceed the tank manufacturers pressure recommendations. Generally, a tank pressure of 15-20 psi is more than sufficient for bleeding purposes.

Fig. 23 Location Of Front Antilock Valve Bleed Valve Stem And Plug
Fill the bleeder tank with recommended fluid and purge air from the tank lines before bleeding.

PARKING BRAKES PARKING BRAKES INDEX


page Front Cable Installation . . . . . Front Cable Removal . . . . . . General Information . . . . . . . Intermediate Cable Installation Intermediate Cable Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 63 66 66 Parking Brake Cable Tensioner Adjustment Parking Brake Pedal Installation . . . . . . . Parking Brake Pedal Removal . . . . . . . . . Rear Cable Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Cable Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 66 66 66 66

GENERAL INFORMATION
The parking brakes are operated by a system of cables and levers attached to the rear brake secondary shoes. A foot pedal, cable tensioner, and four cables form the control system. The rear drum brakeshoes serve as the parking brakes. The shoes are moved into contact with the brake drum surface by a cable and lever mechanism attached to the trailing brakeshoe. A strut installed between the primary and secondary shoes maintains shoe position when the parking brakes are applied. The front parking brake cable is connected to the parking brake pedal and to an intermediate cable. The intermediate cable connects the front cable to the rear cables. The parking brake pedal assembly is mounted on the driver side cowl panel (Fig. 1). The front cable is directly attached to the assembly. The pedal assembly contains a spring loaded, ratchet-type mechanism to hold the pedal in the applied position. A cable and spring are used to release the ratchet mechanism and return the pedal to normal position. Parking brake cable adjustment is controlled by the cable tensioner. The tensioner, once adjusted at the factory, will not need further adjustment under normal circumstances. There are only two instances when adjustment is required. The first is when a new tensioner, or cables have been installed. And the second, is when the tensioner and cables are disconnected for access to other brake components.

Fig. 1 Parking Brake Pedal Assembly


(7) Pry upper end of cable housing and clip downward and out of pedal assembly bracket. (8) Work cable and housing assembly up through floor pan. (9) Remove front cable from vehicle.

FRONT CABLE INSTALLATION


(1) Insert front cable through floor pan. (2) Insert cable retainer into hole at bottom of pedal assembly bracket and connect cable end fitting to linkage clevis. (3) Push cable retainer inward until firmly seated against pedal assembly bracket. (4) Install cable boot in floorpan. (5) Raise vehicle. (6) Route cable through frame and seat cable retainer in frame rail (Figs. 2 and 3). (7) Attach front cable to connector on intermediate cable. (8) Attach guide clip to frame rail on 4-wheel drive models (Fig. 2). (9) Adjust parking brakes as described in Service Adjustments section. (10) Lower vehicle.

FRONT CABLE REMOVAL


(1) Raise vehicle. (2) Loosen cable adjusting nut and disengage front cable from intermediate cable connector. (3) Remove clip attaching front cable to frame rail with pry tool. Then press cable out of frame rail. Remove guide clip from frame rail on 4-wheel drive models. (4) lower vehicle. (5) Fold left front edge of floor covering rearward and remove cable boot from floor pan. (6) Engage parking brake pedal and work front cable up and out of clevis linkage in pedal assembly.

5 - 64 PARKING BRAKES

Fig. 2 Parking Brake Cables (2-Wheel Drive Models)

PARKING BRAKES

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Fig. 3 Parking Brake Cables (4-Wheel Drive Models)

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PARKING BRAKES

INTERMEDIATE CABLE REMOVAL


(1) Raise vehicle. (2) Loosen parking brake cable adjuster nut to create slack in cables. (3) Disengage adjuster hook from frame rail. (4) Disconnect intermediate cable from rear cable connectors and cable guides. (5) Remove intermediate cable.

INTERMEDIATE CABLE INSTALLATION


(1) Locate cable guides in frame rail slots as follows: (a) Locate correct slots in frame rails for cable guides (Figs. 2 and 3). There are several frame slots in this area so be sure to measure correctly. (b) On 2-wheel drive models, locate guides in slots that are 34.54 cm (13.60 in.) rearward of weld seam in frame rail (Fig. 3). (c) On 4-wheel drive models, locate guides in slots that are 35.07 cm (13.81 in.) rearward of weld seam in frame rail (Fig. 2). (2) Guide both ends of cable through cable guides. (3) Attach intermediate cable ends to rear cable connectors. (4) Attach intermediate and front cables to connector at driver side frame rail (Fig. 2 and 3). Be sure connector is positioned so pocket is facing downward. (5) Attach adjuster hook and equalizer to intermediate cable and connect retainer hook to frame rail. (6) Adjust parking brake cables as described in Service Adjustments section.

