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CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTES
(For Bachelor of Engineering)

Notes by:

Soft Copy material designed by:

KARTHIK KUMAR H P
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INDEX

(1) Introduction to Control system
(2) Mathematical model of linear systems
(3) Transfer functions
(4) Block diagram
(5) Signal Flow Graphs
(6) System Stability
(7) Root Locus Plots
(8) Bode Plots

Control Systems 1

## Introduction to Control Systems

CIT, Gubbi.
Control System means any quantity of interest in a machine or mechanism is maintained or altered in
accordance with desired manner. OR
A system which controls the output quantity is called a control system.

Definitions:
1. Controlled Variable:
It is the quantity or condition that is measured & controlled.
2. Controller:
Controller means measuring the value of the controlled variable of the system & applying the
manipulated variable to the system to correct or to limit the deviation of the measured value to the
desired value.
3. Plant:
A plant is a piece of equipment, which is a set of machine parts functioning together. The
purpose of which is to perform a particular operation. Example: Furnace, Space craft etc.,
4. System:
A system is a combination of components that works together & performs certain objective.
5. Disturbance:
A disturbance is a signal that tends to affect the value of the output of a system. If a disturbance
is created inside the system, it is called internal. While an external disturbance is generated outside the
system.
6. Feedback Control:
It is an operation that, in the presence of disturbance tends to reduce the difference between the
output of a system & some reference input.
7. Servo Mechanism:
A servo mechanism is a feedback controlled system in which the output is some mechanical
position, velocity or acceleration.
8. Open loop System:
In an Open loop System, the control action is independent of the desired output. OR
When the output quantity of the control system is not fed back to the input quantity, the control
system is called an Open loop System.
9. Closed loop System:
In the Closed loop Control System the control action is dependent on the desired output, where
the output quantity is considerably controlled by sending a command signal to input quantity.

HPK Kumar
2 Introduction to Control System

## 10. Feed Back:

Normally, the feed back signal has opposite polarity to the input signal. This is called negative
feed back. The advantage is the resultant signal obtained from the comparator being difference of the
two signals is of smaller magnitude. It can be handled easily by the control system. The resulting signal
is called Actuating Signal This signal has zero value when the desired output is obtained. In that
condition, control system will not operate.

## Effects of Feed Back:

Let the system has open loop gain feed back loop gain Output signal &
Input signal .
Then the feed back signal is,

E(S) & –

R(S)
G(S) Hence,
- C(S)
B(S)
H(S)

= (1)

With this eqn. , we can write the effects of feed back as follows.

## (a) Overall Gain:

Eqn. shows that the gain of the open loop system is reduced by a factor in
a feed back system. Here the feed back signal is negative. If the feed back gain has positive value, the
overall gain will be reduced. If the feed back gain has negative value, the overall gain may increase.
(b) Stability:
If a system is able to follow the input command signal, the system is said to be Stable.
A system is said to be Unstable, if its output is out of control. In eqn. , if the output of the
system is infinite for any finite input. This shows that a stable system may become unstable for certain
value of a feed back gain. Therefore if the feed back is not properly used, the system can be harmful.
(c) Sensitivity:
This depends on the system parameters. For a good control system, it is desirable that the system
should be insensitive to its parameter changes.
Sensitivity, SG = This function of the system can be reduced by increasing the value
of . This can be done by selecting proper feed back.

HPK Kumar
Control Systems 3

(d) Noise:
Examples are brush & commutation noise in electrical machines, Vibrations in moving system
etc.,. The effect of feed back on these noise signals will be greatly influenced by the point at which these
signals are introduced in the system. It is possible to reduce the effect of noise by proper design of feed
back system.

## Classification of Control Systems

The Control System can be classified mainly depending upon,
(a) Method of analysis & design, as Linear & Non- Linear Systems.
(b) The type of the signal, as Time Varying, Time Invariant, Continuous data, Discrete data systems etc.,
(c) The type of system components, as Electro Mechanical, Hydraulic, Thermal, Pneumatic Control systems etc.,
(d) The main purpose, as Position control & Velocity control Systems.

## 1. Linear & Non - Linear Systems:

In a linear system, the principle of superposition can be applied. In non - linear system,
th is p rin cip le ca n ’t b e a p p lied . T h erefo re a lin ea r system is th a t w h ich o b eys su p erp o sitio n
principle & homogeneity.
2. Time Varying & Time Invariant Systems:
While operating a control system, if the parameters are unaffected by the time, then the
system is called Time Invariant Control System. Most physical systems have parameters
changing with time. If this variation is measurable during the system operation then the system
is called Time Varying System.
If there is no non-linearity in the time varying system, then the system may be called as
Linear Time varying System.
3. Discrete Data Systems:
If the signal is not continuously varying with time but it is in the form of pulses. Then
the control system is called Discrete Data Control System.
If the signal is in the form of pulse data, then the system is called Sampled Data Control
System. Here the information supplied intermittently at specific instants of time. This has the
advantage of Time sharing system. On the other hand, if the signal is in the form of digital
code, the system is called Digital Coded System. Here use of Digital computers, µp, µc is
made use of such systems are analyzed by the Z- transform theory.
4. Continuous Data Systems:
If the signal obtained at various parts of the system are varying continuously with time,
then the system is called Continuous Data Control Systems.
In some control systems, certain parameters are either not constant or vary in an
unknown manner. If the parameter variations are large or rapid, it may be desirable to design
for the capability of continuously measuring them & changing th e compensation, so that the
system performance criteria can always satisfied. This is called Adaptive Control Systems.

HPK Kumar
4 Introduction to Control System

## Identification & Parameter

R(s) E(s) -
Compensator System
+ C(s)
B(s)
H(S)

## 6. Optimal Control System:

Optimal Control System is obtained by minimizing and/or maximizing the performance
index. This index depends upon the physical system & skill.
7. Single Variable Control System:
In simple control system there will be One input & One output such systems are called
Single variable System (SISO – Single Input & Single Output).
8. Multi Variable Control System:
In Multivariable control system there will be more than one input & correspondingly
more output’s (M IM O - Multiple Inputs & Multiple Outputs).

## Comparison between Open loop & Closed loop Gain

Open Loop System Closed Loop System
1. An open loop system has the ability to 1. A closed loop system has got the ability to
perform accurately, if its calibration is good. perform accurately because of the feed back.
If the calibration is not perfect its performance
will go down.
2. It is easier to build. 2. It is difficult to build.
3. In general it is more stable as the feed 3. Less Stable Comparatively.
back is absent.
4. If non- lin ea rity’s a re present; the 4. Even under the presence of non-
system operation is not good. lin ea rity’s th e system o p era tes b etter th a n o p en
loop system.
5. Feed back is absent. 5. Feed back is present.
Example: Example:
(i) Traffic Control System. (i) Pressure Control System.
(ii) Control of furnace for coal heating. (ii) Speed Control System.
(iii) An Electric Washing Machine. (iii) Robot Control System.
(iv) Temperature Control System.

Note:
Any control system which operates on time basis is an Open Loop System.

HPK Kumar
Control Systems 5

## Block Diagram of Closed Loop System:

Controller
E(S)
Control Elements Plant
Ref. i/p Controlled
o/p

Actuator

Thermo meter

Electric Furnace

Heater

Programmed i/p

Sensor Sun
Ambient
Temperature

## Controller Air Conditioner Passenger Car

Desired O/p
Temperature
i/p
Sensor

************************************************************************

****************

HPK Kumar

Control Systems  1

## Mathematical Models of Linear Systems

CIT, Gubbi.
A physical system is a collection of physical objects connected together to serve an objective. An idealized
physical system is called a Physical model. Once a physical model is obtained, the next step is to obtain Mathematical
model. When a mathematical model is solved for various i/p conditions, the result represents the dynamic behavior of the
system.

Analogous System:
The concept of analogous system is very useful in practice. Since one type of system may be easier to
handle experimentally than another. A given electrical system consisting of resistance, inductance &
capacitances may be analogous to the mechanical system consisting of suitable combination of Dash pot,
Mass & Spring. The advantages of electrical systems are,

## 1. Many circuit theorems, impedance concepts can be applicable.

2. An Electrical engineer familiar with electrical systems can easily analyze the system under
study & can predict the behavior of the system.
3. The electrical analog system is easy to handle experimentally.

Translational System:
It has 3 types of forces due to elements.

## 1. Inertial Force:  Due to inertial mass,

2
Fm t M. a 2
M F(t)
Where, .
.
.

2. Damping Force [Viscous Damping]:  Due to viscous damping, it is proportional to velocity & is given by,
D

.

Damping force is denoted by either D or B or F

3. Spring Force:   Spring force is proportional to displacement.

.  .

Fk
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2 Mathematical Models of Linear Systems

Where,
Rotational system:

1. Inertial Torque:

2. Damping Torque:   .

3. Spring Torque :

Analogous quantities in translational & Rotational system:
The electrical analog of the mechanical system can be obtained by,
(i) Force Voltage analogy: (F.V)
(ii) Force Current analogy: (F.I)

## Sl. Mechanical Translational Mechanical Rotational F.V F.I

No. System System Analogy Analogy
1. Force (F) Torque (T) Voltage (V) Current (I)
2. Mass (M) Moment of Inertia (M) Inductance (L) Capacitance (C)
3. Viscous friction (D or B or F) Viscous friction (D or B or F) Resistance (R) Conductance (G)
4. Spring stiffness (k) Torsional spring stiffness Reciprocal Reciprocal
( ) of Capacitance (1/C) of Inductance (1/L)
5. Linear displacement ( ) Angular displacement ( ) Charge (q) Flux ( )
6. Linear velocity ( ) Angular Velocity (w) Current (i) Voltage (v)

D’Alemberts Principle:
The static equilibrium of a dynamic system subjected to an external driving force obeys the following principle,
“For any body, the algebraic sum of externally applied forces resisting motion in any given direction is zero”.
Example Problems:
(1) Obtain the electrical analog (FV & FI analog circuits) for the Machine system shown & also write the equations.

## Free Body diagram

D2 2
2
M1
D1
1 F t
1
M1
F t

ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà
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Control Systems  1

Transfer Functions

CIT, Gubbi.
The input- output relationship in a linear time invariant system is defined by the transfer function.
The features of the transfer functions are,
(1)
It is applicable to Linear Time Invariant system.
(2)
It is the ratio between the Laplace Transform of the o/p variable to the Laplace Transform of the i/p variable.
(3)
It is assumed that initial conditions are zero.
(4)
It is independent of i/p excitation.
(5)
It is used to obtain systems o/p response.
An equation describing the physical system has integrals & differentials, the step involved in obtaining the
transfer function are;
(1) Write the differential equation of the system.
(2) Replace the terms by ‘S’ &   by 1/S.
(3) Eliminate all the variables except the desired variables.

Impulse Response of the Linear System:

## In a control system, when there is a single i/p of unit impulse function,

G(S) then there will be some response of the Linear System.
R(S)

C(S)
The Laplace Transform of the i/p will be R(S) = 1
G(S) =
.   .1

1
i.e., the Laplace Transform of the system o/p will be simply the ‘Transfer function’ of the system.

## Taking L-1

Here G(t) will be impulse response of the Linear System. This is called Weighing Function. Hence LT of the impulse
response is the Transfer function of the system itself.
R
PROBLEMS:

C
i
(1) Obtain the Transfer‐Function(TF) of the circuit shown in circuit 1.0

## R Laplace Transformed network

Solution:

Circuit 1.0
i(S) 1

Contd……
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2 Transfer Functions

1 1
. .,                  &

.

.
1

1
Where, = RC
1

(2) Obtain the TF of the mechanical system shown in circuit 2.

## Designed By: HPK Kumar

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Control Systems  3

(3) Transfer Function of an Armature Controlled DC Motor in circuit 3.0:

Ra La If = Constant
Let,

ia ‘Ra’ Æ Resistance of armature in Ω’s.

## V  i ia Eb F ‘La’ Æ Inductance of armature in H’s.

Vf
‘ia’ Æ Armature current. & ‘if’Æ Field current.

‘Vi’ Æ Applied armature voltage.
circuit 3.0 Tm
J, ‘Eb’ Æ Back e.m.f in volts.
F ‘Tm’ Æ Torque developed by the motor in N-m.

Æ Angular displacement of motor shaft in radians

J Æ Equivalent moment of inertia of motor & load referred to the motor shaft.

F Æ Equivalent Viscous friction co-efficient of motor & load referred to the motor shaft.
The air gap flux ‘ ’ is proportional to the field current.
i.e.,

## . Where, ‘Kf’ is a constant.

The torque developed by the motor ‘Tm’ is proportional to the product of the arm current & the air gap flux.
Where, Ka & Kf are the constants.

Since the field current is constant,        Where, KT is Motor – torque constant.
The motor back e.m.f is proportional to the speed & is given by,

## The differential equation of the armature circuit is,

2
The torque equation is,   2
Taking LT for above equation, we get
------------------------------- (1)

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐  (A)

Taking LT for the torque equation & equating, we get

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4 Transfer Functions

2

------------------------------ (2)

-------------------------- (B)

## Taking LT for back e.m.f equation, we get

------------------------------- (C)
Substituting the values of Ia (S) & Eb (S) from equation (C) & (2) in equation (1), we get

.

The block diagram representation of armature controlled DC Motor can be obtained as follows,
From equation (A),
Vi(S) 1 Ia(S)

-
Eb(S)
From equation (B),
Ia(S) (S)

(S)     Eb(S)

Vi(S) 1 Ia(S)
(S)
2
-
Eb(S)

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Control Systems  5

(4) Transfer function of Field Controlled DC Motor in circuit 4.0:

Let,
Rf Lf Ia = Constant
Rf Æ Field winding resistance.

## Lf Æ Field winding inductance.

Vf if
Vf Æ Field control voltage.
Tm
If Æ Field current.

Tm Æ Torque developed by motor.
circuit 4.0 J Æ Equivalent moment of inertia of motor & load referred to the motor shaft.

F motor shaft.

## Æ Angular displacement of motor shaft.

In the field controlled DC motor, the armature current is fed from a constant current source.
Where, Ka & Kf are the constants.
The KVL equation for the field circuit is,

On Laplace Transform,

.          ---------------------------------- (1)

--------------------------------- (A)

## The torque equation is ,         Where, KT is Motor – torque constant.

On Laplace Transform,

.
2
.
--------------------------- (2)

------------------------- (B)

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6 Transfer Functions

2
.

2

The block diagram representation of field controlled DC Motor can be obtained as follows,
From equation (A),
Vf (S) 1 If (S)

If (S) (S)

R C

## (5) Obtain the TF    for the network shown in circuit 5.0:  Vi R C Vo

1
Laplace Transformed network
Solution: R
circuit 5.0
I(S) I1(S) I2(S)

Vi (S) R 1 Vo (S)
Applying KVL to this circuit,

----------------
------------------ (1)

1
.
1 1
1             .

