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Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychoIogicaI shock, mentaI shock, or

simply, shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event. t should
not be confused with the unrelated circulatory condition of shock.

n psychiatry, adjustment disorder (AD) is a psychological response to an identifiable stressor or group
of stressors that cause(s) significant emotional or behavioral symptoms that do not meet criteria for
anxiety disorder, PTSD, or acute stress disorder.
[1]
The condition is different from anxiety disorder, which
lacks the presence of a stressor, or post-traumatic stress disorderand acute stress disorder, which usually
are associated with a more intense stressor. There are nine different types of adjustment disorders listed
in the DSM--R. n DSM-V, adjustment disorder was reduced to six types, classified by their clinical
features. Adjustment disorder may also be acute or chronic, depending on whether it lasts more or less
than six months. Diagnosis of adjustment disorder is quite common; there is an estimated incidence of 5-
21% among psychiatric consultation services for adults.

Agoraphobia (from Greek ayop, "marketplace"; and o/oid, -phobia) is an anxiety disorder.
Agoraphobia may arise by the fear of having a panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy
means of escape. Alternatively, social anxiety problems may also be an underlying cause. As a result,
sufferers of agoraphobia avoid public and/or unfamiliar places, especially large, open, spaces such
as shopping malls or airports where there are few places to hide. n severe cases, the sufferer may
become confined to his or her home, experiencing difficulty traveling from this safe place. Although mostly
thought to be a fear of public places, it is now believed that agoraphobia develops as a complication
of panic attacks.
[1]
However, there is evidence that the implied one-way causal relationship between
spontaneous panic attacks and agoraphobia in DSM-V may be incorrect.
[2]
Approximately 3.2 million
adults in the US between the ages of 18 and 54, or about 2.2%, suffer from agoraphobia.
[3]

Agoraphobia Without a History of Panic Disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme fear
of experiencing panic symptoms, of panic attacks.
Agoraphobia typically develops as a result of having panic disorder. n a small minority of cases,
however, agoraphobia can develop by itself without being triggered by the onset of panic attacks.
Historically, there has been debate over whether Agoraphobia Without Panic genuinely existed, or
whether it was simply a manifestation of other disorders such as Panic Disorder, General anxiety
disorder, Avoidant personality disorder and Social Phobia. Said one researcher: "out of 41 agoraphobics
seen (at a clinic) during a period of 1 year, only 1 fit the diagnosis of agoraphobia without panic attacks,
and even this particular classification was questionable...Do not expect to see too many agoraphobics
without panic" (Barlow & Waddell, 1985) . n spite of this earlier skepticism, current thinking is that
Agoraphobia Without Panic Disorder is indeed a valid, unique illness which has gone largely unnoticed,
since its sufferers are far less likely to seek clinical treatment.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight, and
an obsessive fear of gaining weight due to a distorted self image
[1][2]
which may be maintained by
various cognitive biases that alter how the affected individual evaluates and thinks about their body, food
and eating. t is a serious mental illness with a high incidence ofcomorbidity and also the highest mortality
rate of any psychiatric disorder.
[3]

While the stereotype is that AN affects young white women, it can affect men and women of all
ages, races, socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds.
[4][5][6][7][8]

Anorgasmia (often related to delayed ejaculation in males) is a form of sexual dysfunctionsometimes


classified as a psychiatric disorder in which the patient cannot achieve orgasm, even with adequate
stimulation. However, it can also be caused by medical problems such asdiabetic neuropathy, multiple
sclerosis, genital mutilation, complications from genital surgery,pelvic trauma (such as from a straddle
injury caused by falling on the bars of a climbing frame, bicycle or gymnastics
beam), hormonal imbalances, total hysterectomy, spinal cord injury, cauda equina syndrome, uterine
embolisation, childbirth trauma (vaginal tearing through the use of forceps or suction or a large or
unclosed episiotemy), vulvodynia and cardiovascular disease(Berman et al. 2005). Anorgasmia is far
more common in females than in males and is especially rare in younger men. Anorgasmia is the medical
term for regular difficulty reaching orgasm after ample sexual stimulation, often causing significant sexual
frustration. About 15% of women report difficulties with orgasm, and as many as 10% of women in the
United States have never climaxed. Many women who orgasm regularly only climax about 50-70% of the
time.

AntisociaI personaIity disorder (ASPD or APD) is defined by the American Psychiatric
Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual as "...a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of,
the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood."
[1]

To be diagnosed, an individual must be age 18 or older, as well as have a documented history of
a conduct disorder before the age of 15.
[1]
People having antisocial personality disorder are sometimes
referred to as "sociopaths" and "psychopaths."

Anxiety disorders are blanket terms covering several different forms of abnormal and
pathological fear and anxiety which only came under the aegis of psychiatry at the very end of the 19th
century.
[1]
Current psychiatric diagnostic criteria recognize a wide variety of anxiety disorders. Recent
surveys have found that as many as 18% of Americans may be affected by one or more of them.
[2]

Asperger syndrome or Asperger's syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder that is characterized by
significant difficulties in social interaction, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and
interests. t differs from other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation
of linguistic and cognitive development. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and
atypical use of language are frequently reported.
[1][2]

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) is
a neurobehavioral
[1]
developmental disorder.
[2]
t is primarily characterized by "the co-existence of
attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms
starting before seven years of age.
[3]

The autism spectrum, also called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or autism spectrum
conditions (ASC), with the word autisticsometimes replacing autism, is a spectrum of psychological
conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well
as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.
[1]

Autophagia as a mental disorder and symptom
As a mental disorder/symptom, Autophagia is a case in which one is compelled to inflict pain upon
oneself by biting and/or devouring portions of one's body. t is sometimes caused by severe sexual
anxiety, sometimes combined with schizophrenia
[1]
or psychosis.
[2]

ibIiomania is an obsessivecompulsive disorder involving the collecting or hoarding of books to the


point where social relations or health are damaged. One of several psychological disorders associated
with books, bibliomania is characterized by the collecting of books which have no use to the collector nor
any great intrinsic value to a genuine book collector. The purchase of multiple copies of the same book
and edition and the accumulation of books beyond possible capacity of use or enjoyment are frequent
symptoms of bibliomania.

inge eating disorder (D) is the most common eating disorder in the United States affecting 3.5% of
females and 2% of males and is prevalent in up to 30% of those seeking weight loss treatment. Although
it is not yet classified as a separate eating disorder, it was first described in 1959
by psychiatrist and researcher Albert Stunkard as "Night Eating Syndrome" (NES), and the term "Binge
Eating Disorder" was coined to describe the same binging-type eating behavior without
the nocturnal component. BED usually leads to obesity although it can occur in normal weight individuals.
There may be a genetic inheritance factor involved in BED independent of other obesity risks and there is
also a higher incidence of psychiatric comorbidity, with the percentage of individuals with BED and
an Axis comorbid psychiatric disorder being 78.9% and for those with subclinical BED, 63.6%.
[1][2][3][4]

ipoIar disorder or manic-depressive disorder, which is also referred to as bipolar affectivedisorder or
manic depression, is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders defined by the
presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated energy levels,cognition, and mood with or
without one or more depressive episodes. The elevated moods are clinically referred to as mania or, if
milder, hypomania. ndividuals who experience manic episodes also commonly
experience depressive episodes, or symptoms, or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and
depression are present at the same time.
[1]
These episodes are usually separated by periods of
"normal" mood; but, in some individuals, depression and mania may rapidly alternate, which is known
as rapid cycling. Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to such psychotic symptoms
as delusions and hallucinations. The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar , bipolar , cyclothymia,
and other types, based on the nature and severity of mood episodes experienced; the range is often
described as the bipolar spectrum.

ody dysmorphic disorder (DD) (previously known as dysmorphophobia
[1]
is sometimes referred to
as body dysmorphia or dysmorphic syndrome
[2]
) is a (psychological) somatoform disorder in which the
affected person is excessively concerned about and preoccupied by a perceived defect in his or her
physical features (body image). Depending on the individual case, BDD may either be a somatoform
disorder or part of an eating disorder or both: BDD always includes a debilitating or excessive fear of
judgment by others, as is seen with social anxiety,social phobia and some OCD problems; or, alternately,
it may be a part of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and compulsive
overeating. The term "body dysmorphic disorder" itself describes only those excessive social-acceptance
fears that relate to one's personal body image. Depending on the individual, it may or may not also be
part of one of these wider or related syndromes.

orderIine inteIIectuaI functioning is a categorization of intelligence wherein a person has below
average cognitive ability (an Q of 71-85), but the deficit is not as severe as mental retardation (70 or
below).
Persons who fall into this categorization have a relatively normal expression of affect for their age, though
their ability to think abstractly is rather limited. Reasoning displays a preference for concrete thinking.
Others may describe such a person as "simple" or "a little slow." They are usually able to function day to
day without assistance, including holding down a simple job and the basic responsibilities of maintaining a
dwelling.

orderIine personaIity disorder (PD) is a personality disorder described as a prolonged disturbance


of personality function in a person (generally over the age of eighteen years, although it is also found in
adolescents), characterized by depth and variability of moods.
[1]
The disorder typically involves unusual
levels of instability in mood; black and white thinking, orsplitting; the disorder often manifests itself
in idealization and devaluation episodes, as well as chaotic and unstable interpersonal relationships, self-
image, identity, and behavior; as well as a disturbance in the individual's sense of self. n extreme cases,
this disturbance in the sense of self can lead to periods of dissociation.
[2]

rief psychotic disorder is a period of psychosis whose duration is generally shorter, non re-occurring,
and not better accounted for by another condition.
The disorder is characterized by a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms, which may
include delusions,hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, or catatonic behavior. The symptoms
must not be better accounted for by schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder or mania
in bipolar disorder. They must also not be caused by a drug (such as amphetamines) or medical condition
(such as a brain tumor).

uIimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory
behaviors.
[1]
The most common form is defensive vomiting, sometimes called purging; fasting, the use
of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and over exercising are also common.
[2]

The word -ulimia derives from the Latin (-limia), which originally comes from the
Greekou/ipid (boulmia; ravenous hunger), a compound of ou (bous), ox + /ip (lmos),
hunger.
[3]
Bulimia nervosa was named and first described by the British psychiatrist Gerald Russell in
1979.
[4][5]

Catatonia is a syndrome of psychological and motorological disturbances. Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum first
described it in 1874: Die Katatonie oder das Spannungirresein
[1]
(Catatonia or Tension nsanity). n the
current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric
Association (DSM-V) it is not recognized as a separate disorder, but is associated with psychiatric
conditions such as schizophrenia (catatonic type), bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress
disorder, depression and other mental disorders, as well as drug abuse or overdose (or both). t may also
be seen in many medical disorders including infections (such as encephalitis), autoimmune disorders,
focal neurologic lesions (including strokes), metabolic disturbances and abrupt or overly
rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal.
[2][3][4]
t can be an adverse reaction to prescribed medication. t bears
similarity to conditions such as encephalitis lethargica and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. There are a
variety of treatments available;benzodiazepines are a first-line treatment strategy. Electro-convulsive
therapy is also sometimes used. There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of NMDA antagonists for
benzodiazepine resistant catatonia.
[5]
Antipsychotics are sometimes employed but require caution as they
can worsen symptoms and have serious adverse effects.
[6]

ChiIdhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as HeIIer's syndrome anddisintegrative
psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) ofdevelopmental delays
in language, social function, and motor skills. Researchers have not been successful in finding a cause
for the disorder.
CDD has some similarity to autism, and is sometimes considered a low-functioning form of it, but an
apparent period of fairly normal development is often noted before a regression in skills or a series of
regressions in skills. Many children are already somewhat delayed when the illness becomes apparent,
but these delays are not always obvious in young children.

Circadian rhythm sIeep disorders are a family of sleep disorders affecting, among other things, the
timing of sleep. People with circadian rhythm sleep disorders are unable to sleep and wake at the times
required for normal work, school, and social needs. They are generally able to get enough sleep if
allowed to sleep and wake at the times dictated by their body clocks. Unless they have another sleep
disorder, their sleep is of normal quality.
Cognitive disorder
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most common mental disorders affect cognitive functions, mainly memory processing, perception and problem
solving. The most direct cognitive disorders are amnesia, dementia and delirium. Others include anxiety
disorders such as phobias, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and
post-traumatic stress disorder. Mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder are also cognitive
mental disorders. Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder are also classified as
cognitive mental disorders.
A communication disorder - speech and language disorders which refer to problems in communication
and in related areas such as oral motor function. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound
substitution to the inability to understand or use language.
[1]

Conduct disorder is a psychiatric category marked by a pattern of repetitive behavior wherein the rights
of others or social norms are violated.
Symptoms include verbal and physical aggression, cruel behavior toward people and pets, destructive
behavior, lying, truancy, vandalism, and stealing.
[1]

Conduct disorder is a major public health problem because youth with conduct disorder not only inflict
serious physical and psychological harm on others, but they are at greatly increased risk
for incarceration, injury, depression, substance abuse, and death by homicide and suicide. After the age
of 18, a conduct disorder may develop into antisocial personality disorder, which is related
to psychopathy.
[2]


Conversion disorder is a condition where patients present with neurological symptoms such
as numbness, blindness, paralysis, or fits, but where no neurological explanation is possible. t is thought
that these problems arise in response to difficulties in the patient's life, and conversion is considered
a psychiatric disorder in the nternational Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health
Problems (CD-10)
[1]
and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-
V).
[2]
Formerly known as "hysteria", the disorder has arguably been known for millennia, though it came
to greatest prominence at the end of the 19th century, when the neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, and
psychiatrists Pierre Janet and Sigmund Freud made it the focus of their study. The term "conversion" has
its origins in Freud's doctrine that anxiety is "converted" into physical symptoms.
[3]
Though previously
thought to have vanished from the west in the 20th century, some research has suggested it is as
common as ever.
[4]

DeIirium (acute confusional state) is a common and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome with core features
of acute onset and fluctuating course, attentional deficits and generalized severe disorganization of
behavior. t typically involves other cognitive deficits, changes in arousal (hyperactive, hypoactive, or
mixed), perceptual deficits, altered sleep-wake cycle, and psychotic features such as hallucinations and
delusions. t is often caused by a disease process 'outside' the brain, such as common forms of infection
(UT, pneumonia) or by drug effects, particularly anticholinergic or other CNS depressants
(benzodiazapenes and opioids). t can also be caused by virtually any primary disease of the central
nervous system. Though hallucinations anddelusions are sometimes present, these are not required for
the diagnosis, and the symptoms of delirium are clinically distinct from those induced
by psychosis or hallucinogens (with the exception of deliriants.) Although commonly referred to as a
primary disorder of attention, other core cognitive processes are disrupted, particularly working memory
and virtually all aspects of executive functions (planning and organization of behavior). Although it is
commonly regarded as reversible, induction of delirium in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's
disease appears to accelerate cognitive decline, suggesting that efforts to prevent and minimize the
induction of confusional states in the elderly should be given high priority. Unfortunately, many instances
of confusional state (delirium) are iatrogenic (caused by medicines or hospital-borne pathogens/bacteria
or surgeries and anesthesia).

DeIusionaI disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a psychotic mental disorder that is characterized
by holding one or more non-bizarre delusions
[1]
in the absence of any other significant psychopathology.
Non-bizarre delusions are fixed beliefs that are certainly and definitely false, but that could possibly be
plausible, for example, someone who thinks he or she is under police surveillance. n order for the
diagnosis to be made auditory and visualhallucinations cannot be prominent, although olfactory or tactile
hallucinations related to the content of the delusion may be present.
[2]

Dementia (taken from Latin, originally meaning "madness", from de- "without" + ment, the root
of mens "mind") is a serious loss of cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might
be expected from normal aging. t may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive,
resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more
common in the geriatric population, it may occur in any stage of adulthood.

Dependent personaIity disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is apersonality
disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people.
The difference between a 'dependent personality' and a 'dependent personality disorder' is somewhat
subjective, which makes diagnosis sensitive to cultural influences such as gender role expectations.

DepersonaIization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder in which the sufferer is affected by
persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization and/or derealization. Diagnostic criteria include
persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling detached from one's mental processes or
body.
[1]
The symptoms include a sense of automation, going through the motions of life but not
experiencing it, feeling as though one is in a movie, feeling as though one is in a dream, feeling a
disconnection from one's body; out-of-body experience, a detachment from one's body, environment and
difficulty relating oneself to reality.

DereaIization (DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems
strange or unreal. Other symptoms include feeling as though one's environment is lacking in spontaneity,
emotional colouring and depth.
[1]
t is a dissociative symptom of many conditions, such as psychiatric and
neurological disorders, and not a standalone disorder. t is also a transient side effect of acute drug
intoxication, sleep deprivation, and stress.

DeveIopmentaI dyspraxia is a motor learning difficulty that can affect planning of movements and co-
ordination as a result of brain messages not being accurately transmitted to the body.
[1]
t may be
diagnosed in the absence of other motor or sensory impairments like
[2][ull citation needed]
cerebral palsy,
[3][ull
citation needed]
muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.

Disorder of written expression is a childhood condition characterized by poor writing skills. To some
extent, 3 - 10% of school-age children are affected by this disorder. This disorder appears by itself or in
conjunction with other learning or developmental disabilities.

Dissociative disorders
[1]
are defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory,
awareness, identity and/or perception. The hypothesis is that symptoms can result, to the extent of
interfering with a person's general functioning, when one or more of these functions is disrupted.
The five dissociative disorders listed in the DSM V are as follows:
Depersonalization disorder DSM-IV Codes 300.6
[2]
) - periods of detachment from self or surrounding
which may be experienced as "unreal" (lacking in control of or "outside of" self) while retaining
awareness that this is only a feeling and not a reality.
Dissociative amnesia DSM-IV Codes 300.12
[3]
) (formerly Psychogenic Amnesia) - noticeable
impairment of recall resulting from emotional trauma
Dissociative fugue DSM-IV Codes 300.13
[4]
) (formerly Psychogenic Fugue) - physical desertion of
familiar surroundings and experience of impaired recall of the past. This may lead to confusion about
actual identity and the assumption of a new identity.
Dissociative identity disorder DSM-IV Codes 300.14
[5]
) (formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) - the
alternation of two or more distinct personality states with impaired recall, among personality states, of
important information.
Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified DSM-IV Codes 300.15
[6]
) - which can be used for forms
of pathological dissociation not covered by any of the specified dissociative disorders.


Dissociative identity disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a condition in which a person
displays multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters), each with its own
pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. n the nternational Statistical Classification of
Diseases and Related Health Problems the name for this diagnosis is muItipIe personaIity disorder. n
both systems of terminology, the diagnosis requires that at least two personalities routinely take control of
the individual's behavior with an associatedmemory loss that goes beyond normal forgetfulness; in
addition, symptoms cannot be the temporary effects of drug use or a general medical condition.
[1]

Down syndrome, or Down's syndrome (primarily in the United Kingdom),
[1][2]
trisomy 21, ortrisomy G,
is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. t is
named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who described thesyndrome in 1866. The disorder
was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by Jrme Lejeunein 1959. The condition is characterized by
a combination of major and minor differences in structure. Often Down syndrome is associated with some
impairment of cognitive ability andphysical growth, and a particular set of facial characteristics. Down
syndrome in a fetus can be identified with amniocentesis during pregnancy, or in a baby at birth.

DyscaIcuIia or math disabiIity is a specific learning disability or difficulty involving innate difficulty in
learning or comprehending mathematics. t is akin to dyslexia and can include confusion about math
symbols. Dyscalculia can also occur as the result of some types of brain injury.

Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes. The symptom is
reported almost exclusively by women, although the problem can also occur in men. The causes are
often reversible, even when long-standing, but self-perpetuating pain is a factor after the original cause
has been removed. t is a common condition that affects up to one-fifth of women at some point in their
lives.
[1]

Dyssomnias are a broad classification of sleeping disorders that make it difficult to get to sleep, or to
remain sleeping.
Dyssomnias are primary disorders of initiating or maintaining sleep or of excessive sleepiness and are
characterized by a disturbance in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep.
Patients may complain of difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep, intermittent wakefulness during the
night, early morning awakening, or combinations of any of these. Transient episodes are usually of little
significance. Stress, caffeine, physical discomfort, daytime napping, and early bedtimes are common
factors.


Dysthymia (pronounced /ds'0amo/) is a chronic mood disorder that falls within thedepression
spectrum. t is considered a chronic depression, but with less severity than major depressive disorder.
This disorder tends to be a chronic, long-lasting illness.
[1]

Dysthymia is a type of low-grade depression. Harvard Health Publications states that, "the Greek word
dysthymia means 'bad state of mind' or 'ill humor'. As one of the two chief forms of clinical depression, it
usually has fewer or less serious symptoms than major depression but lasts longer."
[2]
Harvard Health
Publications also says, "at least three-quarters of patients with dysthymia also have a chronic physical
illness or another psychiatric disorder such as one of the anxiety disorders, drug addiction,
oralcoholism".
[2]
The Primary Care Journal says that dysthymia "affects approximately three percent of the
population and is associated with significant functional impairment".
[citation needed]
Harvard Health
Publications says: "The rate of depression in the families of people with dysthymia is as high as fifty
percent for the early-onset form of the disorder. [...] Most people with dysthymia can't tell for sure when
they first became depressed".
[2]



choIaIia is the automatic repetition of vocalizations made by another person. t is closely related
to echopraxia, the automatic repetition of movements made by another person.
The word "echolalia" is derived from the Greek meaning "echo" or "to repeat",
[1]
and /d/i (lali)
meaning "babbling, meaningless talk"
[2]
(of onomatopoeic origin from the verb /d/o (lalo) meaning "to
talk").


chopraxia is the involuntary repetition or imitation of the observed movements of another. t is closely
related to echolalia, the involuntary repetition of another's speech. The etymology of the term is from
Ancient Greek: " (kh) from (kh "sound)" and "pi (praksis, "action, activity, practice)".
Even though it is considered a tic, it is a behaviour characteristic of some people with autism,
[1]
Tourette
syndrome, Ganser syndrome,schizophrenia (especially catatonic schizophrenia), some forms of clinical
depression and some other neurological disorders.


motionaI and behavioraI disorders (EBD) is a broad category which is used commonly in educational
settings, to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents. Both general
definitions as well as concrete diagnosis of EBD may be controversial as the observed behavior may
depend on many factors.
Often EBD students may have other disabilities such as: PDD, autism, Rett syndrome, PDD-
NOS, Asperger syndrome and ADHD.


ncopresis, from the Greek kopo (kopros, dung) is involuntary "fecal soiling" in children who have
usually already been toilet trained. Children with encopresis often leak stool into their underwear.

nuresis refers to an inability to control urination.
[1]
Use of the term is usually limited to describing
individuals old enough to be expected to exercise such control.
[2]

According to the triad of sociopathy, some people believe that enuresis is linked to violence along with
fire-setting and cruelty to animals.
[3]
Subsequent research, however, found that enuresis is not related to
psychopathy.
Types of enuresis include:
Nocturnal enuresis
Diurnal enuresis


rectiIe dysfunction (D, "maIe impotence ") is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to
develop or maintain an erection of the penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
[1]

rotomania is a type of delusion in which the affected person believes that another person, usually a
stranger or famous person, is in love with him or her. The illness often occurs during psychosis, especially
in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar mania.
[1]
n one case, erotomania was reported in a patient who
had undergone surgery for a ruptured cerebral aneurysm.
[2]
During an erotomanic psychosis, the patient
believes that a "secret admirer" is declaring his or her affection to the patient, often by special glances,
signals, telepathy, or messages through the media. Usually the patient then returns the perceived
affection by means of letters, phone calls, gifts, and visits to the unwitting recipient.
[2]

xhibitionism, colloquially referred to fIashing, is behavior by a person that involves the exposure
of private parts of their body to another person in a situation when they would not normally be exposed,
with a tendency toward an extravagant. The act may be at least partially sexual or intended to attract the
attention of another. When the term is used to refer to the psychologicalcompulsion for such exposure, it
may be called apodysophiIia
[1]
or Lady Godiva syndrome. Public exhibitionism by women has been
mentioned by historians since classical times, often in the context of the women's shaming groups of men
into committing, or inciting them to commit, some public action.
[2]

xpressive Ianguage disorder is a communication disorder in which there are difficulties with verbal and
written expression.
[1]
t is a specific language impairment characterized by an ability to use
expressive spoken language that is markedly below the appropriate level for the mental age, but with
a language comprehension that is within normal limits.
[2]
There can be problems with vocabulary,
producing complex sentences, and remembering words,
[3]
and there may or may not be abnormalities
in articulation.
[2]

Factitious disorders are conditions in which a person acts as if he or she has an illness by deliberately
producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms. Factitious disorder by proxy is a condition in which a
person deliberately produces, feigns, or exaggerates symptoms in a person who is in their
care. Mnchausen syndrome is an older term for Factitious disorder. People with this condition may
produce symptoms by contaminating urine samples, takinghallucinogens, injecting themselves with
bacteria to produce infections, and other such similar behaviour. People with this condition might be
motivated to perpetrate factitious disorders either as a patient or by proxy as a caregiver to gain any
variety of benefits including attention, nurturance, sympathy, and leniency that are unobtainable any other
way. Somatoform disorders are characterised by multiple somatic complaints.
[1]

FemaIe sexuaI arousaI disorder (FSAD) is similar to what used to be called frigidity. The disorder is
characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of the sexual
activity, an adequate lubrication-swelling response that otherwise is present during female sexual
arousal and sexual activity. The condition should be distinguished from other sexual dysfunctions, such
as the orgasmic disorder (anorgasmia), and from general loss of interest in sexual activity.
Although female sexual dysfunction is currently a contested diagnostic, pharmaceutical companies are
beginning to promote products to treat FSD, often involving low doses of testosterone.


