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Socially Responsible Packaging

improving oral hygiene

vivid lifestyle

vivid lifestyle

vivid lifestyle

vivid lifestyle

As per the World Health

Contents Page

vivid lifestyle

Defining the social issue Design specifications Research into existing products Criteria for a good design Design ideas Product development Final design Renderings Branding Modes of use Shipping info Technical drawings Completed concept

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As per the World Health Organization (WHO): 6090% of school children and nearly 100% of adults have dental cavities Severe gum disease, which may result in tooth loss, is found in 1520% of middle-aged (35-44 years) adults 4

Social Issue: Poor Oral Hygiene

Poor oral hygiene is a contributing cause of oral diseases such as gingivitis, tooth decay, toothache and oral cancer. ,Do you brush your teeth regularly? ,



of Americans who brush their teeth after a meal

- WHO Global Oral Health Program (ORH)

The simplest measure to improve oral hygiene is brushing the teeth on a regular basis with toothpaste. Toothpaste contains fluoride which actively protects teeth. ,How accessible is toothpaste? ,

More Economically Developed Countries - ACCESSIBLE Less Economically Developed Countries - LESS ACCESSIBLE

In MEDCs Accessibility Vs. Frequency of Toothpaste Use

High accessibility due to:
-Affordability -Good product distribution -Understanding of importance of oral healthcare


Low accessibility due to:

-Low affordability -Poor product distribution -Lack of knowledge on importance of oral healthcare

High Frequency Low Frequency

Solution to Social Issue?

Inequalities in frequency of toothpaste use around the globe can be solved through redesigning the toothpaste package. By increasing the frequency that we brush our teeth, we can improve our oral hygiene.

Below is a list of criteria, which would benefit the redesign of the toothpaste tube (divided into LEDC & MEDC): Less Economically Developed Countries The high costs associated with maintaining health makes it difficult for the lower class to keep a habit of brushing the teeth (socio-economic factors). -Reducing the cost of toothpaste can make it more affordable, thus accessible. This can be done through examining the manufacturing process, and the materials that make up the product. -Improving product distribution: redesigning the tube for transport efficiency can reduce distribution costs as well as carbon footprint. Thus making toothpaste more accessible to various social spheres of society.

Redesign Specifications

Below is a list of criteria, which would benefit the redesign of the toothpaste tube (divided into LEDC & MEDC): More Economically Developed Countries Unlike LEDCs, MEDCs do not face issues with affordability. They are already frequent users of toothpaste, so how can one increase the frequency that individuals from MEDCs brush their teeth? -By improving the experience of using toothpaste, one has more incentive to brush the teeth. Redesigning the toothpaste tube to make the experience more seamless is essential. It is essential brushing the teeth is a daily habit, and habits are very hard to change through design. -By reducing wastage of toothpaste, one can extend the product lifecycle of the toothpaste tube. This gives the user an appreciation of the products value for money because the user will make use of all the products contents.

Redesign Specifications


Before attempting to redesign the existing toothpaste tube, it is important to do some research into the social issue and the existing products in the market. Below is a chart, which demonstrates the research priorities and the information one should be looking for:

Research Priorities

Research Analysis: A7ribute lis9ng of the exis9ng toothpaste products.

Proving the Relevance of the Problem

Survey: secondary data revealing more than one user opinion, and visualizing data using graphs Interview: Primary data that will reveal the user opinion of one individual.


Below is an extract from the interview transcript with Amobi Ewuzie. Mr. Ewuzie (now living in Sydney, Australia) has spent most of his life in Nigeria, Africa, and could shed light on existing levels of oral care and oral hygiene in Nigeria specifically: Question: Describe what you know of the current levels of access to oral healthcare in Nigeria? Interviewee: Access to oral healthcare, specifically dentists exist mainly in the cities. Rural areas tend to suffer from being far away from such facilities. Most individuals living in Amobi Ewuzie rural areas also suffer from poor oral health. Question: Can everyone afford toothpaste? Interviewee: Unfortunately not all Nigerians can afford toothpaste. For this reason most individuals have stuck to the traditional method of using a twig from a tree to brush their teeth. This method is free but does not provide the same protection for the teeth like toothpaste. Ewuzie, Amobi. Personal interview. 2 Apr. 2013.

Interview with an African




uses fluoride toothpaste and toothbrush uses twig from tree (also know as miswak


Existing Products

Through attribute listing we can evaluate the existing products in the market and determine how they can benefit from redesign. This traditional design dates back to the 18th century. Todays these tubes are made from 3 materials: aluminum, plastic and glue Negatives -The box package can sometimes be difficult to open. -The aluminum package changes shape after use, which makes it look aesthetically unappealing. Stress cause the package to crack and leak -The flip cap is often hard to open and susceptible to snapping after repeated opening of the tube. -The secondary packaging adds to manufacturing costs, which are then passed onto the consumer.

Positives -This traditional design comes in a box which ensures that the aluminum package is not damaged during transport.
squeezed toothpaste tube


Existing Products

This toothpaste tube is a stand- alone product as it does not require and secondary packaging such as a box.

Positives -Made from plastic laminate, which is an alternative to aluminum. Plastic laminate is easier to squeeze the contents out of. This improves the experience of using the product -Plastic laminate is a lighter material and reduces tube weight. -Plastic laminates material properties means it returns to shape after being squeezed. -The tube can stand on its cap when placed on the sink/in a cabinet, reducing the surface area that it takes up. This also allows tube contents to slowly drain down assuring the user of a healthy flow of toothpaste every time the tube is squeezed. -Screw on plastic cap protects contents from contact with external conditions.


Existing Products
This is SavePaste. It is a radical approach that ensures all toothpaste is used. It can also be stacked for shipping. Positives -This product is made from cardboard. Like plastic laminate, it can be flattened to squeeze out all contents. -It is a stand-alone package and does not require any secondary packaging. The triangular shape allows for the product to be stacked with other products. This is good for transport efficiency and reducing transport costs. -Once the package is flattened, it is also ready for recycling. Negatives -This new shape requires a whole new manufacturing process that is different to manufacturing processes that already exist for aluminum and plastic laminate toothpaste tubes. -The device cannot stand on its own like the previous one. This means that when placed on the bathroom counter, this product takes up a larger surface area.


Difficult to squeeze out contents w hen the tube is nearly finished

Aluminum tube is tentative to cracking and leaking after time Seconday packaing is not required. The secondary package can sometimes be hard to open

Hard to open top


Based on findings from research, the redesign must meet the following criteria to appropriately address the problem of the target market: For MEDCs, the main objective is to redesign the tube to make the experience of brushing the teeth more seamless. This may result in an increased use of toothpaste. For LEDCs, the main objective is to reduce the cost of the toothpaste tube so that it is more affordable. The Overall outcome is an increase in frequency that one b rushes the teeth, which therefore would lead to improved oral hygiene in the long run. . Design Specifications:

What Makes a Successful Package?

Ergonomically Sound


Anthropometrics Material Choice

Physio-pleasure Waste Prevention

Designing the tube to stand on its cap improves its ergonomics. Not only will the product take up less surface area, but the contents will slowly drain to the bottom of the tube. This ensures a healthy flow of toothpaste when the user picks up the tube. Reducing the quantity of materials that the product is made of (dematerialization) can reduce manufacturing costs. These lower costs can be passed onto consumers. This would be very beneficial for LEDCs. How well does the tube fit in the hand? It should be the right size so that it is comfortable to hold and easy to squeeze the contents out of. Either plastic laminate or aluminum. Plastic laminate seems more suitable because it returns to shape after use, however this can be investigated further. Low impact materials that still protect the contents should be considered. The shape and size of the tube should make it comfortable to hold in the hand. To improve the products value for money and extend its lifecycle the tube should be designed so that all its contents can be removed before disposal. An example of this is SavePaste.


Content Protection The contents of the tube should be protected from external conditions both during transport and use. Simple measures such as changing the design of the cap can impact such factors. Affordance Consider the size of the toothpaste tube, specifically its cap and how changing the size can impact how easy it is to remove the cap of the tube. Effective The design of the product should effectively communicate what the product is. Clear labeling that also Communication of shows how the product is to be used is a bonus. Not only does it make the product more aesthetically Product appealing, but also improve its affordance. Lower Carbon- Selective material choice and appropriate design can work to reduce the carbon footprint created Footprint throughout the lifecycle of this product. Quality and Durability Longer lasting products that function better will be replaced less frequently. This helps to reduce the impacts of producing replacements. Design for It is worth considering how extensively a product can be recycled to determine how extensively a Recyclability product will require resources from our finite environment to be produced. Cost Reducing the cost of the product is a bonus for LEDCs where affordability is one of the main issues that have reduced access to toothpaste. The product should be designed to meet the above specifications.