2
Let,    τ
1

τ
2
1 τ   τ
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Control Systems  7
100 k  Ω 1M Ω

## (6) Find the TF    for the network shown in circuit 6.0:

10  F 1 F
Laplace Transformed network
Vi
Solution: 10   10

Circuit 6.0
10 10
Vi (S)      V0 (S)

Loop 1 Loop 2

## Writing KVL for loop (1), we get

5 5
1  105   10         2   10
.
1       2
------------------------------------------- (1)
105   1 1

## Writing KVL for loop (2), we get

10       0

2     10 1 11
-------------------------------------------- (2)

106  .
2 .           2      6 --------------------------------- (3)
10

## Substituting for I1 (S) from equation (2) in (1), we get

.
2 .   10  11   5     2
1

10   1
10  11   1  1
5      2   1
10   1

## From equation (3) the above equation becomes,

.     2
5      6    10   21  10
10   10

10

10   21  10

10   1 10 11
+
1
1

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8 Transfer Functions

ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà

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Control Systems 1

Block Diagrams
CIT, Gubbi.
It is a representation of the control system giving the inter-relation between the transfer function of
various components. The block diagram is obtained after obtaining the differential equation & Transfer
function of all components of a control system. The arrow head pointing towards the block indicates the i/p
& pointing away from the block indicates the o/p.

If is the TF,

After obtaining the block diagram for each & every component, all blocks are combined to obtain a
complete representation. It is then reduced to a simple form with the help of block diagram algebra.
The following block diagram reduction algebra is used,
(1) Blocks in Cascade [Series] :

G2(S)
(2) Combining blocks in Parallel:

## (3) Eliminating a feed back loop:

(3)
(2) (6)
(4) Moving a take-off point beyond a block:
(3)
(2) (6)
G(S) C(S)
(2)

(2)

(2)
(2) (3) (6)
(3) (6)
G(S)
(2)
(6)
(6)
2 Block Diagrams

P ROBLEMS :

+
(1)
- - -

+
-

+
C(S)
-

## Eliminating the feed back path, we get

Control Systems 3

(2)
-
R(S) C(S)
- -

-
R(S) C(S)
- -

R(S) C(S)
- -

R(S) C(S)
-

R(S) C(S)
4 Block Diagrams

R(S) C(S)
(3) - - -

R(S) C(S)
- - -

R(S) C(S)
- -

R(S) C(S)
-

## Eliminating feed back loop , we get

R(S) C(S)
Control Systems 1

## Signal Flow Graphs

CIT, Gubbi.
For complicated systems, Block diagram reduction method becomes tedious & time consuming. An
alternate method is that signal flow graphs developed by S.J. Mason. In these graphs, each node represents
a system variable & each branch connected between two nodes acts as Signal Multiplier. The direction of
signal flow is indicated by an arrow.

Definitions:
1. Node: A node is a point representing a variable.
2. Transmittance: A transmittance is a gain between two nodes.
3. Branch: A branch is a line joining two nodes. The signal travels along a branch.
4. Input node [Source]: It is a node which has only out going signals.
5. Output node [Sink]: It is a node which is having only incoming signals.
6. Mixed node: It is a node which has both incoming & outgoing branches (signals).
7. Path: It is the traversal of connected branches in the direction of branch arrows. Such that no node
is traversed more than once.
8. Loop: It is a closed path.
9. Loop Gain: It is the product of the branch transmittances of a loop.
10. Non-Touching Loops: Loops are Non-Touching, if they do not possess any common node.
11. Forward Path: It is a path from i/p node to the o/p node w hich doesn’t cross any node m ore than
once.
12. Forward Path Gain: It is the product of branch transmittances of a forward path.

## M ASO N ’S GAIN FO RM U LA:

The relation between the i/p variable & the o/p variable of a signal flow graphs is given by the net
gain between the i/p & the o/p nodes and is known as Overall gain of the system.
Mason’s gain form ula for the determ ination of overall system gain is given by,

## Where, – Path gain of forward path.

Determinant of the graph.

The value of the for that part of the graph not touching the forward path.
T Overall gain of the system.
2 Signal Flow Graphs

Problems:

(1) Obtain the closed loop TF, by using M ason’s gain form ula.

C(S)
R(S)

Solution:
M ason’s gain form ula is,
No. of forward paths:

No. of individual loops: Gain Products of all possible combinations of two non-touching loops:

## No. of three non-touching loops = 0.

(2) Obtain the closed loop TF, by using M ason’s gain form ula.

R(S) C(S)

Solution:
M ason’s gain form ula is,
Forward Paths:

Contd......
Control Systems 3

## No. of individual loops: Two Non-touching loops:

(3) Construct a signal flow graph from the following equations. Obtain overallTF using M ason’s gain form ula.

Solution:

## Three non-touching loops = 0

M ason’s gain form ula is,

(4) Obtain by Block Diagram Reduction method & verify the result by signal flow graph.