Fig. 4 Compressing Cable Retainer Tabs With Hose Clamp


(2) Insert cable into support plate until cable retainer tabs lock into place. (3) Lubricate parking brake lever pivot points, anchor pin and shoe contact pads on support plate with Mopar multi purpose grease. (4) Connect cable to parking brake lever on secondary shoe. (5) Install brake shoes on support plate. Be sure parking brake lever strut and spring are properly positioned before installing return springs. (6) Adjust brake shoes to drums with brake gauge. Then install brake drums and wheels. (7) Install clips that secure rear cables in frame brackets. (8) Attach cables to connectors and guides (Fig. 2). (9) Adjust parking brakes as described in Service Adjustments section. (10) Lower vehicle.

REAR CABLE REMOVAL


(1) Raise vehicle and remove rear wheels. (2) Loosen adjuster nut at equalizer until rear cable has approximately 2-4 inches of slack. (3) Disconnect rear cable from guide and cable connector (Fig. 2). (4) Remove clips that secure rear cable to bracket at rear of vehicle frame rail. (5) Remove brake drum and brakeshoes. (6) Disconnect rear cable from lever on secondary brakeshoe. (7) Compress tab on each cable retainer with hose clamp or pliers (Fig. 4). (8) Start tabs through support plate. Release hose clamp or pliers and remove cable. If retainer tabs are severely rusted/corroded and cannot be compressed, simply break tabs off with needle nose or diagonal pliers; then remove cable. (9) Remove cable from vehicle.

PARKING BRAKE PEDAL REMOVAL


(1) Disconnect front cable from pedal linkage clevis. (2) Disconnect warning light switch wires. (3) Remove bolts/nuts attaching pedal assembly to cowl, dash and instrument panels. (4) Remove pedal assembly and cowl side support (Fig. 1).

PARKING BRAKE PEDAL INSTALLATION


(1) Position the support and pedal assembly on the cowl panel (Fig. 1). (2) Install and tighten pedal assembly bolts/nuts. (3) Connect front cable to pedal assembly. (4) Connect warning light switch wires to pedal assembly. (5) Adjust parking brake cables if necessary. Refer to procedure in Brake Service Adjustments section.

REAR CABLE INSTALLATION


(1) Insert cable through brackets at rear of vehicle frame but do not install cable clips at this time.

PARKING BRAKES PARKING BRAKE CABLE TENSIONER ADJUSTMENT


Tensioner adjustment is only necessary when the tensioner, or a cable has been replaced or disconnected for service. When adjustment is necessary, perform adjustment only as described in the following procedure. This is necessary to avoid faulty parking brake operation. (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Back off cable tensioner adjusting nut at equalizer to create slack in cables. (3) Remove rear wheel/tire assemblies. Then remove brake drums. (4) Check rear brakeshoe adjustment with standard brake gauge. Also check condition of brake parts as follows: (a) Replace worn parts if necessary. Excessive shoe-to-drum clearance, or worn components will result in faulty parking brake adjustment and operation. (b) Verify that parking brake cables operate freely and are not binding, or seized. Replace faulty cables, before proceeding. (c) Adjust rear brakeshoes to drums. (d) Install drums and verify that drums rotate freely without drag. (5) Reinstall wheel/tire assemblies after brakeshoe adjustment is complete. (6) Lower vehicle enough for access to parking brake foot pedal. Then fully apply parking brakes. Leave brakes applied until adjustment is complete. (7) Raise vehicle again.

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(8) Mark tensioner rod 6.5 mm (1/4 in.) from edge of tensioner bracket (Fig. 5). (9) Tighten adjusting nut at equalizer until mark on tensioner rod moves into alignment with tensioner bracket (Fig. 5). CAUTION: Do not loosen, or tighten the tensioner adjusting nut for any reason after completing adjustment. (10) Lower vehicle until rear wheels are 15-20 cm (6-8 in.) off shop floor. (11) Release parking brake foot pedal and verify that rear wheels rotate freely without drag. Then lower vehicle.

Fig. 5 Placing Adjustment Mark On Cable Tensioner Rod

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PARKING BRAKES SPECIFICATIONS


TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS