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Machine-Guns Information field Inventor Invention year Size Weight Power data Hiram Maxim 1884 62 kg Theoretical rate

of 600 rounds per minute. Around 300 in practice.

Germans found Machine guns very effective as both offensive and defensive weaponry. Germans produced a version of this and had around 12,000 of it by 1914. But British high command could not see any real use of it. Machine guns are very effective in defensive warfare. Machine guns are very effective when established in strong points to cover enemy attack routes. The first day of Somme Offensive the British suffered record number 60,000 causalities lost under machine gun fire from defensive position. This machine gun is bit heavy at 62kg and so cannot be used in advancing infantry. Also machine guns have a tendency to overheat quickly so ample supply of water is required if it is water cooled. Also they have a problem of frequent jamming.

Grenades Information field Inventor Invention year Size Weight Power Data William Mills 1915 1.25 lb Exterior was serrated so when it detonated, it broke into many fragments.

Grenades are best suited for siege operation. Also very effective in killing enemy soldiers dug out in trenches by advancing infantry in trench war. The greatest grenade battle of the war occurred on the Pozieres Heights in July 1916. This one lasted for more than 12 hours without a break. Australian and British soldiers exchanged grenades with their German foes. The allied contingent alone threw 15,000 Mills Bombs during that night. Not many dramatic accounts of failures with this. In fact it was one of the most successful weapons of WWI and continued to hold a strong position even afterwards. The only failure could be resulting from a grenade not detonating. Evidence suggests that many duds were recovered after the war.

Flamethrower Information field Inventor Invention year Size Weight Power Data Richard Fiedler Early 1900s Small and Large Spread fire by launching burning fuel

Using pressurised air and carbon dioxide or nitrogen it can shoot a stream of burning oil for as much as 18 meters. The larger model though not portable, has range twice that of the smaller model. The first notable use of flamethrower came in a surprise attack by Germans upon the British at Hooge in Flanders on July 20, 1915. The effect of the dangerous nature of the surprise attack proved terrifying to the British. In just two days, the British lost 31 officers and 751 other ranks. Flamethrowers were used effectively to clear forward defenders preceding infantry. They were useful, but to a limited extent. Once the surprise component is gone, it could lose its effectiveness. The Flamethrowers come with the danger of the unexpected explosion of the fuel tank. Usually the flamethrowers are marked and the enemy might pour rifle fire in the area of attack where flamethrowers are used. British built four flamethrowers and set up at the forward trench before Somme offensive. They were used on July 1. They were very effective in clearing the trenches in local level. Apart from that they practically of no wider use. Their use was consequently abandoned.