+
R(S) C(S)
-
+
+

Contd......
4 Signal Flow Graphs

R(S) C(S)
- -

R(S) C(S)

R(S) C(S)

## No. of individual loops:

M ason’s gain form ula is,

## (5) Obtain the TF & Verify by signal flow graph.

+
R(S) C(S)
- -

Solution: Shifting the take-off point ahead of the block . The BD reduces to,

+ C(S)
R(S)
- -

Contd......
Control Systems 5

R(S) C(S)
-

R(S) C(S)

C(S)
R(S)

R(S) C(S)

## (6) Reduce the Block Diagram shown.

R(S)
- C(S)

- - +

Solution:
Shifting beyond , we get

R(S)
- C(S)

- - +
6 Signal Flow Graphs

R(S) C(S)

- - +

R(S) C(S)

- +

R(S) C(S)

- +

R(S) C(S)

R(S) C(S)

## Signal flow graph:

R(S) C(S)

Contd......
Control Systems 7

## No. of individual loops:

(7) Obtain the closed loop TF by using M ason’s gain form ula.

R(S) C(S)

Solution:
No. of forward paths:

## No. of individual loops: Two non-touching loops:

(8) Obtain the TF of the closed loop control system represented by the Block Diagram shown below using
block diagram reduction method.

- -

Solution:
Shifting the take off point of beyond block & Simplifying for the blocks , we get

- -
8 Signal Flow Graphs

## Eliminating loop, we get

(9) U sing M ason’s gain rule, obtain the overall TF of a control system represented by the signal flow graph
shown below.

Solution:
No. of forward paths:

Individual loops:

## Two non-touching loops = 0

(10) Construct signal flow graph from the following equations & obtain the overall TF.

Contd......
Control Systems 9

Solution:

## (11) O btain the TF using M ason’s gain form ula.

Contd......
10 Signal Flow Graphs

Solution:
No. of forward paths:

## No. of individual loops:

Two non-touching loops:

## (12) Obtain the TF using M ason’s gain form ula.

Solution:
No. of forward paths: No. of individual loops:

## (13) O btain the TF using M ason’s gain form ula.

Contd......
Control Systems 11

Solution:
No. of forward paths:

## Three non-touching loops = 0

(14) Draw the signal flow graph for the Block Diagram shown in fig. Hence obtain , Using
M ason’s gain form ula.

Solution:

## – Two non-touching loops:

Contd......
12 Signal Flow Graphs

## Three non-touching loops = 0

(15) Obtain TF, using block diagram algebra & also by using Masons Gain Formula. Hence Verify
the TF in both the methods.

Solution:
Same block diagram can be re-arranged as shown below.

## Shifting the take-off points beyond we get

Control Systems 13

Substituting ‘x’ value in the block diagram . T he block diagram becom es,

## No. of individual loops: Two non-touching loops = 0

(16) Obtain TF, using block diagram algebra & also by using Masons Gain Formula. Hence Verify
the TF in both the methods.

Contd......
14 Signal Flow Graphs

Solution:
Same Block Diagram can be written as,

## Signal flow Graph:

Control Systems 15

## (17) Find the output

Solution:
(i) Let then we can find

## Three non-touching loops = 0

16 Signal Flow Graphs

## (ii) Let Determine

No. of forward paths:

## (iv) Let Determine

(i.e., R esponse at ‘2’ w hen source ‘2’ is acting).
(figure is in next page)
No. of forward paths:

## ‘ ’rem ains sam e.

Control Systems 17

Hence,
Control Systems 1

System Stability
CIT, Gubbi.
While considering the performance specification in the control system design, the essential &
desirable requirement will be the system stability. This means that the system must be stable at all times
during operation. Stability may be used to define the usefulness of the system. Stability studies include
absolute & relative stability. Absolute stability is the quality of stable or unstable performance. Relative
Stability is the quantitative study of stability.
The stability study is based on the properties of the TF. In the analysis, the characteristic equation is
of importance to describe the transient response of the system. From the roots of the characteristic equation,
some of the conclusions drawn will be as follows,
(1) When all the roots of the characteristic equation lie in the left half of the S-plane, the system
response due to initial condition will decrease to zero at time Thus the system will be termed as
stable.
(2) When one or more roots lie on the imaginary axis & there are no roots on the RHS of S-
plane, the response will be oscillatory without damping. Such a system will be termed as critically stable.
(3) When one or more roots lie on the RHS of S-plane, the response will exponentially increase
in magnitude; there by the system will be Unstable.

## Some of the Definitions of stability are,

(1) A system is stable, if its o/p is bounded for any bounded i/p.
(2) A system is stable, if it‟s response to a bounded disturbing signal vanishes ultimately as time
„t‟ approaches infinity.
(3) A system is un stable, if it‟s respon se to a bounded disturbing signal results in an o/p of
infinite amplitude or an Oscillatory signal.
(4) If the o/p response to a bounded i/p signal results in constant amplitude or constant
amplitude oscillations, then the system may be stable or unstable under some limited constraints. Such a
system is called Limitedly Stable system.
(5) If a system response is stable for a limited range of variation of its parameters, it is called
Conditionally Stable System.
(6) If a system response is stable for all variation of its parameters, it is called Absolutely Stable
system.

Routh-Hurwitz Criteria:
A designer has so often to design the system that satisfies certain specifications. In general, a
system before being put in to use has to be tested for its stability. Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria may be
used. This criterion is used to know about the absolute stability. i.e., no extra information can be obtained
regarding improvement.
As per Routh-Hurwitz criteria, the necessary conditions for a system to be stable are,
(1) None of the co-efficient‟ of the Characteristic equation should be missing or zero.
(2) All the co-efficient‟ should be real & should have the sam e sign.
2 System Stability

A sufficient condition for a system to be stable is that each & every term of the column of
the Routh array must be positive or should have the same sign. Routh array can be obtained as follows.
The Characteristic equation is of the form,
… … … … … … … … …

Where,

0
0
0 0
: :
0 0 0

## (1) It is valid only if the Characteristic equation is algebraic.

(2) If any co-efficient of the Characteristic equation is complex or contains power of „ ‟, this criterion
cannot be applied.
(3) It gives information about how many roots are lying in the RHS of S-plane; values of the roots are
not available. Also it cannot distinguish between real & complex roots.

## Special cases in Routh-Hurwitz criteria:

(1) When the term in a row is zero, but all other terms are non-zeroes then substitute a small positive
number for zero & proceed to evaluate the rest of the elements. When the column term is zero, it
means that there is an imaginary root.
(2) All zero row: In the case, write auxiliary equation from preceding row, differentiate this equation &
substitute all zero row by the co-efficient‟ obtained by differentiating the auxiliary eq uation. This case
occurs when the roots are in pairs. The system is limitedly stable.

Problems:

COMMENT ON THE STABILITY OF THE SYSTEM WHOSE CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION IS GIVEN BELOW:

(1)

1 21 20
The no. of sign changes in the column = zero.
6 36 0 No roots are lying in the RHS of S-plane.
15 20 0
The given System is Absolutely Stable.
28 0 0
20 0 0
Control Systems 3

(2)

## 4 2 The no. of sign changes in the column = 2

3 5 Two roots are lying in the RHS of S-plane.

## -4.66 0 The given System is unstable.

5 0

(3)
1 1 5
The no. of sign changes in the column = 2
2 4 0 Two roots are lying in the RHS of S-plane.
-1 5 0
The given System is unstable.
14 0 0
5 0 0

(4)
1 2 3 +ve
2 4 1 +ve The no. of sign changes in the
0 2.5 0 +ve column = 2

of S-plane.

## 0 0 +ve The given System is unstable.

1 0 0 +ve

(5)
1 2 3
2 4 6
All Zero row. A.E. is
2 6 0
-16 0 0 The no. of sign changes in the column = 2
6 0 0 Two roots are lying in the RHS of S-plane.
The given System is unstable & limitedly stable.
(6)

1 8 20 16 A.E. is
2 12 16 0
2 12 16 0
The no. of sign changes in the column = 0
The System is limitedly stable.
6 16 0 0
(Because, in the row all the elements are
2.66 0 0 0 zero).
16 0 0 0
4 System Stability

(7) The open loop TF of a unity feed back system is . Find the restriction on ‘K’, So that
the closed loop is stable.
Solution:

(i)
10 1
(ii)
6.5 K

K 0

## For, the closed loop system is stable.

(8)
Solution:
1 4 K For Stable system,

3 1 0 (i)

K 0 (i)

0 0

K 0 0

## For, the closed loop system is stable

(9) D eterm ine the value of‘K & b’,So that the system open loop T.F. oscillates at a
frequency of 2 radians. ( Assuming unity feed back i.e., H(S)=1 )
Solution:
The characteristic equation is

1 (3+K)

b (1+K)

(1+K) 0

## Either from (9.1) or (9.2)

Control Systems 5

(10) The open-loop TF of a unity feed back system is given by the above
expression.Find the value of‘K’for w hich the system is just stable.
Solution:
The characteristic equation is (i) K>0
(ii) 192 – K > 0
K < 192
(iii) (192 – K)(15+K) – 162K > 0
1 23 2K
(for the max. value of K)
9 (15+K) 0 From this evaluate for K,

2K 0
Using,

## When the value of „K ‟ is 61.68 the system is just stable.

(11) Using Routh-Hurw itz criteria,find out the range of‘K’for w hich the system is stable.The
characteristic equation is
Solution:
(i) K>0
1 (2K+3)
(ii)
5K 10

0
Considering the positive value of „K‟,
10 0

T he range of K is „ ‟

(12) A proposed control system has a system & a controller as shown. Access the stability of the system
by a suitable m ethod.W hat are the ranges of‘K’for the system to be stable?

(i) K>0
16 (1+K) (ii)
8 K

## 0 The range of K is,

K 0

(13)
6 System Stability

S-plane.

## The system is Unstable.

(14)
Auxiliary Equation:

## No sign changes in the

column.
T he system is “ Limitedly
Stable” .

(15)
(i)
(ii)

## (16) The open-loop TF of a control system is given by Find the range of

the gain constant ‘K’for stability using Routh-Hurwitz criteria.
Solution:
The characteristic equation is

(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

## The Range of K is for

the system to be stable.
Control Systems 7

(17)

1 4 6
2 5 2 (i) No. of sign changes = 2.
1.5 5 0 (ii) Two roots lie on RHS of
S-plane.
-1.666 2 0 (iii) The system is Unstable.
6.8 0 0
2 0 0

(18)
Solution:

1 11
6 6 No sign changes.
The system is Absolutely Stable.
10 0
6 0

(19)
Solution: 1 -5
2 -6
No. of sign changes = 1
The system is Unstable. -2 0
-6 0

(20)

+ve 1 2 4
+ve 1 2 1
+ve No. of sign changes = 2.
3 0 The system is Unstable.
-ve 1 0

+ve 0 0

+ve 1 0 0

(21)
+ve 2 6 1
+ve 1 3 1
No. of sign changes = 2.
+ve -1 0 The system is Unstable.
+ve
1 0

-ve 0 0

+ve 1 0 0

(22)
8 System Stability

1 -2 -7 -4
1 -3 -4 0
1 -3 -4 0 Auxiliary equation:

## -1.5 -4 0 0 No. of sign changes = 1.

-16.66 0 0 0 The system is Unstable &
Limitedly Stable.
-4 0 0 0

(23)
1 5 8 4
Auxiliary equation:
2 8 8 0
1 4 4 0

Auxiliary equation:
2 4 0 0

## No. of sign changes = 0

4 0 0 0
The system is Limitedly Stable.

(24)
1 2 0.5 Auxiliary Equation:
0(4) 0(4) 0(0)
1 0.5 0 No. of sign changes = 0
2 0 0 The system is Limitedly Stable.
0.5 0 0

(25)
1 2 2 Auxiliary Equation:

## 0.8 1.6 0 No. of sign changes = 2

-4 2 0 The system is Unstable.
2 0 0
2 0 0

(26)
1 7500 (i)
34.5 7500K (ii)
0
7500K 0

For a stable closed loop system there should not be any sign change among the elements of the column in the Routh-
Hurwitz table. This requires &
T he range of „K ‟ is for the system to be stable.
Control Systems 9

(27) Given , .
Solution:
The characteristic equation is

1 (21+K) (i)
(ii)
10 13K

## 0 The range of K is , for the system

13K 0 to be stable.

(28) ,

Solution:
The Characteristic equation is
1 15 2K
(i)
7 25+K 0
(ii)
2K 0
(iii)
0 0 To solve for the K value,
By simplifying,
2K 0 0
Hence, the range of K is
(29)
Solution:
(i)
1 5 15 (ii)
20K 10 0

15 0 (iii)

## 0 0 T he gain „K ‟ alw ays should be a real quantity.

15 0 0 Hence this system is always Unstable.

(30) D eterm ine the values of‘K’& ‘a’.Such that the system oscillates at a frequency of 2 rad/sec.

, becomes
1 (2+K)
a (1+K)

## (1+K) 0 From (1) & (2), &

(31)
10 System Stability

1 2 3
No. of sign changes = 2
1
-2 0 The system is Unstable.

5 0

0 0

5 0 0

(32)
9 10 -9
No. of sign changes = 3

## 0 The system is Unstable.

0
0 0
0 0

(33)

1 24 24 23
Auxiliary equation:
9 24 24 15
21.33 21.33 21.33 0
15 15 15
No. of sign changes = 2
The system is Unstable.
7.5 15 0 0
0 0 0
15 0 0 0

(34)
1 9 4 36
Auxiliary equation:
5 9 20 36
7.2 0 28.8 0
9 0 36
No. of sign changes = 2
The system is Unstable.
36 0 0

0 0 0

36 0 0 0

(35) ,
Solution: The Characteristic equation is

1 2 (i)
3 K (ii)
0
K 0 The range of K is
Control Systems 11

(36) The open-loop transfer function of a unity feed back control system is given by,
, using Routh-Hurwitz criteria. Discuss the stability of the closed loop-

controlsystem .D eterm ine the value of‘K’w hich w illcause sustained oscillations in the closed loop
system. What are the corresponding oscillating frequencies?
Solution:
The characteristic equation is
1 69 (i)
(ii)
12 198 0
52.5 0 (iii) The Auxiliary equation for the row is
0 0
When
0 0

Hence,

(37) A feed back system has open-loop transfer function Determine the

## maximum value of‘K’for stability ofthe closed-loop system.

Solution:
Generally control systems have very low Band width which implies that it has very low frequency
range of operations. Hence for low frequency ranges, the term can be replaced by . i.e.,

## The characteristic equation is ,

1 (i)
5 K (ii)

0
The range of K is for the system to be
K 0 stable.

Control Systems  1

## Root Locus Plots

CIT, Gubbi.
It gives complete dynamic response of the system. It provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the
variation in the parameter being considered. It is applied for single as well as multiple loop system. It can be defined as
follows,
It is the plot of the loci of the root of the complementary equation when one or more parameters of the open-loop
Transfer function are varied, mostly the only one variable available is the gain ‘K’ The negative gain has no physical
significance hence varying ‘K’ from ‘0’ to ‘∞’ , the plot is obtained called the “Root Locus Point”.