FoIie deux (English pronunciation: /fb' o 'du/, from the French for "a madness shared by two") is a
rare psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief are transmitted from one individual to
another. The same syndrome shared by more than two people may be called folie trois, folie
quatre, folie en famille or even folie plusieurs ("madness of many"). Recent psychiatric classifications
refer to the syndrome as dependency psychotic disorder (DSM-V) (297.3) and induced deIusionaI
disorder (F.24) in the CD-10, although the research literature largely uses the original name. The
disorder was first conceptualized in 19th century French psychiatry.
[1]

The FregoIi deIusion or the deIusion of doubIes is a rare disorder in which a person holds
a delusional belief that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in
disguise. The syndrome may be related to a brain lesion, and is often of a paranoidnature with the
delusional person believing themselves persecuted by the person they believe is in disguise.
The Fregoli delusion is classed both as a monothematic delusion, since it only encompasses one
delusional topic, and as a delusional misidentification syndrome, a class of delusional beliefs that involves
misidentifying people, places, or objects
[1]
. Like Capgras delusion, psychiatrists believe it is related to a
breakdown in normal face perception.


Frotteurism refers to a paraphilic interest in rubbing, usually one's pelvis or erect penis, against a non-
consenting person for sexual gratification. t may involve touching any part of the body including the
genital area. A person who practices frotteurism is known as a frotteur. The majority of frotteurs are male
and the majority of victims are female,
[1]
although female on male, female on female, and male on male
frotteurs exist. Adult on child frotteurism can be an early stage in child sexual abuse.
[2]
This activity is
often done in circumstances where the victim cannot easily respond, in a public place such as a crowded
train or concert.
Usually, such nonconsensual sexual contact is viewed as a criminal offense: a form of sexual
assault albeit often classified as a misdemeanor with minor legal penalties. Conviction may result in a
sentence or psychiatric treatment.
[3]



Ganser syndrome is a rare dissociative disorder previously classified as a factitious disorder. t is
characterized by nonsensical or wrong answers to questions or doing things incorrectly, other dissociative
symptoms such as fugue, amnesia or conversion disorder, often with visualpseudohallucinations and a
decreased state of consciousness. t is also sometimes callednonsense syndrome, baIderdash
syndrome, syndrome of approximate answers,pseudodementia or prison psychosis. This last
name, prison psychosis, is sometimes used because the syndrome occurs most frequently in prison
inmates, where it may represent an attempt to gain leniency from prison or court officials.

Gender identity disorder (GID) is the formal diagnosis used by psychologists and physiciansto describe
persons who experience significant gender dysphoria (discontent with the biologicalsex they were born
with). t is a psychiatric classification and describes the attributes related
totranssexuality, transgender identity, and transvestism.

GeneraIized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive,
uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things that is disproportionate to the actual
source of worry. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, as individuals suffering GAD
typically anticipate disaster, and are overly concerned about everyday matters such
as health issues, money, death, family problems, friend problems, relationship problems or work
difficulties.
[1]
They often exhibit a variety of physical symptoms,
includingfatigue, fidgeting, headaches, nausea, numbness in hands and feet, muscle tension, muscle
aches, difficulty swallowing, bouts of difficultybreathing,
difficulty concentrating, trembling, twitching, irritability, sweating, restlessness, insomnia, hot flashes,
and rashes. These symptoms must be consistent and on-going, persisting at least 6 months, for a formal
diagnosis of GAD to be introduced.
[1]
Approximately 6.8 million American adults experience GAD.
[2]

Grief is a multi-faceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something to which a
bond was formed. Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss, it also has
physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and philosophical dimensions. Common to human experience is
the death of a loved one, whether it be a friend, family, or other companion. While the terms are often
used interchangeably, bereavement often refers to the state of loss, and grief to the reaction to loss.

Histrionic personaIity disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as
apersonality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking,
including an excessive need for approval and inappropriate seductiveness, usually beginning in early
adulthood. These individuals are lively, dramatic, enthusiastic, and flirtatious.

Huntington's disease, chorea, or disorder (HD), is a fatal progressive neurodegenerativegenetic
disorder, which affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and dementia. t typically
becomes noticeable in middle age. HD is the most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary
writhing movements called chorea and is much more common in people of Western European descent
than in those from Asia or Africa. The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation on either of
an individual's two copies of a gene called Huntingtin, which means any child of an affected parent has a
50% risk of inheriting the disease. n rare situations where both parents have an affected gene, or either
parent has two affected copies, this risk is greatly increased. Physical symptoms of Huntington's disease
can begin at any age from infancy to old age, but usually begin between 35 and 44 years of age. f
symptoms begin before about 20 years of age, they progress faster and vary slightly, and the disease is
classified as juveniIe, akinetic-rigid or WestphaI variant HD.

Hypersomnia is a disorder characterized by excessive amounts of sleepiness. There are two main
categories of hypersomnia: primary hypersomnia (also called idiopathic hypersomnia) andrecurrent
hypersomnia (also called primary recurrent hypersomnia). Both have the same symptoms but differ in
how often they occur.
[1]

Hypoactive sexuaI desire disorder (HSDD), is considered as a sexual dysfunction and is listed under
the Sexual and Gender dentity Disorders of the DSM-V.
[1]
t was first included in the DSM- under the
name nhibited Sexual Desire Disorder
[2]
but the name was changed in the DSM--R.
HSDD is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity for some
period of time. For this to be regarded as a disorder, it must cause marked distress or interpersonal
difficulties and not be better accounted for by another mental disorder (i.e. depression), a drug (legal or
illegal), or some other medical condition.


Hypomania (literally, beIow mania) is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elevated
or irritable mood, as well as thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state.
ndividuals in a hypomanic state also have a decreased need for sleep and rest, are extremely outgoing
and competitive, and have a great deal of energy. However, unlike with fullmania, those with hypomanic
systems are fully functioning, and are often actually more productive than usual. Specifically, hypomania
is distinguished from mania by the absence of psychotic symptoms and by its lower degree of impact on
functioning. Hypomania is a feature of bipolar disorder and cyclothymia, but can also occur
in schizoaffective disorder. Hypomania is sometimes credited with increasing creativity and productive
energy. A significant number of people with creative talents have reportedly experienced hypomania or
other symptoms of bipolar disorder and attribute their success to it. Classic symptoms of hypomania
include mild euphoria, a flood of ideas, endless energy, and a desire and drive for success. A lesser form
of hypomania is called hyperthymia.

ImpuIse controI disorder is a set of psychiatric disorders including intermittent explosive disorder (hot-
headedness), kleptomania (stealing), pathological gambling, pyromania (fire-starting), and three Body-
focused repetitive or compulsive behaviors of trichotillomania (a compulsion to pull one's hair
out), onychophagia (compulsive nail biting) and dermatillomania(compulsive skin picking). The onset of
these disorders usually occurs between the ages of 7 and 15.
[1]
mpulsivity, the key feature of these
disorders, can be thought of as seeking a small, short term gain at the expense of a large, long term loss.
Those with the disorder repeatedly demonstrate failure to resist their behavioral impetuosity.
mpulse control disorders are considered to be part of the obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum.
[2]

The essence of emotional self-regulation is the ability to control one's impulses in the service of a goal.