Design Objectives Summarized: 1. Reduce Costs (to improve accessibility for individuals, specially in LEDCs) 2. Improve Product-User Experience (to improve frequency of use of product by individuals, especially in MEDCs)


Plastic top with hanger shape so can be hung in store. Maybe the tube can be torn to access whats inside.

Tubular design is best for allowing the contents to drain to the bottom of tube.

Tubular design can use existing manufacturing process such as injection moulding and compression moulding to manufacture tubes.

Rounded base allows for tube to stand on its cap, reducing surface area that the product takes up.


Concept Sketches Development

Concept Sketches Development

Possible Materials: -Plastic Laminate for tubing -Aluminum for tubing -Polypropylene for top hanging component -Polyethylene for screw-on cap

The tube can be hung from its propylene top. This removes the requirement for a secondary packaging; dematerialization. A rounded hanger is appropriate as it assures the product is centered when hung.


Why the rounded screw-on cap? Type 1. Conical Cap (left) and Stand Up Cap (right)

Types of Caps
Notes -Larger cap has better affordance than smaller cap. -Caps are interchangeable with other tubes. -Flat base allows for tube to stand on cap. -Contents cannot be removed until cap is unscrewed. -Easier to open, however prevents tube from standing on its cap. -Repeated use can cause stress to the hinge, which can result in the cap being damaged. -If tube is squeezed during transport, contents will be spilled if cap flips open under pressure.

2. Flip Top Cap



Product Development

Organic, rounded shape adds to physio-pleasure as it is more comfortable to hold in the hand.


The toothpaste tube is designed to stand on its own. For this reason, it does not require a secondary box. This is a great advantage in that it reduces manufacturing costs by eliminating a package. Furthermore, the overall volume of the product as a whole is reduced, and this shall be beneficial during transport as we shall see.

Cost Cutting Factors

The elimination of the secondary package raises questions about how the product would be displayed on the shelf: Nevertheless, the hanging component on the top allows for the product to be hung on the shelving rack. Alternatively, it can also be made to stand on its caps. This shows how eliminating the secondary package does not necessarily make the product less practical. Additionally, the plastic laminate material that the product is made from allows for the tube to return to shape after being under the pressure, suggesting that a box is neither required for transport.


Protecting Tube Contents / Tamper Evidence

Heat Shrink Cap Seals are to be used to seal the toothpaste tube. This will prevent the tube from opening during transport. Should a seal be removed, this is evidence of the product having been tampered with; an indication for the buyer not the buy the item. Tamper indicating is simply a code of practice that is required for all products.

Wastage Prevention Toothpaste tube contents can be scooped out using a toothbrush once the tube has been torn apart.

Cost Cutting Factors

Quite often, toothpaste tubes are thrown away with out the complete content being used. The top of the plastic laminate is perforated so that the user can tear the tube by pulling the sides apart (in opposite direction). This allows the user to access what is remaining of the tube contents, thus preventing waste.

The above feature extends the usage phase of the product lifecycle as more of the tubes contents can be consumed. Longer lasting products that function better will be replaced less frequently. This works to reduce the impacts of producing replacements, making this product less demanding of our environments resources. It also improves the products value for money as the user will be getting more out of the product than before. This is tied in with cost cutting factors.


number 1 and 3 are unsuitable sizes. They are both top heavy and the base is not large enough Both for the product to stand on its own. Design 2 however is a suitable size. The large base assures stability when standing. The slim shape of design 2 is appropriate because the palm can conform around this shape to make squeezing the tube easier. The below models are evidence of having tested how product size impacts how the product stands. Tube Volume Although toothpaste tubes come in varying sizes, the largest toothpaste content volume is 6.5oz or 180 grams. The product will designed to hold this amount.

Product Size and Volume


tube comfortable to hold? Is the By l ooking at hand anthropometry, specifically the hand length (base of hand wrist crease to top of middle finger), we can determine what the appropriate circumference of toothpaste tube (at its base) should be. the Based on the above data, the smallest hand length is 159mm. Therefore; the circumference of the bottom of the tube should not exceed 159mm. Should the diameter be less than 50mm, the above

Product Anthropometry


circumference will not be exceeded. This will assure that all kinds of users can wrap their palms around the tube to squeeze it comfortably as displayed in the image to the right


Product Development


Product Development


Final Design


The new product package solves the issue of poor oral hygiene by:
-Reducing Costs -Eliminating the secondary package reduces manufacturing costs through dematerialization. -The new shape/package can be transported in greater quantities than the existing toothpaste packages (uses secondary box package). -Wastage can be reduced by tearing the top of the tube to access the inside with a toothbrush. -Reducing the cost of the product will make it more affordable. -Plastic laminate is lighter than aluminum and therefore cheaper to transport.

-Improving the Product-User Experience -Rounded shape conforms to the palm of the user and is more comfortable to hold. -Plastic laminate returns to shape after being squeezed and this prevents cracking and leaking of the tube. -Large cap has greater affordance and is easier to twist open. It also protects the contents during transport. -Tube can stand on its base so it take up less surface area in the bathroom whilst also allowing contents to drain to the bottom of tube so that there is a healthy flow of toothpaste when the user squeezes the tube to brush his/her teeth.

Evaluating The Design


Brand Design


Concept Renderings


Concept Renderings


Concept Renderings


Concept Renderings


Product Labeling
Front Side -Brand name -Product (Dental Gel) -Size/weight -Line showing perforation for tear including scissor symbol Back Side -Drug facts -Brand name -Barcode -Graphic instructions on how to tear top of tube to reduce wastage. -Recyclability symbol




Plastic Laminate (Plastic barrier laminate)

-Plastic laminate is the material that makes the greater proportion of this package (the tube itself). The inside of the laminate has a plastic barrier. This has been chosen as opposed aluminum barrier laminate as it is easier to break down to an on its own than plastic combined with aluminum (for the plastic purpose of recycling). laminate also has high flexibility and will not crack and -Plastic nder stress like standard aluminum toothpaste tubes. leak u -It provides a gas, moisture and aroma barrier. laminates can be mass-produced and printed on. -Plastic

Materials & Manufacturing Process


-Polyethylene is used to make the cap of the toothpaste tube. Polyethylene caps can be mass-produced to reduce costs in the long run. Furthermore, they are fully recyclable. This material is being used in bottle caps and works appropriately. already

Layers of plastic laminate


The manufacturing process for plastic laminate tubes can be divided into 7 stages: Blown Film Polymer granules are extruded and then blown to make a film. The thickness of t hese films will depend on the number of layers. Lamination The plastic barrier is laminated to the film using extruded polyethylene as the bond. Various films are laminated together. Slitting The rolls of laminate are taken to the slitting machine to cut the laminated size. The size will vary depending on the size of the tube. into Printing laminates are then printed on with the desired product label. The Injection Molding Injection molding is used to make customized caps and closures for the tube in large quantities. Tubing Compression molding is used to seal the plastic laminate sleeves together to form the completed tube ready for filling. In the design of the Aqua Toothpaste, the sleeves are sealed along with the polypropylene hanging component. Perforation The last step before filling is to perforate the top part of the tube for the purpose of tearing as demonstrated in the design. 40

Materials & Manufacturing Process

Modes of use for wastage prevention


Regular Use


Shipping Information

-Width x 180mm -Length x 350mm -Height x 75mm -12 units per box -Australian Pallet Size = 1165mm x 1165mm -15 boxes per level by 7 rows high -105 boxes per pallet -1260 tubes per pallet


Transport Efficiency

X 12

By eliminating the secondary packaging, the overall volume of each toothpaste tube is less than that of existing toothpaste tubes. This means that more units can be stored on a pallet. By increasing the quantity that can be transported at a single time, this design improves transport efficiency. The carbon footprint of transporting the product is lowered.


Technical Drawings



Technical Drawings


Appearance Model


Appearance Model


Appearance Model


Appearance Model


Appearance Model


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