Rules for the Construction of Root Locus

## (1) The root locus is symmetrical about the real axis.

(2) The no. of branches terminating on ‘∞’ equals the no. of open-loop pole-zeroes.
(3) Each branch of the root locus originates from an open-loop pole at ‘K = 0’ & terminates at open-loop zero
corresponding to ‘K = ∞’.
(4) A point on the real axis lies on the locus, if the no. of open-loop poles & zeroes on the real axis to the right of this
point is odd.
(5) The root locus branches that tend to ‘∞’, do so along the straight line.
0
180
Asymptotes making angle with the real axis is given by , Where, n=1,3,5,…………………
P = No. of poles & Z =No. of zeroes.
∑ ∑
(6) The asymptotes cross the real axis at a point known as Centroid. i.e.,
(7) The break away or the break in points [Saddle points] of the root locus or determined from the roots of the
equation 0.
(8) The intersection of the root locus branches with the imaginary axis can be determined by the use of Routh-
Hurwitz criteria or by putting ‘     ’ in the characteristic equation & equating the real part and imaginary to
zero. To solve for ‘ ’ & ‘K’ i.e., the value of ‘ ’ is intersection point on the imaginary axis & ‘K’ is the value of
gain at the intersection point.
(9) The angle of departure from a complex open-loop pole( ) is given by, 180

ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà Þßà ßÞà Þßà  ßÞà

## Designed By: HPK Kumar

(hpk_kumar007@yahoo.com)

Control Systems 1

Bode Plots

CIT, Gubbi.
Sinusoidal transfer function is commonly represented by Bode Plot. It is a plot of magnitude against
frequency. i.e., angle of transfer function against frequency.
The following are the advantages of Bode Plot,
(1) Plotting of Bode Plot is relatively easier as compared to other methods.
(2) Low & High frequency characteristics can be represented on a single diagram.
(3) Study of relative stability is easier as parameters of analysis of relative stability are gain & phase
margin which are visibly seen on sketch.
(4) If modification of an existing system is to be studied, it can be easily done on a Bode Plot.
Initial Magnitude:

If ,
,

,
,
,
,
,
Phase Plot: Magnitude Plot:
GCF
PCF

+ve PM -ve GM
line 0 dB line

GCF PCF

GCF
PCF
line 0 dB line
-ve PM +ve GM
PCF
GCF
2 Bode Plots

Problems:
(1) To find the angle for the quadratic term
Solution: Put,

## (2) Determine the transfer function. Whose approximate plot is as shown.

dB
B
C
40 dB
A

Solution:
The corner frequencies are & at , the slope changes from to .

Therefore there must be a factor . Since the initial slope is , There must be a pole at the

origin i.e., at

B
20

A C

## (3) Find the open-loop TF of a system, whose approximate plot is as shown.

dB

C
Control Systems 3

Solution:
Corner frequencies are
To find the value of‘K’:
but

## Since the has a slope of , the corresponding factor is

Plot between & , It is having a slope of . Therefore at , there must be a zero & the
factor is in the numerator.

## At ,the slop is changing from to & the corresponding factor is

in the Numerator.

## At , the slope has changed from to due to a factor

in the denominator.
Therefore the open-loop transfer function is,

dB

Solution:

## (2) At slope changes from to indicating a term in the

numerator.
(3) At slope changes to indicating a term in the Numerator.

## (5) At slope changes to indicating a term in the

Denominator.
(6) At slope changes to indicating a term in the
Denominator.
4 Bode Plots

## (5) Find the open-loop TF of a system, whose approximate plot is as shown.

dB
A

Solution:
To find the value of‘K’:
Let , be the origin.

(6) Derive the Transfer function of the system from the data given on the Bode diagram given below.
dB

[[

dB,

## To find the value of‘K’:

Calculation of : Calculation of :

## Therefore, the Open-loop transfer function is,

Control Systems 5

## Exam ination Problem (M ar/Apr’99):

(7) The sketch given shows the Bode Magnitude plot for a system. Obtain the Transfer function.
dB
D
40 A

B (P) (P)
(Z) E
C (DZ)

Solution: Since the initial slope is there must be zero at the origin.
&

## Examination Problem (Sep/O ct’99):

(8) Estimate the Transfer function for the Bode Magnitude plot shown in figure.

dB

(Z)

Solution:
6 Bode Plots

## Examination Problem (97):

(9) The bode plot (magnitude) of a unity feed back control system is as shown in the fig. Obtain the
phase plot.
dB

Solution: