CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTES
(For Bachelor of Engineering)
Notes by:
PROF. SHESHADRI G. S
Soft Copy material designed by:
KARTHIK KUMAR H P
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INDEX
(1) Introduction to Control system
(2) Mathematical model of linear systems
(3) Transfer functions
(4) Block diagram
(5) Signal Flow Graphs
(6) System Stability
(7) Root Locus Plots
(8) Bode Plots
Control Systems 1
CIT, Gubbi.
Control System means any quantity of interest in a machine or mechanism is maintained or altered in
accordance with desired manner. OR
A system which controls the output quantity is called a control system.
Definitions:
1. Controlled Variable:
It is the quantity or condition that is measured & controlled.
2. Controller:
Controller means measuring the value of the controlled variable of the system & applying the
manipulated variable to the system to correct or to limit the deviation of the measured value to the
desired value.
3. Plant:
A plant is a piece of equipment, which is a set of machine parts functioning together. The
purpose of which is to perform a particular operation. Example: Furnace, Space craft etc.,
4. System:
A system is a combination of components that works together & performs certain objective.
5. Disturbance:
A disturbance is a signal that tends to affect the value of the output of a system. If a disturbance
is created inside the system, it is called internal. While an external disturbance is generated outside the
system.
6. Feedback Control:
It is an operation that, in the presence of disturbance tends to reduce the difference between the
output of a system & some reference input.
7. Servo Mechanism:
A servo mechanism is a feedback controlled system in which the output is some mechanical
position, velocity or acceleration.
8. Open loop System:
In an Open loop System, the control action is independent of the desired output. OR
When the output quantity of the control system is not fed back to the input quantity, the control
system is called an Open loop System.
9. Closed loop System:
In the Closed loop Control System the control action is dependent on the desired output, where
the output quantity is considerably controlled by sending a command signal to input quantity.
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
HPK Kumar
2 Introduction to Control System
E(S) & –
R(S)
G(S) Hence,
 C(S)
B(S)
H(S)
= (1)
With this eqn. , we can write the effects of feed back as follows.
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
HPK Kumar
Control Systems 3
(d) Noise:
Examples are brush & commutation noise in electrical machines, Vibrations in moving system
etc.,. The effect of feed back on these noise signals will be greatly influenced by the point at which these
signals are introduced in the system. It is possible to reduce the effect of noise by proper design of feed
back system.
HPK Kumar
4 Introduction to Control System
Note:
Any control system which operates on time basis is an Open Loop System.
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
HPK Kumar
Control Systems 5
Heater
************************************************************************
****************
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
HPK Kumar
Control Systems 1
CIT, Gubbi.
A physical system is a collection of physical objects connected together to serve an objective. An idealized
physical system is called a Physical model. Once a physical model is obtained, the next step is to obtain Mathematical
model. When a mathematical model is solved for various i/p conditions, the result represents the dynamic behavior of the
system.
Analogous System:
The concept of analogous system is very useful in practice. Since one type of system may be easier to
handle experimentally than another. A given electrical system consisting of resistance, inductance &
capacitances may be analogous to the mechanical system consisting of suitable combination of Dash pot,
Mass & Spring. The advantages of electrical systems are,
Translational System:
It has 3 types of forces due to elements.
2
Fm t M. a 2
M F(t)
Where, .
.
.
2. Damping Force [Viscous Damping]: Due to viscous damping, it is proportional to velocity & is given by,
D
.
Damping force is denoted by either D or B or F
3. Spring Force: Spring force is proportional to displacement.
. .
Fk
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2 Mathematical Models of Linear Systems
Where,
Rotational system:
1. Inertial Torque:
2. Damping Torque: .
3. Spring Torque :
Analogous quantities in translational & Rotational system:
The electrical analog of the mechanical system can be obtained by,
(i) Force Voltage analogy: (F.V)
(ii) Force Current analogy: (F.I)
D’Alemberts Principle:
The static equilibrium of a dynamic system subjected to an external driving force obeys the following principle,
“For any body, the algebraic sum of externally applied forces resisting motion in any given direction is zero”.
Example Problems:
(1) Obtain the electrical analog (FV & FI analog circuits) for the Machine system shown & also write the equations.
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Control Systems 1
Transfer Functions
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
CIT, Gubbi.
The input output relationship in a linear time invariant system is defined by the transfer function.
The features of the transfer functions are,
(1)
It is applicable to Linear Time Invariant system.
(2)
It is the ratio between the Laplace Transform of the o/p variable to the Laplace Transform of the i/p variable.
(3)
It is assumed that initial conditions are zero.
(4)
It is independent of i/p excitation.
(5)
It is used to obtain systems o/p response.
An equation describing the physical system has integrals & differentials, the step involved in obtaining the
transfer function are;
(1) Write the differential equation of the system.
(2) Replace the terms by ‘S’ & by 1/S.
(3) Eliminate all the variables except the desired variables.
Impulse Response of the Linear System:
C
i
(1) Obtain the Transfer‐Function(TF) of the circuit shown in circuit 1.0
Circuit 1.0
i(S) 1
Contd……
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2 Transfer Functions
1 1
. ., &
.
.
1
1
Where, = RC
1
(2) Obtain the TF of the mechanical system shown in circuit 2.
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Control Systems 3
(3) Transfer Function of an Armature Controlled DC Motor in circuit 3.0:
Ra La If = Constant
Let,
ia ‘Ra’ Æ Resistance of armature in Ω’s.
The torque developed by the motor ‘Tm’ is proportional to the product of the arm current & the air gap flux.
Where, Ka & Kf are the constants.
Since the field current is constant, Where, KT is Motor – torque constant.
The motor back e.m.f is proportional to the speed & is given by,
Taking LT for the torque equation & equating, we get
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4 Transfer Functions
2
 (2)
 (B)
.
The block diagram representation of armature controlled DC Motor can be obtained as follows,
From equation (A),
Vi(S) 1 Ia(S)