Insomnia is a symptom
[1]
that can accompany several sleep, medical and psychiatric disorders,
characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep and/or difficulty staying asleep. nsomnia is typically
followed by functional impairment while awake.
Both organic and non-organic insomnia without other cause constitute a sleep disorder, primary
insomnia.
[2]
One definition of insomnia is "difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep, or nonrestorative
sleep, associated with impairments of daytime functioning or marked distress for more than 1 month."
[3]



Intermittent expIosive disorder (abbreviated ID) is a behavioral disorder characterized by extreme
expressions of anger, often to the point of uncontrollable rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at
hand. t is currently categorized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as
an impulse control disorder. ED belongs to the larger family of Axis impulse control disorders listed in the
DSM-V-TR, along with kleptomania, pyromania,pathological gambling, and others.
[1]
mpulsive
aggression is unpremeditated, and is defined by a disproportionate reaction to any provocation, real or
perceived. Some individuals have reported affective changes prior to an outburst
(e.g., tension, mood changes, energy changes, etc.).
[2]

oubert syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the cerebellum, an area of the brainthat controls
balance and coordination.

KIeptomania (from Greek: k/siv, kleptein, "to steal", and pdvid, "mania") is an irresistible urge to steal
items of trivial value. People with this disorder are compelled to steal things, generally, but not limited to,
objects of little or no significant value, such as pens, paper clips, paper and tape. Some kleptomaniacs
may not even be aware that they have committed the theft
[du-ious discuss]
.

Learning disabiIity (sometimes called a Iearning disorder
[1]
or Iearning difficuIty), is a classification
including several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by
an unknown factor or factors. The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive
and process information. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn as quickly or in the
same way as someone who isn't affected by a learning disability. Learning disability is not indicative of
intelligence level. Rather, people with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types of skills
or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways.

Major depressive disorder (also known as recurrent depressive disorder, cIinicaI depression, major
depression, unipoIar depression, or unipoIar disorder) is a mental disorder characterized by an all-
encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally
enjoyable activities. The term "major depressive disorder" was selected by the American Psychiatric
Association to designate this symptom cluster as a mood disorder in the 1980 version of the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-), and has become widely used since. The general
term depression is often used to denote the disorder; but as it can also be used in reference to other
types of psychological depression, it is disfavored over more precise terminology for the disorder in
clinical and research use. Major depression is a disabling condition which adversely affects a person's
family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. n the United States, around
3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of people who commit suicide had
depression or another mood disorder.

A major depressive episode is the cluster of symptoms of major depressive disorder. The description
has been formalised in psychiatric diagnostic criteria such as the DSM-V and CD-10, and is
characterized by severe, highly persistent depression, and a loss of interest or pleasure in everyday
activities, which is often manifested by lack of appetite, chronic fatigue, andsleep disturbances
(somnipathy). The victim may think about suicide, and indeed an increased risk of actual suicide is
present.
[1]

MaIingering is a medical term that refers to fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms
of mentalor physical disorders for a variety of "secondary gain" motives, which may include financial
compensation (often tied to fraud); avoiding school, work or military service; obtaining drugs; getting
lighter criminal sentences; or simply to attract attention or sympathy.
[1]
A common form of malingering in
legal procedure prosecution difficult is sometimes referred to as fa-ricated mental illness or feigned
madness;
[citation needed]
a 2005 case, United States v. Binionaddressed malingering hindering
prosecution.
[2]
The disorder remains separate fromsomatization disorders and factitious disorders in
which primary and secondary gain, such as the relief of anxiety or the assumption of the "patient role", is
the goal.
[3]
The symptoms most commonly feigned include those associated with mild head
injury, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and chronic pain.
[4][1][5]
Failure to detect actual cases of
malingering imposes a substantial economic burden on the health care system, and false attribution of
malingering imposes a substantial burden of suffering on a significant proportion of the patient
population.
[6][7]

Mania, the presence of which is a criterion for certain psychiatric diagnoses, is a state of abnormally
elevated or irritable mood, arousal, and/ or energy levels.
[1]
The word derives from theGreek "dvid"
(mania), "madness, frenzy"
[2]
and that from the verb "divodi" (mainomai), "to be mad, to rage, to be
furious".
[3]

MegaIomania is a word defined as:
[1]

1. A psychopathological condition characterized by delusional fantasies of wealth, power,
or omnipotence.
2. An obsession with grandiose or extravagant things or actions.
The word megalomania is derived from the Greek words "syd/o": megalo-, meaning large, and
"dvid": mania, meaning madness, frenzy. The first attested use of the word "megalomania" is in 1890 as
a translation of the French word "mgalomanie".
Megalomania is not a symptom or a diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders DSM)
[2]
or the CD. However,grandiosity and delusions of grandeur have similar meanings to
megalomania and are used in the DSM and CD as possible symptoms of several mental conditions.


MeIanchoIia (from Greek ps/dygo/id - melancholia "sadness, lit. black bile"
[1]
), alsoIugubriousness,
from the Latin lugere, to mourn; moroseness, from the Latin morosus, self-willed, fastidious
habit; wistfuIness, from old English ist: intent, or saturnine, (see Saturn), in contemporary usage, is
a mood disorder of non-specific depression, characterized by low levels of enthusiasm and eagerness for
activity.

MentaI retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive
functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors with onset before the age of 18. t has
historically been defined as an ntelligence Quotient score under 70.
[1]
Once focused almost entirely
on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating
to individuals' functional skills in their environment.

Mixed receptive-expressive Ianguage disorder (DSM-V 315.32) is a communication disorder in which
both the receptive and expressive areas of communication may be affected in any degree, from mild to
severe.
f someone is being assessed on the Wechsler Adult ntelligence Scale, for instance, this may show up in
relatively low scores for nformation, Vocabulary and Comprehension (perhaps below the 25th percentile).
f the person has difficulty with spatial concepts, such as 'over', 'under', 'here' and 'there', he or she may
have arithmetic difficulties, have difficulty understanding word problems and instructions, or have
difficulties using words.


n the context of mental disorder, a mixed state (also known as dysphoric mania, agitated depression,
or a mixed episode) is a condition during which symptoms of mania anddepression occur simultaneously
(e.g., agitation, anxiety, fatigue, guilt, impulsiveness, irritability, morbid or suicidal
ideation, panic, paranoia, pressured speech and rage). Typical examples include tearfulness during a
manic episode or racing thoughts during a depressive episode. One may also feel incredibly frustrated in
this state, since one may feel like a failure and at the same time have a flight of ideas. Mixed states are
often the most dangerous period of mood disorders, during which substance abuse, panic
disorder, suicide attempts, and other complications increase greatly.

Mood disorder is the term given for a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders (DSM V TR) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is
hypothesized to be the main underlying feature.
[1]
The classification is known as mood affective)
disorders in CD 10.
English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder.
[2]
The term
was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional
state,
[3]
whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others.
[1]



Motor skiIIs disorder (also known as motor coordination disorder or motor dyspraxia) is a
human developmental disorder that impairs motor coordination in daily activities. t isneurological in
origin. Many children with autism or Asperger syndrome experience deficits in motor skills development,
which often manifests as abnormal clumsiness, but is not major enough to be considered a disorder in
and of itself.

MuIti-infarct dementia, also known as vascuIar dementia, is the second most common form
of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults.
[1]
The term refers to a group of syndromes
caused by different mechanisms all resulting in vascular lesions in the brain. Early detection and accurate
diagnosis are important, as vascular dementia is at least partially preventable.
Mnchausen syndrome is a term for psychiatric disorders known as factitious disorderswherein those
affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma in order to draw attentionor sympathy to
themselves. t is also sometimes known as hospitaI addiction syndrome orhospitaI hopper syndrome.
Nurses sometimes refer to them as frequent fIyers, because they return to the hospital just like frequent
flyers return to the airport. However, there is discussion to reclassify them as somatoform disorder in
the DSM-5 as it is unclear whether people are conscious or not of drawing attention to themselves.
[1]

Mnchausen syndrome is related to Mnchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP/MSP), which refers to
the abuse of another being, typically a child, in order to seek attention or sympathy for the abuser.


Mnchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP), referred to in the DSM-V-TR as Factitious Disorderby Proxy,
is a disorder in which a person deliberately causes injury or illness to another person (most often his/her
child), usually to gain attention or some other benefit.
[1][2]
Mnchausen by proxy has been described by
some as a form of extended child abuse.
[3][4]
The motivation is to assume the sick role by proxy.
[5]
t
involves physical abuse and medical neglect.
[6]

The caregiver is usually a parent, guardian, or spouse, and the victim is usually a child or vulnerable
adult. Most cases involve inducing physical illness.


Narcissistic personaIity disorder (also NPD or Marc Wright Disorder) is a personality disorder defined
by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the diagnostic classification system used in
the United States, as "a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and a lack of empathy."
[1]

NarcoIepsy is a chronic sleep disorder, or dyssomnia, characterized by excessive daytime
sleepiness (EDS) in which a person experiences extreme fatigue and possibly falls asleep at
inappropriate times, such as while at work or at school. Narcoleptics usually experience disturbed
nocturnal sleep and an abnormal daytime sleep pattern, which is often confused withinsomnia. When a
narcoleptic falls asleep they generally experience the REM stage of sleep within 10 minutes; whereas
most people do not experience REM sleep until after 90 minutes. There is little evidence to suggest that
narcoleptics tend to have a shorter life span.

NecrophiIia, also called thanatophiIia and necroIagnia, is the sexual attraction to corpses. t is
classified as a paraphilia by theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association.
The word is artificially derived from the ancient Greek words:vskp (nekros; "dead") and i/id (philia;
"love"). The term appears to have originated from Krafft-Ebing's 1886 work Psychopathia Sexualis.
[1]

Rosman and Resnick (1989) reviewed information from 34 cases of necrophilia describing the individuals'
motivations for their behaviors: these individuals reported the desire to possess an unresisting and
unrejecting partner (68%), reunions with a romantic partner (21%), sexual attraction to corpses (15%),
comfort or overcoming feelings of isolation (15%), or seeking self-esteem by expressing power over a
homicide victim (12%).
[2]



A night terror, also known as a sleep terror or pavor nocturnus, is a parasomnia disordercharacterized
by extreme terror and a temporary inability to regain full consciousness. The subject wakes abruptly
from slow-wave sleep, with waking usually accompanied by gasping, moaning, or screaming while
waking. t is often impossible to awaken the person fully because they are so concentrated on waking,
and after the episode the subject normally settles back to sleep without waking. A night terror can rarely
be recalled by the subject. They typically occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

Nightmare disorder, or dream anxiety disorder, is a sleep disorder characterized by
frequent nightmares. The nightmares, which often portray the individual in a situation that jeopardizes
their life or personal safety, usually occur during the second half of the sleeping process, called the REM
stage. Though such nightmares occur within many people, those with nightmare disorder experience
them with a greater frequency. The disorder's DSM-V number is 307.47.

Obsessive-compuIsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that
produce anxiety, by repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing anxiety, or by a combination of such thoughts
(obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions). Symptoms may include repetitive hand-washing;
extensive hoarding; preoccupation with sexual or aggressive impulses, or with particular religious beliefs;
aversion to odd numbers; and nervous habits, such as opening a door and closing it a certain number of
times before one enters or leaves a room. These symptoms can be alienating and time-consuming, and
often cause severe emotional and economic loss. The acts of those who have OCD may
appear paranoid and come across to others as psychotic. However, OCD sufferers generally recognize
their thoughts and subsequent actions as irrational, and they may become further distressed by this
realization.

Oneirophrenia is a hallucinatory, dream-like state caused by several conditions such as prolonged sleep
deprivation, sensory deprivation, or drugs (such as ibogaine). From the Greek words "vsipo" (oneiros,
"dream") and "psv" (phrenos, "mind"). t has some of the characteristics of simple schizophrenia, such
as a confusional state and clouding of consciousness, but without presenting the dissociationsymptoms
which are typical of this disorder.

OppositionaI defiant disorder (ODD) is described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (DSM) as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile and defiant behavior toward authority
figures which goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. People who have it may appear
very stubborn. Temper tantrums, stealing, bullying, and vandalism are some of key symptoms of
oppositional defiant disorder. ODD children may present as negative, defiant, unable to take "no" for an
answer, deliberately annoying others, easily annoyed themselves, or blaming others for all that goes
wrong.
[1]
The child's behavior often disrupts the child's normal daily activities, including activities within the
family and at school.
[2]

Pain disorder is when a patient experiences chronic pain in one or more areas, and is thought to be
caused by psychological stress. The pain is often so severe that it disables the patient from proper
functioning. t can last as short as a few days, to as long as many years. The disorder may begin at any
age, and more women than men seem to experience it (APA, 2000). This disorder often occurs after an
accident or during an illness that has caused genuine pain, which then takes a 'life' of its own.
[1]

Panic attack has been described as an episode of incredibly intense fear or apprehension that is of
sudden onset.
[1]
The DSM-V describes a panic attack as a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in
which (at least 4 of 13) symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes.

Paranoid personaIity disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by paranoia and a pervasive,
long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
Those with the condition are hypersensitive, are easily slighted, and habitually relate to the world by
vigilant scanning of the environment for clues or suggestions to validate their prejudicial ideas or biases.
They tend to be guarded and suspicious and have quite constricted emotional lives. Their incapacity for
meaningful emotional involvement and the general pattern of isolated withdrawal often lend a quality
of schizoid isolation to their life experience.
[1]



ParaphiIia (in Greek para dp = beside and -philia i/id = friendship, having the meaning of love) is a
biomedical term used to describe sexual arousal to objects, situations, or individuals that are not part
of normative stimulation and that may cause distress or serious problems for the paraphiliac or persons
associated with him or her. A paraphilia is a condition involving sex fetishes where a person's sexual
arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about, and engaging in, sexual behavior that is atypical
and extreme.
[1]
The term was coined by Wilhelm Stekel in the 1920s
[2]
and popularized by John Money in
the 1960s, who described paraphilia as "a sexuoerotic embellishment of, or alternative to the official,
ideological norm."
[3]

Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal and unnatural movements,
behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep
stages, or arousal from sleep. Most parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals
during the transitions between wakefulness and NREM sleep, or wakefulness and REM sleep.

Pervasive DeveIopmentaI Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) is a pervasive
developmental disorder (PDD)/autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While those with it have some
characteristics of disorders on the autistic spectrum, they don't fit the diagnostic criteria of any of the other
disorders thereon. While PDD-NOS shares similarities with autism, it tends to be milder.
[1]
PDD-NOS is
sometimes referred to as "atypical autism" by autism specialists. The boundaries between it and non-
autistic conditions are not fully resolved.
[2]

PersonaIity disorders, formerly referred to as character disorders, are a class of personalitytypes and
behaviors that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines as "an enduring pattern of inner
experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of theculture of the individual who
exhibits it".
[1][2]
Personality disorders are noted on Axis of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, or DSM-V-TR (fourth edition, text revision) of the American Psychiatric Association.

The diagnostic category pervasive deveIopmentaI disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific
developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the
development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication.
Parents may note symptoms of PDD as early as infancy and typically onset is prior to three years of age.
PDD itself does not affect life expectancy.


PhysicaI abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, injury, or other
physical suffering or bodily harm.
[1][2]

Pica is a medical disorder characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive
(e.g.metal [coins, etc.], clay, coal, soil, feces, chalk, paper, soap, mucus, ash, gum, etc.) or an abnormal
appetite for some things that may be considered foods, such as food ingredients (e.g.flour, raw potato,
raw rice, starch, ice cubes, salt).
[1]
n order for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for
more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate.
The condition's name comes from the Latin word formagpie, a bird that is reputed to eat almost
anything.
[2][3]
Pica is seen in all ages, particularly inpregnant women, small children, and those
with developmental disabilities.

Post-traumatic embitterment disorder (PTD) is a proposed disorder modeled after post-traumatic
stress disorder. Some psychiatrists are proposing this as a mental disorder because they believe there
are people who have become so bitter they can barely function.
[1][2]

The proposed diagnostic criteria for a DSM-5 entry is as follows:
1. a single exceptional negative life event precipitates the onset of the illness
2. the present negative state developed in the direct context of this event
3. the emotional response is embitterment and feelings of injustice
4. repeated intrusive memories of the event
5. emotional modulation is unimpaired, patients can even smile when engaged in
thoughts of revenge
6. no obvious other mental disorder that can explain the reaction
AdditionaI Symptoms: feelings of helplessness, self-blame, rejection of help, suicidal
ideation, dysphoria, aggression, seemingly melancholic depression, unspecific somatic
complaints, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, pain, phobic symptoms in respect to the
place or to persons related to the event, reduced drive. Duration is longer than 3 months.
Performance in daily activities and roles is impaired.
[3]



Posttraumatic stress disorder
[1][2]
(post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD) is a severeanxiety
disorder that can develop after exposure to any event that results in psychological trauma.
[3]
This event
may involve the threat of death to oneself or to someone else, or to one's own or someone else's
physical, sexual, or psychological integrity,
[1]
overwhelming the individual's ability to cope. As an effect
of psychological trauma, PTSD is less frequent and more enduring than the more commonly seen acute
stress response.

Premature ejacuIation (P) is a condition in which a man ejaculates earlier than he or his partner would
like him to. Premature ejaculation is also known as rapid ejaculation, rapid climax,premature climax,
or early ejaculation.
Masters and Johnson defines PE as the condition in which a man ejaculates before his sex partner
achieves orgasm, in more than fifty percent of their sexual encounters. Other sex researchers have
defined premature ejaculation as occurring if the man ejaculates within two minutes of penetration;
however, a survey by Alfred Kinsey in the 1950s demonstrated that three quarters of men ejaculate within
two minutes of penetration in over half of their sexual encounters.
[citation needed]
. Self reported surveys report
up to 75% of men ejaculate within 10 minutes of penetration. Today, most sex therapists understand
premature ejaculation as occurring when a lack of ejaculatory control interferes with sexual or emotional
well-being in one or both partners.
[citation needed]



ProbIem gambIing (ludomania) is an urge to gamble despite harmful negative consequences or a desire
to stop. Problem gambling often is defined by whether harm is experienced by the gambler or others,
rather than by the gambler's behavior. Severe problem gambling may be diagnosed as
clinical pathoIogicaI gambIing if the gambler meets certain criteria. Although the term gambIing
addiction is common in the recovery movement
[1]
pathological gambling is considered to be an impulse
control disorder and is therefore not considered by the American Psychological Association to be an
addiction.
[2]

Psychogenic amnesia, also known as functionaI or dissociative amnesia, is a disorder characterized
by abnormal memory functioning in the absence of structural brain damage or a
known neurobiological cause; severe cases are very rare.
[1]
t is defined by the presence ofretrograde
amnesia or the inability to retrieve stored memories and events leading up to the onset of amnesia and an
absence of anterograde amnesia or the inability to form new long term memories.
[2][3][4]
n most cases,
patients lose their autobiographical memory and personal identity even though they are able to learn new
information and perform everyday functions normally. Other times, there may be a loss of basic semantic
knowledge and procedural skills such as reading and writing.
[5]

Psychosis (from the Greek u "psyche", for mind/soul, and -ooi "-osis", for abnormal condition)
means abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often
described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described
as psychotic.

A type of impulse control disorder, pyromania is an impulse to deliberately start fires to relieve tension
and typically includes feelings of gratification or relief afterward. The term pyromania comes from the
Greek word pyr (fire). Pyromania is distinct from arson, and pyromaniacs are also distinct from those who
start fires because of psychosis, for personal, monetary or political gain, or for acts of revenge.
Pyromaniacs start fires to induce euphoria, and often fixate on institutions of fire control like fire
stations and firefighters.

According to Michael First, M.D. of the DSM-5 working committee
[1]
the locus of a reIationaI disorder, in
contrast to other DSM-Vdisorders, "is on the relationship rather than on any one individual in the
relationship."
[2]

Relational disorders involve two or more individuals and a disordered "juncture," whereas typical Axis
psychopathology describes a disorder at the individual level. An additional criterion for a relational
disorder is that the disorder cannot be due solely to a problem in one member of the relationship, but
requires pathological interaction from each of the individuals involved in the relationship.
[2]

For example, if a parent is withdrawn from one child but not another, the dysfunction could be attributed
to a relational disorder. n contrast, if a parent is withdrawn from both children, the dysfunction may be
more appropriately attributable to a disorder at the individual level.
[3]



Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting grey matter.
[1]
The clinical features include
small hands and feet and a deceleration of the rate of head growth (includingmicrocephaly in some).
Repetitive hand movements such as mouthing or wringing are also noted. Girls with Rett syndrome are
prone to gastrointestinal disorders and up to 80% have seizures.
[2]
They typically have no verbal skills,
and about 50% of females are not ambulatory.Scoliosis, growth failure, and constipation are very
common and can be problematic.
The signs of this disorder are most easily confused with those of Angelman syndrome, cerebral
palsy and autism.


Rumination syndrome, or Merycism is an under-diagnosed chronic eating disorder,
[1][2]
characterized by
effortless regurgitation of most meals following consumption. There is noretching, nausea, heartburn,
odours, or abdominal pains associated with the regurgitation, as there is with typical vomiting. The
disorder has been historically documented as affecting onlyinfants, young children, and people
with cognitive disabilities (where the prevalence is as high as 10% in institutionalized patients with various
mental disabilities). Today it is being diagnosed in increasing numbers of otherwise healthy adolescents
and adults, though there is a lack of awareness of the condition by doctors, patients and the general
public.
Rumination syndrome presents itself in a variety of ways, especially when comparing an adult without a
mental disability to an infant or to a mentally impaired individual. Like most eating disorders, rumination
can adversely affect normal functioning and the social lives of individuals. t has been linked with
depression.


Schizoaffective disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disordercharacterized by
recurring episodes of elevated or depressed mood, or of simultaneously elevated and depressed mood,
that alternate with, or occur together with, distortions in perception.
[1][2]

Schizoaffective disorder most commonly affects cognition and emotion. Auditory hallucinations,paranoia,
bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking with significant social and occupational
dysfunction are typical. The division into depressive and bipolar types is based on whether the individual
has ever had a manic, hypomanic or mixed episode. Symptoms usually begin in early adulthood, which
makes diagnosis prior to age 13 rare.


Schizoid personaIity disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in
social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, and emotional
coldness.
[1]
There is increased prevalence of the disorder in families withschizophrenia. SPD is not the
same as schizophrenia, although they share some similar characteristics such as detachment or blunted
affect.

Schizophrenia (pronounced /,sktso'frcno/ or /,sktso'frno/) is a serious mental illness
characterized by a disintegration of the process of thinking and of emotional responsiveness.
[1]
t most
commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, ordisorganized speech and
thinking with significant social or occupational dysfunction. Onset of symptoms typically occurs in young
adulthood,
[2]
with around 1.5% lifetime prevalence
[3][4]
of the population affected. Diagnosis is based on
the patient's self-reported experiences and observed behavior. No laboratory test for schizophrenia
currently exists.
[5]

Schizophreniform disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophreniaare present
for a significant portion of the time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for
the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The symptoms of both disorders can
include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized orcatatonic behavior, and social
withdrawal. While impairment in social, occupational, or academic functioning is required for the diagnosis
of schizophrenia, in schizophreniform disorder an individual's level of functioning may or may not be
affected. While the onset of schizophrenia is often gradual over a number of months or years, the onset of
schizophreniform disorder can be relatively rapid. Like schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder is often
treated with antipsychoticmedications, especially the atypicals, along with a variety of social supports
(such as individual psychotherapy, family therapy, occupational therapy, etc.) designed to reduce the
social and emotional impact of the illness. The prognosis varies depending upon the nature, severity, and
duration of the symptoms, but about two-thirds of individuals diagnosed with schizophreniform disorder go
on to develop schizophrenia.
[1

SchizotypaI personaIity disorder, or simply schizotypal disorder, is a personality disorderthat is
characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behavior and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs.

SeIective mutism (SM) is a severe social anxiety disorder or social phobia
[1][2]
in which a person who is
normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations, or to specific people.

Separation anxiety disorder is a psychological condition in which an individual experiences
excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a
strong emotional attachment (like a father and mother). t becomes a disorder when theseparation
reaction becomes strong enough to impair people's ability to conduct their day to day lives and
relationships.

SexuaI arousaI disorder is characterized by a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual
activity in a situation that would normally produce sexual arousal, or the inability to attain or maintain
typical responses to sexual arousal. The disorder is found in the DSM-V.
[1]
The condition should not be
confused with a sexual desire disorder.

SexuaI fetishism, or erotic fetishism, is the sexual arousal a person receives from a physical object.
The object of interest is called the fetish, the person a fetishist who has a fetish for that object.
[1]
Sexual
fetishism may be regarded, e.g. in psychiatric medicine, as a disorder of sexual preference or as an
enhancing element to a relationship causing a better sexual bond between the partners. The sexual acts
involving fetishes are characteristically depersonalized and objectified, even when they involve a
partner.
[2]
Body parts may also be the subject of sexual fetishes (also known as partialism) in which the
body part preferred by the fetishist takes a sexual precedence over the owner.

A sIeep disorder (somnipathy) is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some
sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. A
test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders is thepolysomnography.

SIeepwaIking, also known as somnambuIism, is a sleep disorder belonging to
theparasomnia family.
[2]
Sleepwalkers arise from the slow wave sleep stage in a state of low
consciousness and perform activities that are usually performed during the day. These activities can be
as benign as sitting up in bed, walking to the bathroom, and cleaning, or as hazardous as cooking,
driving, extremely violent gestures, grabbing at hallucinated objects,
[3]
or even homicide.
[4][5][6]

SociaI anxiety disorder (SAD, SAnD) (DSM-V 300.23), also called sociaI phobia (SP),
[1]
is an anxiety
disorder characterized by intense fear in social situations
[1]
causing considerable distress and impaired
ability to function in at least some parts of daily life. The diagnosis can be of a specific disorder (when
only some particular situations are feared) or a generalized disorder. Generalized social anxiety disorder
typically involves a persistent, intense, chronic fear of being judged by others and of
being embarrassed or humiliated by one's own actions. These fears can be triggered by perceived or
actual scrutiny from others. While the fear of social interaction may be recognized by the person as
excessive or unreasonable, overcoming it can be quite difficult. About 13.3% of the general population
may meet criteria for social anxiety disorder at some point in their lives, according to the highest survey
estimate, with the male:female ratio being 2:3.
[2]

Somatization disorder (also riquet's disorder or, in antiquity, hysteria) is a psychiatric
diagnosis applied to patients who persistently complain of varied physical symptoms that have no
identifiable physical origin. One common general etiological explanation is that
internalpsychological conflicts are unconsciously expressed as physical signs. Patients with somatization
disorder will typically visit many doctors in pursuit of effective treatment.

Somatoform disorder, also known as riquet's syndrome (named after Paul Briquet), orrissaud-
Marie syndrome (named after douard Brissaud and Pierre Marie), is a mental disorder characterized by
physical symptoms that mimic physical disease or injury for which there is no identifiable physical
cause
[1]
. The symptoms that result from a somatoform disorder are due to mental factors. n people who
have somatoform disorder, medical test results are either normal or don't explain the person's symptoms.
People who have this disorder may undergo several medical evaluations and tests to be sure that they do
not have an illness related to a physical cause or central lesion. Patients with this disorder often become
very worried about their health because the doctors are unable to find a cause for their health problems.
Their symptoms are similar to the symptoms of other illnesses and may last for several years.

A specific phobia is a generic term for any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or
irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations. As a result, the affected persons tend to
actively avoid direct contact with the objects or situations and, in severe cases, any mention or depiction
of them.

Speech disorders or speech impediments are a type of communication disorders where
'normal' speech is disrupted. This can mean stuttering, lisps, etc. Someone who is totally unable to speak
due to a speech disorder is considered mute.

Stereotypic movement disorder is a disorder of childhood involving repetitive, nonfunctional motor
behavior (e.g., hand waving or head banging), that markedly interferes with normal activities or results in
bodily injury, and persists for four weeks or longer. The behavior must not be due to the direct effects of a
substance or another medical condition. n cases when mental retardation is present, the stereotypic or
self-injurious behavior must be of sufficient severity to become the focus of treatment. The behavior is not
better explained as a compulsion (e.g.,OCD), a tic, a stereotypy as part of a Pervasive Developmental
Disorder, or hair pulling (trichotillomania).
[1]

Stress is a term in psychology and biology, first coined in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in
more recent decades become a commonplace of popular parlance. t refers to the consequence of the
failure of an organism human or animal to respond appropriately toemotional or physical threats,
whether actual or imagined.
[1]

Stress symptoms commonly include a state of alarm and adrenaline production, short-term resistance as
a coping mechanism, andexhaustion, as well as irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and
a variety of physiological reactions such as headache and elevated heart rate.
[2]



Stuttering (alalia sylla-aris), also known as stammering (alalia literalis or anarthria literalis), is a speech
disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds,
syllables, words or phrases, and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to
produce sounds.
[1]
The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but
it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by stutterers
as -locks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels and semivowels. The term "stuttering",
as popularly used, covers a wide spectrum of severity: it may encompass individuals with barely
perceptible impediments, for whom the disorder is largely cosmetic, as well as others with extremely
severe symptoms, for whom the problem can effectively prevent most oral communication. The impact of
stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. Much of this goes unnoticed by
the listener, and may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being
caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, or a feeling of "loss of
control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly associated with anxiety but there is actually no
such correlation (though as mentioned social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of
their stuttering). Despite popular perceptions to the contrary,
[2]
stuttering does not affect and has no
bearing on intelligence.

A substance-reIated disorder is an umbrella term used to describe several different conditions (such as
intoxication, harmful use/abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and psychoses or amnesia associated with the
use of the substance) associated with several different substances (such asalcohol or opiods.)
Substance-related disorders can be subcategorized into "substance use disorders" (SUD) and
"substance-induced disorders" (SD).
[2][3]



Tardive dyskinesia (pronunciation) is a difficult-to-treat form of dyskinesia (disorder resulting in
involuntary, repetitive body movements) that can be tardive (having a slow or belated onset).
[1]
t is often
seen as a side effect of long-term or high-dose use of certain antipsychotic medicines.

Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on
type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped, involuntary
movements).
[1]
Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization(CD-10 codes).
[2]

Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's disorder, GiIIes de Ia Tourette
syndrome, GTS or, more commonly, simply Tourette's or TS) is an inheritedneuropsychiatric disorder
with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple physical (motor) ticsand at least one vocal (phonic) tic;
these tics characteristically wax and wane. Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders,
which includes transient and chronic tics.

TranssexuaIism is when an individual identifies with a gender that is different from their biological sex. A
medical diagnosis can be made if a person experiences discomfort as a result of a desire to be a member
of the opposite sex,
[1]
or if a person experiences impaired functioning or distress as a result of that gender
identification.
[2]
Transsexualism is stigmatized in many parts of the world but has become more widely
known in Western culture in the mid to late 20th century, concurrently with thesexual revolution and the
development of sex reassignment surgery. t remains controversial, however. Discrimination and negative
attitudes towards transsexualism often accompany certain religious beliefs or cultural values. There are
cultures that have no difficulty integrating people who change gender roles, often holding them with high
regard, such as the traditional role for 'two-spirit' people found among certain native American
tribes.
[3]
France and Norway have been the only countries in the world to remove transsexualism from
their lists of mental illnesses.
[citation needed]

Transvestic fetishism is having a sexual or erotic interest in cross-dressing. t differs from cross-
dressing for entertainment or other purposes that do not involve sexual arousal and is categorized as
a paraphilia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. (Sexual
arousal in response to donning sex-typical clothing is homeovestism.)

TrichotiIIomania (TTM, also known as trichotiIIosis,
[1]
or more commonly as trich) is defined as "hair
loss from a patient's repetitive self-pulling of hair"
[2]
and is characterized by the repeated urge to pull
out scalp hair, eyelashes, facial hair, nose hair, pubic hair, eyebrows or other body hair, sometimes
resulting in noticeable bald patches.
[3]
Trichotillomania is classified in theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) as an impulse control disorder, but there are questions about how it should
be classified. t may seem, at times, to resemble ahabit, an addiction, a tic disorder or an obsessive
compulsive disorder.

'aginismus, sometimes anglicized vaginism is the German name for a condition which affects a
woman's ability to engage in any form of vaginal penetration, including sexual intercourse, insertion of
tampons, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations. This is the result of a conditioned
reflex of the pubococcygeus muscle, which is sometimes referred to as the "PC muscle". The reflex
causes the muscles in the vagina to tense suddenly, which makes any kind of vaginal penetration
including sexual intercoursepainful or impossible.

n clinical psychology, voyeurism is the sexual interest in or practice of spying on people engaged in
intimate behaviors, such as undressing, sexual activity, or other activity usually considered to be of a
private nature.
[1][2]
n popular imagination the term is used in a more general sense to refer to someone
who habitually observes others without their knowledge, with no necessary implication of sexual interest.