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Apr 18, 2013

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cover that extra distance, he can move a little further; and so on. In spite of the existence of people like Aristarchos, the Earth-centred Universe remained the established image (what scientists would now call a model) even after Nicolaus Copernicus published his model of a Sun-centred Universe (but one still based on circles) in 1543. His book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestrum, had been essentially completed in 1530, and much of its contents were widely discussed before publication, leading Martin Luther to comment in 1539 that This fool wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy; but sacred Scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the Sun to stand still, and not the Earth. Responding to similar criticisms, Galileo later riposted: The Bible shows the way to go to Heaven, not the way the heavens go. It was Galileos contemporary, Johannes Kepler, using observations painstakingly compiled by Tycho Brahe, who established, for those with open eyes, that not only did the planet Mars move round the Sun, but that it did so in an elliptical orbit, pulling the rug from under the notion that the kind of circular perfection beloved of the Ancient Greeks ruled the cosmos.

Even to people who know little about science, or the history of science, Galileo (who lived from 1564 to 1642) is famous today as the man who turned one of the first telescopes on the heavens, found evidence to support the Suncentred Copernican model, and had a run-in with the Catholic Church, which led to his conviction for heresy and the suppression of his books in Catholic countries which (of course) led to them selling like hot cakes everywhere else. But he did much more than this. It was Galileo, more than anyone, who laid down the principles of the scientific method of investigation, involving comparing theories (or models) with the outcome of experiment and observation, and it was Galileo who first got to grips with motion in a scientific way. The key to Galileos work on motion was a discovery he made while a medical student in Pisa in 1583. During a boring sermon in the cathedral there, he watched a chandelier swinging to and fro, and timed the swing with his pulse. Galileo realized that the time it took for the lamp to complete one swing was the same whether it swung through a wide arc or a shallow one, and later experiments showed that the time taken for a pendulum to swing depends on its length, not on how far

Now, lets analyze it. Check for the variation in answer choices (below)

All of this helped Galileo to cast out of science another aspect of the geometrical

perfection which his predecessors had imagined in the real world. Before Galileo, it was thought that when a cannon fired its ball at some angle above the horizontal, the flight of the ball would consist of a straight line as it left the muzzle, then it would follow the arc of a perfect circle for a time, then it would fall vertically to the ground. Only the imagined perfection of straight lines and circles was involved in the motion. Applying his discovery that gravity produces a constant downward acceleration on the cannonball, and allowing for the initial velocity of the ball out of the muzzle, Galileo showed that the flight of the ball must actually be a single smooth curve, part of a parabola, all the way to its target. The same calculations showed that the maximum range for the cannon (assuming the same charge of gunpowder and weight of shot) would always be achieved when it was fired at an angle of 45 degrees upwards from the horizontal. These were practical matters of great importance in the turbulent times Galileo lived in, and this kind of military work helped to establish his early reputation. Whatever philosophers and theologians might say about perfection, armies in the field had no time to quibble about the desirability of circular motion; all they wanted to know was which way to point their guns to achieve maximum

Now, as we compare answer sentences, we see these sentences are different from one another on basis of idioms and the word especially/specially.

Also, in first look, many of us would neglect answer choices because of pronoun it. Technically, it has been used here as ambiguous pronoun but is it so, lets find it out?

strange attractor, in a paper they published in 1971. This is where fractals come into the story. Like chaos, they got their name, as we shall see, in 1975; but, also like chaos, they had been around in science for a long time before that, without their significance being fully appreciated. Entities that we would now call fractals were discovered, much to their surprise (and even horror), by mathematicians in the late nineteenth century. At the time, they were regarded as aberrations monsters that did not fit into the orderly world of mainstream mathematics. And you can see why by looking at an example which brings out their peculiarities in full force. In 1890, Giuseppe Peano (18581932) published a paper in which he described how to construct a curve that completely fills a plane.4 That doesnt sound too horrendous, to a non-mathematician. But think about it. A plane is a twodimensional entity it has length and breadth. A line is a one-dimensional entity it has length, but no breadth. Peano showed how a line could be made to twist and turn inside a plane in such a way that it passed through every point in the plane, without ever crossing itself. A onedimensional line completely filled a two-dimensional plane! So how could a plane

really be two-dimensional, if every point in the plane lay on a single line? Theres more. If you think of the plane as a square, then the Peano curve traces out the outlines of a set of smaller squares, like tiles, filling the plane; inside each smaller square, the curve traces out a similar set of tiles; and so on. The pattern is self-similar, and it goes on for ever. The Peano curve is infinitely long, but it is contained within a finite area. There is a clear analogy here with the space filling curve that is the attractor, wrapped around the torus in the phase space that describes a turbulent system, although none of that was known in the 1890s. The language we need to describe such entities was eventually developed by Benoit Mandelbrot, working at IBMs Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, in the 1970s. Mandelbrot, who had been born in Warsaw in 1924, had an eclectic background which served him well as the founder of what was essentially a new scientific discipline. The family moved to France in 1936, where Benoit studied in Paris after the Liberation in 1944. After spells at Caltech and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he returned briefly to France in 1955 before moving permanently to the United States andstrange attractor, in a paper they published in 1971. This is where fractals come into the story. Like chaos, they got their name, as we

shall see, in 1975; but, also like chaos, they had been around in science for a long time before that, without their significance being fully appreciated. Entities that we would now call fractals were discovered, much to their surprise (and even horror), by mathematicians in the late nineteenth century. At the time, they were regarded as aberrations monsters that did not fit into the orderly world of mainstream mathematics. And you can see why by looking at an example which brings out their peculiarities in full force. In 1890, Giuseppe Peano (18581932) published a paper in which he described how to construct a curve that completely fills a plane.4 That doesnt sound too horrendous, to a non-mathematician. But think about it. A plane is a twodimensional entity it has length and breadth. A line is a one-dimensional entity it has length, but no breadth. Peano showed how a line could be made to twist and turn inside a plane in such a way that it passed through every point in the plane, without ever crossing itself. A onedimensional line completely filled a two-dimensional plane! So how could a plane really be two-dimensional, if every point in the plane lay on a single line? Theres more. If you think of the plane as a square, then the Peano curve traces out the outlines of a set of smaller squares, like tiles, filling the plane; inside each smaller square, the

curve traces out a similar set of tiles; and so on. The pattern is self-similar, and it goes on for ever. The Peano curve is infinitely long, but it is contained within a finite area. There is a clear analogy here with the space filling curve that is the attractor, wrapped around the torus in the phase space that describes a turbulent system, although none of that was known in the 1890s. The language we need to describe such entities was eventually developed by Benoit Mandelbrot, working at IBM s Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, in the 1970s. Mandelbrot, who had been born in Warsaw in 1924, had an eclectic background which served him well as the founder of what was essentially a new scientific discipline. The family moved to France in 1936, where Benoit studied in Paris after the Liberation in 1944. After spells at Caltech and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he returned briefly to France in 1955 before moving permanently to the United States and

Now, it used in the sentence is tolerable as it passes all three criterion (mention above). So based on this theory, lets solve our actual question:

make it advantageous to have a big nose. Babies with small noses might then be more likely to die in infancy, and remember that because of imperfections in the process of copying characteristics from one generation to the next, even siblings can have different

sizes of nose. Families with big noses will fit into the new environment better than families with small noses, but even within those families, siblings with bigger noses will do better than their brothers and sisters.5 Over many generations the average size of the nose in the population will increase. But we dont need to deal in hypothetical examples alone, because just this kind of effect has been observed, and measured, among the very finch populations that helped to open Darwins eyes to what was going on. In the early 1970s, a husband and wife team from Princeton University, Peter and Rosemary Grant, began a long programme studying the birds of Daphne Island, in the Galapagos. The island is home to a species of ground finch, Geospiza fortis, which uses a strong beak to crack seeds. In 1977, there was a severe drought on the island, in which more than a thousand of the 1,200 or so finches being monitored in the study died. They died because many of the plants they depended on for food died, so there was fierce competition among the birds for food. The finches that survived were all large birds with big beaks that were able to eat seeds that the smaller birds could not crack open. As the population recovered after the drought, with all the new birds descended from these survivors, the Grants team measured the beaks of the new population of finches and found that they were, on average, 4 per cent

larger than the average before the drought. This is the essence of Darwinian evolution, and it is very good at explaining relatively stable (at most, slowly evolving) situations involving only a few species, as in the classic example of life on the Galpagos Islands. We can take this line of argument to its logical limit by considering how this kind of natural selection can produce a complete standoff, or balance, between two possible ways of life, resulting from what is called an evolutionarily stable strategy, or ESS. The insight comes from the application of the mathematical rules of games theory to evolutionary biology. In spite of its cosy name, and although it can be applied to games such as chess or draughts, games theory has received a great deal of attention,

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