Eb(S)
From equation (B),
Ia(S) (S)
Vi(S) 1 Ia(S)
(S)
2

Eb(S)
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Control Systems 5
(4) Transfer function of Field Controlled DC Motor in circuit 4.0:
Let,
Rf Lf Ia = Constant
Rf Æ Field winding resistance.
On Laplace Transform,
.  (1)
 (A)
On Laplace Transform,
.
2
.
 (2)
 (B)
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6 Transfer Functions
2
.
2
The block diagram representation of field controlled DC Motor can be obtained as follows,
From equation (A),
Vf (S) 1 If (S)
1
Laplace Transformed network
Solution: R
circuit 5.0
I(S) I1(S) I2(S)
Vi (S) R 1 Vo (S)
Applying KVL to this circuit,

 (1)
1
.
1 1
1 .
2
Let, τ
1
τ
2
1 τ τ
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Control Systems 7
100 k Ω 1M Ω
Circuit 6.0
10 10
Vi (S) V0 (S)
Loop 1 Loop 2
10 0
2 10 1 11
 (2)
106 .
2 . 2 6  (3)
10
10
10 21 10
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8 Transfer Functions
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Control Systems 1
Block Diagrams
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
CIT, Gubbi.
It is a representation of the control system giving the interrelation between the transfer function of
various components. The block diagram is obtained after obtaining the differential equation & Transfer
function of all components of a control system. The arrow head pointing towards the block indicates the i/p
& pointing away from the block indicates the o/p.
If is the TF,
After obtaining the block diagram for each & every component, all blocks are combined to obtain a
complete representation. It is then reduced to a simple form with the help of block diagram algebra.
The following block diagram reduction algebra is used,
(1) Blocks in Cascade [Series] :
G2(S)
(2) Combining blocks in Parallel:
(3)
(2) (6)
(4) Moving a takeoff point beyond a block:
(3)
(2) (6)
G(S) C(S)
(2)
(2)
P ROBLEMS :
+
(1)
  
+

+
C(S)

(2)

R(S) C(S)
 

R(S) C(S)
 
R(S) C(S)
 
R(S) C(S)

R(S) C(S)
4 Block Diagrams
R(S) C(S)
(3)   
R(S) C(S)
  
R(S) C(S)
 
R(S) C(S)

R(S) C(S)
Control Systems 1
Definitions:
1. Node: A node is a point representing a variable.
2. Transmittance: A transmittance is a gain between two nodes.
3. Branch: A branch is a line joining two nodes. The signal travels along a branch.
4. Input node [Source]: It is a node which has only out going signals.
5. Output node [Sink]: It is a node which is having only incoming signals.
6. Mixed node: It is a node which has both incoming & outgoing branches (signals).
7. Path: It is the traversal of connected branches in the direction of branch arrows. Such that no node
is traversed more than once.
8. Loop: It is a closed path.
9. Loop Gain: It is the product of the branch transmittances of a loop.
10. NonTouching Loops: Loops are NonTouching, if they do not possess any common node.
11. Forward Path: It is a path from i/p node to the o/p node w hich doesn’t cross any node m ore than
once.
12. Forward Path Gain: It is the product of branch transmittances of a forward path.
The value of the for that part of the graph not touching the forward path.
T Overall gain of the system.
2 Signal Flow Graphs
Problems:
(1) Obtain the closed loop TF, by using M ason’s gain form ula.
C(S)
R(S)
Solution:
M ason’s gain form ula is,
No. of forward paths:
No. of individual loops: Gain Products of all possible combinations of two nontouching loops:
(2) Obtain the closed loop TF, by using M ason’s gain form ula.
R(S) C(S)
Solution:
M ason’s gain form ula is,
Forward Paths:
Contd......
Control Systems 3
(3) Construct a signal flow graph from the following equations. Obtain overallTF using M ason’s gain form ula.
(4) Obtain by Block Diagram Reduction method & verify the result by signal flow graph.
+
R(S) C(S)

+
+
Contd......
4 Signal Flow Graphs
R(S) C(S)
 
R(S) C(S)
R(S) C(S)
+
R(S) C(S)
 
Solution: Shifting the takeoff point ahead of the block . The BD reduces to,
+ C(S)
R(S)
 
Contd......
Control Systems 5
R(S) C(S)

R(S) C(S)
C(S)
R(S)
R(S) C(S)
R(S)
 C(S)
  +
Solution:
Shifting beyond , we get
R(S)
 C(S)
  +
6 Signal Flow Graphs
R(S) C(S)
  +
R(S) C(S)
 +
R(S) C(S)
 +
R(S) C(S)
R(S) C(S)
R(S) C(S)
Contd......
Control Systems 7
(7) Obtain the closed loop TF by using M ason’s gain form ula.
R(S) C(S)
Solution:
No. of forward paths:
(8) Obtain the TF of the closed loop control system represented by the Block Diagram shown below using
block diagram reduction method.
 
Solution:
Shifting the take off point of beyond block & Simplifying for the blocks , we get
 
8 Signal Flow Graphs
(9) U sing M ason’s gain rule, obtain the overall TF of a control system represented by the signal flow graph
shown below.
Solution:
No. of forward paths:
Individual loops:
(10) Construct signal flow graph from the following equations & obtain the overall TF.
Contd......
Control Systems 9
Solution:
Contd......
10 Signal Flow Graphs
Solution:
No. of forward paths:
Solution:
No. of forward paths: No. of individual loops:
Contd......
Control Systems 11
Solution:
No. of forward paths:
(14) Draw the signal flow graph for the Block Diagram shown in fig. Hence obtain , Using
M ason’s gain form ula.
Solution:
(15) Obtain TF, using block diagram algebra & also by using Masons Gain Formula. Hence Verify
the TF in both the methods.
Solution:
Same block diagram can be rearranged as shown below.
Substituting ‘x’ value in the block diagram . T he block diagram becom es,
(16) Obtain TF, using block diagram algebra & also by using Masons Gain Formula. Hence Verify
the TF in both the methods.
Contd......
14 Signal Flow Graphs
Solution:
Same Block Diagram can be written as,
Solution:
(i) Let then we can find
Hence,
Control Systems 1
System Stability
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
CIT, Gubbi.
While considering the performance specification in the control system design, the essential &
desirable requirement will be the system stability. This means that the system must be stable at all times
during operation. Stability may be used to define the usefulness of the system. Stability studies include
absolute & relative stability. Absolute stability is the quality of stable or unstable performance. Relative
Stability is the quantitative study of stability.
The stability study is based on the properties of the TF. In the analysis, the characteristic equation is
of importance to describe the transient response of the system. From the roots of the characteristic equation,
some of the conclusions drawn will be as follows,
(1) When all the roots of the characteristic equation lie in the left half of the Splane, the system
response due to initial condition will decrease to zero at time Thus the system will be termed as
stable.
(2) When one or more roots lie on the imaginary axis & there are no roots on the RHS of S
plane, the response will be oscillatory without damping. Such a system will be termed as critically stable.
(3) When one or more roots lie on the RHS of Splane, the response will exponentially increase
in magnitude; there by the system will be Unstable.
RouthHurwitz Criteria:
A designer has so often to design the system that satisfies certain specifications. In general, a
system before being put in to use has to be tested for its stability. RouthHurwitz stability criteria may be
used. This criterion is used to know about the absolute stability. i.e., no extra information can be obtained
regarding improvement.
As per RouthHurwitz criteria, the necessary conditions for a system to be stable are,
(1) None of the coefficient‟ of the Characteristic equation should be missing or zero.
(2) All the coefficient‟ should be real & should have the sam e sign.
2 System Stability
A sufficient condition for a system to be stable is that each & every term of the column of
the Routh array must be positive or should have the same sign. Routh array can be obtained as follows.
The Characteristic equation is of the form,
… … … … … … … … …
Where,
0
0
0 0
: :
0 0 0
(1) When the term in a row is zero, but all other terms are nonzeroes then substitute a small positive
number for zero & proceed to evaluate the rest of the elements. When the column term is zero, it
means that there is an imaginary root.
(2) All zero row: In the case, write auxiliary equation from preceding row, differentiate this equation &
substitute all zero row by the coefficient‟ obtained by differentiating the auxiliary eq uation. This case
occurs when the roots are in pairs. The system is limitedly stable.
Problems:
COMMENT ON THE STABILITY OF THE SYSTEM WHOSE CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION IS GIVEN BELOW:
(1)
1 21 20
The no. of sign changes in the column = zero.
6 36 0 No roots are lying in the RHS of Splane.
15 20 0
The given System is Absolutely Stable.
28 0 0
20 0 0
Control Systems 3
(2)
(3)
1 1 5
The no. of sign changes in the column = 2
2 4 0 Two roots are lying in the RHS of Splane.
1 5 0
The given System is unstable.
14 0 0
5 0 0
(4)
1 2 3 +ve
2 4 1 +ve The no. of sign changes in the
0 2.5 0 +ve column = 2
1 0 0 +ve
(5)
1 2 3
2 4 6
All Zero row. A.E. is
2 6 0
16 0 0 The no. of sign changes in the column = 2
6 0 0 Two roots are lying in the RHS of Splane.
The given System is unstable & limitedly stable.
(6)
1 8 20 16 A.E. is
2 12 16 0
2 12 16 0
The no. of sign changes in the column = 0
The System is limitedly stable.
6 16 0 0
(Because, in the row all the elements are
2.66 0 0 0 zero).
16 0 0 0
4 System Stability
(7) The open loop TF of a unity feed back system is . Find the restriction on ‘K’, So that
the closed loop is stable.
Solution:
K 0
(8)
Solution:
1 4 K For Stable system,
3 1 0 (i)
K 0 (i)
0 0
K 0 0
(9) D eterm ine the value of‘K & b’,So that the system open loop T.F. oscillates at a
frequency of 2 radians. ( Assuming unity feed back i.e., H(S)=1 )
Solution:
The characteristic equation is
1 (3+K)
b (1+K)
(1+K) 0
(10) The openloop TF of a unity feed back system is given by the above
expression.Find the value of‘K’for w hich the system is just stable.
Solution:
The characteristic equation is (i) K>0
(ii) 192 – K > 0
K < 192
(iii) (192 – K)(15+K) – 162K > 0
1 23 2K
(for the max. value of K)
9 (15+K) 0 From this evaluate for K,
2K 0
Using,
(11) Using RouthHurw itz criteria,find out the range of‘K’for w hich the system is stable.The
characteristic equation is
Solution:
(i) K>0
1 (2K+3)
(ii)
5K 10
0
Considering the positive value of „K‟,
10 0
T he range of K is „ ‟
(12) A proposed control system has a system & a controller as shown. Access the stability of the system
by a suitable m ethod.W hat are the ranges of‘K’for the system to be stable?
(i) K>0
16 (1+K) (ii)
8 K
(13)
6 System Stability
(14)
Auxiliary Equation:
(15)
(i)
(ii)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(17)
1 4 6
2 5 2 (i) No. of sign changes = 2.
1.5 5 0 (ii) Two roots lie on RHS of
Splane.
1.666 2 0 (iii) The system is Unstable.
6.8 0 0
2 0 0
(18)
Solution:
1 11
6 6 No sign changes.
The system is Absolutely Stable.
10 0
6 0
(19)
Solution: 1 5
2 6
No. of sign changes = 1
The system is Unstable. 2 0
6 0
(20)
+ve 1 2 4
+ve 1 2 1
+ve No. of sign changes = 2.
3 0 The system is Unstable.
ve 1 0
+ve 0 0
+ve 1 0 0
(21)
+ve 2 6 1
+ve 1 3 1
No. of sign changes = 2.
+ve 1 0 The system is Unstable.
+ve
1 0
ve 0 0
+ve 1 0 0
(22)
8 System Stability
1 2 7 4
1 3 4 0
1 3 4 0 Auxiliary equation:
(23)
1 5 8 4
Auxiliary equation:
2 8 8 0
1 4 4 0
Auxiliary equation:
2 4 0 0
(24)
1 2 0.5 Auxiliary Equation:
0(4) 0(4) 0(0)
1 0.5 0 No. of sign changes = 0
2 0 0 The system is Limitedly Stable.
0.5 0 0
(25)
1 2 2 Auxiliary Equation:
(26)
1 7500 (i)
34.5 7500K (ii)
0
7500K 0
For a stable closed loop system there should not be any sign change among the elements of the column in the Routh
Hurwitz table. This requires &
T he range of „K ‟ is for the system to be stable.
Control Systems 9
(27) Given , .
Solution:
The characteristic equation is
1 (21+K) (i)
(ii)
10 13K
(28) ,
Solution:
The Characteristic equation is
1 15 2K
(i)
7 25+K 0
(ii)
2K 0
(iii)
0 0 To solve for the K value,
By simplifying,
2K 0 0
Hence, the range of K is
(29)
Solution:
(i)
1 5 15 (ii)
20K 10 0
15 0 (iii)
(30) D eterm ine the values of‘K’& ‘a’.Such that the system oscillates at a frequency of 2 rad/sec.
, becomes
1 (2+K)
a (1+K)
(31)
10 System Stability
1 2 3
No. of sign changes = 2
1
2 0 The system is Unstable.
5 0
0 0
5 0 0
(32)
9 10 9
No. of sign changes = 3
(33)
1 24 24 23
Auxiliary equation:
9 24 24 15
21.33 21.33 21.33 0
15 15 15
No. of sign changes = 2
The system is Unstable.
7.5 15 0 0
0 0 0
15 0 0 0
(34)
1 9 4 36
Auxiliary equation:
5 9 20 36
7.2 0 28.8 0
9 0 36
No. of sign changes = 2
The system is Unstable.
36 0 0
0 0 0
36 0 0 0
(35) ,
Solution: The Characteristic equation is
1 2 (i)
3 K (ii)
0
K 0 The range of K is
Control Systems 11
(36) The openloop transfer function of a unity feed back control system is given by,
, using RouthHurwitz criteria. Discuss the stability of the closed loop
controlsystem .D eterm ine the value of‘K’w hich w illcause sustained oscillations in the closed loop
system. What are the corresponding oscillating frequencies?
Solution:
The characteristic equation is
1 69 (i)
(ii)
12 198 0
52.5 0 (iii) The Auxiliary equation for the row is
0 0
When
0 0
Hence,
(37) A feed back system has openloop transfer function Determine the
1 (i)
5 K (ii)
0
The range of K is for the system to be
K 0 stable.
Control Systems 1
CIT, Gubbi.
It gives complete dynamic response of the system. It provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the
variation in the parameter being considered. It is applied for single as well as multiple loop system. It can be defined as
follows,
It is the plot of the loci of the root of the complementary equation when one or more parameters of the openloop
Transfer function are varied, mostly the only one variable available is the gain ‘K’ The negative gain has no physical
significance hence varying ‘K’ from ‘0’ to ‘∞’ , the plot is obtained called the “Root Locus Point”.
Rules for the Construction of Root Locus
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Control Systems 1
Bode Plots
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
CIT, Gubbi.
Sinusoidal transfer function is commonly represented by Bode Plot. It is a plot of magnitude against
frequency. i.e., angle of transfer function against frequency.
The following are the advantages of Bode Plot,
(1) Plotting of Bode Plot is relatively easier as compared to other methods.
(2) Low & High frequency characteristics can be represented on a single diagram.
(3) Study of relative stability is easier as parameters of analysis of relative stability are gain & phase
margin which are visibly seen on sketch.
(4) If modification of an existing system is to be studied, it can be easily done on a Bode Plot.
Initial Magnitude:
If ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Phase Plot: Magnitude Plot:
GCF
PCF
+ve PM ve GM
line 0 dB line
GCF PCF
GCF
PCF
line 0 dB line
ve PM +ve GM
PCF
GCF
2 Bode Plots
Problems:
(1) To find the angle for the quadratic term
Solution: Put,
Solution:
The corner frequencies are & at , the slope changes from to .
Therefore there must be a factor . Since the initial slope is , There must be a pole at the
origin i.e., at
A C
C
Control Systems 3
Solution:
Corner frequencies are
To find the value of‘K’:
but
Plot between & , It is having a slope of . Therefore at , there must be a zero & the
factor is in the numerator.
Solution:
Solution:
To find the value of‘K’:
Let , be the origin.
(6) Derive the Transfer function of the system from the data given on the Bode diagram given below.
dB
[[
Calculation of : Calculation of :
B (P) (P)
(Z) E
C (DZ)
Solution: Since the initial slope is there must be zero at the origin.
&
dB
(Z)
Solution:
6 Bode Plots
Solution: