Liviu I. Nicolaescu January 23, 2013

Introduction

Shape is a fascinating and intriguing subject which has stimulated the imagination of many people. It sufﬁces to look around to become curious. Euclid did just that and came up with the ﬁrst pure creation. Relying on the common experience, he created an abstract world that had a life of its own. As the human knowledge progressed so did the ability of formulating and answering penetrating questions. In particular, mathematicians started wondering whether Euclid’s “obvious” absolute postulates were indeed obvious and/or absolute. Scientists realized that Shape and Space are two closely related concepts and asked whether they really look the way our senses tell us. As Felix Klein pointed out in his Erlangen Program, there are many ways of looking at Shape and Space so that various points of view may produce different images. In particular, the most basic issue of “measuring the Shape” cannot have a clear cut answer. This is a book about Shape, Space and some particular ways of studying them. Since its inception, the differential and integral calculus proved to be a very versatile tool in dealing with previously untouchable problems. It did not take long until it found uses in geometry in the hands of the Great Masters. This is the path we want to follow in the present book. In the early days of geometry nobody worried about the natural context in which the methods of calculus “feel at home”. There was no need to address this aspect since for the particular problems studied this was a non-issue. As mathematics progressed as a whole the “natural context” mentioned above crystallized in the minds of mathematicians and it was a notion so important that it had to be given a name. The geometric objects which can be studied using the methods of calculus were called smooth manifolds. Special cases of manifolds are the curves and the surfaces and these were quite well understood. B. Riemann was the ﬁrst to note that the low dimensional ideas of his time were particular aspects of a higher dimensional world. The ﬁrst chapter of this book introduces the reader to the concept of smooth manifold through abstract deﬁnitions and, more importantly, through many we believe relevant examples. In particular, we introduce at this early stage the notion of Lie group. The main geometric and algebraic properties of these objects will be gradually described as we progress with our study of the geometry of manifolds. Besides their obvious usefulness in geometry, the Lie groups are academically very friendly. They provide a marvelous testing ground for abstract results. We have consistently taken advantage of this feature throughout this book. As a bonus, by the end of these lectures the reader will feel comfortable manipulating basic Lie theoretic concepts. To apply the techniques of calculus we need “things to derivate and integrate”. These “things” are introduced in Chapter 2. The reason why smooth manifolds have many differentiable objects attached to them is that they can be locally very well approximated by linear spaces called tangent spaces . Locally, everything looks like traditional calculus. Each point has a tangent space attached to it so that we obtain a “bunch of tangent spaces” called the tangent bundle. We found it i

ii appropriate to introduce at this early point the notion of vector bundle. It helps in structuring both the language and the thinking. Once we have “things to derivate and integrate” we need to know how to explicitly perform these operations. We devote the Chapter 3 to this purpose. This is perhaps one of the most unattractive aspects of differential geometry but is crucial for all further developments. To spice up the presentation, we have included many examples which will found applications in later chapters. In particular, we have included a whole section devoted to the representation theory of compact Lie groups essentially describing the equivalence between representations and their characters. The study of Shape begins in earnest in Chapter 4 which deals with Riemann manifolds. We approach these objects gradually. The ﬁrst section introduces the reader to the notion of geodesics which are deﬁned using the Levi-Civita connection. Locally, the geodesics play the same role as the straight lines in an Euclidian space but globally new phenomena arise. We illustrate these aspects with many concrete examples. In the ﬁnal part of this section we show how the Euclidian vector calculus generalizes to Riemann manifolds. The second section of this chapter initiates the local study of Riemann manifolds. Up to ﬁrst order these manifolds look like Euclidian spaces. The novelty arises when we study “second order approximations ” of these spaces. The Riemann tensor provides the complete measure of how far is a Riemann manifold from being ﬂat. This is a very involved object and, to enhance its understanding, we compute it in several instances: on surfaces (which can be easily visualized) and on Lie groups (which can be easily formalized). We have also included Cartan’s moving frame technique which is extremely useful in concrete computations. As an application of this technique we prove the celebrated Theorema Egregium of Gauss. This section concludes with the ﬁrst global result of the book, namely the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. We present a proof inspired from [25] relying on the fact that all Riemann surfaces are Einstein manifolds. The Gauss-Bonnet theorem will be a recurring theme in this book and we will provide several other proofs and generalizations. One of the most fascinating aspects of Riemann geometry is the intimate correlation “localglobal”. The Riemann tensor is a local object with global effects. There are currently many techniques of capturing this correlation. We have already described one in the proof of GaussBonnet theorem. In Chapter 5 we describe another such technique which relies on the study of the global behavior of geodesics. We felt we had the moral obligation to present the natural setting of this technique and we brieﬂy introduce the reader to the wonderful world of the calculus of variations. The ideas of the calculus of variations produce remarkable results when applied to Riemann manifolds. For example, we explain in rigorous terms why “very curved manifolds” cannot be “too long” . In Chapter 6 we leave for a while the “differentiable realm” and we brieﬂy discuss the fundamental group and covering spaces. These notions shed a new light on the results of Chapter 5. As a simple application we prove Weyl’s theorem that the semisimple Lie groups with deﬁnite Killing form are compact and have ﬁnite fundamental group. Chapter 7 is the topological core of the book. We discuss in detail the cohomology of smooth manifolds relying entirely on the methods of calculus. In writing this chapter we could not, and would not escape the inﬂuence of the beautiful monograph [17], and this explains the frequent overlaps. In the ﬁrst section we introduce the DeRham cohomology and the Mayer-Vietoris technique. Section 2 is devoted to the Poincar´ e duality, a feature which sets the manifolds apart from many other types of topological spaces. The third section offers a glimpse at homology theory. We

iii introduce the notion of (smooth) cycle and then present some applications: intersection theory, degree theory, Thom isomorphism and we prove a higher dimensional version of the Gauss-Bonnet theorem at the cohomological level. The fourth section analyzes the role of symmetry in restrict´ Cartan’s old result that the cohomology of ing the topological type of a manifold. We prove Elie a symmetric space is given by the linear space of its bi-invariant forms. We use this technique to compute the lower degree cohomology of compact semisimple Lie groups. We conclude this section by computing the cohomology of complex grassmannians relying on Weyl’s integration formula and Schur polynomials. The chapter ends with a ﬁfth section containing a concentrated ˇ description of Cech cohomology. Chapter 8 is a natural extension of the previous one. We describe the Chern-Weil construction for arbitrary principal bundles and then we concretely describe the most important examples: Chern classes, Pontryagin classes and the Euler class. In the process, we compute the ring of invariant polynomials of many classical groups. Usually, the connections in principal bundles are deﬁned in a global manner, as horizontal distributions. This approach is geometrically very intuitive but, at a ﬁrst contact, it may look a bit unfriendly in concrete computations. We chose a local approach build on the reader’s experience with connections on vector bundles which we hope will attenuate the formalism shock. In proving the various identities involving characteristic classes we adopt an invariant theoretic point of view. The chapter concludes with the general Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem. Our proof is a variation of Chern’s proof. Chapter 9 is the analytical core of the book. Many objects in differential geometry are deﬁned by differential equations and, among these, the elliptic ones play an important role. This chapter represents a minimal introduction to this subject. After presenting some basic notions concerning arbitrary partial differential operators we introduce the Sobolev spaces and describe their main functional analytic features. We then go straight to the core of elliptic theory. We provide an almost complete proof of the elliptic a priori estimates (we left out only the proof of the CalderonZygmund inequality). The regularity results are then deduced from the a priori estimates via a simple approximation technique. As a ﬁrst application of these results we consider a KazhdanWarner type equation which recently found applications in solving the Seiberg-Witten equations on a K¨ ahler manifold. We adopt a variational approach. The uniformization theorem for compact Riemann surfaces is then a nice bonus. This may not be the most direct proof but it has an academic advantage. It builds a circle of ideas with a wide range of applications. The last section of this chapter is devoted to Fredholm theory. We prove that the elliptic operators on compact manifolds are Fredholm and establish the homotopy invariance of the index. These are very general Hodge type theorems. The classical one follows immediately from these results. We conclude with a few facts about the spectral properties of elliptic operators. The last chapter is entirely devoted to a very important class of elliptic operators namely the Dirac operators. The important role played by these operators was singled out in the works of Atiyah and Singer and, since then, they continue to be involved in the most dramatic advances of modern geometry. We begin by ﬁrst describing a general notion of Dirac operators and their natural geometric environment, much like in [11]. We then isolate a special subclass we called geometric Dirac operators. Associated to each such operator is a very concrete Weitzenb¨ ock formula which can be viewed as a bridge between geometry and analysis, and which is often the source of many interesting applications. The abstract considerations are backed by a full section describing many important concrete examples. In writing this book we had in mind the beginning graduate student who wants to specialize in

iv global geometric analysis in general and gauge theory in particular. The second half of the book is an extended version of a graduate course in differential geometry we taught at the University of Michigan during the winter semester of 1996. The minimal background needed to successfully go through this book is a good knowledge of vector calculus and real analysis, some basic elements of point set topology and linear algebra. A familiarity with some basic facts about the differential geometry of curves of surfaces would ease the understanding of the general theory, but this is not a must. Some parts of Chapter 9 may require a more advanced background in functional analysis. The theory is complemented by a large list of exercises. Quite a few of them contain technical results we did not prove so we would not obscure the main arguments. There are however many non-technical results which contain additional information about the subjects discussed in a particular section. We left hints whenever we believed the solution is not straightforward. Personal note It has been a great personal experience writing this book, and I sincerely hope I could convey some of the magic of the subject. Having access to the remarkable science library of the University of Michigan and its computer facilities certainly made my job a lot easier and improved the quality of the ﬁnal product. I learned differential equations from Professor Viorel Barbu, a very generous and enthusiastic person who guided my ﬁrst steps in this ﬁeld of research. He stimulated my curiosity by his remarkable ability of unveiling the hidden beauty of this highly technical subject. My thesis advisor, Professor Tom Parker, introduced me to more than the fundamentals of modern geometry. He played a key role in shaping the manner in which I regard mathematics. In particular, he convinced me that behind each formalism there must be a picture, and uncovering it, is a very important part of the creation process. Although I did not directly acknowledge it, their inﬂuence is present throughout this book. I only hope the ﬁlter of my mind captured the full richness of the ideas they so generously shared with me. My friends Louis Funar and Gheorghe Ionesei1 read parts of the manuscript. I am grateful to them for their effort, their suggestions and for their friendship. I want to thank Arthur Greenspoon for his advice, enthusiasm and relentless curiosity which boosted my spirits when I most needed it. Also, I appreciate very much the input I received from the graduate students of my “Special topics in differential geometry” course at the University of Michigan which had a beneﬁcial impact on the style and content of this book. At last, but not the least, I want to thank my family who supported me from the beginning to the completion of this project.

Ann Arbor, 1996. Preface to the second edition Rarely in life is a man given the chance to revisit his “youthful indiscretions”. With this second edition I have been given this opportunity, and I have tried to make the best of it. The ﬁrst edition was generously sprinkled with many typos, which I can only attribute to the impatience of youth. In spite of this problem, I have received very good feedback from a very indulgent and helpful audience from all over the world.

1

He passed away in 2006. He was the ultimate poet of mathematics.

i In preparing the new edition, I have been engaged on a massive typo hunting, supported by the wisdom of time, and the useful comments that I have received over the years from many readers. I can only say that the number of typos is substantially reduced. However, experience tells me that Murphy’s Law is still at work, and there are still typos out there which will become obvious only in the printed version. The passage of time has only strengthened my conviction that, in the words of Isaac Newton, “in learning the sciences examples are of more use than precepts”. The new edition continues to be guided by this principle. I have not changed the old examples, but I have polished many of my old arguments, and I have added quite a large number of new examples and exercises. The only major addition to the contents is a new chapter on classical integral geometry. This is a subject that captured my imagination over the last few years, and since the ﬁrst edition of this book developed all the tools needed to understand some of the juiciest results in this area of geometry, I could not pass the chance to share with a curious reader my excitement about this line of thought. One novel feature in our presentation of integral geometry is the use of tame geometry. This is a recent extension of the better know area of real algebraic geometry which allowed us to avoid many heavy analytical arguments, and present the geometric ideas in as clear a light as possible.

Notre Dame, 2007.

Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Manifolds 1.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Space and Coordinatization . . 1.1.2 The implicit function theorem . 1.2 Smooth manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Basic deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Partitions of unity . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.4 How many manifolds are there? i 1 1 1 3 5 5 8 8 18 20 20 20 23 25 29 33 37 37 41 48 52 59 63 63 65 68 74 74 74 76 81 83

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

2 Natural Constructions on Manifolds 2.1 The tangent bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Tangent spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 The tangent bundle . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Sard’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4 Vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.5 Some examples of vector bundles . . . 2.2 A linear algebra interlude . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Tensor products . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Symmetric and skew-symmetric tensors 2.2.3 The “super” slang . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Some complex linear algebra . . . . . . 2.3 Tensor ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Operations with vector bundles . . . . . 2.3.2 Tensor ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Fiber bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Calculus on Manifolds 3.1 The Lie derivative . . . . . 3.1.1 Flows on manifolds 3.1.2 The Lie derivative 3.1.3 Examples . . . . . 3.2 Derivations of Ω• (M ) . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

ii

CONTENTS

3.2.1 The exterior derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connections on vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Covariant derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Parallel transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 The curvature of a connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4 Holonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.5 The Bianchi identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.6 Connections on tangent bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . Integration on manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Integration of 1-densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Orientability and integration of differential forms . . . 3.4.3 Stokes’ formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.4 Representations and characters of compact Lie groups 3.4.5 Fibered calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii 83 89 90 90 95 96 99 102 103 105 105 109 116 120 127 131 131 131 134 140 142 147 157 157 161 163 166 172 180 180 180 185 189 189 193 200 201 201 205 206 206 208

3.3

3.4

4 Riemannian Geometry 4.1 Metric properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Deﬁnitions and examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 The Levi-Civita connection . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 The exponential map and normal coordinates . . 4.1.4 The length minimizing property of geodesics . . 4.1.5 Calculus on Riemann manifolds . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Riemann curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Deﬁnitions and properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Cartan’s moving frame method . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 The geometry of submanifolds . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.5 The Gauss-Bonnet theorem for oriented surfaces 5 Elements of the Calculus of Variations 5.1 The least action principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 The 1-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equations 5.1.2 Noether’s conservation principle . . . . . . . 5.2 The variational theory of geodesics . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Variational formulæ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Jacobi ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Fundamental group and Covering Spaces 6.1 The fundamental group . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Basic notions . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Of categories and functors . . . . . 6.2 Covering Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Deﬁnitions and examples . . . . . . 6.2.2 Unique lifting property . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

iv 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5

CONTENTS

Homotopy lifting property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 On the existence of lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 The universal cover and the fundamental group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 214 214 214 218 220 227 230 232 236 238 238 242 246 246 251 256 258 261 265 265 268 271 272 279 285 286 290 300 300 300 306 307 310 314 314 315 317 319 322 328

7 Cohomology 7.1 DeRham cohomology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Speculations around the Poincar´ e lemma . . . . . . . . . . . ˇ 7.1.2 Cech vs. DeRham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.3 Very little homological algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.4 Functorial properties of the DeRham cohomology . . . . . . . 7.1.5 Some simple examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.6 The Mayer-Vietoris principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.7 The K¨ unneth formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 The Poincar´ e duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 Cohomology with compact supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 The Poincar´ e duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Intersection theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Cycles and their duals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Intersection theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3 The topological degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4 Thom isomorphism theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.5 Gauss-Bonnet revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Symmetry and topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Symmetric spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Symmetry and cohomology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 The cohomology of compact Lie groups . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.4 Invariant forms on Grassmannians and Weyl’s integral formula 7.4.5 The Poincar´ e polynomial of a complex Grassmannian . . . . ˇ 7.5 Cech cohomology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1 Sheaves and presheaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˇ 7.5.2 Cech cohomology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Characteristic classes 8.1 Chern-Weil theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 Connections in principal G-bundles 8.1.2 G-vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.3 Invariant polynomials . . . . . . . . 8.1.4 The Chern-Weil Theory . . . . . . 8.2 Important examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 The invariants of the torus T n . . . 8.2.2 Chern classes . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3 Pontryagin classes . . . . . . . . . 8.2.4 The Euler class . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.5 Universal classes . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Computing characteristic classes . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS

8.3.1 8.3.2

v Reductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 The Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

9 Classical Integral Geometry 343 9.1 The integral geometry of real Grassmannians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 9.1.1 Co-area formulæ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 9.1.2 Invariant measures on linear Grassmannians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 9.1.3 Afﬁne Grassmannians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 9.2 Gauss-Bonnet again?!? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 9.2.1 The shape operator and the second fundamental form of a submanifold in Rn 366 9.2.2 The Gauss-Bonnet theorem for hypersurfaces of an Euclidean space. . . . 369 9.2.3 Gauss-Bonnet theorem for domains in an Euclidean space . . . . . . . . 374 9.3 Curvature measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 9.3.1 Tame geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 9.3.2 Invariants of the orthogonal group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 9.3.3 The tube formula and curvature measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 9.3.4 Tube formula =⇒ Gauss-Bonnet formula for arbitrary submanifolds . . . 397 9.3.5 Curvature measures of domains in an Euclidean space . . . . . . . . . . 399 9.3.6 Crofton Formulæ for domains of an Euclidean space . . . . . . . . . . . 402 9.3.7 Crofton formulæ for submanifolds of an Euclidean space . . . . . . . . . 412 10 Elliptic Equations on Manifolds 10.1 Partial differential operators: algebraic aspects . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Basic notions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3 Formal adjoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Functional framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Sobolev spaces in RN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Embedding theorems: integrability properties . . . . 10.2.3 Embedding theorems: differentiability properties . . 10.2.4 Functional spaces on manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Elliptic partial differential operators: analytic aspects . . . . 10.3.1 Elliptic estimates in RN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.2 Elliptic regularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.3 An application: prescribing the curvature of surfaces 10.4 Elliptic operators on compact manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.1 The Fredholm theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.2 Spectral theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.3 Hodge theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Dirac Operators 11.1 The structure of Dirac operators . . . . 11.1.1 Basic deﬁnitions and examples . 11.1.2 Clifford algebras . . . . . . . . 11.1.3 Clifford modules: the even case 419 419 419 425 427 432 433 439 444 448 451 452 457 461 471 472 480 485 489 489 489 492 496

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

CONTENTS

11.1.4 Clifford modules: the odd case 11.1.5 A look ahead . . . . . . . . . 11.1.6 The spin group . . . . . . . . 11.1.7 The complex spin group . . . 11.1.8 Low dimensional examples . . 11.1.9 Dirac bundles . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Fundamental examples . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 The Hodge-DeRham operator 11.2.2 The Hodge-Dolbeault operator 11.2.3 The spin Dirac operator . . . 11.2.4 The spinc Dirac operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 500 501 503 511 514 518 522 522 527 533 538

planes etc.1 Preliminaries 1. an equation. The most visible natural object is the Space. Descartes’ idea of producing what is now commonly referred to as Cartesian coordinates is familiar to any undergraduate. We call such a process coordinatization. He viewed the Space as a collection of points. more precisely. P −→ (x(P ). The ﬁrst and most important mathematical abstraction is the notion of number. and it has produced many interesting results. In general. y (P ). One studies the properties of these abstractions in the hope they reﬂect facts of life. Space and Number. For example. pairwise perpendicular lines. each one endowed with an orientation and a unit length standard. the place where all things happen.1 Space and Coordinatization Mathematics is a natural science with a special modus operandi. The corresponding map is called (in this case) Cartesian system of coordinates.1. z (P )). These coordinates are obtained using a very special method (in this case using three concurrent. any coordinatization replaces geometry by algebra and we get a two-way corre1 . All the other properties were derived from these simple axioms. but it has its own limitations. the most complicated shapes one could reasonably study using this method are the conics and/or quadrics. Euclid’s work is a masterpiece of mathematics. this approach proved to be very productive. What is important here is that they produced a one-to-one mapping Euclidian Space → R3 . So far. It is safe to say that geometry as a rigorous science is a creation of ancient Greeks. He then postulated certain (natural) relations between them. It replaces concrete natural objects with mental abstractions which serve as intermediaries. A major breakthrough in geometry was the discovery of coordinates by Ren´ e Descartes in the 17th century.Chapter 1 Manifolds 1. We refer of course to the axiomatic method. and the Greeks certainly did this. A line or a plane becomes via coordinatization an algebraic object. Loosely speaking. Euclid proposed a method of research that was later adopted by the entire mathematics. ﬁt together. Numbers were put to work in the study of Space. the aim of this book is to illustrate how these two concepts. and he distinguished some basic objects in the space such as lines.

Isaac Newton created the differential and integral calculus and opened new horizons in the study of equations. we know from the principles of Newtonian mechanics that the motion of a particle in the ambient space can be completely described if we know the position and the velocity of the particle at a given moment. There are many ways to coordinatize the conﬁguration space of a motion of a particle. The space associated with this problem consists of all pairs (position. π ). The shift from geometry to numbers is beneﬁcial to geometry as long as one has efﬁcient tools do deal with numbers and equations.. For example.1). MANIFOLDS r θ Figure 1. only “roomier”. We cannot visualize this space. P → (r (P ). As science progressed. and the other three of them will describe the velocity. One can think of Space as a conﬁguration set. all these .1. This choice is related to the Cartesian choice by the well known formulae x = r cos θ y = r sin θ. i. Fortunately. For example. We say the conﬁguration space is 6-dimensional. but it helps to think of it as an Euclidian space. velocity) a particle can possibly have.2 CHAPTER 1.e. so did the notion of Space. We can coordinatize this space using six functions: three of them will describe the position. the collection of all possible states of a certain phenomenon. or the most useful coordinatization.1) is that x(P ) and y (P ) depend smoothly upon r (P ) and θ (P ).1: Polar coordinates spondence Study of Space ←→ Study of Equations. and for each choice of coordinates we get a different description of the motion. Clearly. about the same time with the introduction of coordinates. Concrete problems dictate other choices. (1. the polar coordinates represent another coordinatization of (a piece of the plane) (see Figure 1. θ (P )) ∈ (0. ∞) × (−π.1) A remarkable feature of (1.1. The Cartesian system of coordinates is by no means the unique.

with only sketchy proofs. Deﬁnition 1. The map F is said to be (Fr´ echet) differentiable at u ∈ U if there exists T ∈ L(X. . Consider F : U ⊂ Rn → Rm . and each of them is then naturally coordinatized.1. In other words. Y ) is continuous. . The next section is a technical interlude. . The map F is differentiable at a point p = (p1 . . . the operator T in the above deﬁnition is uniquely determined by 1 d |t=0 F (u0 + th) = lim (F (u0 + th) − F (u0 )) . . For more details one can consult [26]. Using Cartesian coordinates x = (x1 . . um ) in Rm we can think of F as a collection of m functions on U u1 = u1 (x1 . if X = Rn . . Y ) such that F (u0 + h) − F (u0 ) − T h Y = o( h X) as h → 0.2. a collection of classical analytical facts. The coordinatization process had been used by people centuries before mathematicians accepted it as a method. pn ) ∈ U if and only if the functions ui are differentiable at p in the usual sense of calculus. Differential geometry studies the objects which are independent of coordinates. One can deﬁne inductively C k and C ∞ (or smooth) maps. Each point has a latitude and a longitude that completely determines its position on Earth.1. . and the intention of this book is to introduce the reader to the problems and the methods which arise in the study of manifolds.1. xn ) in Rn and u = (u1 . For example. . sailors used it to travel from one point to another on Earth. This coordinatization is not a global one. . . When F is differentiable at u0 ∈ U . F is said to be of class C 2 if u → Du F is of class C 1 . . Y = Rm . if the map u → Du F ∈ L(X. We will review the implicit function theorem which will be one of the basic tools for detecting manifolds. then L(X.1.1. Example 1. it admits a “ best approximation ” by a linear map. .2 The implicit function theorem We gather here. For example. The Fr´ echet derivative of F at p is the linear . Y ) can be identiﬁed with the space of m × n matrices with real entries. Let F : U ⊂ X → Y be a continuous function (U is an open subset of X ). PRELIMINARIES 3 descriptions must “agree” in some sense. . . um = um (x1 . Let X and Y be two Banach spaces and denote by L(X. with smooth correspondence on overlaps. these descriptions should be independent of coordinates. near that point. Note that the points on the Equator or the Greenwich meridian admit two different coordinatizations which are smoothly related. Then F is said to be of class C 1 . . Th = t→0 t dt We will use the notation T = Du0 F and we will call T the Fr´ echet derivative of F at u0 . xn ). . Y ) the space of bounded linear operators X → Y . xn ). . . The manifolds are precisely those spaces which can be piecewise coordinatized.1. . . since they all reﬂect the same phenomenon. . Assume that the map F : U → Y is differentiable at each point u ∈ U . a continuous function is differentiable at a point if. 1. There exist four domains delimited by the Equator and the Greenwich meridian. ⊔ ⊓ Loosely speaking. .

x ∈ U . Then there exist neighborhoods U of x0 ∈ X . y ) = z0 = (x. More formally. y0 ). . y ) = z0 which lie inside U × V can be identiﬁed with the graph of G. then F (u0 + h) = F (u0 ) + T h + r (h). . Assume that Dy0 F2 ∈ L(Y. with h very small. Z be Banach spaces. i.1. and F : X × Y → Z a smooth map. . .e. Rn ) denote the set of invertible n × n matrices. Rn ). ∂um ∂um ( p ) ( p ) · · · ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂u1 ∂xn (p) ∂u2 ∂xn (p) ∂um ∂xn (p) . R ) is given by tr H . i. where r (h) = o( h ) as h → 0. (b) Let F : U → U be deﬁned as A → A−1 . (x. . and F : U ⊂ X → Y a smooth function. . and set z0 = F (x0 . (a) Let U ⊂ L(Rn . y0 ) ∈ X × Y . Show that U is an open set. for v − v0 Y sufﬁciently small. G(x)) ∈ U × V . . .. Set F2 : Y → Z . . y ). dt ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 1. MANIFOLDS The map F is smooth if and only if the functions ui (x) are smooth.. . . Y . Y ) is invertible. for every v sufﬁciently close to v0 . um ) ∂u2 (p) ∂u2 (p) · · · = Dp F = ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂ (x1 . V of y0 ∈ Y .4 CHAPTER 1. The theorem states that. ⊔ ⊓ The spirit of the theorem is very clear: the invertibility of the derivative Du0 F “propagates” locally to F because Du0 F is a very good local approximation for F . d |t=0 det(½Rn + tH ) = tr H. y ) ∈ U × V . To prove the theorem one has to show that. equivalently.4 (Inverse function theorem). Let X .1. (c) Show that the Fr´ echet derivative of the map det : L(Rn .5 (Implicit function theorem). Y be two Banach spaces. as h = T −1 (v − v0 − r (h)). F2 (y ) = F (x0 . y ) of the equation F (x. operator Dp F : Rn → Rm given by the Jacobian matrix ∂u1 1 (p) ∂u (p) · · · ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂ (u1 .1. . We can rewrite the above equation as T h = v − v0 − r (h) or. . Z ) is invertible. . If at a point u0 ∈ U the derivative Du0 F ∈ L(X. . . xn ) .e. then there exits a neighborhood U1 of u0 in U such that F (U1 ) is an open neighborhood of v0 = F (u0 ) in Y and F : U1 → F (U1 ) is bijective. if we set T = Du0 F .3. . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 1. . This last equation is a ﬁxed point problem that can be approached successfully via the Banach ﬁxed point theorem. the equation F (u) = v has a unique solution u = u0 + h. Let (x0 . at A = ½Rn ∈ n n L(R . and a smooth map G : U → V such that the set S of solution (x. Show that DA F (H ) = −A−1 HA−1 for any n × n matrix H . A → det A. Let X . Theorem 1. F (x. Rn ) → R. ∀H ∈ L(Rn . . the equation below v0 + T h + r (h) = v has a unique solution. with smooth inverse. .

paracompact Hausdorff space M together with the following collection of data (henceforth called atlas or smooth structure) consisting of the following. Consider the map H : X × Y → X × Z. . . . by the inverse function theorem. . and its inverse has the block decomposition ½X 0 . . ξ = (x. y m ).2. DF1 (respectively DF2 ) denotes the derivative of x → F (x. ⊔ ⊓ Each chart Ψi can be viewed as a collection of m functions (x1 . y0 ). . SMOOTH MANIFOLDS 5 In pre-Bourbaki times. (a) An open cover {Ui }i∈I of M . . . (We say the various charts are smoothly compatible. . then the transition map 1 m m Ψj ◦ Ψ− i : Ψi (Ui ∩ Uj ) ⊂ R → Ψj (Ui ∩ Uj ) ⊂ R is smooth. . Proof. Deﬁnition 1. z0 ) in a neighborhood of (x0 . xm ) .2). Dξ0 F1 Dξ0 F2 Above. The linear operator Dξ0 H is invertible. It formalizes the general principles outlined in Subsection 1. we can view another chart Ψj as another collection of functions (y 1 . F (x. . and at ξ0 = (x0 . xm ) on Ui . y ) = z0 } is locally the graph of x → H −1 (x. . y ˜) = z0 . .1 Basic deﬁnitions We now introduce the object which will be the main focus of this book. y )). .1. y )) = (x. (Dξ0 H )−1 = −1 −1 − (Dξ0 F2 ) ◦ (Dξ0 F1 ) (Dξ0 F2 ) Thus. and if Ui ∩ Uj = ∅. . z0 ) has a unique solution (˜ x. ⊔ ⊓ 1. . F (x. y ˜) = H −1 (x.1. (b) A collection of continuous. F (x. the equation (x. namely. . y ) . see Figure 1. the classics regarded the coordinate y as a function of x deﬁned implicitly by the equality F (x. y m (x1 .2. . Similarly. The transition map 1 Ψj ◦ Ψ− i can then be interpreted as a collection of maps (x1 . . . injective maps Ψi : Ui → Rm . . the set {(x. xm ) → y 1 (x1 . i ∈ I (called charts or local coordinates) such that. y0 ) (respectively the derivative of y → F (x0 . . y0 ) its derivative Dξ0 H : X × Y → X × Z has the block decomposition 0 ½X Dξ0 H = . y ) → (x. . A smooth manifold of dimension m is a locally compact. y )). . The map H is a smooth map. xm ). z0 ). the concept of (smooth) manifold.1. Hence.1.2.2 Smooth manifolds 1. Ψi (Ui ) is open in Rm . . y ) = z0 . It obviously satisﬁes x ˜ = x and F (˜ x.

∞) → (0.2: Transition maps The ﬁrst and the most important example of manifold is Rn itself. ½Rn : Rn → Rn . N be two smooth manifolds of dimensions m and respectively n. fk ) = p ∈ M .5. Proposition 1.2.2. Remark 1.2. Let U be an open subset of the smooth manifold M (dim M = m) and ψ : U → Rm a smooth. Deﬁne Z = Z(f1 . Historically. . f1 (p) = · · · = fk (p) = 0 . the composition ψ ◦ f ◦ φ−1 (whenever this makes sense) is a smooth map Rm → Rn .3. . A continuous map f : M → N is said to be smooth if. Thus (U.2. (b) A smooth map f : M → N is called a diffeomorphism if it is invertible and its inverse is also a smooth map. The map t → et is a diffeomorphism (−∞. . fk ∈ C ∞ (M ).2. . Let M be a smooth manifold of dimension m and f1 . . ψ ) can be added to the original atlas and the new smooth structure is diffeomorphic with the initial one. ⊔ ⊓ Example 1. The map t → t3 is a homeomorphism R → R but it is not a diffeomorphism! ⊔ ⊓ If M is a smooth manifold we will denote by C ∞ (M ) the linear space of all smooth functions M → R. To construct more examples we will use the implicit function theorem . . .6 CHAPTER 1. (a) Let M . this is how manifolds entered mathematics. for any local charts φ on M and ψ on N . ⊔ ⊓ Our next result is a general recipe for producing manifolds. . ∞). . Then ψ deﬁnes local coordinates over U compatible with the existing atlas of M .4. one-to one map with open image and smooth inverse. Using Zermelo’s Axiom we can produce a maximal atlas (no more compatible local chart can be added to it). MANIFOLDS Ui Uj ψi ψ ψ −1 j i R m ψ j R m Figure 1. The natural smooth structure consists of an atlas with a single chart. Deﬁnition 1.

. and set x′ := (x1 . . . and the matrix ∂f1 ∂f1 ∂f1 · · · ∂x m ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂f . . for each p ∈ Z. . . . .2. . fk are functionally independent along Z. Step 2. . DF2 = ∂x ′′ ′ × U ′′ of p . . One of the k × k minors of the matrix ∂f1 ∂f1 ∂f1 · · · ∂x m ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂f . . Thus. ∂x ∂fk ∂fk ∂fk · · · ∂x m ∂x1 ∂x2 x1 =···=xm =0 is nonzero. .e. g(x′ ) ) ∈ Rm−k × Rk . . . .1. . . . Y = Rk . . . . . fk as deﬁned on an open subset U of Rm . fk (x)) ∂F : Rk → Rk is invertible since its determinant corresponds to our In this case. SMOOTH MANIFOLDS 7 Assume that the functions f1 . Z ∩ Up0 = ′ (x′ . . the set Z is the graph of nonzero minor. . . . . m. and F : X × Y → Z given by f1 (x) . . We can think of the functions f1 . . xm−k ). i = 1. . xm ) deﬁned in a neighborhood of p in M such that xi (p) = 0. . The details are left to the reader. xm ). Assume this minor is determined by the last k columns (and all the k lines). . . . . . . x′ ∈ Up . in a product neighborhood Up0 = Up 0 p0 0 some function ′ ′′ g : Up ⊂ Rm−k −→ Up ⊂ Rk . there exist local coordinates (x1 . . . The transition maps for the charts constructed above are smooth.. . Let p0 ∈ Z. xm ) local coordinates near p0 such that xi (p0 ) = 0. . Z = Rk . 0 0 i. and denote by (x1 . Proof. Step 1: Constructing the charts. . . i. . ψp The map ψp0 is a local chart of Z near p0 . g(x′ ) ) −→ x′ ∈ Rm−k . x′′ := (xm−k+1 . x→ ∈ Rk .. ⊔ ⊓ . |x′ | small . . . . |p := . ∂x ∂fk ∂fk ∂fk · · · ∂xm x1 =···=xm =0 ∂x1 ∂x2 has rank k. 0 We now deﬁne ψp0 : Z ∩ Up0 → Rm−k by 0 ( x′ . Split Rm as m − R k × Rk . . Then Z has a natural structure of smooth manifold of dimension m − k.e. |p := . We are now in the setting of the implicit function theorem with X = Rm−k . .

For a proof we refer to [96].6. (iv) β fβ (x) = 1 for all x ∈ M .2.5. Deﬁnition 1. then we can ﬁnd a partition of unity in which B = A ⊔ ⊓ and φ = ½A .5 shows that any submanifold N ⊂ M has a natural smooth structure so it becomes a manifold per se. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition1.9.e. we present here a short list of examples of manifolds.2. . A codimension k submanifold of M is a subset N ⊂ M locally deﬁned as the common zero locus of k functionally independent functions f1 .2.. Exercise 1.10. Let M be a smooth manifold and S ⊂ M a closed submanifold. many problems in mathematics ﬁnd their most natural presentation using the language of manifolds. Let M be a smooth manifold and (Uα )α∈A an open cover of M . MANIFOLDS ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 1.2 Partitions of unity This is a very brief technical subsection describing a trick we will extensively use in this book. i. On the other hand. ⊔ ⊓ We include here for the reader’s convenience the basic existence result concerning partitions of unity. 1. (i) 0 ≤ fβ ≤ 1.7. To give the reader an idea of the scope and extent of modern geometry. A (smooth) partition of unity subordinated to this cover is a family (fβ )β ∈B ⊂ C ∞ (M ) satisfying the following conditions. (b) If we do not require compact supports.8 Exercise 1. (a) For any open cover U = (Uα )α∈A of a smooth manifold M there exists at least one smooth partition of unity (fβ )β ∈B subordinated to U such that supp fβ is compact for any β . to many physical phenomena which can be modelled mathematically one can naturally associate a manifold. any point x ∈ M admits an open neighborhood intersecting only ﬁnitely many of the supports supp fβ . and in fact. the inclusion map i : N ֒→ M is smooth. . .2. Let M be a m-dimensional manifold. Moreover. ⊔ ⊓ 1.2.3 Examples Manifolds are everywhere. (ii) ∃φ : B → A such that supp fβ ⊂ Uφ(β ) . This list will be enlarged as we enter deeper into the study of manifolds.2. Prove that the restriction map r : C ∞ (M ) → C ∞ (S ) f → f |S is surjective. . fk ∈ C ∞ (M ). (iii) The family (supp fβ ) is locally ﬁnite. Complete Step 2 in the proof of Proposition1. CHAPTER 1.2. .2.2.8. Proposition 1.

Consider the open sets UN = S n \ {N } and US = S n \ {S }. . Note that T 1 is diffeomorphic with the 1-dimensional sphere S 1 (unit circle). x = (x0 .3: The 2-dimensional torus . −1) ∈ Rn+1 ). . . y n (P )) the coordinates of σN (P ). ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 1. As a set T n is a ⊔ ⊓ direct product of n circles T n = S 1 × · · · × S 1 (see Figure 1.2.2. The construction relies on stereographic projections. .2. . and for Q ∈ US . A simple argument shows the map y 1 (P ). z n (Q)) the coordinates of σS (Q). P ∈ UN ∩ US . xn ) ∈ Rn+1 . Let N and S denote the North and resp. . . . xn . . . . The stereographic projection from the South pole is deﬁned similarly. (The n-dimensional torus). . 1) ∈ Rn+1 .3).13. .2.. z j constructed in the above example satisfy zi = yi n j 2 j =1 (y ) . . n. ⊔ ⊓ Example 1. . Figure 1. This is the codimension 1 submanifold of Rn+1 given by the equation n |x|2 = i=0 (xi )2 = r 2 . y n (P ) → z 1 (P ). the differential of |x|2 is nowhere zero. 0. we denote by (z 1 (Q).. Show that the functions y i . .11. . . For P ∈ UN we denote by (y 1 (P ). S = (0. . Hence {(UN . . One checks that. The stereographic projection from the North pole is the map σN : UN → Rn such that. . They form an open cover of S n .1. along the sphere. . . . . . y1 . σN ). South pole of S n (N = (0.2. . S n is indeed a smooth manifold. . . In this case one can explicitly construct an atlas (consisting of two charts) which is useful in many applications. so by Proposition 1.5. . for any P ∈ UN . z n (P ) . . (US . SMOOTH MANIFOLDS 9 Example 1. . ∀i = 1. the point σN (P ) is the intersection of the line N P with the hyperplane {xn = 0} ∼ = Rn . This is the codimension n submanifold of R2n (x1 . σS )} deﬁnes a smooth structure on Sn. 0. yn ) deﬁned as the zero locus 2 2 2 x2 1 + y1 = · · · = xn + yn = 1. (The n-dimensional sphere). .12. . is smooth (see the exercise below).

Let M1 and M2 be two manifolds of the same dimension m.14. def . and reverses the orientation of the radial directions. Let M and N be smooth manifolds of dimension m and respectively n. the new manifold thus obtained is independent of the choices of local coordinates ([19]). choose small open neighborhoods Ui of pi in Mi and then local charts ψi identifying each of these neighborhoods with B2 (0). Then their topological direct product has a natural structure of smooth manifold of dimension m + n.2.10 CHAPTER 1. φ(x) = x . the ball of radius 2 in Rm .2. |x|2 The action of φ is clear: it switches the two boundary components of {1/2 < |x| < 2}. −1 Now “glue” V1 to V2 using the “prescription” given by ψ2 ◦ φ ◦ ψ1 : V1 → V2 .15.4: Connected sum of tori Example 1.4). As a topological space RPn is the quotient of Rn+1 modulo the equivalence relation x ∼ y ⇐⇒ ∃λ ∈ R∗ : x = λy. Up to a diffeomeorphism. (The real projective space RPn ). Let Vi ⊂ Ui correspond (via ψi ) to the annulus {1/2 < |x| < 2} ⊂ Rm .2. 2). ⊔ ⊓ V 1 V 2 Figure 1.16. (The connected sum of two manifolds). Consider φ: 1/2 < |x| < 2 → 1/2 < |x| < 2 . Example 1. In this way we obtain a new topological space with a natural smooth structure induced by the smooth structures on Mi . Example 1. Pick pi ∈ Mi (i = 1. MANIFOLDS The above example suggests the following general construction. and it is called the connected sum of M1 and M2 and is denoted by ⊔ ⊓ M1 #M2 (see Figure 1.

. . xn ).1) −1 is smooth and proves that RPn is a smooth manifold. . k = 0.2.18. . The open sets Uk are deﬁned similarly and so are the local charts ψk : Uk → Cn . . . . . . ηm . . . ξm−1 = 1/ηk ξm = ηm ηk . ξk . . . . xk = 0 . . . Set ψk ([x0 . Note that This shows the map ψk ◦ ψm 1 when n = 1. Exercise 1. . ηm−1 . . . . xn ] ∈ RPn . . xn ]) = (ξ1 . . 1. . the so called “point at inﬁnity” along that direction. . . ψm ([x0 . . .2. . . . . 2n-dimensional manifold M which admits an atlas {(Ui . . . A complex manifold is a smooth. ⊔ ⊓ . . Alternatively. ⊔ ⊓ def In the above example we encountered a special (and very pleasant) situation: the gluing maps −1 : U → V where U and V are not only are smooth. . . .2. .19. . . xk−1 /xk . [x0 . . ξn ). ψi ) : Ui → Cn } such that all transition maps are holomorphic. xn ] .2. one attaches a point to each direction in Rn+1 . . Traditionally. ξk−1 . . RPn is the set of all lines (directions) in Rn+1 . (Complex manifolds). . .2. xn ] = [ξ1 . The equality [x0 . .1) so that CPn is a smooth manifold of dimension 2n.2. . (The complex projective space CPn ). The deﬁnition is formally identical to that of RPn . . . . . The maps ψk deﬁne local coordinates on the projective space. xn ) ∈ Rn+1 \ {0} is usually denoted by [x0 . . . . ξm−2 = ηm−1 /ηk . To describe it consider the sets Uk = Now deﬁne ψk : Uk → Rn [x0 . . ηn ] immediately implies (assume k < m) ξk+1 = ηk ξ1 = η1 /ηk . . 1. ξk−1 = ηk−1 /ηk . The space RPn has a natural structure of smooth manifold. SMOOTH MANIFOLDS 11 The equivalence class of x = (x0 . . Prove that CP1 is diffeomorphic to S 2 . ⊔ ⊓ Example 1. ηn ). . . . ξn = ηn /ηk (1. . . . . This type of gluing induces a “rigidity” in the underlying manifold and it is worth distinguishing this situation. . xk+1 /xk . so that RPn can be thought as the collection of all points at inﬁnity along all directions. . The transition map on the overlap region Uk ∩ Um = {[x0 . Deﬁnition 1. . . One way to see this is to observe that the projective space can be alternatively described as the quotient space of S n modulo the equivalence relation which identiﬁes antipodal points . . . xn ]) = (η1 . . . xn ] → (x0 /xk . ξk = ηk+1 /ηk . . .17. ξn ] = [η1 . . They satisfy ⊔ ⊓ transition rules similar to (1. . xn ]. CPn is the quotient space of Cn+1 \ {0} modulo the equivalence relation x ∼ y ⇐⇒ ∃λ ∈ C∗ : x = λy. they are also holomorphic as maps ψk ◦ ψm open sets in Cn . xk xm = 0} can be easily described. . . n. RP is diffeomorphic with S 1 . .1.

Example 1.3) . U ∩ L⊥ = 0 .20. (1. We have a natural map P : Grk (V ) → Projk (V ). For every 0 ≤ k ≤ n we denote by Grk (V ) the set of k-dimensional vector subspaces of V .2. L → PL with inverse P → Range (P ). To see this. Any k-dimensional subspace L ⊂ V is uniquely determined by the orthogonal projection onto L which we will denote by PL . P ∗ = P = P 2 . Then U ∩ L⊥ = 0 ⇐⇒ ½ − PL + PU : V → V is an isomorphism . We will say that Grk (V ) is the linear Grassmannian of k-planes in E . The set Projk (V ) is a subset of the vector space of symmetric endomorphisms End+ (V ) := A ∈ End(V ).2) The set Projk (V ) is a closed and bounded subset of End+ (V ). (a) Note ﬁrst that a dimension count implies that U ∩ L⊥ = 0 ⇐⇒ U + L⊥ = V ⇐⇒ U ⊥ ∩ L = 0. L) := U ∈ Grk (V ). rank P = k . (a) Let L ∈ Grk (V ). Thus we can identify Grk (V ) with the set of rank k projectors Projk (V ) := P : V → V . B ) := 1 tr(AB ). The sapce End+ (V ) is equipped with a natural inner product (A. MANIFOLDS The complex projective space is a complex manifold. We would like to give several equivalent descriptions of the natural structure of smooth manifold on Grk (V ). Let us show that U ∩ L⊥ = 0 implies that ½ − PL + PL is an isomorphism.n (R) instead of Grk (Rn ). It sufﬁces to show that ker(½ − PL + PU ) = 0. Proof. 2 (1. To do this it is very convenient to ﬁx an Euclidean metric on V . Lemma 1. (b) The set Grk (V.2. B ∈ End+ (V ). Our next example naturally generalizes the projective spaces described above. A∗ = A . L) is an open subset of Grk (V ). Grk (Cn )).21.2.2.12 CHAPTER 1. (The real and complex Grassmannians Grk (Rn ). The bijection P : Grk (V ) → Projk (V ) induces a topology on Grk (V ). we deﬁne for every L ⊂ Grk (V ) the set Grk (V. ∀A. We want to show that Grk (V ) has a natural structure of smooth manifold compatible with this topology. Suppose V is a real vector space of dimension n. When V = Rn we will write Grk.

we have an open cover of Grk (V ) Grk (V ) = L∈Grk (V ) Grk (V. Hence there exists ε > 0 such that. L). Conversely. SMOOTH MANIFOLDS Suppose v ∈ ker(½ − PL + PU ). x ∈ L ⇐⇒ v − (x + Sx) ∈ Γ⊥ S . then U + L⊥ = V . so that v ∈ U ⊥ . x ∈ L}.2. let v ∈ V . Note that (½ − PL − PK ) − (½ − PL − PU ) = PK − PU . We now conclude using part (a). ∀L ∈ Grk (V ). ∗ ⊥ ⊥ Γ⊥ . Indeed. Note that for every L ∈ Grk (V ) we have a natural map Γ : Hom(L. ⊔ ⊓ Since L ∈ Grk (V. (b) We have to show that. Hence v ∈ U ⊥ ∩ L = 0. We will show that this is a homeomorphism by providing an explicit description of the orthogonal projection PΓS Observe ﬁrst that the orthogonal complement of ΓS is the graph of −S ∗ : L⊥ → L. More precisely. which associates to each linear map S : L → L⊥ its graph (see Figure 1. L). there exists ε > 0 such that any U satisfying PU − PK < ε intersects L⊥ trivially. The space of isomorphisms of V is an open subset of End(V ). L). L⊥ ) → Grk (V. for any subspace U satisfying PU − PK < ε. S = Γ −S ∗ = y − S y ∈ L + L = V . y ∈ L Let v = PL v + PL⊥ v = vL + vL+ ∈ V (see Figure 1. L).1. Then there exists x ∈ V such that v = PL⊥ x + PU x ∈ L⊥ + U. the endomorphism (½ − PL − PU ) is an isomorphism. we will show that if ½ − PL + PU = PL⊥ + PU is onto. Then 0 = PL (½ − PL + PU )v = PL PU v = 0 =⇒ PU v ∈ U ∩ ker PL = U ∩ L⊥ = 0. From the equality (½ − PL − PU )v = 0 we also deduce (½ − PL )v = 0 so that v ∈ L. L) we deduce from (a) that the map ½ − PL − PK : V → V is an isomorphism. Then PΓS v = x + Sx.5).5) ΓS = {x + Sx ∈ L + L⊥ = V . 13 Hence PU v = 0. Since K ∈ Grk (V. for every K ∈ Grk (V.

MANIFOLDS v v L Sx Γ S v L x L Figure 1. ⇐⇒ ∃x ∈ L. Sx − y = vL⊥ S∗ Consider the operator S : L ⊕ L⊥ → L ⊕ L⊥ which has the block decomposition S= ½L S −½⊥ L . y ∈ L⊥ such that x + S ∗ y = vL . x y = vL vL ⊥ 0 . = We deduce and. ½L + S ∗ S 0 ½L⊥ + SS ∗ . Then the above linear system can be rewritten as S· Now observe that S2 = Hence S is invertible. and S−1 = (½L + S ∗ S )−1 0 0 (½L⊥ + SS ∗ )−1 ·S . (½L + S ∗ S )−1 (½L + S ∗ S )−1 S ∗ (½L⊥ + SS ∗ )−1 S −(½L⊥ + SS ∗ )−1 x = (½L + S ∗ S )−1 vL + (½L + S ∗ S )−1 S ∗ vL⊥ x Sx PΓS v = Hence PΓS has the block decomposition PΓS = .14 L CHAPTER 1. ½L S · [(½L + S ∗ S )−1 (½L + S ∗ S )−1 S ∗ ] .5: Subspaces as graphs of linear operators.

L⊥ ) ∋ S → ΓS ∈ Grk (V ) is a homeomorphism. then with respect to the decomposition V = L + L⊥ the projector PU has the block form PU = A B C D = PL PU IL PL PU IL⊥ PL⊥ PU IL PL L⊥ PU IL⊥ . where for every subspace K ֒→ V we denoted by IK : K → V the canonical inclusion. where dK 1 One can show that any connected commutative Lie group has the from T n × Rm . L0 ) ∩ Grk (V. GL(n. +) is a commutative Lie group. It can be structured as above as a smooth manifold of dimension 2k(n − k). the torus T n is a Lie group as a direct product of n circles1 .2.2. This shows that the graph map Hom(L. i = 0. (c) The general linear group GL(n. (1.4) Note that if U ∈ Grk (V. where S = CA−1 . SMOOTH MANIFOLDS (½L + S ∗ S )−1 (½L + S ∗ S )−1 S ∗ ∗ − 1 S (½L + S ∗ S )−1 S ∗ S (½L + S S ) 15 = . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 1. K) deﬁned as the group of invertible n × n matrices with entries in the ﬁeld K = R. Moreover. L). A Lie group is a smooth manifold G together with a group structure on it such that the map G×G→G (g.3) in the linear space of n × n matrices with entries in K. and Gr1 (Cn ) ∼ = CPn−1 . . Grk (Cn ) is deﬁned as the space of complex k-dimensional subspaces of Cn . L⊥ ) = k(n − k).23. This is a commutative group. (b) The unit circle S 1 can be alternatively described as the set of complex numbers of norm one and the complex multiplication deﬁnes a Lie group structure on it. Note that Gr1 (Rn ) ∼ = RPn−1 . h) → g · h−1 is smooth. (Lie groups). then we can represent U in two ways. The Grassmannians have important applications in many classiﬁcation problems. (a) (Rn .22. It has dimension dK n2 . Si ∈ Hom(Li . More generally. K) is an open subset (see Exercise 1.2.1. then U = ΓS .1. Show that Grk (Cn ) is a complex manifold of complex dimension k(n − k)). the above formulæ show that if U ∈ Grk (V. C is a Lie group. U = ΓS0 = ΓS1 . L1 ). 1. L⊥ i ). These structures provide an excellent way to formalize the notion of symmetry. This shows that Grk (V ) has a natural structure of smooth manifold of dimension dim Grk (V ) = dim Hom(L.2. Indeed. ⊔ ⊓ Example 1. and the correspondence S0 → S1 is smooth.

K). Thus the Cayley transform is a homeomorphism from O(n)# to the space of non-exceptional. The Cayley transform is the map # : Mn (R)# → Mn (R) deﬁned by A → A# = (½ − A)(½ + A)−1 . det(½ + T ) = 0 . The Cayley transform has some very nice properties. (d) The orthogonal group O(n) is the group of real n × n matrices satisfying T · T t = ½. and conversely. T · T ∗ = ½}. The latter space is an open subset in the linear space of real n × n skew-symmetric matrices. One can show that the collection T · O(n)# . In particular. To describe its smooth structure we will use the Cayley transform trick as in [84] (see also the classical [101]). Set Mn (R)# := T ∈ Mn (R) . det T = 1}. (e) The unitary group U (n) is deﬁned as U (n) = {T ∈ GL(n. T · O(n)# . skew-symmetric. if A ∈ Mn (R)# is skew-symmetric then A# ∈ O(n). (A# )# = A for any A ∈ Mn (R)# . (i) A# ∈ Mn (R)# for every A ∈ Mn (R)# .. The matrices in Mn (R)# are called non exceptional. Inside O(n) lies a normal subgroup (the special orthogonal group) SO(n) = {T ∈ O(n) . we deduce dim O(n) = n(n − 1)/2. MANIFOLDS is the dimension of K as a linear space over R. ΨT T ∈O (n) deﬁnes a smooth structure on O(n).e. Clearly ½ ∈ O(n)# = O(n) ∩ Mn (R)# so that O(n)# is a nonempty open subset of O(n). . o(n). i. (iii) For every T ∈ O(n)# the matrix T # is skew-symmetric.16 CHAPTER 1. (ii) # is involutive. Any T ∈ O(n) deﬁnes a self-homeomorphism of O(n) by left translation in the group LT : O(n) → O(n) We obtain an open cover of O(n): O(n) = T ∈O (n) S → LT (S ) = T · S. matrices. The group SO(n) is a Lie group as well and dim SO(n) = dim O(n). We will often use the alternate notation GL(Kn ) when referring to GL(n. Deﬁne ΨT : T · O(n)# → o(n) by S → (T −1 · S )# . C) .

2.2. RT = ½. RT is the orthogonal reﬂection in the subspace ΓT . Thus U (n) is a smooth manifold of dimension dim U (n) = dim u(n) = n2 . ∗ 2 = RT . and T : V0 → V1 is a linear map. T ∗ : V1 → V0 . Inside U (n) sits the normal subgroup SU (n). Exercise 1. and then show that T · O(n)# . U (n).e.25. Use the implicit function theorem to show that SL(n. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 1. Let SL(n. In fact the Cayley transform trick allows one to coordinatize SU (n) using the space ⊔ ⊓ su(n) = {A ∈ u(n) . ΓT = (v0 . SMOOTH MANIFOLDS 17 where T ∗ denotes the conjugate transpose (adjoint) of T .) ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 1. v1 = T v0 l . This a smooth manifold of dimension n2 − 1. and by ΓT the graph of T. ﬁnite dimensional Euclidean space.24. SU (n) is also called the special unitary group.. where dK = dimR K. This time. C. K) is a smooth manifold of dimension dK (n2 − 1). tr A = 0}. i. and by R0 : V0 ⊕ V1 → V0 ⊕ V1 the reﬂection R0 = v0 v1 = 0 −T T∗ 0 · v0 v1 . where PΓT denotes the orthogonal projection onto ΓT . ΨT T ∈O(n) deﬁnes a smooth structure on O(n). (d) Prove that SU (2) is diffeomorphic with S 3 (Hint: think of S 3 as the group of unit quaternions. ½V0 0 0 −½V1 . We form the skew-symmetric operator X : V0 ⊕ V1 → V0 ⊕ V1 .26. RT = 2PΓT − ½. K) denote the group of n × n matrices of determinant 1 with entries in the ﬁeld K = R. In other words. (a) Prove the properties (i)-(iii) of the Cayley transform. X · We denote by CT the Cayley transform of X .2. (Quillen). We denote by T ∗ is adjoint. CT = (½ − X )(½ + X )−1 . RT and ker(½ − RT ) = ΓT . we coordinatize the group using the space u(n) of skew-adjoint (skew-Hermitian) n × n complex matrices (A = −A∗ ). (c) Show that O(n). v1 ) ∈ V0 ⊕ V1 . SO(n). To prove that U (n) is a manifold one uses again the Cayley transform trick. V1 are two real.2. ⊔ ⊓ .1. SU (n) are compact spaces. Show that RT = CT R0 is an orthogonal involution. the kernel of the group homomorphism det : U (n) → S 1 . (b) Prove that U (n) and SU (n) are manifolds. Suppose V0 .

Suppose G is a Lie group. we cannot visualize the real projective plane (one can prove rigorously it does not have enough room to exist inside our 3-dimensional Universe). For example. We have to decide this question using a little more than the raw geometric intuition provided by a picture.2. They clearly look different but we have not yet proved rigorously that they are indeed not diffeomorphic. so one may ask whether there is any coherent way to organize the collection of all possible manifolds. We know at least two surfaces: the sphere S 2 and the torus T 2 .4 How many manifolds are there? The list of examples in the previous subsection can go on for ever.29.2. Prove that the closure of H is also a subgroup of G. and H is an abstract subgroup of G. We can connect sum two tori.6 suggests that this may be the case but this is no rigorous argument. 96]. For a proof we refer to [44.2. Show that 1 ∈ G lies in the closure of {g n . If H is the subgroup algebraically generated by U show that H is dense in G. n ∈ Z \ {0}}.27. (a) Let G be a connected Lie group and denote by U a neighborhood of 1 ∈ G.27. To kill the suspense. and H is a closed subgroup of G. This is too general a question to expect a clear cut answer. Exercise 1. connected manifolds of a given dimension d? For d = 1 the answer is very simple: the only compact connected 1-dimensional manifold is the circle S 1 . In view of Exercise 1.6 Figure 1. Already the situation is more elaborate. This is not the end of the story. ⊔ ⊓ 1.2. MANIFOLDS Exercise 1.6: Connected sum of 3 tori Again we face the same question: do we get non-diffeomorphic surfaces for different choices of g? Figure 1. we can ask Question 1: Which are the compact. (Can you prove this?) We can raise the stakes and try the same problem for d = 2.28. we mention that RP2 does not . (b) Let G be a compact Lie group and g ∈ G. We have to be more speciﬁc.18 CHAPTER 1. If G is a Lie group.2. then H is in fact a smooth submanifold of G. We know another example of compact surface. three tori or any number g of tori. Unfortunately. and we naturally ask whether it looks like one of the surfaces constructed above. this fact allows us to produce many examples of Lie groups. the projective plane RP2 . We obtain doughnut-shaped surface as in Figure 1. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 1. and with respect to this smooth structure H is a Lie group.

A classical result in topology says that all compact surfaces can be obtained in this way (see [68]). Naturally. “It is certainly regrettable that we have to enter into the purely formal aspect in such detail and to give it so much space but.2. a torus has two faces: an inside face and an outside face (think of a car rubber tube). In many instances one can give fairly accurate answers. Property X may refer to more than the (differential) topology of a manifold. One reason is that. There are many other structures Nature forced us into studying them. and for such objects there is a rigorous way to measure “how curved” are they. one asks for a rigorous explanation of what goes wrong. for example.” H. The next two chapters are probably the most arid in geometry but. to make things look hopeless. but there has been considerable progress due to G.]. even if we do not always have the time to show it to the reader. The best explanation of this phenomenon is contained in the celebrated Theorema Egregium (Golden Theorem) of Gauss. but they may not be so easily described in elementary terms. SMOOTH MANIFOLDS 19 belong to the family of donuts.1.. A simple do-it-yourself experiment is enough to convince anyone that this is not possible. since a (canvas) sphere is curved in a different way than a plane canvas. Most of the constructions the reader will have to “endure” in the next two chapters constitute not just some difﬁcult to “swallow” formalism. Weyl: Space. 2 Things are still not settled in 2007. so here too the only way we can lessen the burden of formulæ is to master the technique of tensor analysis to such a degree that we can turn to real problems that concern us without feeling any encumbrance. but the basic language of geometry. Whoever sets out in quest of these goals must possess a perfect mathematical equipment from the outset. Question 2 Can we wrap a planar piece of canvas around a metal sphere in a one-to-one fashion? (The canvas is ﬂexible but not elastic). it cannot be avoided. One then realizes that the problem in Question 2 is impossible. We can now connect sum any numbers of RP2 ’s to any donut an thus obtain more and more surfaces.. It has only one side! One says the torus is orientable while the projective plane is not. nevertheless. behind each construction lies a natural motivation and. The following problem may give the reader a taste of the types of problems we will be concerned with in this book. which we cannot visualize and we have yet no idea if they are pairwise distinct. in dimension ≥ 4 Question 1 is algorithmically undecidable . A word to the reader. Time. In dimension 3 things are not yet settled2 and. Real life situations suggest the study of manifolds with additional structure. Perelman’s proof of the Poincar´ e conjecture. We can reconsider our goals. our object being to get an insight into the nature of space [. RP2 has a weird behavior: it has “no inside” and “no outside”. . It might comfort the reader during this less than glamorous journey to carry in the back of his mind Hermann Weyl’s elegantly phrased advise. keep in mind that. Just as anyone who wishes to give expressions to his thoughts with ease must spend laborious hours learning language and writing. Matter. it is there. and it may take a while to reveal itself. but in the above list some manifolds are diffeomorphic. and look for all the manifolds with a given property X . Canvas surfaces have additional structure (they are made of a special material). and we have to describe which.

it is the horizontal afﬁne plane through the North pole.. Example 2. 0.1) ˙ (0). Look at a smooth path γ (t) on S 2 passing through N at t = 0. The linear approximation of x2 + y 2 + z 2 near N seems like the best candidate. where O(2) denotes a quadratic error.e. 20 .1. The natural candidate for this osculator plane would be a plane given by a linear equation that best approximates the deﬁning equation x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 in a neighborhood of the North pole.1. and |γ (t)|2 = 1. 1) that is “closest” to the sphere. (2. γ ˙ (0) ⊥ γ (0). i. We deduce that the tangent space consists of the tangents to the curves on S 2 passing through N . the osculator plane is z = 1. i. We will be able to transport many notions in linear analysis to manifolds via the tangent space.1 The tangent bundle 2. so that γ ˙ (0) lies in If we differentiate (2.1 Tangent spaces We begin with a simple example which will serve as a motivation for the abstract deﬁnitions.1. γ (0)) = 0. The classics would refer to such a plane as an osculator plane. We want to ﬁnd the plane passing through the North pole N (0. Hence. The key concept is that of tangent space at a point which is a ﬁrst order approximation of the manifold near that point. There is one natural way to ﬁx this problem. Geometrically. Hence. 2.Chapter 2 Natural Constructions on Manifolds The goal of this chapter is to introduce the basic terminology used in differential geometry. We have x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 1 = 2(z − 1) + O(2).1.e. The linear subspace {z = 0} ⊂ R3 is called the tangent space to S 2 at N . The above construction has one deﬁciency: it is not intrinsic. t → γ (t) ∈ R3 . it relies on objects “outside” the manifold S 2 .1..1) at t = 0 we get (γ the linear subspace z = 0. Consider the sphere (S 2 ) : x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 in R3 .

. . Let α ∼1 β and β ∼1 γ . v ˙ (0) = ˙ (0) . However. v ) plane. Sketch of proof. This equivalence relation is now intrinsic modulo one problem: “∼” may depend on the choice of the local coordinates. and β (t) = (xβ (t)) = (xβ (t). The binary relation ∼1 is obviously reﬂexive and symmetric. ˙ (0)] := [γ Set [α ˙ (0)] + [β ˙ (0)]. . ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 2. Let M m be a smooth manifold and p0 a point in M . . xm ) near p such that xi (p) = 0. and let α and β be two smooth curves through p. THE TANGENT BUNDLE 21 This is apparently no major conceptual gain since we still regard the tangent space as a subspace of R3 . β become xi α (t) . Thus there exist local coordinates (x) = (x1 . In the above local coordinates the curves α. . Thus. For this operation to be well deﬁned one has to check two things. .2. The set of these equivalence classes is denoted by Tp M .1.3. . ε) → M such that α(0) = β (0) = p0 are said to have a ﬁrst order contact at p0 if there exist local coordinates (x) = (x1 . ∀i. We write this α ∼1 β . v ) near N . .1. β : (−ε. ∂xj α ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. . The equivalence class of a curve α(t) such that α(0) = p will be temporarily denoted by [α ˙ (0)]. . . v The right hand side of the above equality deﬁnes an equivalence relation ∼ on the set of smooth curves passing trough (0. . ( t ) . ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 2. If φ(t) is another curve through N given in local coordinates by t → (u(t).2. u ˙ (0). v (t)) in the (u. and any curve γ (t) as above can be viewed as a curve t → (u(t). and this is still an extrinsic description. so we only have to check the transitivity. m 1 m where α(t) = (xα (t)) = (x1 α (t). . . . xβ (t)). and the equivalence classes of “∼”. . The transitivity follows from the equality i i (0) = y ˙γ (0) = y ˙β j ∂y i j x ˙ (0) = ∂xj β j ∂y i j j x ˙ (0) = y ˙α (0). . A tangent vector to M at p is a ﬁrst-order-contact equivalence class of curves through p. as we are going to see. ∼1 is an equivalence relation. xm ) near p0 such that x ˙ α (0) = x ˙ β (0). v (t)). . . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. 0). Choose local coordinates (x1 . there is a bijective correspondence between the tangents to the curves through N . and is called the tangent space to M at p. then ˙ (0) ⇐⇒ γ ˙ (0) = φ u ˙ (0). . . Tp M has a natural structure of vector space. xα (t)).4.5.1. Proof. if we use the stereographic projection from the South pole we get local coordinates (u. y m ) near p0 such that (x ˙ α (0)) = (x ˙ β (0)) and (y ˙ β (0)) = (y ˙ γ (0)). . Construct a new curve γ through p given by xi β i i xi γ (t) = xα (t) + xβ (t) . . Fortunately. this is a non-issue. xm ) and (y ) = (y 1 .1. . . Two smooth paths α.1.

ε) ∋ s → T (s) be a smooth path of orthogonal matrices such that T (0) = ½.1.7. Assume that (a) M = F −1 (0) = ∅. . for all x ∈ M . T ˙ (0) deﬁnes a vector in T½ O(n). On the other hand. . Proof. . Consider the curves 1 m ek (t) = (tδk . ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ From this point on we will omit the brackets [ – ] in the notation of a tangent vector. . . Let (−ε. Often. xm ) be coordinates near p ∈ M such that xi (p) = 0.. .2. We set where δj ∂ (p) := e ˙ k (0). when the point p is clear from the context. ∂ (p) 1≤k≤m ∂xk is a basis of Tp M . T½ O(n) ⊂ o(n).1. . .2. . . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. . . (a) G = O(n). we will omit it in the above notation. We want to describe T½ G.2 that dim G = dim o(n) so that T½ O(n) = o(n). ∀i. . tδk ). so the above equality states that this tangent space The matrix T lies inside the space of skew-symmetric matrices. Let F : RN → Rk be a smooth map. i.2. . Finish the proof of the Lemma 2. .e. As one expects.2) Note that these vectors depend on the local coordinates (x1 . .22 CHAPTER 2. we proved in Section 1.1. . am t).8. xm ). i denotes Kronecker’s delta symbol. Exercise 2.1. Then M is a smooth manifold of dimension N − k and Tx M = ker Dx F. [α ˙ (0)] will be written simply as α ˙ (0). . Thus. m. Let (x1 .5. [α ˙1 (0)] + [β ˙2 (0)] + [β We let the reader supply the routine details. .6. (b) rank Dx F = k. Then T t (s) · T (s) = ½. ∂xk (2. where G is one of the Lie groups discussed in Section 1. ∀x ∈ M.1. Lemma 2. ⊔ ⊓ Example 2. k = 1. all the above notions admit a nice description using local coordinates. It follows from the obvious fact that any path through the origin in Rm has ﬁrst order contact with a linear one t → (a1 t. . .9.1. Differentiating this equality at s = 0 we get ˙ t (0) + T ˙ (0) = 0. ˙1 (0)] = [β ˙2 (0)] then (b) If [α ˙1 (0)] = [α ˙2 (0)] and [β ˙1 (0)] = [α ˙2 (0)]. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS (a) The equivalence class [γ ˙ (0)] is independent of coordinates.

R). where U x is the image of U in Rm via the coordinates (xi ).1. we know p = π (v )). Again. the tangent space at ½ lies inside the space of traceless matrices. In particular.e. X i (v ) ∂ (p) . THE TANGENT BUNDLE 23 (b) G = SL(n. i.e. T½ SL(n. To see this. R) = dim sl(n.1.2. pick a different coordinate system y = (y i ) on U . ∂xi v= i We thus have a bijection Ψx : T U → U x × Rm ⊂ Rm × Rm .10.1. There is a natural surjection π : TM = p∈M Tp M → M. Exercise 2. we have to make sure this topology is independent of local coordinates. an element v ∈ T U = p∈U Tp M is completely ∂xi determined if we know • which tangent space does it belong to. i..1.3) ˙ (0) = 0. ε) ∋ s → T (s) be a smooth path in SL(n. Let (−ε. R). . for any p ∈ U . R) we deduce T½ SL(n. R) ⊂ sl(n. Show that T½ U (n) = u(n) and T½ SU (n) = su(n). It is the goal of the present subsection to coherently organize the family of tangent spaces (Tp M )p∈M . R) such that T (0) = ½. We can now use the map Ψx to transfer the topology on Rm × Rm to T U . tr T Thus. Any local coordinate system x = (xi ) deﬁned over an open set U ⊂ M produces a natural basis ∂ (p) of Tp M . • the coordinates of v in the basis ∂ (p) ∂xi . The coordinate independence referred to above is equivalent to the statement that the transition map 1 x m y m Ψy ◦ Ψ− x : U × R −→ T U −→ U × R is a homeomorphism. we want to give a rigorous meaning to the intuitive fact that Tp M depends smoothly upon p. Since (according to Exercise 1. Thus.2.2 The tangent bundle In the previous subsection we have naturally associated to an arbitrary point p on a manifold M a vector space Tp M . π (v ) = p ⇐⇒ v ∈ Tp M. Then det T (s) = 1 and differentiating this equality at s = 0 we get (see Exercise 1. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ 2.25) dim SL(n. R) = sl(n. R). We will organize the disjoint union of all tangent spaces as a smooth manifold T M .

where x(p) = x. . . . Ψy ◦ Ψ− x (A) = y (x). . If α(t) is such a curve (α(0) = p). y n (x1 . ˙ ˙m α ˙ (0) = (x ˙1 ˙m ˙1 α (0). . . where (Uγ . . . To prove that the map Df : Tp M → Tq N is linear it sufﬁces to verify this in any particular local coordinates (x1 . . β (0) = (x β (0) ) β (0). and (y 1 . ∀p ∈ M (b) The restriction to each tangent space Dp F : Tp M → Tf (p) N is linear. . β (t) = (xβ (t). and we deﬁne ˙ (0). y j (q ) = 0. Y j ∂ (p). . . . β : (−ε. ∂xi (2. xα (t)). xm ) → (y 1 (x1 . so that Df is well deﬁned. Recall that Tp M is the space of tangent vectors to curves through p. xm ) near p.1. A set D ⊂ T M is open if its intersection with any T Uγ is open in T Uγ . ∂ ∂ . . then β (t) = f (α(t)) is a smooth curve through q = f (p). Then 1 m 1 . . x α (0)). . The above argument shows that T M is a smooth manifold with (T Uγ . such that xi (p) = 0. . Denote by F : U x → U y the transition map x → y . . A smooth map f : M → N induces a smooth map Df : T M → T N such that (a) Df (Tp M ) ⊂ Tf (p) N . . then in local coordinates they have the description m m 1 α(t) = (x1 α (t). Ψγ ) a deﬁning atlas. Y . and α(t) ⊂ U is Let A := (x. . . ε) → M are two smooth paths such that α(0) = β (0) = p. . . the natural projection π : T M → M is a smooth map.⊔ ⊓ Proposition 2.1. The smooth manifold T M described above is called the tangent bundle of M . while a basis of Tq N is given by ∂y . . Hence. . . we can regard f as a collection of maps (x1 . X ) ∈ U x × Rm . α a path through p given in the x coordinates as α(t) = x + tX.3) 1 This proves that Ψy ◦ Ψ− x is actually smooth. . x . . Df (α ˙ (0)) := β One checks easily that if α1 ∼1 α2 . y n ) near q . . . . Then Ψ− x (A) = (p. then f (α1 ) ∼1 f (α2 ). . xm )).24 CHAPTER 2. . The natural topology of T M is obtained by patching together the topologies of T Uγ . The map Df is called the differential of f . . A basis in Tp M is given by ∂x i j If α. . Moreover. .11.1. . since any two choices differ (inﬁnitesimally) by a linear substitution. . xβ (t)). and one often uses the alternate notation f∗ = Df . and yα (t) is the description of the path α(t) in the where α ˙ (0) = (y ˙α (0)) = Y j ∂y j j coordinates y . xm ). Deﬁnition 2. . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS 1 ˙ (0)). . . j . φγ )γ is an atlas of M . . . ∀i. Applying the chain rule we deduce j Yj =y ˙α (0) = i ∂y j i x ˙ (0) = ∂xi i ∂y j i X.12. Proof. .

**2.1. THE TANGENT BUNDLE
**

Then

n i n i 1 i F (α(t)) = y 1 ( xi α (t) ), . . . , y ( xα (t) ) , F (β (t)) = y ( xβ (t) ), . . . , y ( xβ (t) ) , i n i i F (α(t) + β (t) ) = y 1 ( xi α (t) + xβ (t) ), . . . , y ( xα (t) + xβ (t) ) , n m i=1

25

DF α ˙ (0) =

j =1

∂y j i ∂ ˙ (0) = x ˙α , DF β i ∂x ∂yj

n j =1

n j =1 m i=1

m i=1

∂y j i ∂ x ˙β , i ∂x ∂yj

˙ (0) = d |t=0 F α(t) + β (t) = DF α ˙ (0) + β dt

∂y j i ∂ (x ˙α + x ˙i β) i ∂x ∂yj

**˙ (0) . = DF α ˙ (0) + DF β This shows that Df : Tp M → Tq N is the linear operator given in these bases by the matrix
**

∂y j ∂xi 1≤j ≤n, 1≤i≤m

. In particular, this implies that Df is also smooth.

⊔ ⊓

2.1.3 Sard’s Theorem

In this subsection we want to explain rigorously a phenomenon with which the reader may already be intuitively acquainted. We describe it ﬁrst in a special case. Suppose M is a submanifold of dimension 2 in R3 . Then, a simple thought experiment suggests that most horizontal planes will not be tangent to M . Equivalently, Iif we denote by f the restriction of the function z to M , then for most real numbers h the level set f −1 (h) does not contain a point where the differential of f is zero, so that most level sets f −1 (h) are smooth submanifolds of M of codimension 1, i.e., smooth curves on M . We can ask a more general question. Given two smooth manifolds X, Y , a smooth map f : X → Y , is it true that for “most” y ∈ Y the level set f −1 (y ) is a smooth submanifold of X of codimension dim Y ? This question has a positive answer, known as Sard’s theorem. Deﬁnition 2.1.13. Suppose that Y is a smooth, connected manifold of dimension m. (a) We say that a subset S ⊂ Y is negligible if, for any coordinate chart of Y , Ψ : U → Rm , the set Ψ(S ∩ U ) ⊂ Rm has Lebesgue measure zero in Rm . (b) Suppose F : X → Y is a smooth map, where X is a smooth manifold. A point x ∈ X is called a critical point of F , if the differential Dx F : Tx X → TF (x) Y is not surjective. We denote by Cr F the set of critical points of F , and by ∆F ⊂ Y its image via F . We will refer to ∆F as the discriminant set of F . The points in ∆F are called the critical values of F . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.1.14. Deﬁne Z := (x, a, b, c) ∈ R4 ; ax2 + bx + c = 0; a = 0 . (a) Prove that Z is a smooth submanifold of R4 . π (b) Deﬁne π : Z → R3 by (x, a, b, c) −→ (a, b, c). Compute the discriminant set of π . ⊔ ⊓

26

CHAPTER 2. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS

Suppose U, V are ﬁnite dimensional real Euclidean vector spaces, O ⊂ U is an open subset, and F : O → V is a smooth map. Then a point u ∈ O is a critical point of F if and only if rank (Du F : U → V ) < dim V. Exercise 2.1.15. Show that if F : M → N is a smooth map then for every q ∈ N \ ∆F the ﬁber F −1 (q ) is either empty, or a submanifold of M of codimension dim N . ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 2.1.16 (Sard). Let f : O → V be a smooth map as above. Then the discriminant set ∆F is negligible. Proof. We follow the elegant approach of J. Milnor [74] and L. Pontryagin [82]. Set n = dim U , and m = dim V . We will argue inductively on the dimension n. For every positive integer k we denote by Cr k F ⊂ Cr F the set of points u ∈ O such that all the partial derivatives of F up to order k vanish at u. We obtain a decreasing ﬁltration of closed sets 2 Cr F ⊃ Cr 1 F ⊃ Cr F ⊃ · · · .

The case n = 0 is trivially true so we may assume n > 0, and the statement is true for any n′ < n, and any m. The inductive step is divided into three intermediary steps. Step 1. The set F (Cr F \ Cr 1 F ) is negligible. +1 k Step 2. The set F (Cr F \ Cr k F ) is negligible for all k ≥ 1. Step 3. The set F (Cr k F ) is negligible for some sufﬁciently large k .

1 Step 1. Set Cr ′ F := Cr F \ Cr F . We will show that there exists a countable open cover Oj j ≥1 ′ ′ of Cr ′ F such that F (Oj ∩ Cr F is negligible for all j ≥ 1. Since Cr F is separable, it sufﬁces ′ to prove that every point u ∈ Cr F admits an open neighborhood N such that F N ∩ Cr ′ F is negligible. 1 n Suppose u0 ∈ Cr ′ F . Assume ﬁrst that there exist local coordinates (x , . . . , , x ) deﬁned in a neighborhood N of u0 , and local coordinates (y 1 , . . . , y m ) near v0 = F (u0 ) such that,

xi (u0 ) = 0, ∀i = 1, . . . n, y j (v0 ) = 0, ∀j = 1, . . . m, and the restriction of F to N is described by functions y j = y j (x1 , . . . , xm ) such that y 1 = x1 . For every t ∈ R we set Nt := (x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ N; x1 = t , and we deﬁne Gt : Nt → Rm−1 , (t, x2 , . . . , xn ) → y 2 (t, x2 , . . . , xn ), . . . , y m (t, x2 , . . . , xn ) . Observe that F N ∩ Cr ′ F =

t

{t} × Gt (Cr Gt ).

The inductive assumption implies that the sets Gt (Cr Gt ) have trivial (m−1)-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Using Fubini’s theorem we deduce that F (N∩Cr ′ F ) has trivial m-dimensional Lebesgue measure.

2.1. THE TANGENT BUNDLE

27

To conclude Step 1 is sufﬁces to prove that the above simplifying assumption concerning the existence of nice coordinates is always fulﬁlled. To see this, choose local coordinates (s1 , . . . , sn ) near u0 and coordinates (y 1 , . . . , y m ) near v0 such that si (u0 ) = 0, ∀i = 1, . . . n, y j (v0 ) = 0, ∀j = 1, . . . m,

The map F is then locally described by a collection of functions y j (s1 , . . . , sn ), j = 1, . . . , n. ∂y 1 Since u ∈ Cr ′ F , we can assume, after an eventual re-labelling of coordinates, that ∂s1 (u0 ) = 0. Now deﬁne x1 = y 1 (s1 , . . . , sn ), xi = si , ∀i = 2, . . . , n. The implicit function theorem shows that the collection of functions (x1 , . . . , xn ) deﬁnes a coordinate system in a neighborhood of u0 . We regard y j as functions of xi . From the deﬁnition we deduce y 1 = x1 .

k +1 1 n Step 2. Set Cr F := Cr k F \ Cr F . Since u0 ∈ Cr F , we can ﬁnd local coordinates (s , . . . , s ) 1 m near u0 and coordinates (y , . . . , y ) near v0 such that (k ) (k )

si (u0 ) = 0,

∀i = 1, . . . n, y j (v0 ) = 0, ∀j = 1, . . . m, ∂ j y1 (u0 ) = 0, ∀j = 1, . . . , k, ∂ (s1 )j

and

∂ k+1 y 1 (u0 ) = 0. ∂ (s1 )k+1 x1 (s) = ∂ k y1 , ∂ (s1 )k

Deﬁne

and set xi := si , ∀i = 2, . . . , n. Then the collection (xi ) deﬁnes smooth local coordinates on an open neighborhood N of u0 , 1 and Cr k F ∩N is contained in the hyperplane {x = 0}. Deﬁne G : N ∩ {x1 = 0} → V ; G(x2 , . . . , xm ) = F (0, x2 , . . . , xn ). Then

k k k Cr k G ∩N = Cr G , F (Cr F ∩N) = G(Cr G ),

and the induction assumption implies that G(Cr k G ) is negligible. By covering Cr F with a countably many open neighborhood {Nℓ }ℓ>1 such that F (Cr k F ∩Nℓ ) is negligible we conclude (k ) that F (Cr F ) is negligible.

n Step 3. Suppose k > m . We will prove that F (Cr k F ) is negligible. More precisely, we will show that, for every compact subset S ⊂ O, the set F (S ∩ Cr k F ) is negligible. From the Taylor expansion around points in Cr k ∩ F S we deduce that there exist numbers r0 ∈ (0, 1) and λ0 > 0, depending only on S , such that, if C is a cube with edge r < r0 which intersects Cr k F ∩S , then diam F (C ) < λ0 r k ,

(k )

28

CHAPTER 2. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS

where for every set A ⊂ V we deﬁne

diam(A) := sup |a1 − a2 |; a1 , a2 ∈ A .

In particular, if µm denotes the m-dimensional Lebesgue measure on V , and µn denotes the ndimensional Lebesgue measure on U , we deduce that there exists a constant λ1 > 0 such that Cover Cr k F ∩S by ﬁnitely many cubes {Cℓ }1≤ℓ≤L , of edges < r0 , such that their interiors are σ of disjoint. For every positive integer P , subdivide each of the cubes Cℓ into P n sub-cubes Cℓ k σ equal sizes. For every sub-cube Cℓ which intersects Cr F we have

σ mk/n σ ) = ) ) ≤ λ1 µn (Cℓ µm ( F (Cℓ

µm (F (C ) ≤ λ1 r mk = λ1 µn (C )mk/n .

λ1 µn (Cℓ ). P mk

**We deduce that µm F (Cℓ ∩ Cr k F) ≤
**

σ n−mk σ ∩ Cr k µn (C ). µm ( F (Cℓ F)) ≤ P n m

If we let P → ∞ in the above inequality, we deduce that when k > µm ( F (Cℓ ∩ Cr k F)) Theorem 2.1.16 admits the following immediate generalization.

we have ⊔ ⊓

= 0, ∀ℓ = 1, . . . , L.

Corollary 2.1.17 (Sard). Suppose F : X → Y is a smooth map between two smooth manifolds. Then its discriminant set is negligible. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2.1.18. A smooth map f : M → N is called immersion (resp. submersion) if for every p ∈ M the differential Dp f : Tp M → Tf (p) N is injective (resp. surjective). A smooth map f : M → N is called an embedding if it is an injective immersion. ⊔ ⊓ Suppose F : M → N is a smooth map, and dim M ≥ dim N . Then F is a submersion if and only if the discriminant set ∆F is empty. Exercise 2.1.19. Suppose F : M → N is a smooth map, and S ⊂ N is a smooth submanifold of N . We say that F is transversal to S if for every x ∈ F −1 (S ) we have TF (x) N = TF (x) S + Dx F (Tx M ). Prove that if F is transversal to S , then F −1 (S ) is a submanifold of M whose codimension is equal to the codimension of S in N . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.1.20. Suppose Λ, X, Y are smooth, connected manifolds, and F : Λ × X → Y is a smooth map Λ × X ∋ (λ, x) → Fλ (x) ∈ Y. Z = F −1 (S ) ⊂ Λ × X,

Suppose S is a submanifold of Y such that F is transversal to S . Deﬁne

Prove that Λ0 is contained in the discriminant set of the natural projection Z → Λ. In particular, Λ0 must be negligible. ⊔ ⊓

Λ0 = λ ∈ Λ; Fλ : X → Y is not transversal to S .

2.1. THE TANGENT BUNDLE

29

2.1.4 Vector bundles

The tangent bundle T M of a manifold M has some special features which makes it a very particular type of manifold. We list now the special ingredients which enter into this special structure of T M since they will occur in many instances. Set for brevity E := T M , and F := Rm (m = dim M ). We denote by Aut(F ) the Lie group GL(n, R) of linear automorphisms of F . Then (a) E is a smooth manifold, and there exists a surjective submersion π : E → M . For every U ⊂ M we set E |U := π −1 (U ). (b) From (2.1.3) we deduce that there exists a trivializing cover, i.e., an open cover U of M , and for every U ∈ U a diffeomorphism ΨU : E |U → U × F, v → (p = π (v ), ΦU p (v )) (b2) If U, V ∈ U are two trivializing neighborhoods with non empty overlap U ∩ V then, U −1 : F → F is a linear isomorphism, for any p ∈ U ∩ V , the map ΦV U (p) = ΦV p ◦ (Φp ) and moreover, the map p → ΦV U (p) ∈ Aut(F ) is smooth. In our special case, the map ΦV U (p) is explicitly deﬁned by the matrix (2.1.3) A(p) = ∂y j (p) ∂xi .

1≤i,j ≤m

(b1) Φp is a diffeomorphism Ep → F for any p ∈ U .

In the above formula, the functions (xi ) are local coordinates on U , and the functions (y j ) are local coordinates on V . The properties (a) and (b) make no mention of the special relationship between E = T M and M . There are many other quadruples (E, π, M, F ) with these properties and they deserve a special name. Deﬁnition 2.1.21. A vector bundle is a quadruple (E, π, M, F ) such that • E , M are smooth manifolds, • π : E → M is a surjective submersion, • F is a vector space over the ﬁeld K = R, C, and • the conditions (a) and (b) above are satisﬁed. The manifold E is called the total space, and M is called the base space. The vector space F is called the standard ﬁber, and its dimension (over the ﬁeld of scalars K) is called the rank of the bundle. A line bundle is a vector bundle of rank one. ⊔ ⊓

30

CHAPTER 2. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS

Roughly speaking, a vector bundle is a smooth family of vector spaces. Note that the properties (b1) and (b2) imply that the ﬁbers π −1 (p) of a vector bundle have a natural structure of linear space. In particular, one can add elements in the same ﬁber. Moreover, the addition and scalar multiplication operations on π −1 (p) depend smoothly on p. The smoothness of the addition operation this means that the addition is a smooth map + : E ×M E = (u, v ) ∈ E × E ; π (u) = π (v ) → E.

The smoothness of the scalar multiplication means that it is smooth map R × E → E. There is an equivalent way of deﬁning vector bundles. To describe it, let us introduce a notation. For any vector space F over the ﬁeld K = R, C we denote by GLK (F ), (or simply GL(F ) if there is no ambiguity concerning the ﬁeld of scalars K) the Lie group of linear automorphisms F → F . According to Deﬁnition 2.1.21, we can ﬁnd an open cover (Uα ) of M such that each of the restrictions Eα = E |Uα is isomorphic to a product Ψα : Eα ∼ = F × Uα . Moreover, on the overlaps −1 Uα ∩ Uβ , the transition maps gαβ = Ψα Ψβ can be viewed as smooth maps gαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(F ). They satisfy the cocycle condition (a) gαα = ½F (b) gαβ gβγ gγα = ½F over Uα ∩ Uβ ∩ Uγ . Conversely, given an open cover (Uα ) of M , and a collection of smooth maps gαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(F ) satisfying the cocycle condition, we can reconstruct a vector bundle by gluing the product bundles Eα = F × Uα on the overlaps Uα ∩ Uβ according to the gluing rules the point (v, x) ∈ Eα is identiﬁed with the point gβα (x)v, x ∈ Eβ ∀x ∈ Uα ∩ Uβ .

The details are carried out in the exercise below. We will say that the map gβα is the transition from the α-trivialization to the β -trivialization, and we will refer to the collection of maps (gβα ) satisfying the cocycle condition as a gluing cocycle. We will refer to the cover (Uα ) as above as a trivializing cover. Exercise 2.1.22. Consider a smooth manifold M , a vector space V , an open cover (Uα ), and smooth maps gαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(V ) satisfying the cocycle condition. Set X :=

α

V × Uα × {α}.

2.1. THE TANGENT BUNDLE

31

We topologize X as the disjoint union of the topological spaces Uα × V , and we deﬁne a relation ∼⊂ X × X by V × Uα × {α} ∋ (u, x, α) ∼ (v, x, β ) ∈ V × Uβ × {β } ⇐⇒ x = y, v = gβα (x)u. (a) Show that ∼ is an equivalence relation, and E = X/ ∼ equipped with the quotient topology has a natural structure of smooth manifold. (b) Show that the projection π : X → M , (u, x, α) → x descends to a submersion E → M . (c) Prove that (E, π, M, V ) is naturally a smooth vector bundle. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2.1.23. A description of a vector bundle in terms of a trivializing cover, and a gluing cocycle is called a gluing cocycle description of that vector bundle. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.1.24. Find a gluing cocycle description of the tangent bundle of the 2-sphere. In the sequel, we will prefer to think of vector bundles in terms of gluing cocycles. Deﬁnition 2.1.25. (a) A section in a vector bundle E → M deﬁned over the open subset u ∈ M is a smooth map s : U → E such that s(p) ∈ Ep = π −1 (p), ∀p ∈ U ⇐⇒ π ◦ s = ½U . The space of smooth sections of E over U will be denoted by Γ(U, E ) or C ∞ (U, E ). Note that Γ(U, E ) is naturally a vector space. (b) A section of the tangent bundle of a smooth manifold is called a vector ﬁeld on that manifold. The space of vector ﬁelds over on open subset U of a smooth manifold is denoted by Vect (U ). ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 2.1.26. Suppose E → M is a smooth vector bundle with standard ﬁber F , deﬁned by an open cover (Uα )α ∈ A, and gluing cocycle gβα : Uαβ → GL(F ). Then there exists a natural bijection between the vector space of smooth sections of E , and the set of families of smooth maps sα : Uα → F ; α ∈ A , satisfying the following gluing condition on the overlaps sα (x) = gαβ (x)sβ (x), ∀x ∈ Uα ∩ Uβ . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.1.27. Prove the above proposition.

π

i Deﬁnition 2.1.28. (a) Let E i → Mi be two smooth vector bundles. A vector bundle map consists of a pair of smooth maps f : M1 → M2 and F : E 1 → E 2 satisfying the following properties.

def

⊔ ⊓

π

⊔ ⊓

1 ) ⊂ E 2 , ∀p ∈ M . Equivalently, this means that the • The map F covers f , i.e., F (Ep 1 f (p) diagram below is commutative

E1

π1

F

Û E2 Ù Û M2

π2

M1

Ù

f

32

**CHAPTER 2. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS
**

1 → E2 • The induced map F : Ep f (p) is linear.

The composition of bundle maps is deﬁned in the obvious manner and so is the identity morphism so that one can deﬁne the notion of bundle isomorphism in the standard way. (b) If E and F are two vector bundles over the same manifold, then we denote by Hom(E, F ) the space of bundle maps E → F which cover the identity ½M . Such bundle maps are called bundle morphisms. ⊔ ⊓ For example, the differential Df of a smooth map f : M → N is a bundle map Df : T M → T N covering f . Deﬁnition 2.1.29. Let E → M be a smooth vector bundle. A bundle endomorphism of E is a bundle morphism F : E → E . An automorphism (or gauge transformation) is an invertible endomorphism. ⊔ ⊓

n → M over the smooth manifold M . A Example 2.1.30. Consider the trivial vector bundle RM section of this vector bundle is a smooth map u : M → Rn . We can think of u as a smooth family of vectors (u(x) ∈ Rn )x∈M . An endomorphism of this vector bundle is a smooth map A : M → EndR (Rn ). We can think of A as a smooth family of n × n matrices 1 1 a1 (x) a1 2 (x) · · · an (x) a2 (x) a2 (x) · · · a2 (x) n 2 1 ∞ Ax = , ai . . . . j (x) ∈ C (M ). . . . . . . . . n an 1 (x) a2 (x) · · · π

an n (x)

The map A is a gauge transformation if and only if det Ax = 0, ∀x ∈ M .

⊔ ⊓

Exercise 2.1.31. Suppose E1 , E2 → M are two smooth vector bundles over the smooth manifold with standard ﬁbers F1 , and respectively F2 . Assume that both bundle are deﬁned by a common trivializing cover (Uα )α∈A and gluing cocycles gβα : Uαβ → GL(F1 ), hβα : Uαβ → GL(F2 ). Prove that there exists a bijection between the vector space of bundle morphisms Hom(E, F ), and the set of families of smooth maps Tα : Uα → Hom(F1 , F2 ); α ∈ A , satisfying the gluing conditions

−1 Tβ (x) = hβα (x)Tα (x)(x)gβα , ∀x ∈ Uαβ .

⊔ ⊓

Exercise 2.1.32. Let V be a vector space, M a smooth manifold, {Uα } an open cover of M , and gαβ , hαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(V ) two collections of smooth maps satisfying the cocycle conditions. Prove the two collections deﬁne isomorphic vector bundles if and only they are cohomologous, i.e., there exist smooth maps φα : Uα → GL(V ) such that

1 hαβ = φα gαβ φ− β .

⊔ ⊓

2.1. THE TANGENT BUNDLE

33

**2.1.5 Some examples of vector bundles
**

In this section we would like to present some important examples of vector bundles and then formulate some questions concerning the global structure of a bundle. Example 2.1.33. (The tautological line bundle over RPn and CPn ). First, let us recall that a rank one vector bundle is usually called a line bundle. We consider only the complex case. The total space of the tautological or universal line bundle over CPn is the space Un = UC n = (z, L) ∈ Cn+1 × CPn ; z belongs to the line L ⊂ Cn+1 .

n Let π : UC n → CP denote the projection onto the second component. Note that for every n L ∈ CP , the ﬁber through π −1 (L) = UC n,L coincides with the one-dimensional subspace in n +1 C deﬁned by L. ⊔ ⊓

Example 2.1.34. (The tautological vector bundle over a Grassmannian). We consider here for brevity only complex Grassmannian Grk (Cn ). The real case is completely similar. The total space of this bundle is Uk,n = UC k,n = (z, L) ∈ Cn × Grk (Cn ) ; z belongs to the subspace L ⊂ Cn .

If π denotes the natural projection π : Uk,n → Grk (Cn ), then for each L ∈ Grk (Cn ) the ﬁber C over L coincides with the subspace in Cn deﬁned by L. Note that UC ⊔ ⊓ n−1 = U1,n .

C Exercise 2.1.35. Prove that UC n and Uk,n are indeed smooth vector bundles. Describe a gluing cocycle for UC ⊔ ⊓ n.

Example 2.1.36. A complex line bundle over a smooth manifold M is described by an open cover (Uα )α∈A , and smooth maps gβα : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(1, C) ∼ = C∗ , satisfying the cocycle condition gγα (x) = gγβ (x) · gβα (x), ∀x ∈ Uα ∩ Uβ ∩ Uγ . Consider for example the manifold M = S 2 ⊂ R3 . Denote as usual by N and S the North and respectively South pole. We have an open cover S 2 = U0 ∪ U∞ , U0 = S 2 \ {S }, U1 = S 2 \ {N }. In this case, we have only a single nontrivial overlap, UN ∩ US . Identify U0 with the complex line C, so that the North pole becomes the origin z = 0. For every n ∈ Z we obtain a complex line bundle Ln → S 2 , deﬁned by the open cover {U0 , U1 } and gluing cocycle g10 (z ) = z −n , ∀z ∈ C∗ = U0 \ {0}. A smooth section of this line bundle is described by a pair of smooth functions u0 : U0 → C, u1 : U1 → C,

34

CHAPTER 2. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS

which along the overlap U0 ∩ U1 satisfy the equality u1 (z ) = z −n u0 (z ). For example, if n ≥ 0, the pair of functions u0 (z ) = z n , u1 (p) = 1, ∀p ∈ U1 deﬁnes a smooth section of Ln . ⊔ ⊓

Exercise 2.1.37. We know that CP1 is diffeomorphic to S 2 . Prove that the universal line bundle Un → CP1 is isomorphic with the line bundle L−1 constructed in the above example. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.1.38. Consider the incidence set I := (x, L) ∈ ( Cn+1 \ {0} ) × CPn ; z ∈ L .

Prove that the closure of I in Cn+1 × CPn is a smooth manifold diffeomorphic to the total space of the universal line bundle Un → CPn . This manifold is called the complex blowup of Cn+1 at the origin. ⊔ ⊓ The family of vector bundles is very large. The following construction provides a very powerful method of producing vector bundles. Deﬁnition 2.1.39. Let f : X → M be a smooth map, and E a vector bundle over M deﬁned by an open cover (Uα ) and gluing cocycle (gαβ ). The pullback of E by f is the vector bundle f ∗ E over X deﬁned by the open cover f −1 (Uα ), and the gluing cocycle ( gαβ ◦ f ). ⊔ ⊓ One can check easily that the isomorphism class of the pullback of a vector bundle E is independent of the choice of gluing cocycle describing E . The pullback operation deﬁnes a linear map between the space of sections of E and the space of sections of f ∗ E . More precisely, if s ∈ Γ(E ) is deﬁned by the open cover (Uα ), and the collection of smooth maps ( sα ), then the pullback f ∗ s is deﬁned by the open cover f −1 (Uα ), and the smooth maps ( sα ◦ f ). Again, there is no difﬁculty to check the above deﬁnition is independent of the various choices. Exercise 2.1.40. For every positive integer k consider the map

k k pk : CP1 → CP1 , pk ([z0 , z1 ]) = [z0 , z1 ].

1 ∼ Show that p∗ k Ln = Lkn , where Ln is the complex line bundle Ln → CP deﬁned in Example 2.1.36. ⊔ ⊓

Exercise 2.1.41. Let E → X be a rank k (complex) smooth vector bundle over the manifold X . Assume E is ample, i.e. there exists a ﬁnite family s1 , . . . , sN of smooth sections of E such that, for any x ∈ X , the collection {s1 (x), . . . , sN (x)} spans Ex . For each x ∈ X we set Sx := v ∈ CN ; v i si (x) = 0 .

i

⊥. Note that dim Sx = N − k. We have a map F : X → Grk (CN ) deﬁned by x → Sx (a) Prove that F is smooth. (b) Prove that E is isomorphic with the pullback F ∗ Uk,N .

⊔ ⊓

2.1. THE TANGENT BUNDLE

35

Exercise 2.1.42. Show that any vector bundle over a smooth compact manifold is ample. Thus any vector bundle over a compact manifold is a pullback of some tautological bundle! ⊔ ⊓ The notion of vector bundle is trickier than it may look. Its deﬁnition may suggest that a vector bundle looks like a direct product manif old × vector space since this happens at least locally. r We will denote by Kn M the bundle K × M → M . Deﬁnition 2.1.43. A rank r vector bundle E → M (over the ﬁeld K = R, C) is called trivial or r trivializable if there exists a bundle isomorphism E ∼ = Kr M . A bundle isomorphism E → KM is r called a trivialization of E , while an isomorphism K → E is called a framing of E . A pair (trivial vector bundle, trivialization) is called a trivialized, or framed bundle. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 2.1.44. Let us explain why we refer to a bundle isomorphism ϕ : Kr M → E as a framing. r Denote by (e1 , . . . , er ) the canonical basis of K . We can also regard the vectors ei as constant maps M → Kr , i.e., as (special) sections of Kr M . The isomorphism ϕ determines sections fi = ϕ(ei ) of E with the property that for every x ∈ M the collection (f1 (x), . . . , fr (x) ) is a frame of the ﬁber Ex . This observation shows that we can regard any framing of a bundle E → M of rank r as a collection of r sections u1 , . . . , ur which are pointwise linearly independent. ⊔ ⊓ One can naively ask the following question. Is every vector bundle trivial? We can even limit our search to tangent bundles. Thus we ask the following question. Is it true that for every smooth manifold M the tangent bundle T M is trivial (as a vector bundle)? Let us look at some positive examples. Example 2.1.45. T S 1 ∼ = RS 1 Let θ denote the angular coordinate on the circle. Then globally deﬁned, nowhere vanishing vector ﬁeld on S 1 . We thus get a map RS 1 → T S 1 , (s, θ ) → (s ∂ , θ ) ∈ Tθ S 1 ∂θ

∂ ∂θ π

is a

which is easily seen to be a bundle isomorphism. Let us carefully analyze this example. Think of S 1 as a Lie group (the group of complex numbers of norm 1). The tangent space at z = 1, i.e., θ = 0, coincides with the subspace ∂ |1 is the unit vertical vector j . Re z = 0, and ∂θ Denote by Rθ the counterclockwise rotation by an angle θ . Clearly Rθ is a diffeomorphism, and for each θ we have a linear isomorphism Dθ |θ=0 Rθ : T1 S 1 → Tθ S 1 . Moreover, ∂ = Dθ |θ=0 Rθ j . ∂θ

∂ The existence of the trivializing vector ﬁeld ∂θ is due to to our ability to “move freely and coher1 ently” inside S . One has a similar freedom inside a Lie group as we are going to see in the next example. ⊔ ⊓

Problem Given a manifold M . In the second part of this book we will describe more efﬁcient ways of measuring the extent of nontriviality of a vector bundle. Moreover. X1 (p). Xm (p) span Tp M . T½ G. compute v (M ). ﬁrst proved by J. . One checks immediately that Φ is a vector bundle isomorphism and this proves the claim. . . We denote by Rg the right translation (by g) in the group deﬁned by Rg : x → x · g. v (S 2k−1 ) ≥ 1 for any k ≥ 1.3 and 7. . and consider e1 . Xm (m = dim M ) such that for each p ∈ M . ⊔ ⊓ The quantity v (M ) can be viewed as a measure of nontriviality of a tangent bundle. We see that the tangent bundle T M of a manifold M is trivial if and only if there exist vector ﬁelds X1 . In particular. Rg is a diffeomorphism with inverse Rg−1 so that the differential DRg deﬁnes a linear isomorphism DRg : T½ G → Tg G. i = 1. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Example 2. en a basis of the tangent space at the origin. To see this let n = dim G. these are the only cases when the above equality holds. · · · . This suggests the following more reﬁned question. .1. The methods we will develop in this book will not sufﬁce to compute v (S n ) for any n. see [83] for details). En (g)} is a basis of Tg G so we can deﬁne without ambiguity a map 1 n Φ : Rn G → T G. its computation is highly nontrivial. (g. X .Adams in [2] using very sophisticated algebraic tools. Since the multiplication G × G → G. (Using the Cayley ⊔ ⊓ numbers one can show that T S 7 is also trivial.36 CHAPTER 2.47. . This is a highly nontrivial result. .1. . . . Set Ei (g) = DRg (ei ) ∈ Tg G. the maximum number of pointwise linearly independent vector ﬁelds over M . (g . the collection {E1 (g). Unfortunately. In particular T S 3 is trivial since the sphere S 3 is a Lie group (unit quaternions). . . A special instance of this problem is the celebrated vector ﬁeld problem: compute v (S n ) for any n ≥ 1. For a nice presentation we refer to [69]. More precisely we will show that v (S n ) = 0 if and only if n is an even number. This fact is related to many other natural questions in algebra. In odd dimensions the situation is far more elaborate (a complete answer can be found in [2]). Amazingly. For any Lie group G the tangent bundle T G is trivial. Exercise 2. . . h) → g · h is a smooth map we deduce that the vectors Ei (g) deﬁne smooth vector ﬁelds over G. ∀x ∈ G. We have seen that v (S n ) = n for n =1. this shows that T S 2n is not trivial. . .F. . but we will be able to solve “half” of this problem. Obviously 0 ≤ v (M ) ≤ dim M and T M is trivial if and only if v (M ) = dim M . . n. . for every g ∈ G. X ) → (g . X i Ei (g)). .46.

(e. ☞ Convention. λδe. e × f → e ⊗ f.f : E × F → K.f − δe. F ) = (e. The vector space E ⊗K F is called the tensor product of E and F over K. f ′ ∈ F . δe. E ⊗K F := T (E. F ) sits the linear subspace R(E. Now deﬁne λδe.f − δe.f ). unless otherwise stated. 2. C). Set e ⊗ f := π (δe. when the ﬁeld of scalars is clear from the context.f . Consider the (inﬁnite) direct sum T (E. F ) spanned by where e. Proposition 2. f ) → δe. Equivalently. e′ ∈ E . The tensor product has the following universality property.2 A linear algebra interlude We collect in this section some classical notions of linear algebra. Inside T (E.λf .f − δe′ . F ) → E ⊗ F .1. A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 37 2. but we will present them in a form suitable for applications in differential geometry.f )∈E ×F K. f ) 0 if (x. and denote by π the canonical projection π : T (E. y ) → In particular.f . F ). we have an injection1 δ : E × F → T (E. F ) has a natural basis consisting of “Dirac functions” δe. E×F ι ³³ Û E ⊗ F ³³ Φ µ Ù ³ φ 1 if (x. f.2.f +f ′ − δe.2. G 1 A word of caution: δ is not linear! ⊔ ⊓ .f . δe+e′ . Most of them might be familiar to the reader. F be two vector spaces over the ﬁeld K (K = R.f − δe. (x. This is perhaps the least glamorous part of geometry. We get a natural map Obviously ι is bilinear. All the vector spaces in this section will tacitly be assumed ﬁnite dimensional. and λ ∈ K. f ) ι : E × F → E ⊗ F. For any bilinear map φ : E × F → G there exists a unique linear map Φ : E ⊗ F → G such that the diagram below is commutative. The space T (E. Often.f ′ . the vector space T (E. F )/R(E.f − δλe.2. y ) = (e.1 Tensor products Let E . y ) = (e. F ). F ) can be identiﬁed with the space of functions c : E ×F → K with ﬁnite support. and unfortunately cannot be avoided. we will use the simpler notation E ⊗ F .2.

F ). The operator A† is called the transpose or adjoint of A. and (fj ) is a basis of F . 2. e = f ∗ .2. E2 .2. G). The above constructions are functorial.2. The above construction can be iterated. Fi . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS The proof of this result is left to the reader as an exercise. ⊔ ⊓ (S1 ⊗ S2 ) ◦ (T1 ⊗ T2 ) = (S1 ◦ T1 ) ⊗ (S2 ◦ T2 ). Gi ). ⊔ ⊓ . e := e∗ (e). K) of K-linear maps E → K. Prove there exists a natural isomorphism of K-vector spaces (E1 ⊗ E2 ) ⊗ E3 ∼ = E1 ⊗ (E2 ⊗ E3 ).5.3. Exercise 2. V ) the space of K-linear maps U → V .2. E3 over the same ﬁeld of scalars K we can construct two triple tensor products: (E1 ⊗ E2 ) ⊗ E3 and E1 ⊗ (E2 ⊗ E3 ). Si ∈ Hom(Fi . Deﬁnition 2. ∀ei ∈ Ei . Let Ti ∈ Hom (Ei . (a) For any two vector spaces U. and satisfying (b) Any linear operator A : E → F induces a linear operator A† : F ∗ → E ∗ uniquely deﬁned by A† f ∗ . S1 ⊗ S2 : F1 ⊗ F2 uniquely deﬁned by T1 ⊗ T2 (e1 ⊗ e2 ) = (T1 e1 ) ⊗ (T2 e2 ). or HomK (U. be two linear operators.4. B ∈ Hom(E. we have the following result. f ∗ ∈ F ∗ . Suppose Ei . 2 are K-vector spaces. ⊔ ⊓ The above exercise implies that there exists a unique (up to isomorphism) triple tensor product which we denote by E1 ⊗ E2 ⊗ E3 . then (ei ⊗ fj ) is a basis of E ⊗ F . i = 1. ∀e ∈ E. we can now deﬁne multiple tensor products: E1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ En . Then they naturally induce a linear operator T = T1 ⊗ T2 : E1 ⊗ E2 → F1 ⊗ F2 . and therefore dimK E ⊗K F = (dimK E ) · (dimK F ). V over the ﬁeld K we denote by Hom(U. (b) The dual of a K-linear space E is the linear space E ∗ deﬁned as the space HomK (E. More precisely. Using the universality property of the tensor product prove that there exists a natural isomorphism E ⊗ F ∼ ⊔ ⊓ = F ⊗ E uniquely deﬁned by e ⊗ f → f ⊗ e. i = 1. ∀A ∈ Hom(F. Given three vector spaces E1 . Fi ). Proposition 2. (A ◦ B )† = B † ◦ A† .38 CHAPTER 2. Ae . Clearly. Note that if (ei ) is a basis of E . Exercise 2. Gi . Moreover.2. V ). For any e∗ ∈ E ∗ and e ∈ E we set e∗ .

8. 39 ⊔ ⊓ Remark 2. a vector v in V is represented by a one-column matrix 1 v . . . . ej = δj = 1 i=j 0 i = j. .2. vn ].7. The quantity (δj symbol. v = [v1 where the · denotes the multiplication of matrices. . i ) is called the Kronecker We say that the basis (ei ) is dual to the basis (ej ).6. Prove the above proposition. v∗. . Moreover. . v = n ∗ i vi v. Any basis (ei )1≤i≤n of the n-dimensional K-vector space determines a basis (ei )1≤i≤n of the dual vector space V ∗ uniquely deﬁned by the conditions i ei .2. v1 . Proposition 2. i=1 while a vector v ∗ is represented by a one-row matrix Classically. vn ∗ ∗ v ∗ = [v1 . Then ∗ v ∗ . .2. v= .2. . A vector v ∈ V admits a decomposition n v= i=1 v i ei . vn ]· . ∗ . A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE Exercise 2. vn ⊔ ⊓ Using the functoriality of the tensor product and of the dualization construction one proves easily the following result. (a) There exists a natural isomorphism E∗ ⊗ F ∗ ∼ = (E ⊗ F )∗ .2. while a vector v ∗ ∈ V ∗ admits a decomposition n v∗ = i=1 ∗ i vi e.

is an isomorphism. ⊗ is an associative algebra. Show that T (V ). k ⊔ ⊓ A tensor of type (r.s r Ts (V ). while a tensor of type (0. 1) can be identiﬁed with a linear endomorphism of V . x f ∗ . For r.e. s ≥ 0 set r Ts (V ) := V ⊗r ⊗ (V ∗ )⊗s . x ⊗ y = e∗ . ∀x ∈ E. 0) is called contravariant.10. An element of Ts ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Example 2. i. y ∈ F. . Prove the above proposition.s).2. +. F ).2.8 a tensor of type (1. F ). We use the term algebra since the tensor product induces bilinear maps r +r r r ⊗ : Ts × Ts ′ → T s +s ′ . The tensor algebra of V is deﬁned to be T (V ) := r. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ∋ e∗ ⊗ f ∗ −→ Le∗ ⊗f ∗ ∈ (E ⊗ F )∗ . Exercise 2. This adjunction formula is known in Bourbaki circles as “formule d’adjonction chˆ er a ` Cartan”. x f. According to Proposition 2. given by E ∗ ⊗ F ∋ e∗ ⊗ f −→ Te∗ ⊗f ∈ Hom(E..40 uniquely deﬁned by CHAPTER 2. 1 T1 (V ) ∼ = End (V ). In particular. s) is called covariant. (b) The adjunction morphism E ∗ ⊗ F → Hom (E. where by deﬁnition V ⊗0 = (V ∗ )⊗0 = K. where Te∗ ⊗f (x) := e∗ . ∀x ∈ E. ⊔ ⊓ 2 The ﬁnite dimensionality of E is absolutely necessary. Let V be a vector space.11. y . r is called tensor of type (r. this shows E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ can be naturally identiﬁed with the space of bilinear maps E × F → K.9. ′ ′ The elements of T (V ) are called tensors. while a tensor of type (0.2 Exercise 2. where Le∗ ⊗f ∗ . k) can be identiﬁed with a k-linear map V × · · · × V → K.2.2.

2 . and we denote by S the group Let V be a vector space over K = R. .. where we use Einstein convention to sum over indices which appear twice. C. r (V ) has a decomposition Any element T ∈ Ts j1 js 1 . . once as a superscript.ir ii2 . v1 v2 ⊗ · · · vr ⊗ u2 ⊗ · · · ⊗ us . the linear operator LA : V → V which maps the vector v = v ej to the j vector LA v = ai ⊔ ⊓ j v ei . ... uniquely determined by the correspondences v1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ vr −→ vσ(1) ⊗ · · · ⊗ vσ(r) . Every permutation σ ∈ Sr determines a linear map T r (V ) → T r (V ).ir (tr T )j = Tij . ∀v1 .. To achieve this pick a basis (ei ) of V . . the adjunction identiﬁcation can be described as the correspondence which associates to the tensor j j 1 A = ai j ei ⊗ e ∈ T1 (V ). and Einstein’s convention.2 Symmetric and skew-symmetric tensors r (V ). 0 if i = j {ei1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ eir ⊗ ej1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ ejs / 1 ≤ iα . the usual trace on T1 = 2. We set T r (V ) := T0 r of permutations of r objects. Using the bases (ei ) and (ej ).. . It is often useful to represent tensors using coordinates.2.js 2 . ej = δj = r (V ) We then obtain a basis of Ts 1 if i = j . ∀vi ∈ V. uj ∈ V ∗ . and let (ei ) denote the dual basis in V ∗ uniquely deﬁned by i ei .js where again we use Einstein’s convention. jβ ≤ dim V }... In particular. A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 41 Example 2.2.2. 1 (V ) with the Using the adjunction morphism in Proposition 2. We denote this action of σ ∈ Sr on an arbitrary element t ∈ T r (V ) by σt...8. When r = 0 we set S0 := {1}.2. we see that the contraction coincides with 1 (V ) ∼ End (V ).. vr ∈ V. On the tensor algebra there is a natural contraction (or trace) operation r −1 r tr : Ts → Ts −1 uniquely deﬁned by tr (v1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ vr ⊗ u1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ us ) := u1 .ir T = Tji1 . and the second time as subscript. In the coordinates determined by a basis (ei ) of V . we can identify the space T1 space End(V ) a linear isomorphisms.12..js ei1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ eir ⊗ e ⊗ · · · .2. the contraction can be described as i2 .. ⊗e .

and Λ• V := r ≥0 Λr V. ω s ∈ Λs V.15.14. ∀α. σ S r (t) = S r (σt) = S r (t). ∀ω r ∈ Λr V. ⊗ vσ(k) . ⊗ vk ) = (b) (Super-commutativity) ω r ∧ η s = (−1)rs η s ∧ ω r .e. (a) (Associativity) (α ∧ β ) ∧ γ = α ∧ (β ∧ γ ). Their proofs are left to the reader as exercises. Note that A0 = S 0 = ½K . deﬁned by (r + s)! Ar+s (ω ⊗ η ). Deﬁnition 2. Moreover.2. r !s! Proposition 2. ∀ω r ∈ Λr V. β γ ∈ Λ• V.) Deﬁne S r : T r (V ) → T r (V ).. The exterior product has the following properties..16. ∀vi ∈ V. Ar = Ar . i. The following results are immediate. These are special instances of the so called Schur functors. ⊔ ⊓ σ∈Sk .. Lemma 2. S r (t) := and Ar : T r (V ) → T r (V ).2. ∀t ∈ T r (V )..13. The space of symmetric tensors (respectively skew-symmetric ones) of degree r will be denoted by S r V (and respectively Λr V ). v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vk = k!Ak (v1 ⊗ . σ Ar (t) = Ar (σt) = ǫ(σ )Ar (t). ⊔ ⊓ Set S • V := r ≥0 ⊔ ⊓ S r V.2. η s ∈ Λs V. A tensor T ∈ T r (V ) is called symmetric (respectively skew-symmetric) if S r (T ) = T (respectively Ar (T ) = T ). The exterior product is the bilinear map ∧ : Λr V × Λs V → Λr+s V. 2 S2 r = S r .. we denoted by ǫ(σ ) the signature of the permutation σ . ω r ∧ η s := In particular. The nonnegative integer r is called the degree of the (skew-)symmetric tensor.42 CHAPTER 2. 0 if r > dim V Above. Ar (t) := 1 r! 1 r! σt.2. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS In this subsection we will describe two subspaces invariant under this action. The operators Ar and S r are projectors of T r (V ). σ∈Sr σ∈Sr ǫ(σ )σt if r ≤ dim V . (We refer to [34] for more general constructions. Deﬁnition 2. ǫ(σ )vσ(1) ⊗ .

and I∗ is the bilateral ideal generated by the set of squares {v ⊗ v/ v ∈ V }.2. We ﬁrst deﬁne a new product “∧1 ” by ω r ∧1 η s := Ar+s (ω ⊗ η ).2) on monomials T = e1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ er . The crucial observation is π (T ) = π (Ar (T )). Step 1. To prove the associativity of ∧1 consider the quotient algebra Q∗ = T ∗ /I∗ .2. It sufﬁces to take ω = A∗ (T ).2).2. We have π (α∧1 β ) = π (Ar+s (Ar (e1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ er ) ⊗ As (f1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ fs ))) (2. We will complete the proof of the proposition in two steps. β ∈ Λs V and γ ∈ Λt V . Since (u + v )⊗2 ∈ I∗ .2. +. Step 2. It sufﬁces to check (2.3) (2. ⊗). Thus ∧1 is associative.1) When we sum over σ ∈ Sr in (2. Denote the (obviously associative) multiplication in Q∗ by ∪. any π (T ) can be alternatively described as π (ω ) for some ω ∈ Λ• V . ei ∈ V . ∀u. The surjectivity of π follows immediately from (2. We will prove that the map π : Λ• V → Q∗ is a linear isomorphism.2.2) (2. If π (ω ) = 0 for some ω ∈ Λ• V . and moreover π (α∧1 β ) = π (α) ∪ π (β ). where T ∗ is the associative algebra ( r≥0 T r (V ). ∧1 is an associative product.2. Indeed. In particular.2). for any σ ∈ Sr π (e1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ er ) = ǫ(σ )π (eσ(1) ⊗ · · · ⊗ eσ(r) ) (2.2 ) = def π (Ar (e1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ er ) ⊗ As (f1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ fs )) = π (Ar (e1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ er )) ∪ π (As (f1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ fs )) = π (α) ∪ π (β ). We have (α ∧ β ) ∧ γ = (r + s)! α∧1 β r !s! ∧γ = (r + s)! (r + s + t)! (α∧1 β )∧1 γ r !s! (r + s)!t! . To prove (2. A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE Proof. then ω ∈ ker π = I∗ ∩ Λ• V so that ω = A∗ (ω ) = 0. β = As (f1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ fs ). v ∈ V we deduce u ⊗ v = −v ⊗ u(mod I∗ ). ∀t ∈ T r (V ). The natural projection π : T ∗ → Q∗ induces a linear map π : Λ• V → Q∗ . 43 which will turn out to be associative and will force ∧ to be associative as well. Consider α ∈ Λr V . Hence.1) it sufﬁces to consider only the special cases when α and β are monomials: α = Ar (e1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ er ). To prove the injectivity of π note ﬁrst that A∗ (I∗ ) = 0.2.3) we obtain (2.2. The product ∧ is associative.2.2.2.

The one dimensional vector space Λn V is called the determinant line of V . Let V be a vector space over K. Prove Proposition 2. To prove the latter one uses (2.e. ∀α ∈ S r V. (b) The supercommutativity of ∧ follows from the supercommutativity of ∧1 (or ∪). Deﬁnition 2. ⊔ ⊓ The space Λ• V is called the exterior algebra of V .44 = CHAPTER 2.21.2.2. This map enters crucially into the formulation of the following universality property.2. A i. there exists an unique morphism of K-algebras Φ : Λ• V → A such that the diagram below is commutative V Ý ιV Û Λ• V ℄ Ù Φ φ .18. ∀r. Φ ◦ ιV = φ.2. Exercise 2.e. Let V be an n-dimensional K-vector space. ⊔ ⊓ There exists a natural injection ιV : V ֒→ Λ• V .19. Formulate and prove the analogue of Proposition 2. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.19.. ⊔ ⊓ The space of symmetric tensors S • V can be similarly given a structure of associative algebra with respect to the product α · β := S r+s (α ⊗ β ). ιV (v ) = v . The exterior algebra is a Z-graded algebra.2. ∧ is called the exterior product . Finish the proof of part (b) in the above proposition. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS (r + s + t)! (r + s + t)! (α∧1 β )∧1 γ = α∧1 (β ∧1 γ ) = α ∧ (β ∧ γ ).2. The details are left to the reader. ∀v ∈ V. r !s!t! r !s!t! The associativity of ∧ is proved.2. s.20. β ∈ S s V. Proposition 2. such that ιV (v ) ∧ ιV (v ) = 0.2).. Note that Λr V = 0 for r > dim V (pigeonhole principle). i. The computation above shows that e1 ∧ · · · ∧ ek = k!Ak (e1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ ek ).2. ⊓ Exercise 2. For any K-algebra A.17. (Λr V ) ∧ (Λs V ) ⊂ Λr+s V. and it is denoted by det V . The symmetric product “·” is also commutative. ⊔ . and any linear map φ : V → A such that (φ(x)2 = 0.19 for the algebra S • V .

then Λr (BA) = (Λr B )(Λr A). Exercise 2. We deﬁne σ0 (A) = 1.2. Since the vector space det V is 1-dimensional. the endomorphism Λn L can be identiﬁed with a scalar det L. . . Suppose V is a ﬁnite dimensional vector space and A : V → V is an endomorphism of V . then any linear endomorphism L : V → V deﬁnes an endomorphism Λn L : det V = Λn V → det V. S r (BA) = (S r B )(S r A).23..24. A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 45 It is often convenient to represent (skew-)symmetric tensors in coordinates.2. . and by ψr (A) the trace of the endomorphism S r (A) : S r V → S r V. en is a basis of the vector space V then.2. The Λ• and the S • constructions are functorial in the following sense.2. Prove the above proposition. Proposition 2. If e1 . ψ0 (A) = dim V. .2. Symmetric tensors can be represented in a similar way. vr ) = (Lv1 ) · · · (Lvr ).22. Deﬁnition 2. the determinant of the endomorphism L. the family {ei1 ∧ · · · ∧ eir / 1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ir ≤ n} is a basis for Λr V so that any degree r skew-symmetric tensor ω can be uniquely represented as ω= 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n ω i1 ···ir ei1 ∧ · · · ∧ eir . for any 1 ≤ r ≤ n. For every positive integer r we denote by σr (A) the trace of the induced endomorphism Λr A : Λr V → Λr V.. ⊔ ⊓ . Moreover. if U −→ V −→ W are two linear maps. . if n = dimK V . . Any linear map L : V → W induces a natural morphisms of algebras Λ• L : Λ• V → Λ• W. and S • L(v1 . ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ A B In particular. S • L : S • V → S • W uniquely deﬁned by their actions on monomials Λ• L(v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vr ) = (Lv1 ) ∧ · · · ∧ (Lvr ).

2. note that Λ• V ⊗ Λ• W is naturally a K-algebra by (ω ⊗ η ) ∗ (ω ′ ⊗ η ′ ) = (−1)deg η·deg ω (ω ∧ ω ′ ) ⊗ (η ∧ η ′ ).e. The vector space V ⊕ W is naturally embedded in Λ• V ⊗ Λ• W via the map given by (v. r ≥1 ⊔ ⊓ The functors Λ• and S • have an exponential like behavior. uniquely determined by φ(v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vr .46 CHAPTER 2..25. . . . there exists a natural isomorphism Λ• (V ⊕ W ) ∼ (2. The universality property of the exterior algebra implies the existence of a unique morphism of K-algebras Ψ : Λ• (V ⊕ W ) → Λ• V ⊗ Λ• W. w1 ∧ · · · ∧ ws ) = v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vr ∧ w1 ∧ · · · ∧ ws . Suppose V is a complex n-dimensional vector space. i. such that Φ ◦ ι = φ. such that Ψ ◦ ιV ⊕W = ψ .2.2.4) consider the bilinear map φ : Λ• V × Λ• W → Λ• (V ⊕ W ). S • (V ⊕ W ) ∼ = S • V ⊗ S • W. To deﬁne the isomorphism in (2. To construct the inverse of Φ. an . where ι is the inclusion of Λ• V × Λ• W in Λ• V ⊗ Λ• W . (a) Prove that if A is diagonalizable and its eigenvalues are a1 . (b) Prove that for every sufﬁciently small z ∈ C we have the equalities det(½V + zA) = j ≥0 σr (A)z r . Moreover.5) . Note that Φ is also a morphism of K-algebras. w) → ψ (v. then σr (A) = 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n r ai1 · · · air . and one veriﬁes easily that (Φ ◦ Ψ) ◦ ιV ⊕W = ιV ⊕W .2. ψr (A) = ar 1 + · · · + an . and A is an endomorphism of V . for any x ∈ V ⊕ W we have ψ (x) ∗ ψ (x) = 0. .4) = Λ• V ⊗ Λ• W. The universality property of the tensor product implies the existence of a linear map Φ : Λ• V ⊗ Λ• W → Λ• (V ⊕ W ). w) = v ⊗ 1 + 1 ⊗ w ∈ Λ• V ⊗ Λ• W. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Exercise 2. ′ (2. − d log det(½ − zA) = dz ψr (A)z r−1 .

If we try to compute χ(K[x]) using the ﬁrst formula in Deﬁnition 2.26.) The vectors in Vn are said to be homogeneous. The tensor product of two Z-graded vector spaces V and W is a Z-graded vector space with (V ⊗ W )n := Vr ⊗ W s . ⊔ ⊓ whenever the sum on the right-hand side makes sense. The Poincar´ e series of K[x] is PK[x] (t) = 1 + t + t2 + · · · + tn−1 + · · · = 1 . t−1 ]] by PV (t) := (dimK Vn )tn .e. The direct sum of two Z-graded vector spaces V and W is a Z-graded vector space with (V ⊕ W )n := Vn ⊕ Wn . A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 47 The uniqueness part in the universality property of the exterior algebra implies Φ ◦ Ψ = identity .2.2.2.2. 1−t ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.4). (We will always assume that each Vn is ﬁnite dimensional. Let V be a Z-graded vector space.28. Prove the following statements are true (whenever they make sense). (c) dim V = PV (1).28 we get χ(K[x]) = 1/2. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2.. r +s =n To any Z-graded vector space V one can naturally associate a formal series PV (t) ∈ Z[[t.2.27. while the second formula makes no sense (divergent series). vector spaces equipped with a direct sum decomposition V = n∈Z Vn . the ring of polynomials K[x] is a K-graded vector space. The Euler characteristic of V. denoted by χ(V ). of degree n.2. Let V and W be two Z-graded vector spaces. The spaces Λ• V and S • V are Z-graded vector spaces.2. Example 2.29. (a) PV ⊕W (t) = PV (t) + PW (t).2. (b) PV ⊗W (t) = PV (t) · PW (t). Remark 2. n∈Z The series PV (t) is called the Poincar´ e series of V . i. One proves similarly that Ψ ◦ Φ = identity . ⊔ ⊓ . and this concludes the proof of (2. For example. We want to mention a few general facts about Z-graded vector spaces. is deﬁned by χ(V ) := PV (−1) = n∈Z (−1)n dim Vn .

. if the suppercommutator is trivial. a K-algebra A together with a direct sum decomposition A = A0 ⊕ A1 such that Ai · Aj ⊂ Ai+j (mod 2) . η j ]s := ω i η j − (−1)ij η j ω j . .2. dim Λ• V = 2n and χ(Λ• V ) = 0.4) and (2. 1−t ⊔ ⊓ 2.5) we deduce using Exercise 2. We owe the “super” slang to the physicists. [•. a vector space V equipped with a direct sum decomposition V = V0 ⊕ V1 . i. the “super” slang adds the attribute super to most of the commonly used algebraic objects. then V ∼ = Kn so that PΛ• V (t) = (PΛ• K (t))n and PS • V (t) = (PS • K (t))n .2.27 that for any vector spaces V and W we have PΛ• (V ⊕W ) (t) = PΛ• V (t) · PΛ• W (t) and PS • (V ⊕W ) (t) = PS • V (t) · PS • W (t).2..30.3 The “super” slang The aim of this very brief section is to introduce the reader to the “super” terminology.e.48 CHAPTER 2. (a) A s-space is a Z2 -graded vector space. η j ∈ Aj by [ω i . Proof. the preﬁx “s-” will abbreviate the word “super” Deﬁnition 2. The elements in Ai are called homogeneous of degree i.31. i. •]s ≡ 0.e.2. In the quantum world many objects have a special feature not present in the Newtonian world. and objects with different chiralities had to be treated differently. and PS • K (t) = PK[x] (t) = 1 .2. •]s : A × A → A. if V has dimension n. (b) A s-algebra over K is a Z2 -graded K-algebra. For any a ∈ Ai we denote its degree (mod 2) by |a|. They have parity (or chirality). Then PΛ• V (t) = (1 + t) n and PS • V (t) = 1 1−t n 1 = (n − 1)! d dt n −1 1 1−t . The proposition follows using the equalities PΛ• K (t) = 1 + t. In particular.2. Let V be a K-vector space of dimension n. From a strictly syntactic point of view. (c) The supercommutator in a s-algebra A = A0 ⊕ A1 is the bilinear map [•. An s-algebra is called s-commutative. ⊔ ⊓ . deﬁned on homogeneous elements ω i ∈ Ai . In this book. In particular. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Proposition 2. The “super” terminology provides an algebraic formalism which allows one to deal with the different parities on an equal basis. From (2. The elements in A0 are said to be even while the elements in A1 are said to be odd.

T = T10 T11 where Tji ∈ End (E i .6) is a super version of the usual Leibniz formula. The even endomorphisms have the form T00 0 0 T11 while the odd endomorphisms have the form 0 T01 T10 0 .6) becomes D (xy ) = (Dx)y + (−1)|x||D| x(Dy ). E j ). Let E = E 0 ⊕ E 1 be a s-space. ⊔ ⊓ .2. Lx ]End( = LDx .32. assuming D is homogeneous (as an element of the s-algebra End (A)) then equality (2. for any x ∈ A. Deﬁnition 2.6) where [ . y ∈ A. ⊔ ⊓ The s-algebra Λ• V is s-commutative. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 2. if it is even (respectively odd) as an element of the s-algebra End (A). ⊔ ⊓ . We can use this block decomposition to describe a structure of salgebra on End (E ). ]s denotes the supercommutator in End (A) (with the s-structure deﬁned in Example 2. for any homogeneous elements x.35. Indeed.2. Let V be a ﬁnite dimensional space.34. s End(A) (2. while for any z ∈ A we denoted by Lz the left multiplication operator a → z · a. An s-derivation is called even (respectively odd). An s-derivation on A is a linear operator on D ∈ End (A) such that.2.33. The relation (2. The exterior algebra Λ• V is naturally a s-algebra. A) [D. Let A = A0 ⊕ A1 be a s-algebra. The even elements are gathered in Λeven V = r even Λr V.2. while the odd elements are gathered in Λodd V = r odd Λr V.2.2.2.32). Example 2.2.2.2. Any linear endomorphism T ∈ End (E ) has a block decomposition T00 T01 . A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 49 Example 2.

D ′ ]s is again an s-derivation. [[x. Let A = A0 ⊕ A1 be a s-algebra.40. Prove Proposition 2. which in this case is equivalent with the classical Jacobi identity. i. x] + [[z. then A is a Lie algebra over K if [ . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Example 2. x] = 0. Moreover (A) ⊔ ⊓ = B [x. a hat indicates a missing entry.2. (a) For any D ∈ Ders (A). The derivation iu∗ is called the interior derivation by u∗ or the contraction by u∗ . ∀x. its homogeneous components D 0 . +. ] is anticommutative and satisﬁes (2. x]. y ] = 0. y ] + (−1)|x||y| [y. The multiplication in a (s-) Lie algebra is called the (s-)bracket.2. z ∈ A. not necessarily associative.7) for all homogeneous elements x.2. the fact that Rx is a sderivation for all x ∈ A is equivalent with the super Jacobi identity [[y. For any x ∈ A we denote by Rx the right multiplication operator. ]) be an s-algebra over K. ∀x.36.2.2.2. z ] + (−1)|x||y| [y. i. the s-commutator [D. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 2. When A is purely even. z ].2. A1 = {0}. Let E be a vector space (purely even).y]s . y ∈ A. [B x .8) Example 2. z ]. b] = ab − ba.. z ] + [[y. D ′ ∈ Ders (A). End(A) (b) For any D. r iu∗ (v0 ∧ v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vr ) = i=0 (−1)i u∗ . y. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.41. ⊔ ⊓ The above deﬁnition is highly condensed. Any u∗ ∈ V ∗ deﬁnes an odd s-derivation of Λ• V denoted by iu∗ uniquely determined by its action on monomials. a → [a. (2..e.50 CHAPTER 2. x]s is a s-derivation called the bracket derivation determined by x. x]. Let A = (A0 ⊕ A1 . x]. D 1 ∈ End (A) are also sderivations.40.. A is called an s-Lie algebra if it is s-anticommutative. ∧ v ˆi ∧ · · · ∧ vr . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. then A is called simply a Lie algebra. and denote by Ders (A) the vector space of s-derivations of A. y.2. When A is a purely even K-algebra. Rx is a s-derivation. [x. one uses the alternate notation u∗ to denote this derivation. [ . x (c) ∀x ∈ A the bracket B : a → [a. Let V be a vector space.2.. y ]. and ∀x ∈ A. As usual. Often. Then A = End (E ) is a Lie algebra with bracket given by the usual commutator: [a. y ∈ A.39.7). for all homogeneous elements x. (2. [z. z ∈ A. Prove the statement in the above example.37. x]]. ⊔ ⊓ . B y ]End s Exercise 2.2. In down-to-earth terms. x] = [[y.e. vi v0 ∧ v1 ∧ .38.

2. if T ∈ A has the block decomposition T = then trs T = tr T00 − tr T11 . y ]s .) Let A = A0 ⊕ A1 be an s-algebra over K = R. Their s-tensor product is the s-space E ⊗ F with the Z2 -grading.43. A]s the linear subspace of A spanned by the supercommutators [x. v ω.44. Let E = E 0 ⊕ E 1 and F = F 0 ⊕ F 1 be two s-spaces.2. τ ([x. .45. x. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. then we see that the space of s-traces is isomorphic with the dual of the quotient space A/[A. If we denote by [A. ǫ = 0. ∗ ⊔ ⊓ (When ω = 1. (E ⊗ F )ǫ := i+j ≡ǫ (2) E i ⊗ F j . D v ⊗1 coincides with the internal derivation discussed in Example 2. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ T00 T01 T10 T11 . uniquely determined by v ∗ × ω → D v Dv ∗ ⊗ω . Exercise 2. where D v ∗ ⊗ω is s-derivation deﬁned by ∗ ⊗ω (v ) = v ∗ . In fact. To emphasize the super-nature of the tensor product we will use the symbol “⊗” instead of the usual “⊗”. Then there exists a canonical s-trace trs on A uniquely deﬁned by trs ½E = dim E0 − dim E1 . C.36. Notice in particular that any s-derivation of Λ• V is uniquely determined by its action on Λ1 V . Proposition 2.2.42. y ∈ A.2. y ∈ A . A]s . A supertrace on A is a K-linear map τ : A → K such that. ∀v ∈ V. Show that there exists a natural isomorphism of s-spaces V ∗ ⊗Λ• V ∼ = Ders (Λ• V ).2. Prove the above proposition. Let E = E0 ⊕ E1 be a ﬁnite dimensional s-space.2. and denote by A the salgebra of endomorphisms of E . A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 51 Deﬁnition 2. 1.2. y ]s ) = 0 ∀x.

B (v.46. • ) ∈ W ∗ .2.2.• = ½V ∗ : V ∗ → V ∗ . ∀v ∈ V.52 CHAPTER 2. (a) The V has even dimension.2. •) : V × V → R deﬁnes a (self)duality.48. ⊔ ⊓ Any pairing B : V × W → K deﬁnes a linear map IB : V → W ∗ . • : V ∗ × V → K is a duality. Suppose that V is a real vector space. K will denote one of the ﬁelds R or C.2. One sees that I •.•) : V → V ∗ . ⊔ ⊓ Example 2. Consider V a real vector space and ω : V × V → R a skew-symmetric bilinear form on V . In this case.2. w ∈ W. w) = (Lv )(w). and in particular a natural isomorphism L := I(•. ∀i.49. then det(ωij )1≤i. ej ). A pairing B is called a duality if the adjunction map IB is an isomorphisms. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. j.4 Duality Duality is a subtle and fundamental concept which permeates all branches of mathematics. The form ω is said to be symplectic if this pairing is a duality. ei = δi . Deﬁnition 2. The action of L is then Lei = gij ej . Prove the following. Example 2. and we will use Einstein’s convention without mentioning it. and ω : V × V → R is a symplectic duality. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS 2. ⊔ ⊓ Example 2. (b) If (ei ) is a basis of V . Any symmetric nondegenerate quadratic form (•. and ωij := ω (ei . the induced operator Iω : V → V ∗ is called symplectic duality. This pairing is called the natural duality between a vector space and its dual. and set gij := (ei .2.j ≤dim V = 0. Pick a basis (ei ) of V . Conversely. When (•. Observe that IBL = L. This section is devoted to those aspects of the atmosphere called duality which are relevant to differential geometry. Let (ej ) denote the dual basis of V ∗ deﬁned by j ej .50. called the adjunction morphism associated to the pairing. then the operator L is called metric duality. This operator can be nicely described in coordinates as follows. v → B (v. In the sequel.47. any linear map L : V → W ∗ deﬁnes a pairing BL : V × W → K. Let V be a ﬁnite dimensional real vector space. all vector spaces will be tacitly assumed ﬁnite dimensional. ⊔ ⊓ . •) is positive deﬁnite. ej ). A pairing between two K-vector spaces V and W is a bilinear map B : V × W → K. The natural pairing •.

Let Bi : Vi × Wi → R (i = 1. and thus deﬁnes a natural isomorphism ∗ Λr V ∗ ∼ = (Λr V ) .2.2. uniquely determined by IB1 ⊗B2 = IB1 ⊗ IB2 ⇐⇒ B (v1 ⊗ v2 .2. determined by (v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vr . Exercise 2.9) is a Gramm determinant. (2. • ).2.52. the natural duality • . • ) : Λr V × Λr V → R. A duality B : V × W → K naturally induces a duality B † : V ∗ × W ∗ → K by 1 ∗ B † (v ∗ . Exercise 2.j ≤r . and in particular.2. I− B w . Denote its inner product by ( • . • : Λr V ∗ × Λr V → R. w∗ ) : = v ∗ . Prove Proposition 2.2. where IB : V → W ∗ is the adjunction isomorphism induced by the duality B . Now consider a (real) Euclidean vector space V .2. In particular.9) is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.2. we have proved the following result. • ) induces a self-duality ( • .2. w2 ). . • : V ∗ × V → K induces a duality • . 53 Proposition 2.51. Thus.j ≤r .2. Prove the above pairing is a duality. the bilinear form in (2.51.53. w1 ∧ · · · ∧ wr ) := det (B (vi . Then there exists a natural duality B = B1 ⊗ B2 : (V1 ⊗ V2 ) × (W1 ⊗ W2 ) → R.9) The right hand side of (2. This deﬁnes by restriction a pairing Λr B : Λr V × Λr W → K uniquely determined by Λr B (v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vr . w1 ⊗ w2 ) = B1 (v1 . ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 2.51 implies that given two spaces in duality B : V × W → K there is a naturally induced duality B ⊗n : V ⊗r × W ⊗r → K . w1 ) · B2 (v2 . The self-duality deﬁned by ( • . wj ) )1≤i. ⊔ ⊓ This shows that we can regard the elements of Λr V ∗ as skew-symmetric r -linear forms V r → K. wj ))1≤i. w1 ∧ · · · ∧ wr ) := det ( (vi . A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE The notion of duality is compatible with the functorial constructions introduced so far. 2) be two pairs of spaces in duality.

. The reason for this nomenclature comes from the coordinate description of this operation.. This r (V ) → T r −1 (V ) deﬁned by induces an operator L : Ts s+1 L(v1 ⊗ ..10) The operation deﬁned in (2.55 (Cartan). ∀ω ∈ det V \ {0}. Show that for any u.ir (LT )jj = gij Tjii .. Since det V is 1-dimensional. see Example 2.. iu ]s = ev iu + iu ev = (u.10) is classically referred to as lowering the indices. Otherwise. iv = ıv∗ where ıv∗ denotes the interior derivation deﬁned by v ∗ ∈ V ∗ -the metric dual of v . If r (V ) is given by T ∈ Ts j1 js 1 . iv ) the linear endomorphism of Λ∗ V deﬁned by ev ω = v ∧ ω (resp. ⊗ vr ⊗ u1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ us ) = (v2 ⊗ · · · ⊗ vr ) ⊗ ((Lv1 ⊗ u1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ us ). We denote by Or (V ) the set of orientations of V . or ).2. The inverse of the metric duality L−1 : V ∗ → V induces a linear operation r (V ) → T r +1 (V ) called raising the indices. ⊔ ⊓ Equivalently... ⊔ ⊓ There is an equivalent way of looking at orientations. then i2 .js ei1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ eir ⊗ e ⊗ · · · ⊗ e .56. the basis is said to be negatively oriented. Deﬁnition 2.js where gij = (ei . surjective map or : det V \ {0} → {±1}. where V is a vector space.jr 1 . Deﬁnition 2. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Corollary 2.36). Let V be an Euclidean vector space. and or is an orientation on V is called an oriented vector space.. An inner product on a real vector space V naturally induces an inner product on the tensor algebra T (V ). Observe that Or (V ) consists of precisely two elements.. Let V be a real vector space. (b) A pair (V.2.ir 2 .ir T = Tji1 .2.57. and in the exterior algebra Λ• V .. A volume form on V is a nontrivial linear form on the determinant line of V .2. (c) Suppose or ∈ Or (V ).2. 1 . Ts s −1 Exercise 2.. note that any nontrivial volume form µ on V uniquely speciﬁes an orientation or µ given by or µ (ω ) := sign µ(ω ). a choice of a volume form corresponds to a choice of a basis of det V . A basis ω of det V is said to be positively oriented if or (ω ) > 0.. . To describe it. v ∈ V ⊔ ⊓ [ev .2. µ : det V → R. a volume form on V is a nontrivial element of det V ∗ (n = dim V ).. (a) An orientation on a vector space V is a continuous.54 CHAPTER 2. (2. v )½Λ• V . . For any v ∈ V denote by ev (resp.2. ⊔ ⊓ In a Euclidean vector space V the inner product induces the metric duality L : V → V ∗ .54. ej ).

then we achieve two things.58... An ordered basis of an oriented vector space (V. call it ω .2. . Given two orientations or 1 . it determines a volume form µg deﬁned by µg (λω ) = λ. Deﬁnition 2. Equivalently. it determines an orientation on V . • Second. If we ﬁx one of them. we can identify the set of orientations with the set of equivalence classes of nontrivial volume forms. it sufﬁces to specify a total ordering of a given basis of the space. and in particular.. The vector space det V has an induced Euclidean structure. and we think of it as a basis of det V . To every orientation or we can associate an equivalence class [µ]or of volume forms such that µ(ω )or (ω ) > 0.2. which determines a volume form µg = µor g .2. Denote the Euclidean inner product by g( • . . g) canonically selects a ⊔ ⊓ volume form on V . A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE We deﬁne an equivalence relation on the space of nontrivial volume forms by declaring µ1 ∼ µ2 ⇐⇒ µ1 (ω )µ2 (ω ) > 0. ∀ω ∈ det V \ {0}. there exist exactly two length-one-vectors in det V . Proposition 2. or 2 . Note that a permutation of the indices 1. to specify an orientation on V it sufﬁces to specify a basis ω of det V . To any basis {e1 . or 2 on the vector space V we deﬁne or 1 /or 2 ∈ {±1} to be or 1 /or 2 := or 1 (ω )or 2 (ω ). . Thus. We will say that or 1 /or 2 is the relative signature of the pair of orientations or 1 . Thus. ∀ω ∈ det V \ {0}.59. en } of V one can associate a basis e1 ∧ · · · ∧ en of det V . . n changes the associated basis of det V by a factor equal to the signature of the permutation. An orientation or on an Euclidean vector space (V. . • First. an orientation or ∈ Or (V ) uniquely selects a length-one-vector ω = ωor in det V . Conversely.2. or ) is said to be positively oriented if so is the associated basis of det V . to deﬁne an orientation on a vector space. • ). henceforth denoted by Detg = Detor g . 55 Thus. The associated orientation or ω is uniquely characterized by the condition or ω (ω ) = 1. we have proved the following result. . ∀ω ∈ det V \ {0}. Then µ1 ∼ µ2 ⇐⇒ or µ1 = or µ2 . ⊔ ⊓ Assume now that V is an Euclidean space.

then we can deﬁne ωA ∈ Λ2 V by ωA = i<j g(Aei . vn of V . Let (V. and or an orientation on V . Let ω ∈ Λ2 V . v ∈ V. and A : V → V is a skew-symmetric endomorphism of V . . g. and the orientation given by e1 ∧ e2 . v ). v ) = g(Au. eN ) is a positively oriented orthonormal basis of V . ej )ei ∧ ej . prove that | Detor g (v1 ∧ v2 )| is the area of the parallelogram spanned by v1 and v2 . Euclidean space and denote by Detor g the associated volume form. we have Detor g (v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vn ) = or (v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vn ) (det g(vi . Let (V. g) is as in the above deﬁnition. g deﬁned on homogeneous elements by ω= g 0 if deg ω < dim V .2.2.56 CHAPTER 2. or Detg ω if deg ω = dim V ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. The reader can check that ωA is independent of the choice of basis as above. where (e1 . g) be an n-dimensional Euclidean vector space. or ) is an oriented. Notice that ωA (u. for any basis v1 . . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. exp ω := k ≥0 ωk .61. We deﬁne its pfafﬁan as P f (ω ) = P f or g (ω ) := exp ω = g 0 1 or ∧n n! Detg (ω ) if dim V is odd . dim V = N ...62. if dim V = 2n where exp ω denotes the exponential in the (nilpotent) algebra Λ• V . ∀u.60. If V = R2 with its standard metric.j g(Aei . We deﬁne the pfafﬁan of A by P f (A) := P f (ωA ).. . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Exercise 2. ej )ei ∧ ej = 1 2 i. where (V. k! ⊔ ⊓ If (V. Euclidean space. or ) be an oriented.2. vj )). Show that. The Berezin integral or ( berezinian) is the linear form : Λ• V → R. g. . .

e2n .2. Prove that the Hodge pairing is a duality. Prove that P f (A)2 = det A. η n−r ∈ Λn−r V. A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 57 Example 2. real Euclidean vector space. ⊔ ⊓ . or ) be an oriented Euclidean space of dimension 2n. where e1 e2 denotes the standard basis. Suppose (V.2. . and S′ 2n denotes the set of permutations σ ∈ S2n satisfying σ (2k − 1) < min{σ (2k). where aij = g(ei . Ξ = Ξr g.64. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. or ) be an n-dimensional. In the sequel we will continue to r (V ) → T r (V ∗ ) ∼ T r (V ). Let A : V → V be a skew-symmetric endomorphism of an oriented Euclidean space V . The metric duality Lg : V → V ∗ induces both a metric. σ (2k + 1)}.2.2. The r -th Hodge pairing is the pairing r ∗ n −r V → R.2. Let V = R2 denote the standard Euclidean space oriented by e1 ∧ e2 . .65.2. Aej ) is the (i. j )-th entry in the matrix representing A in the basis (ei ). Consider A : V → V a skewsymmetric endomorphism and a positively oriented orthonormal frame e1 . g g ω ∧η ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.66. η n−r ) := Detor L− . g.2. Let (V. or ) oriented Euclidean space.2. Deﬁnition 2. . use the same notation Lg to denote the metric duality Ts = s s Deﬁnition 2.68. .63. If 0 −θ A= . g. oriented. The Hodge ∗-operator is the adjunction isomorphism ∗ = IΞ : Λr V ∗ → Λn−r V ∗ induced by the Hodge duality. ∀k. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. r ≤ dim V . Prove that (−1)n P f or ǫ(σ )aσ(1)σ(2) · · · aσ(2n−1)σ(2n) g (A) = 2n n! σ∈S2n = (−1)n σ∈S′ 2n ǫ(σ )aσ(1)σ(2) · · · aσ(2n−1)σ(2n) . θ 0 then ωA = θe1 ∧ e2 so that P f (A) = θ .or : Λ V × Λ deﬁned by 1 r n −r Ξ(ω r . ⊔ ⊓ Let (V. and r is a nonnegative integer. and an orientation on V ∗ .67. ω r ∈ Λr V ∗ . g.

2. Then the associated Hodge ∗-operator satisﬁes ∗(∗ω ) = (−1)p(n−p) ω ∀ω ∈ Λp V ∗ .2. β ). show that n or Detor tg = t Detg . ε) be an n-dimensional. ∗(e3 ∧ e1 ) = e2 . Example 2. e2 . Let V be the standard Euclidean space R3 with standard basis e1 . ∀β ∈ Λn−r V ∗ . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS The above deﬁnition obscures the meaning of the ∗-operator. Denote by •.11) Let ω denote the unit vector in det V deﬁning the orientation.12) Equality (2.11) can be rewritten as α ∧ β.58 CHAPTER 2.2. ∀β ∈ Λn−k V ∗ . For every t > 0 Denote by gt the rescaled metric gt = t2 g. β ) Det or V . Then (2. g. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. and orientation determined by e1 ∧ e2 ∧ e3 . ∗1 = e1 ∧ e2 ∧ e3 . ω = (∗α. ⊔ ⊓ . real Euclidean space of dimension n. • the standard pairing Λn−r V ∗ × Λn−r V → R. ∀α ∈ Λk V ∗ . We conclude this subsection with a brief discussion of densities. ∀α ∈ Λ V . Thus r ∗ n −r ∗ α ∧ β = (∗α. and α ∧ ∗β = (α. If ∗ is the Hodge operator corresponding to the metric g and orientation or . g α ∧ Lg β ) = ∗α. ∗(e1 ∧ e2 ) = e3 . oriented. Then. ∀β ∈ Λ (2. β ) ∗ 1.2. Proposition 2.69. or ) is an oriented. ∗(e2 ∧ e3 ) = e1 .70. for every β ∈ Λn−s V ∗ the operator ∗ satisﬁes 1 −1 −1 n −r ∗ Detg (L− V . ∗(e1 ∧ e2 ∧ e3 ) = 1. g . Suppose (V. Let α ∈ Λr V ∗ so that ∗α ∈ Λn−r V ∗ . and ∗t is the Hodge operator corresponding to the metric gt and the same orientation.2. Lg β = (∗α. Detg (∗1) = 1. •) the induced metric on Λn−r V ∗ . ∗e2 = e3 ∧ e1 . Euclidean space. We want to spend some time clarifying its signiﬁcance. and ∗t ω = tn−2p ∗ ω ∀ω ∈ Λp V ∗ . and by (•.12) uniquely determines the action of ∗. Let (V. by deﬁnition. Then ∗e1 = e2 ∧ e3 .71. β ). ∗e3 = e1 ∧ e2 .2. The following result is left to the reader as an exercise.2. g. ∀β ∈ Λ (2. e3 .

⊔ ⊓ A Hermitian metric deﬁnes a duality V × V → C. Its conjugate is the complex vector space V which coincides with V as a real vector space.e. i. ∀v ∈ V \ {0}. and hence it induces a complex linear isomorphism L : V → Vc∗ . • The bilinear from (•. Let V be a complex vector space. u).2. (v. Example 2. • For any u.2.2. ∀u ∈ det V \ {0}. Deﬁnition 2. Let V be a real vector space. ∀ω ∈ det V \ {0}. v → (·.2.74.5 Some complex linear algebra In this subsection we want to brieﬂy discuss some aspects speciﬁc to linear algebra over the ﬁeld of complex numbers. (2. The vector space V has a complex dual Vc∗ that can be identiﬁed with the space of complex linear maps V → C. v ) > 0.72. v ∈ V we have (u. |Λ|1 V ⊔ ⊓ The linear space of r -densities on V will be denoted by |Λ|r V . When r = 1 we set |Λ|V := .73.2. A Hermitian metric is a complex bilinear map (•. ⊔ ⊓ Observe that an orientation or ∈ Or (V ) deﬁnes a natural linear isomorphism ıor : det V ∗ → |Λ|V det V ∗ ∋ µ → ıor µ ∈ |Λ|V . and we will refer to 1-densities simply as densities. Any Euclidean metric g on V deﬁnes a canonical 1-density | Detg | ∈ |Λ|1 V which associated to each ω ∈ det V its length. ∀v ∈ V.2. For any r ≥ 0 we deﬁne an r -density to be a function f : det V → R such that f (λu) = |λ|r f (u). ∀λ = 0. an orientation in a Euclidean vector space canonically identiﬁes |Λ|V with R. but in which the multiplication by a scalar λ ∈ C is deﬁned by λ · v := λv. v ) = (v. v ) ∈ Vc∗ . In particular. If we forget the complex structure we obtain a real dual Vr∗ consisting of all real-linear maps V → R. |ω |g .13) where ıor µ(ω ) = or (ω )µ(ω ). 2. •) is positive deﬁnite. . A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE 59 Deﬁnition 2. •) : V × V → C satisfying the following properties.2.

fj ) = −Im h(ei . Any complex space V can be also thought of as a real vector space. i. where •. as an R-bilinear map V × V → C.e. ω (ei . A∗ w . Let h = (•. ej ) = δij = Re h(fi . which shows that ω = −Im h = i ei ∧ f i . Let V be a real vector space with a complex structure J on it. w = v. The real part is an inner product on the real space V .. a + bi ∈ C. Conversely. Denote by e1 . A complex linear map W → Vc∗ is the same as a complex linear map W → Vc . •) as an object over R. w ∈ Vc∗ .. fj ) = 0 ∀i. then any complex linear map A : V → W induces a complex linear map A∗ : W → Vc∗ A∗ w := v → Av. ej ) = δij . n = dimC V . VC = V ⊗ C. has two eigenvalues ±i. . en of V .e. f 1 . fj ) and Re h (ei . and thus can be identiﬁed with an element of Λ2 R V . Then the collection e1 . . We will call an operator J as above a complex structure . We can rewrite the above fact as Av. If we view (•. Pick an unitary basis e1 . iej ) = δij . en . It is convenient to have a coordinate description of the abstract objects introduced above. fn is an R-basis of V . i... The operator J has no eigenvectors on V . f1 . Also ω (ei . j. ω = − Im h. ω is called the real 2-form associated to the Hermitian metric. then the Hermitian metric decomposes as √ h = Re h − i ω. ∀v ∈ V. and we have a splitting of VC as a direct sum of complex vector spaces (eigenspaces) VC = ker (J − i) ⊕ (ker J + i). . . ej ) = ω (fi . f n the dual R-basis in V ∗ . Let V be an n-dimensional complex vector space and h a Hermitian metric on it. .60 CHAPTER 2. • denotes the natural duality between a vector space and its dual. The metric ∗ duality deﬁnes a complex linear isomorphism Vc ∼ = V so we can view the adjoint A∗ as a complex linear map W → V . Obviously J satisﬁes J 2 = −½V . if V is a real vector space then any real operator J : V → V as above deﬁnes a complex structure on V by (a + bi)v = av + bJv. and h(ei . •) be a Hermitian metric on the complex vector space V .. . en .e. The multiplication by i = √ −1 deﬁnes a real linear operator which we denote by J . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS If V and W are complex Hermitian vector spaces.. Re h = i ∗ (ei ⊗ ei + f i ⊗ f i ). we denote by fj the vector iej . . while ω is a real. . For each j . i. skew-symmetric bilinear ∗ form on V . The natural extension of J to the complexiﬁcation of V . fj ) = 0. . . i := −1. Then Re h (ei .

Jv ).0 ⊗ Λ• V 0. fn } (fi = Jei ).1 := ker(J + i) ∼ =C V . J ).2.1 .q V ∗ ∼ =C Λq. v ) = ω (u. p +q =k (2. then the above isomorphism can be reformulated as Λk VC ∼ = Λp. J ∗ ) ∼ =C (V.0 := ker(J − i) ∼ =C V V ∼ = (ker J + i). Then J ∗ ei = −f i . If h is a Hermitian metric on the complex vector space (V. and. J )∗ c = (Vr . en .14) Note that the complex structure J on V induces by duality a complex structure J ∗ on Vr∗ . and we have an isomorphism of complex vector spaces ∼ ∗ ∗ Vc∗ = (V. Denote by {ei .15) Moreover.2. −J ) ∼ =C V . .2.q V ∗ ∼ = (Λp. J ). v ∈ V. v ). more generally Λp. To see this it sufﬁces to pick a unitary basis (ei ) of V . We obtain an isomorphism of Z-graded complex vector spaces = V 1. · · · . .0 ⊕ V 0.0 V ∗ ∼ = (Λ1. 61 ⊔ ⊓ Thus VC ∼ = V ⊕ V .0 ⊗C Λq V 0. If we set Λp.q V.q V := Λp V 1. The Euclidean metric g = Re h. ∀u. and construct as usual the associated real orthonormal basis {e1 . and if we set 1 1 ¯j := √ (ej − if j ). . Prove that we have the following isomorphisms of complex vector spaces V ∼ = ker (J − i) Set V 1.2. f1 . f i .75. and the associated 2-form ω = −Im h are related by g(u. .1 . Λ0. εi := √ (ei + if i ). i = 1.q -construction applied to the real vector space Vr∗ equipped with the complex structure J ∗ . ω (u.q V ∗ as the Λp. Note that Λ1.2. then we have a natural isomorphism of complex vector spaces Vc∗ ∼ = (Vr∗ . We can deﬁne similarly Λp. n} the dual orthonormal basis in Vr∗ . ω is a (1.1 V )∗ c.0 V )∗ c. (2.1 V ∗ ∼ = (Λ0. V 0. ε 2 2 .1 ∼ Λ• VC ∼ = Λ• V 1. 1)-form. so that Λp. v ) = g(Ju.p V.q V )∗ c. A LINEAR ALGEBRA INTERLUDE Exercise 2.

. Y denote the n × n real matrices with entries (xj k ) and respectively (yk ). . . i. . fk = j j zk ej .2.76.. . (2. e xj k ej + j j yk e ˆj .e.. ∀1 ≤ k ≤ n. fn ) are two complex bases of V . We write Then fk = j j (xj k + iyk )ej = j j j j j ˆ zk = xj ˆj = iej . en ) and (f1 . k + i y k . xj ke Then.0 V ∗ = spanC {εi } Λ0. . This is not a real basis of V since dimR V = 2 dimC V . ie1 . | det Z |2 = det Z . ∧ en ∧ ien . . y k ∈ R . en be a basis of V over C. where Z is the 2n × 2n real matrix Z= Re Z − Im Z Im Z Re Z = X −Y Y X . More precisely. . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Λ1. We want to show that det Z = | det Z |2 .16) . . we deduce ˆ ˆ f 1 ∧ i f 1 ∧ · · · ∧ f n ∧ i f n = ǫn f 1 ∧ · · · ∧ f n ∧ f 1 ∧ · · · ∧ fn ˆ )e1 ∧ · · · ∧ en ∧ e = ǫn (det Z ˆ1 ∧ · · · ∧ e ˆn = (det Z )e1 ∧ ie1 ∧ . ien form a real basis of V . . . ∀Z ∈ EndC (Cn ).k is the complex matrix describing the transition from the basis e to the basis f . Let V be a complex vector space.1 = spanC {ε ¯j }. A := Z ∈ EndC (Cn ). Proposition 2. Let We will prove that A = EndC (Cn ). and ˆ f k =− j j yk ej + j ˆj . en . . . xk . We can however complete this to a real basis. . and j Z = (zk )1≤j. and e1 . and ω=i εi ∧ ε ¯i . Proof. . f k = if k .2.62 then CHAPTER 2. if we set ǫn = (−1)n(n−1)/2 . Suppose (e1 . Then f1 ∧ if1 ∧ · · · ∧ fn ∧ ifn = | det Z |2 e1 ∧ ie1 ∧ · · · ∧ en ∧ ien . . the vectors e1 . j and X . .

and any complex linear automorphism T ∈ AutC (Cn ). Let K denote one of the ﬁelds R or C. ∧ en ∧ ien ∈ Λ2 R V .3. In other words. Clearly A is a closed subset of EndC (Cn ). to vector bundles. and more speciﬁcally.1 Operations with vector bundles We now return to geometry. Then. then so will any of its conjugates. for every Z ∈ EndC (Cn ). and a pffaﬁan ∗ 2 ∗ c : Λ2 P f h = P f or R V → R .2.3. n ∗ c and the metric g deﬁne a volume form Detor ∈ Λ2 g R Vr . 2.. and let E → M be a rank r K-vector bundle over the smooth manifold M . and these form a dense subset of EndC (Cn ) (see Exercise 2. n! If ω = − Im h is real 2-form associated with the Hermitian metric h. then c = Detg = Detor g 1 n ω . if a complex matrix Z satisﬁes (2. The canonical orientation of a complex vector space V . In particular.16).. . ∀T ∈ AutC (Cn ). Hence Z ∈ A ⇐⇒ T ZT −1 ∈ A. . is the n orientation deﬁned by e1 ∧ ie1 ∧ . dimC V = n. The canonical orientation or c on V . en } is any complex basis of V .3 Tensor ﬁelds 2. TENSOR FIELDS 63 The set A is nonempty since it contains all the diagonal matrices. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. . we have T ZT −1 = T Z T −1 . n! and we conclude P f h ω = 1.2. Then g = Re h deﬁnes is real. Detg ). Observe that the correspondence EndC (Cn ) ∋ Z → Z ∈ EndR (R) is an endomorphism of R-algebras. Λ Vr ∋ η → h 1 g(η n . ⊔ ⊓ Suppose h is a Hermitian metric on the complex vector space V . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2.2. A contains all the diagonalizable n × n complex matrices. we can ﬁnd an open . Prove that the set of diagonalizable n × n complex matrices form a dense subset of the vector space EndC (Cn ).78.77. Euclidean metric on V regarded as a real vector space. . so it sufﬁces to show that A is dense in EndC (Cn ). According to the deﬁnition of a vector bundle.77).2. where {e1 . n = dimC V .2.

where † denotes the transpose of a linear map. where V is an r dimensional vector space over the ﬁeld K. In the sequel. F be two vector bundles over the smooth manifold M with standard ﬁbers VE and respectively VF . given by a (common) open cover (Uα ). and therefore deﬁne vector bundles which we denote by E ⊕ F . ⊔ ⊓ . The direct sum E ⊕ F is also called the Whitney sum of vector bundles. we will exclusively think of vector bundles in terms of gluing cocycles.3. Conversely. induce bundle morphisms S ⊕ T : E ⊕ F → E′ ⊕ T ′. Consider bundle isomorphisms S : E → E ′ and T : F → F ′ covering the same diffeomorphism of the base. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. Then (S −1 )† : E ∗ → (E ′ )∗ is a bundle isomorphism covering φ. E ⊗ F . † −1 ∗ (gαβ ) : Uαβ → GL( VE ). a collection of gluing maps as above satisfying the cocycle condition uniquely deﬁnes a vector bundle.3. In particular. E ′ and F ′ be vector bundles over a smooth manifold M . NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS cover (Uα ) of M such that each restriction E |Uα is trivial: E |Uα ∼ = V × Uα . S ⊗ T : E ⊗ F → E′ ⊗ F ′.1. h(m) deﬁnes a metric on Em (Euclidean if K = R or Hermitian if K = C). a morphism covering φ−1 etc. F ). Let E → M be a K-vector bundle over M .32). S † : (E ′ )∗ → E ∗ . The reader can check easily that these vector bundles are independent of the choices of transition maps used to characterize E and F (use Exercise 2. and gluing cocycles gαβ : Uαβ → GL(VE ).2. A metric on E is a section h of E ∗ ⊗K E ∗ (E = E if K = R) such that. gαβ ⊗ hαβ : Uαβ → GL(VE ⊗ VF ). Let E ′ and F ′ be vector bundles over the same smooth manifold M ′ . φ : M → M .3. satisfy the cocycle condition. the bundle Λr E has rank 1. for any m ∈ M . Any bundle maps S : E → E ′ and T : F → F ′ . (Observe that a vector space can be thought of as a vector bundle over a point. and respectively hαβ : Uαβ → GL(VF ). E ∗ . It is called the determinant line bundle of E . so that we get an induced map (S −1 )† ⊗ T : E ∗ ⊗ F → (E ′ )∗ ⊗ F ′ .1.64 CHAPTER 2. Let E . Then the collections gαβ ⊕ hαβ : Uαβ → GL(VE ⊕ VF ). Exercise 2. All the functorial constructions on vector spaces discussed in the previous section have a vector bundle correspondent.3. if r = rankK E . Prove the assertion above.) These above constructions are natural in the following sense. Let E . Note that we have a natural identiﬁcation E∗ ⊗ F ∼ = Hom (E. The bundle E is obtained by gluing these trivial pieces on the overlaps Uα ∩ Uβ using a collection of transition maps gαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(V ) satisfying the cocycle condition. and it is denoted by det E . The bundle E ∗ is called the dual of the vector bundle E . Λr gαβ : Uαβ → GL(Λr VE ). ⊔ ⊓ covering φ. F . Example 2. and respectively Λr E . both covering the same diffeomorphism φ : M → M ′ .

2)-tensor g.4. The space of (smooth) r -forms over M is denoted by Ωr (M ).. xn ) ∂ ∂ are local coordinates on an open set U ⊂ M . n.. .. . . ..ir dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxir .3. We can form a dual framing of T ∗ M |U . ∀i. they deﬁne a framing of the restriction of T M to U . . . TENSOR FIELDS 65 2. . . then a tensor ﬁeld can be viewed as a smooth selection of a tensor in each of the tangent spaces.. i 1 ∂x ∂x In the above equality we have used Einstein’s convention. They satisfy the duality conditions dxi . 1 ≤ i1 .. ⊗ dxjs . If (x1 . . (c) A Riemannian metric on a manifold M is a metric on the tangent bundle.. (b) A degree r differential form (r -form for brevity) is a section of Λr (T ∗ M ). r (T M ) is given by A basis in Ts x ∂ i = δj . ∂xj ∂ ∂ ⊗ . More precisely.2 Tensor ﬁelds We now specialize the previous considerations to the special situation when E is the tangent bundle of M ... In particular..e.. i 1 ∂x ∂x r (M ) has a local description Hence. . the bilinear map gx : Tx M × Tx M → R deﬁnes a Euclidean metric on Tx M . (a) A tensor ﬁeld of type (r. js ≤ n ... i 1 ∂x ∂x . i. an r -form ω has the local description ω= 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n ωi1 . then the vector ﬁelds ( ∂x 1 . ⊗ ir ⊗ dxj1 ⊗ . We deﬁne the tensor bundles of M r r Ts (M ) : =Ts (T M ) = (T M )⊗r ⊗ (T ∗ M )⊗s . Example 2. ⊗ dxjs . using the 1-forms dxi .. ∂xn ) trivialize T M |U . . ir .ir T = Tji1 . · · · . i = 1. .. .. It is often very useful to have a local description of these objects.5. E ∼ = T M . In particular. ..3. r (M ) Deﬁnition 2. ir ≤ n. .. any tensor T ∈ Ts 1 .3.ir = ω ∂ ∂ . ⊔ ⊓ If we view the tangent bundle as a smooth family of vector spaces. it is a symmetric (0.js ∂ ∂ ⊗ .2. s) over the open set U ⊂ M is a section of Ts over U . ωi1 .3.. ⊗ ir ⊗ dxj1 ⊗ . We set Ω• (M ) := r ≥0 Ωr (M ).. j. such that for every x ∈ M . The cotangent bundle is then T ∗ M := (T M )∗ . a Riemann metric deﬁnes a smoothly varying procedure of measuring lengths of vectors in tangent spaces. .. 1 ≤ j1 .

.1) called the push-forward map.66 CHAPTER 2. . (2. . a diffeomorphism f induces a linear map r r f∗ : Ts (M ) → Ts (N ). Yk ∈ Tq N . . . k Then f∗ S is a (0. . which we regard as a C ∞ (M )-multilinear map S : Vect (M ) × · · · × Vect (M ) → C ∞ (M ). we have −1 Y1 . Yk ) = Sp f∗ = Sp (Dp f )−1 Y1 . j . In the sequel we will always regard the differential of a smooth function f as a 1-form and to indicate this we will use the notation df (instead of the usual Df ). .3.3. (X1 . . (a) A covariant tensor ﬁeld. Its Fr´ echet derivative Df : T M → T R ∼ = R × R is naturally a 1-form. and set p := f −1 (q ). Xs (p) ∈ C ∞ (M ). for any Y1 . .e. any such map uniquely deﬁnes a (0. In particular. . . . . (f∗ )−1 Yk (f∗ S )q (Y1 . i. s)-tensor ﬁeld. and S is a (0. an r -form η can be identiﬁed with a skew-symmetric C ∞ (M )-multilinear map r η: 1 Vect (M ) → C ∞ (M ). . Then. .3. (b) Let f ∈ C ∞ (M ). . a (0. Notice that the wedge product in the exterior algebras induces an associative product in Ω• (M ) which we continue to denote by ∧. . Suppose f : M → N is a diffeomorphism. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS while a Riemann metric g has the local description g= i. Thus.. . k)-tensor ﬁeld on M . . the group of diffeomorphisms of M acts naturally (and linearly) on the space of tensor ﬁelds on M . In particular. .. we get a smooth C ∞ (M )-linear map df : Vect (M ) → C ∞ (M ) deﬁned by df (X )m := Df (X )f (m) ∈ Tf (m) R ∼ = R. Example 2. Indeed. i ∂x ∂x ⊔ ⊓ Remark 2. .. gij = gji = g ∂ ∂ . k) tensor ﬁeld on N . . Conversely. ⊔ ⊓ Any diffeomorphism f : M → N induces bundle isomorphisms Df : T M → T N and (Df −1 )† : T ∗ M → T ∗ N covering f .7.j gij dxi ⊗ dxj . .6. (Dp f )−1 Yk . s)-tensor ﬁeld S . ⊔ ⊓. Xs ) → p → Sp X1 (p). naturally deﬁnes a C ∞ (M )multilinear map s S: 1 Vect (M ) → C ∞ (M ). Let q ∈ N .

called the pullback by f . 2)–tensor g = dx2 + dy 2 . any smooth map f : M → N deﬁnes a linear map 0 0 f ∗ : Ts (N ) → Ts (M ). . It is a diffeomorphism onto the open subset U := R2 \ {(x. (r. Xs ∈ Vect (M ). . . F ∗ dy = d(r sin θ ) = sinθdr + r cos θdθ. . where f∗ is the push-forward map deﬁned in (2. ∞) × (0. We have F ∗ dx = d(r cos θ ) = cos θdr − r sinθdθ. Example 2. TENSOR FIELDS 67 For covariant tensor ﬁelds a more general result is true. To compute F∗ ∂r and F∗ ∂θ we use the chain rule which implies F∗ ∂r = ∂x ∂y 1 ∂x + ∂y = cos θ∂x + sin θ∂y = (x∂x + y∂y ) ∂r ∂r r = (x2 1 (x∂x + y∂y ). The map F deﬁnes the usual polar coordinates.3. .3. Note that when f is a diffeomorphism we have −1 † f ∗ = (f∗ ). Xs (p)) := Sf (p) Dp f (X1 ). 2π ) → R2 . . F ∗ (dx ∧ dy ) = d(r cos θ ) ∧ d(r sinθ ) = (cos θdr − r sinθdθ ) ∧ (sinθdr + r cos θdθ ) = r (cos2 θ + sin2 θ )dr ∧ dθ = rdr ∧ dθ.1). p ∈ M .8. θ ) → (x = r cos θ. 0). we will write ∂r .2. ∂x etc. More precisely. Consider the map F∗ : (0. . x ≥ 0}. Dp f (Xs ) . . . if S is such a tensor deﬁned by a C ∞ (M )-multilinear map S : (Vect (N ))s → C ∞ (N ). . . Explicitly.3. and then we have F∗ dr = (F −1 )∗ dr = d(x2 + y 2 )1/2 = x(x2 + y 2 )−1/2 dx + y (x2 + y 2 )−1/2 dy. The pullback of g by F is the symmetric (0. . y = r sin θ ). For simplicity. + y 2 )1/2 The Euclidean metric is described over U by the symmetric (0. r = (x2 + y 2 )1/2 . then f ∗ S is the covariant tensor ﬁeld deﬁned by (f ∗ S )p (X1 (p). 2)–tensor F ∗ (dx2 + dy 2 ) = d(r cos θ ) 2 + d(r sin θ ) 2 To compute F∗ dr we need to express r as a function of x and y . ∂x instead of ∂ ∂ ∂r . ∀X1 . . ⊔ ⊓ = (cos θdr − r sinθdθ )2 + (sinθdr + r cos θdθ )2 = dr 2 + r 2 dθ 2 .

1 . where in the above equalities we have used Einstein’s convention.ir |T (p)|g = gi1 k1 ...js ii1 . as explained tensor bundles Ts above..js ∂ ∂ ⊗ dxj1 ⊗ . s) can be described as 1 . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. ⊔ ⊓ 2. If we choose local coordinates (xi ) on an open set U then. In particular...j gij dxi ⊗ dxj .ℓs ... Prove the above proposition.. for every point p ∈ U .js Let us observe that a Riemann metric g on a manifold M induces metrics in all the associated r (M ). The space Ω• (M ) is then an associative algebra with respect to the operations + and ∧.ir = {Tij }.. there exists a contraction operator r +1 r tr : Ts +1 (M ) → Ts (M ) deﬁned by tr (X0 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Xr ) ⊗ (ω0 ⊗ · · · ⊗ ωs ) = ω0 (X0 )(X1 ⊗ · · · Xr ⊗ ω1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ ωs ). ⊗ dxjs . the length of r (M ) is the number |T (p)| deﬁned by T (p) ∈ Ts p g k1 .9.... There are several reasons to do this. Proposition 2.10. Let f : M → N be a smooth map. ⊗ i ∂x 1 ∂xir If we denote by (gij ) the inverse of the matrix (gij ).. ∀ωj ∈ Ω1 (M )..3. they arise naturally in geometry. On the other hand.kr 1 .. they provide a very elegant and concise language to describe many phenomena in geometry.. a Riemann metric deﬁnes a duality L : Vect (M ) → Ω1 (M ) etc. the metric g can be described as g= i. The exterior product deﬁnes an exterior product on the space of smooth differential forms ∧ : Ω• (M ) × Ω• (M ) → Ω• (M ). ∀Xi ∈ Vect (M ).ir tr Tji0 . The pullback by f deﬁnes a morphism of associative algebras f ∗ : Ω• (N ) → Ω• (M ).3. There exists a tensor multiplication. . and they impose themselves as worth studying.3 Fiber bundles We consider useful at this point to bring up the notion of ﬁber bundle.. . In local coordinates the contraction has the form 0 .68 CHAPTER 2.js Tℓ1 . .3.. while a tensor ﬁeld T of type (r... NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS All the operations discussed in the previous section have natural extensions to tensor ﬁelds.. ⊗ ..ir T = Tji1 . then... On one hand. gir kr g j1 ℓ1 · · · gjs ℓs Tji1 .

More formally.13. It is useful to think of a Lie group action on a manifold as encoding a symmetry of that manifold. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 }. and G a Lie group. if there exists a smooth map Φ : G × M → M. then for every ϕ ∈ R mod 2π ∼ = S 1 we deﬁne Tϕ : S 2 → S 2 by Tϕ (r. TENSOR FIELDS 69 We have already met examples of ﬁber bundles when we discussed vector bundles. x = r cos θ. For example. ∀g ∈ G. θ. θ. m ∈ M. This is an example of trivial ﬁber bundle. ⊔ ⊓ . These were “smooth families of vector spaces”. z ). One says V is a G-module. yz ) ∈ R3 . It is convenient to regard this as a family of manifolds (Fb )b∈B . The action is called free if ∀g ∈ G. ⊔ ⊓ Example 2. such that T1 ≡ ½M and Tg (Th m) = Tgh m (respectively Tg (Th m) = Thg m) ∀g. (a) Let M be a smooth manifold. the tautological linear action of SO(n) on Rn deﬁnes a linear representation of SO(n). The model situation is that of direct product X = F × B . a ﬁber bundle is obtained by gluing a bunch of trivial ones according to a prescribed rule. z ) = (r. but it offers a ﬁrst glimpse at the notion about to be discussed. and ∀m ∈ M Tg m = m. We say the group G acts on M from the left (respectively right). Let G be a Lie group. Example 2. The resulting map T : S 1 × S 2 → S 2 .3. (b) Let G act on M . For any m ∈ M the set G · m = {Tg m. g ∈ G} is called the orbit of the action through m. F is called the standard (model) ﬁber. Then the counterclockwise rotations about the z -axis deﬁne a smooth left action of S 1 on S 2 . h ∈ G.12. In general.11. In particular. A linear representation of G on a vector space V is a left action of G on V such that each Tg is a linear map. and we would like to spend some time explaining what do we mean by symmetry. z = 0. Consider the unit 3-dimensional sphere S 3 = (x. (g. where B and F are smooth manifolds. The manifold B is called the base. (ϕ. The action is ⊔ ⊓ called effective if. m) → Tg m. y = r sin θ.3. This is a very loose description. Deﬁnition 2. if we use cylindrical coordinates (r. z ). A ﬁber bundle wants to be a smooth family of copies of the same manifold. p) → Tϕ (p) deﬁnes a left action of S 1 on S 2 encoding the rotational symmetry of S 2 about the z -axis. Tg = ½M . (θ + ϕ) mod 2π.3.3. The gluing may encode a symmetry of the ﬁber.2. and X is called the total space. we deduce that ∀g ∈ G the map Tg is a diffeomorphism of M .

If G is a Lie group. ∀(f. these maps can be written as Uα ∩ Uβ . i. right) action of G on itself. where Tαβ (b) is a diffeomorphism of F depending smoothly upon b ∈ Uαβ . ∀α. (c) a smooth manifold B called the base. β. i. x) → g · x = Tg x ∈ F.70 CHAPTER 2. F × Uα ³³ µ µ ³ Ψα Û π−1(Uα) π Uα We can form the transition (gluing) maps Ψαβ : F × Uαβ → F × Uαβ .. where Uαβ = −1 ◦ ψ . the diagram below is commutative. B ).15. b) ∈ F × Uα . According to (e). G × F ∋ (g. F.3. π. We will denote a G-ﬁber bundle by (E. an open cover (Uα ) of the base B . π. gγα = gγβ · gβα . In this way we get the tautological left (resp. F. B. F. b). B ) is called a G-ﬁber bundle if it satisﬁes the following additional conditions. γ.14. and such that Tαβ (b) = Tgαβ (b) . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. Let G be a Lie group. π. A smooth ﬁber bundle is an object composed of the following: (a) a smooth manifold E called the total space. NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Example 2. ⊔ ⊓ .e. then the bundle (E. (f) There exists an effective left action of the Lie group G on F . We will denote this ﬁber bundle by (E. (d) a surjective submersion π : E → B called the natural projection. (b) a smooth manifold F called the standard ﬁber. b) = (Tαβ (b)f. G). deﬁned by Ψαβ = ψα β ψαβ (f. For any g ∈ G denote by Lg (resp..e. The group G is called the symmetry group of the bundle. (e) a collection of local trivializations. and diffeomorphisms Ψα : F × Uα → π −1 (Uα ) such that π ◦ Ψα (f. Rg ) the left (resp right) translation by g.3. b) = b. (g) There exist smooth maps gαβ : Uαβ → G satisfying the cocycle condition gαα = 1 ∈ G.

As in the case of vector bundles. for all α. More precisely. if we are given a cover (Uα )α∈A of the base B . for any x ∈ Uα ∩ Vi .3.15) there exists a smooth map gα : Uα → G such that 1 Ψ− α T Ψα (f. A rank r vector bundle (over K = R. A G-automorphism of this bundle is a diffeomorphism T : E → E such that π ◦ T = π . b) ∈ F × Uβ .3. W ∈ U) gU V (x)gV W (x)gW U (x) = 1 ∈ G. (One can think the structure group is the group of diffeomorphisms of the standard ﬁber). ∀b. and a collection of transition maps gαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → G satisfying the cocycle condition.3.e.3. V. A G-bundle structure is deﬁned by an equivalence class of trivializing covers. a collection of gluing data determines a G-ﬁber bundle. if b ∈ Uα ∩ Uβ . we have 1 Φ− α Ψi (f. b ). i.3. and where the group GL(r. x) = (Tαi (x)f.2. a collection of smooth maps gU V : U ∩ V → G U. i. a principal G-bundle over a smooth manifold M can be described by an open cover U of M and a G-cocycle. such that ∀x ∈ U ∩ V ∩ W (U. i. π ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 2. ⊔ ⊓ Example 2.3. Let E → B be a G-ﬁber bundle. K)-ﬁber bundle with standard ﬁber Kr . ∀ b ∈ B . Deﬁnition 2. i. and for any trivializing cover (Uα ) (as in Deﬁnition 2. then we can get a bundle by gluing the trivial pieces Uα × F along the overlaps. π (b) A section of a ﬁber bundle E → B is a smooth map s : B → E such that π ◦ s = ½B . Indeed. A principal G-bundle is a G-ﬁber bundle with ﬁber G. ⊔ ⊓ Example 2. C) is a GL(r. K) acts on Kr in the natural way.19. We need to describe when two such choices are equivalent.. and any f ∈ F .17. b) = ( gα (b)f.18. T maps ﬁbers to ﬁbers. there exists a smooth map Tαi : Uα ∩ Vi → G. Let G be a Lie group. together with the collections of local trivializations Φα : F × Uα → π −1 (Uα ) and Ψi : F × Vi → π −1 (Vi ) are said to be equivalent if. f. b) ∈ F × Uα is identiﬁed with the element (gβα (b) · f. ⊔ ⊓ . Two open covers (Uα ) and (Vi ). where G acts on itself by left translations.e. V ∈ U..e. (a) A ﬁber bundle is an object deﬁned by conditions (a)-(d) and (f) in the above deﬁnition. such that. x). s(b) ∈ π −1 (b).. TENSOR FIELDS 71 The choice of an open cover (Uα ) in the above deﬁnition is a source of arbitrariness since there is no natural prescription on how to perform this choice. then the element (f. Equivalently.16.

.3. Consider a trivializing cover (Uα )α∈A .22. and denote by gαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → G a collection of gluing maps determined by this cover.. ∀g. zn ) = (eiθ z1 .e. (The Hopf bundle) If we identify the unit odd dimensional sphere S 2n−1 with the submanifold (z1 .... Xn ).21. Xn ) → m is a submersion. (Alternative deﬁnition of a principal bundle). and there exists a trivializing cover Ψα : G × Uα → π −1 (Uα ) . u) · g. g) → p · g. such that its orbits coincide with the ﬁbers of the bundle P . eiθ zn ). ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. K) acts on the right on F (M ) by −1 i (m. u ∈ Uα . The bundle F (M ) is called the frame bundle of the manifold M . . |z0 |2 + · · · + |zn |2 = 1 then we detect an S 1 -action on S 2n−1 given by eiθ · (z1 . u) = Ψα (h. (T ⊔ ⊓ Example 2. (Prove this!) It is called the bundle associated to P via τ and is denoted by P ×τ F . i. Assume G acts (on the left) on a smooth manifold F τ : G × F → F. such that Ψα (hg.... m ∈ M..24. Let π : P → G be a principal G-bundle.3. zn ) ∈ Cn .3. . (a) Prove that F (M ) can be naturally organized as a smooth manifold such that the natural projection p : F (M ) → M . (a) P is a principal G-bundle.. f ) → τ (g)f. Xn ) → (m. Hint: A matrix T = (Tji ) ∈ GL(n. F (M ) = {(m.. . 1 Xi . Xn ) = Tm M } .3. Let M n be a smooth manifold. X1 . right action of G on G. . (The frame bundle of a manifold). (T −1 )i )n Xi ). NATURAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON MANIFOLDS Exercise 2. (b) There exists a free.72 CHAPTER 2. ..3. (b) Show F (M ) is a principal GL(n. This new bundle is independent of the various choices made (cover (Uα ) and transition maps gαβ ). Let P be a ﬁber bundle with ﬁber a Lie group G. (m. X1 . (g.. R)-bundle. P × G → P. ... Prove the following are equivalent. Xi ∈ Tm M and span(X1 .23. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. . .. . (Associated ﬁber bundles). . (p... ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. . X1 . .. Denote by F (M ) the set of frames on M . R) on Rn . Prove that the tangent bundle of a manifold M n is associated to F (M ) via the natural action of GL(n. h ∈ G.20. .. The collection ταβ = τ (gαβ ) : Uαβ → Diﬀeo (F ) satisﬁes the cocycle condition and can be used (exactly as we did for vector bundles) to deﬁne a G-ﬁber bundle with ﬁber F ..

2. |v |h = 1}. Describe one collection of transition maps. The bundle S (E ) is usually called the sphere bundle of E . Let E be a vector bundle over the smooth manifold M .3. (p is the obvious projection).3. Prove that S (E ) is a ﬁbration over M with standard ﬁber a sphere of dimension rank E − 1. (a) Prove that p : S 2n−1 → CPn−1 is a principal S 1 bundle called Hopf bundle. Any metric h on E (euclidian or Hermitian) deﬁnes a submanifold S (E ) ⊂ E by S (E ) = {v ∈ E . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 2. ⊔ ⊓ . (b) Prove that the tautological line bundle over CPn−1 is associated to the Hopf bundle via the natural action of S 1 on C1 .25. TENSOR FIELDS 73 The space of orbits of this action is naturally identiﬁed with the complex projective space CPn−1 .

Chapter 3 Calculus on Manifolds This chapter describes the “kitchen” of differential geometry. 3. t ∈ R. A neighborhood N of {0} × M in R × M is called balanced if. and we will also present the inverse operation of integration. 74 . A local ﬂow is a smooth map Φ : N → M . (b) Φt (Φs (m)) = Φt+s (m) for all s.1. ∞] such that ( R × {m} ) ∩ N = (−r. When N = R × M . In particular. there exists r ∈ (0.1. ⊔ ⊓ The conditions (a) and (b) above show that a ﬂow is nothing but a left action of the additive (Lie) group (R. We will discuss how one can operate with the various objects we have introduced so far. ∞) deﬁnes a balanced open Nf := (t. Deﬁnition 3. ∀m ∈ M . where N is a balanced neighborhood of {0} × M in R × M . In this section we only want to describe some classical analytic facts in a geometric light.1 The Lie derivative 3. we will introduce several derivations of the various algebras of tensor ﬁelds. Φs (m)) ∈ N. m) → Φt (m). ∀m ∈ M .1 Flows on manifolds The notion of ﬂow should be familiar to anyone who has had a course in ordinary differential equations. r ) × {m}.1. m) ∈ R × M . +) on M . Note that any continuous function f : M → (0. and excellent examples. |t| < f (m) . (s + t. (t. We strongly recommend [4] for more details. m ∈ M such that (s. Φ is called a ﬂow. m). m). such that (a) Φ0 (m) = m. (t.

. This path is called the ﬂow line through p. Classical existence results (see e. Moreover. Surjectivity. The inﬁnitesimal generator of Φ is the vector ﬁeld X on M deﬁned by X (p) = XΦ (p) := d |t=0 Φt (p).. . 43]) show that. ∀i = 1. t) → γx (t).1.1. Proof. In local coordinates (xi ) over on open subset U ⊂ M this condition can be rewritten as x ˙ i (t) = X i x1 (t). It generates a ﬂow Φt A on R by 75 Φt Ax =e x= tA ∞ k =0 tk k A k! x.1. if Φi : Ni → M (i=1..5. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 3. . . dt i. (3. (x. then Φ1 = Φ2 on N1 ∩ N2 .3. . X (p) is the tangent vector to the smooth path t → Φt (p) at t = 0. as a consequence of the smooth dependence upon initial data we deduce that the map ΦK : NK = (−ε. and X = X i ∂x i . (3. Let Φ : N → M be a local ﬂow on M . ε) × K → M..1.e.g.1. there exists a unique integral curve for X . there exists ε > 0 such that. Its generator is the vector ﬁeld XA on Rn deﬁned by XA (u) = d |t=0 etA u = Au. Show that XΦ is a smooth vector ﬁeld. for any precompact open subset K ⊂ U . b) → M such that γ ˙ (t) = X (γ (t)).. is a surjection. is smooth.1. γx : (−ε.1. The above equality is a system of ordinary differential equations.6. Let X be a vector ﬁeld on M . ⊔ ⊓ Example 3. n. THE LIE DERIVATIVE n Example 3.2) are two local ﬂows such that XΦ1 = XΦ2 . [4.. Let M be a smooth n-dimensional manifold. dt ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 3. xn (t)). Consider the ﬂow etA on Rn generated by a n × n matrix A. The map X : {Local ﬂows on M } → Vect (M ).2. ε) → M satisfying γx (0) = x. . xn (t) . ∀p ∈ M. Φ → XΦ . Let A be a n × n real matrix.1) ∂ where γ (t) = (x1 (t).4. for all x ∈ K . An integral curve for X is a smooth curve γ : (a.2) Moreover. . . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3.3.1..

Exercise 3. y = r sin θ. z ) ∈ R3 . θ ). Φ = Φα on Nα . εα ) × Kα → M solving the initial value problem (3. Moreover. y. 1) onto Tp S 2 . but notationally more complicated.1. r = (x2 + y 2 )1/2 . we get smooth maps Φα : Nα = (−εα . The second part of the proposition follows from the uniqueness in initial value problems.3) . If S is a tensor ﬁeld on M we deﬁne its Lie derivative along the direction given by X as LX Sm := − lim 1 (Φt ∗ S )m − Sm t→0 t ∀m ∈ M. Consider the unit sphere S 2 = (x. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 . ⊔ ⊓ 3. This family has a unique maximal element which is called the local ﬂow generated by X . CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS Now we can cover M by open.1. and then describe it in cylindrical coordinates (z.7. 0.1. the orthogonal projection of the vector k = (0. we deduce Φα = Φα on Nα ∩ Nβ . (3. and it is denoted by ΦX . Tautologically. (b) Describe explicitly the ﬂow generated by X . For each t ∈ R. (Φ1 : N1 → M ) ≺ (Φ2 : N2 → M ) if and only if N1 ⊂ N2 . The uniqueness of solutions of initial value problems for ordinary differential equations implies that Φ satisﬁes all the conditions in the deﬁnition of a local ﬂow. (a) Prove that p → X (p) is a smooth vector ﬁeld on S 2 . For simplicity. the map Φt is a diffeomorphism of M and so it induces a push-forward map on the space of tensor ﬁelds. precompact. and set Φ : N → M .76 CHAPTER 3. and as above. The local ﬂow situation is conceptually identical. by uniqueness. Deﬁne N := α∈A Nα . ⊔ ⊓ The family of local ﬂows on M with the same inﬁnitesimal generator X ∈ Vect(M ) is naturally ordered according to their domains. For every point p ∈ S 2 we denote by X (p) ∈ Tp R3 .2 The Lie derivative Let X be a vector ﬁeld on the smooth n-dimensional manifold M and denote by Φ = ΦX the local ﬂow it generates.1-2). where x = r cos θ. X is the inﬁnitesimal generator of Φ. we assume Φ is actually a ﬂow so its domain is R × M . local coordinate neighborhoods (Kα )α∈A .1.

9. t→0 t dt ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3. for point p ∈ M we have 1 d LX f (p) = lim (f (p) − f (Φ−t p)) = − |t=0 f (Φ−t p) = df. LX is a derivation of C ∞ (M ). Here is the intuition behind this very suggestive terminology.e. In particular. ∀ f ∈ C ∞ (M ). We place an observer (ﬁsherman) at a ﬁxed point p ∈ M . −t ∗ Φt ∗ = (Φ ) . Y ∈ Vect (M ).1. •. Lemma 3. THE LIE DERIVATIVE 77 Intuitively. If the limit in (3. coincides with the commutator of the two derivations of C ∞ (M ) deﬁned by X and Y i. •. Assume for simplicity that it is deﬁned for all t. LX S measures how fast is the ﬂow Φ changing1 the tensor S . Above. If f ∈ C ∞ (M ). Then the Lie derivative of Y along X is a new vector ﬁeld LX Y which. Lemma 3. ∂xi ∂xj We ﬁrst describe the commutator [X. To show that the limit exists.1. Proof. In particular the Lie bracket induces a Lie algebra structure on Vect (M ). Let X.10. Y ]. Y ] = LX Y is called the Lie bracket of X and Y . The Lie derivatives measures the rate of change in these sizes. Y ]f. LX Y f = [X.8. Let Φt = Φt X be the local ﬂow generated by X . then [X. X p . Prove that any derivation of the algebra C ∞ (M ) is of the form LX for some X ∈ Vect(M ). Proof.3.1. X = df (X ). Der (C ∞ (M )) ∼ ⊔ ⊓ = Vect (M ). . i. For any X ∈ Vect (M ) and f ∈ C ∞ (M ) we have Xf := LX f = df. The map Φt acts on C ∞ (M ) by the pullback of its inverse.3) exists.e. The vector ﬁeld [X. • denotes the natural duality between T ∗ M and T M .1. i. C ∞ (T ∗ M ) × C ∞ (T M ) ∋ (α.e. • : C ∞ (T ∗ M ) × C ∞ (T M ) → C ∞ (M ). Y ]f = (X i 1 ∂f ∂ ∂f ∂ )(Y j j ) − (Y j )(X i i ) ∂xi ∂x ∂xj ∂x Arnold refers to the Lie derivative LX as the “ﬁsherman’s derivative”.1. Hence. then one sees that LX S is a tensor of the same type as S . We will work in local coordinates (xi ) near a point m ∈ M so that X = Xi ∂ ∂ and Y = Y j . and we let him keep track of the the sizes of the tensor S carried by the ﬂow at the point p. viewed as a derivation of C ∞ (M ). X ) → α(X ) ∈ C ∞ (M ). we will provide more explicit descriptions of this operation.

and any vector ﬁelds X.4) ∂ ∂ Note in particular that [ ∂x .1. and t Note that Φ− ∗ ∂Y j + O(t2 ).7) = t Xi k ∂Y k j ∂X − Y ∂xi ∂xj + O(t2 ). Y ] = Xi ∂X k ∂Y k −Yj i ∂x ∂xj ∂ . For any differential form ω ∈ Ω1 (M ). the basic vectors ∂x commute as derivations. Y ]). CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS − X iY j i ∂2f j ∂X ∂f + Y ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi . We will achieve this by identifying it with the intrinsically deﬁned vector ﬁeld LX Y . ∂xk (3.4) is independent of coordinates.j (3. Lemma 3. i.1.6) In particular. where A is a matrix of operator norm strictly less than 1.5) (xi ) → xi − tX i + O(t2 ) .1.78 = X iY j j ∂2f i ∂Y ∂f + X ∂xi ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj CHAPTER 3. we deduce that the differential −t −1 Φt : Tγ (−t) M → Tγ (0) M.7) in (3. so that the commutator of the two derivations is the derivation deﬁned by the vector ﬁeld [X. ∂ ] = 0. .8) where X · ω (Y ) denotes the (Lie) derivative of the function ω (Y ) along the vector ﬁeld X . i ∂xj i So far we have not proved the vector ﬁeld in (3.1.1. Y ∈ V ect(M ) we have (LX ω )(Y ) = LX (ω (Y )) − ω ([X.11. Then i 2 Φ−t m = γ (−t) = γ (0) − γ ˙ (0)t + O(t2 ) = xi 0 − tX + O (t ) .1.1. i.1. ∂xi : Tγ (0) M → Tγ (−t) M is the linearization of the map j − tX i Yγj(−t) = Ym (3.e.j (3. (3. Set γ (t) = Φt m so that we have a parametrization γ (t) = (xi (t)) with x ˙ i = X i . ∗ = (Φ∗ ) has the matrix form Φt ∗ =½+t Using (3.1.5) we deduce k Ym − Φt ∗ Y Φ− t m k ∂X i ∂xj + O(t2 ). so it has a matrix representation t Φ− ∗ =½−t ∂X i ∂xj + O(t2 ). ⊔ ⊓ This concludes the proof of the lemma. i.. using the geometric series (½ − A)−1 = ½ + A + A2 + · · · .

we have −t (Φt ∗ ω )p (Yp ) = ωΦ−t p Φ∗ Yp . Proposition 3.j One the other hand. Xi ∈ Vect (M ).e. Y ]p ). then using (3. Denote by γ (t) the path t → Φt (p). and choose local coordinates (xi ) near p. LX is a natural operation.1.. φ∗ (LX ) = Lφ∗ X . ∂xj ∂Y i ∂X i j − Y ∂xj ∂xj 0 = ωp ([X.9) . T are two tensor ﬁelds on M such that both LX S and LX T exist. and LX (S ⊗ T ) = LX S ⊗ T + S ⊗ LX T. Then the Lie derivative ∗ (M ) with the following properties. Fix a point p ∈ M . ∀X.1. Let X be a vector ﬁeld on the smooth manifold M . ωj ∈ Ω1 (M ). i.1. We set ωi (t) = ωi (γ (t)). Y = ∂xi Yi i ∂ . LX is the unique derivation of T∗ (a) LX f = df. i. Then ω= i ω i dxi . ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M ). THE LIE DERIVATIVE 79 −t ∗ Proof. r +1 r (c) LX commutes with the contraction tr : Ts +1 (M ) → Ts (M ).6) we deduce (Φt ∗ ω )p (Yp ) = Hence −(LX ω )Y = i ωi (−t) · Y0i − t j ∂X i j Y + O(t2 ) . ∂xj 0 ∂X i j Y . We can now completely describe the Lie derivative on the algebra of tensor ﬁelds.1. (b) LX Y = [X. Y ]. X = Xf .3. Since any tensor ﬁeld is locally a linear combination of tensor monomials of the form X1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Xr ⊗ ω1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ ωs .1. and any Y ∈ Vect (M ). ∀X ∈ Vect (M ). for any p ∈ M . (3. we have X · ω (Y ) = We deduce that X · ω (Y ) − (LX ω )Y = j ωi (0) X0 i.e. X0 0 Using (3. i.j j ωi (0)X0 ∂Y i . Moreover.. we deduce that the Lie derivative LX S exists for every X ∈ Vect (M ). Y ∈ Vect (M ).3) we deduce that LX (S ⊗ T ) exists..12. ∂xi i = X i (p). X = i Xi ∂ . and any smooth tensor ﬁeld S . and Y i = Y i (p). ∂xj 0 d |t=0 (Φt ∗ ω )p (Yp ) = − dt i ω ˙ i (0)Y0i − ωi (0) i.e. Denote by Φt the local ﬂow generated by X . ⊔ ⊓ Observe that if S. We have Φt ∗ ω = (Φ ) ω .j d |t=0 dt ωi (t)Y i (t) = i i ω ˙ i (0)Y0i + i. for any diffeomorphism φ : M → N we have φ∗ ◦ LX = Lφ∗ X ◦ φ∗ .

where Y ∈ Vect (M ). X2 ]. LY ] is a derivation (as a commutator of derivations).1.80 CHAPTER 3. The naturality of LX is another way of phrasing the coordinate independence of this operation. ∗ with the remarkable property The Lie derivative LX is a derivation of T∗ ⊔ ⊓ LX (Ω∗ (M )) ⊂ Ω∗ (M ).15. S1 ). Finally. S ) = LX + S is well deﬁned and is a linear isomorphism.8). space of derivations of T∗ Proof. η ∈ Ω∗ (M ). CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS Proof. D(X2 . LY ] = L[X. For any X. [D(X1 .9).1. [S1 .14. LY ] = L[X. . and ω ∈ Ω1 (M ). the equality LX tr T = tr LX T is equivalent to LX (ω (Y )) = (LX ω )(Y ) + ω (LX (Y ). so that [LX . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3.Y ] Z. As for part (c). S2 )] = D([X1 .1. as derivations of the algebra of tensor ﬁelds on M .Y ] on C ∞ (M ).1. The commutator [LX . i. when T = Y ⊗ ω . and it is natural to ask whether LX is an sderivation with respect to this product.e. (3. LX (ω ∧ η ) = (LX ω ) ∧ η + ω ∧ (LX η ). its restriction to C ∞ (M ) ⊕ Vect (M ) ⊕ Ω1 (M ) uniquely determines the action on the entire algebra of tensor ﬁelds which is generated by the above subspace. S2 ]). Properties (a) and (b) were proved above. ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 3.10) which is precisely (3. Also.1. ∀Z ∈ Vect (M ). The reader can check easily that the general case of property (c) follow from this observation coupled with the product rule (3. We leave the reader to ﬁll in the routine details. By Lemma 3. Y ∈ Vect (M ) we have [LX . Since LX is a derivation of the algebra of tensor ﬁelds.10. The corollary is proved. Prove that the map ∗ D : Vect (M ) ⊕ End (T M ) → Der (T∗ (M )) given by D(X. ∀ω. LY ]Z = L[X. The wedge product makes Ω∗ (M ) a s-algebra.9). In particular. Moreover.1. LY ] = L[X. Proposition 3. in its simplest form. since the contraction commutes with both LX and LY it obviously commutes with LX LY − LY LX . The Lie derivative along a vector ﬁeld X is an even s-derivation of Ω∗ (M ). a simple computation shows that [LX . The fact that LX is a derivation follows from (3.13. this says that Vect (M ) as a ∗ (M ) is a Lie subalgebra of the Lie algebra of derivations. [LX .Y ] .1.1.Y ] on Vect (M ).

In particular. THE LIE DERIVATIVE 81 Proof. .17. ∂X i ∂ ∂xk ∂xi . if X = ∂xi = j δij ∂xj . ⊔ ⊓ LX ω = k ∂ ∂ ∂ + G ∂y + H ∂z on R3 . Y (p) = 0 . Ψ : R × M → M are two smooth ﬂows on M with inﬁnitesimal generators X and respectively Y . ∂xi If X is the radial vector ﬁeld X = ix i∂ .2. LX (dz ) = dH ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂F ∂G ∂H + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dv = (div X )dv. Y ] = 0. Prove that if p ∈ M . LX (dy ) = dG.1. denote by A the anti-symmetrization operator A : (T ∗ M )⊗k → Ωk (M ). ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3. where dv is the volume form on R3 . Let ω = ωi dxi be a 1-form on Rn .2. Consider a smooth vector ﬁeld X = F ∂x compute LX dv . Since LX is an even s-derivation of Ω∗ (M ).18.16.1. ∀s. and suppose that Φ. dv = dx ∧ dy ∧ dz . ⊔ ⊓ the two ﬂows commute if and only if [X. The statement in the proposition follows immediately from the straightforward observation that the Lie derivative commutes with this operator (which is a projector).3 Examples ∂ n Example 3. We say that the two ﬂows commute if Φt ◦ Ψs = Ψs ◦ Ψt . We want to Example 3. Using the computation in the previous example we get LX (dx) = dF := so that LX (dv ) = ∂F ∂F ∂F dx + dy + dz. X (p) = 0 = p ∈ M .3. xi then (X · ωk + ωk )dxk . we deduce LX (dx ∧ dy ∧ dz ) = (LX dx) ∧ dy ∧ dz + dx ∧ (LX dy ) ∧ dz + dx ∧ dy ∧ (LX dz ). t ∈ R. then n LX ω = L∂xi ω = k =1 ∂ωk k dx .1.1. If X = X j ∂x j is a vector ﬁeld on R then LX ω = (LX ω )k dxk is deﬁned by (LX ω )k = (LX ω )( Hence ∂ ∂ ∂ ) = Xω ( ) − ω (LX ) = X · ωk + ω ∂xk ∂xk ∂xk LX ω = Xj ∂X j ∂ωk + ω j ∂xj ∂xk dxk .1. We leave the reader to ﬁll in the details. Let M be a smooth manifold. As in Subsection 2. 3.

Any element g ∈ G deﬁnes two diffeomorphisms of G: the left (Lg ). The reason for the notation exp (tX ) is that when G = GL(n. Φt X (g ) = g · exp (tX ). we deduce that if div X = 0. K) of all n × n matrices with the bracket given by the commutator of two matrices. Y ] ∈ LG . Any X ∈ LG deﬁnes a local ﬂow Φt X on G that is is deﬁned for all t ∈ R. The naturality of the Lie bracket implies (Lg )∗ [X. Y ∈ LG .19.82 CHAPTER 3. Rg (h) = h · g. and for any X ∈ LG we have (Exercise) exp (X ) = eX = k ≥0 1 k X . We will get a better understanding of this statement once we learn integration on manifolds. then the Lie algebra of G is the Lie algebra gl(n. dim LG = dim G. A tensor ﬁeld T on G is called left (respectively right) invariant if for any g ∈ G (Lg )∗ T = T (respectively (Rg )∗ T = T ). (Lg )∗ Y ]. ∀h ∈ G. We thus get a map exp : T1 G ∼ = LG → G. k! ⊔ ⊓ . X → X1 is an isomorphism (Exercise). and the right translation (Rg ) on G. Fact 2. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS In particular. The set of left invariant vector ﬁelds on G is denoted by LG . Fact 1. Fact 3. Φt is a ﬂow. i. K).1. It is called called the Lie algebra of the group G. so that ∀X. Consider a Lie group G.. (The exponential map of a Lie group). the local ﬂow generated by X preserves the form dv . ⊔ ⊓ Example 3. X → exp(X ) called the exponential map of the group G. (left invariance) . the left invariance implies that the restriction map LG → T1 G. dt We can write (g · exp(tX )) = Lg exp(tX ) so that d d |t=0 (Lg exp(tX )) = (Lg )∗ |t=0 exp(tX ) dt dt = (Lg )∗ X = Xg . Y ] = [(Lg )∗ X. In other wors. Indeed. it sufﬁces to check that d |t=0 (g · exp (tX )) = Xg . Hence LG is a Lie subalgebra of Vect (G). We will often ﬁnd it convenient to identify the Lie algebra of G with the tangent space at 1. Lg (h) = g · hy. Φt X = Rexp (tX ) . ( Exercise ) Set X exp(tX ) : =Φt X (1).e. later in this chapter. [X. Indeed.

2. su(n) ⊂ gl(n.22. 84]. · ]. Y ) = [X. Y ]alg = [X. In general. [Y. d2 (X. Let G be a matrix Lie group. C). Instead. and Y with respect to the multiplication between X and Y given by their bracket. C). Y ∈ T1 G.21. Let X. 2 1 ([X. and set g(s.3. in a non-commutative matrix Lie group G. (b) Denote (temporarily) by [X. LO(n) ∼ = = o(n). Y ]] + [Y. Y ]. C). The dk ’s are usually known as Dynkin polynomials. show that u(n). C) are real Lie subalgebras of gl(n. Y ]geom the Lie bracket of X and Y viewed as left invariant vector ﬁelds on G. R) (deﬁned in Section 1.20. ⊔ ⊓ 3. a Lie subgroup of some general linear group GL(N. K).e.t = 1 + [X. (a) Show that gs. This section is devoted precisely to these new features.2. Y ) + · · · . Y ) + t3 d3 (X. This means the tangent space T1 G can be identiﬁed with a linear space of matrices. while su(n.1. Y ) + t2 d2 (X.C) = sl(n. t → 0. one has the Campbell-Hausdorff formula exp(tX ) · exp(tY ) = exp td1 (X. its space of derivations has special features. LSU (n) = su(n) and LSL(n. DERIVATIONS OF Ω• (M ) Exercise 3. d3 (X.1 The exterior derivative The super-algebra of exterior forms on a smooth manifold M has additional structure. X ]]) etc. (d) Prove that we have the following isomorphisms of real Lie algebras. [X. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 3. 1 d1 (X. Y ) = 12 For more details we refer to [41. and in particular. and denote by exp(tX ) and exp(tY ) the 1-parameter groups with they generate. where the bracket [X. Y ]alg (temporarily) denotes the commutator of the two matrices X and Y . C) is even a complex Lie subalgebra of gl(n. LU (n) ∼ ∼ ∼ u(n). t) = exp(sX ) exp(tY ) exp(−sX ) exp(−tY ). Similarly.2) is a Lie subalgebra with respect to the commutator [ · .1. Y ) = X + Y. i. . Show that at 1 ∈ G [X.. the traditional equality exp(tX ) exp(tY ) = exp(t(X + Y )) no longer holds. (c) Show that o(n) ⊂ gl(n. Y ]geom .2. Prove the statements left as exercises in the example above.2 Derivations of Ω•(M ) 3. where dk are homogeneous polynomials of degree k in X .1. 83 ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3. Y ]alg st + O((s2 + t2 )3/2 ) as s. For example.

Then. Proposition 3. . . Proposition 3. called the interior derivation along X . any r -form ω can be described as ω= 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n ωi1 .. (c) d is natural. . ∀ω. ∀ω ∈ Ωr (M ). Xr−1 ).. an odd derivation iX . and for any form ω on M . d] = 0). xn ).2. The vector ﬁeld X also deﬁnes. .e. X1 . . we deduce that. . (b) The super-commutator of LX and iY as s-derivations of Ω∗ (M ) is given by [LX . .84 CHAPTER 3.2. The fact that iX is an odd s-derivation is equivalent to iX (ω ∧ η ) = (iX ω ) ∧ η + (−1)deg ω ω ∧ (iX η ). The derivation d is called the exterior derivative. i. There exists an odd s-derivation d on the s-algebra of differential forms Ω• ( · ) uniquely characterized by the following conditions. we have dφ∗ ω = φ∗ dω (⇐⇒ [φ∗ .2. df coincides with the differential of f . Prove that the interior derivation along a vector ﬁeld is a s-derivation. iX ω is the (r − 1)-form determined by (iX ω )(X1 . (b) d2 = 0. via the contraction map. Proof.. . Xr−1 ∈ Vect (M ). iY ]s = LX iY − iY LX = i[X.. or the contraction by X . Uniqueness. η ∈ Ω∗ (M ).. .ir dxi1 ∧ .1... (a) [iX . iY ]s = iX iY + iY iX = 0. Often the contraction by X is denoted by X . Exercise 3. . CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS The Lie derivative along a vector ﬁeld X deﬁnes an even derivation in Ω• (M ). More precisely. Xr−1 ) = ω (X. and it is left to the reader as an exercise.. . .Y ] . and d(dxi ) = 0. . ∀X1 .3.2. In fact we have the following fundamental result. The above s-derivations by no means exhaust the space of s-derivations of Ω• (M ). . iX ω : =tr (X ⊗ ω ). Let U be a local coordinate chart on M n with local coordinates (x1 .ir ) ∧ (dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxir ) . ∧ dxir . over U . for any smooth function φ : N → M . Since d is an s-derivation. over U dω = 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n (dωi1 .. (a) For any smooth function f ∈ Ω0 (M ). ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ The proof uses the fact that the Lie derivative commutes with the contraction operator.

. .. . Denote by (x1 .... Consider an r -form ω . (3. We deduce ∂ωi1 . ∧ dxir ∧ (dxi1 ∧ . ∧ dxir · · · ∂xi1 ∂xi ∂xik ∂xir 1 r . and similarly for the ω ′ s.ir i dx ∧ dxi1 ∧ ....jr j dy (dy j1 ∧ · · · ∧ dy jr )..3... For each coordinate neighborhood U we deﬁne dω |U as in (3. xn ) the local coordinates on U ...ir = ∂xi r k =1 ∂y j1 ∂y jr ωj . Existence...j dxi ∧ dxi1 ∧ . and this completes the proof of the uniqueness of d. ... if U .. .ir i dx ∂xi ∧ (dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxir ). Since ω |U = ω |V over U ∩ V we deduce ωi1 .. DERIVATIONS OF Ω• (M ) 85 = 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n ∂ωi1 . and by (y 1 .. then dω |U = dω |V on U ∩ V..ir .ir dxi1 ∧ .. .1)....jr dy j1 ∧ · · · ∧ dy jr dω = 1≤j1 <···<jr ≤n ∂ ωj1 ..j .. dω = 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n ∂ωi1 .. V are two coordinate neighborhoods... ∧ dxir ∂xi i 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n r = i k =1 ∂y jr ∂ 2 y jk ∂y j1 · · · ωj . jr according to Einstein’s convention.ir i dx ∂xi while over V we have ω= 1≤j1 <···<jr ≤n ωj1 . To prove that this is a well deﬁned operation we must show that.ir and ωj1 ...2.....iσ(r) = ǫ(σ )ωi1 ..1) Thus. i. y n ) the local coordinates along V ...jr are skew-symmetric. ∂y j The components ωi1 .ir = Hence ∂ωi1 .... where in the above equality we also sum over the indices j1 . · · · i ∂x 1 ∂xir 1 r ∂y j1 ∂y jr ∂ 2 y jk ∂y jr ∂ ωj1 . ∧ dxir ). ∀σ ∈ Sr ωiσ(1) ..2. Over U we have ω= 1≤i1 <···<ir ≤n ωi1 ... so that on the overlap U ∩ V we can describe the y ’s as functions of the x’s.. the form dω is uniquely determined on any coordinate neighborhood.j r 1 ∂xi1 ∂xi ∂xik ∂xir ∂xi1 ∂xir ∂xi .e...jr ∂y j1 · · · ω · · · · · · + j .2.

∂xi ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi .jr ) ∧ dy j1 ∧ · · · ∧ dy jr = ∂ ωj1 . ∂xi1 ∂xir ∂xi ∂2 ∂2 = .. We have thus constructed a well deﬁned linear map d : Ω• (M ) → Ω•+1 (M ).86 CHAPTER 3.. Let θ = f dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxir and ω = gdxj1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxjs .2. Thus.... it sufﬁces to show d2 f = 0 for all smooth functions f ..ir i i1 ir dx ∧ dx · · · ∧ dxi ∧ dxi1 · · · dxir · · · ∧ dx = ∂xi ∂xi1 ∂xir ∂xi = ∂ ωj1 .. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS r + i k =1 ∂y j1 ∂y jr ∂ ωj1 .jr i dx ∂xi ∧ ∂y j1 i1 dx ∂xi1 ∧ ··· ∧ ∂y jr ir dx ∂xir = (dωj1 . ∂xi ∂xik ∂xik ∂xi (3. ∂y j This proves dω |U = dω |V over U ∩ V .2) Notice that while dxi ∧ dxik = −dxik ∧ dxi so that the ﬁrst term in the right hand side of (3.. We set for simplicity dxI := dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxir and dxJ := dxj1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxjs . To prove that d is an odd s-derivation it sufﬁces to work in local coordinates and show that the (super)product rule on monomials...2) vanishes. Then d(θ ∧ ω ) = d(f gdxI ∧ dxJ ) = d(f g) ∧ dxI ∧ dxJ = (df · g + f · dg ) ∧ dxI ∧ dxJ = df ∧ dxI ∧ dxJ + (−1)r (f ∧ dxI ) ∧ (dg ∧ dxJ ) = dθ ∧ ω + (−1)deg θ θ ∧ dω.2... We check this on monomials f dxI as above... ∂xi ∂xj The desired conclusion follows from the identities ∂f 2 ∂f 2 = and dxi ∧ dxj = −dxj ∧ dxi . ∧ dxir .jr j dy ∧ dy j1 ∧ · · · ∧ dy jr .jr ∂y j1 ∂ωi1 . d2 (f dxI ) = d(df ∧ dxI ) = (d2 f ) ∧ dxI . We have d2 f = ∂f 2 dxi ∧ dxj .jr i · · · dx ∧ dxi1 ∧ . We now prove d2 = 0. Consequently on U ∩ V ∂y jr ∂ ωj1 .

. (c) [d. d]s = 2d2 = 0.2. Xr ) = i=0 ˆi . . X1 .⊔ ⊓ . ∀ω ∈ Ω0 (M ) ⊕ Ω1 (M ).. Here I runs through all ordered multi-indices 1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ir ≤ dim M . they are either both even or both odd.2.2. (a) [d.. iX ]s = diX + iX d = LX .. (−1)i+j ω ([Xi . X (3..3) + 0≤i<j ≤r ˆi . .. It is a local s-derivation. .. i.e. The exterior derivative satisﬁes the following relations. The reader can check easily by direct computation that Dω = LX ω . Lemma 3.e. X ˆj . D′ be two local s-derivations of Ω• (M ) which have the same parity. Xj ]. LX ]s = dLX − LX d = 0.. let φ be a smooth map N → M and ω = I ωI dxI be an r -form on M . iX ]s = diX + iX d.. i. (b) (Cartan’s homotopy formula) [d.3. We put all the above together and we deduce dN (φ∗ ω ) = φ∗ (dM ω I ) ∧ dφI = φ∗ (dM ω I ) ∧ φ∗ dxI = φ∗ (dM ω ). the usual chain rule gives dN (φ∗ ωI ) = φ∗ (dM ωI ). For functions. The homotopy formula is now a consequence of the following technical result left to the reader as an exercise.2. Proof..4.. In terms of local coordinates (xi ) the map φ looks like a collection of n functions φi ∈ C ∞ (N ) and we get φ∗ (dxI ) = dφI = dN φi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dN φir . DERIVATIONS OF Ω• (M ) 87 Finally. D is an even s-derivation of Ω∗ (M ). then D = D′ on Ω• (M ).. if ω ∈ Ω∗ (M ) vanishes on some open set U then Dω vanishes on that open set as well. . Xr ). Let D. The proposition is proved. ∀X ∈ Vect (M ). Xr )) (−1)i Xi (ω (X0 . In particular..5. dN (dφI ) = 0. ... and [ . ]s denotes the supercommutator in the s-algebra of real endomorphisms of Ω• (M ). If D = D′ on Ω0 (M ) ⊕ Ω1 (M ).... X Above. . We have dN (φ∗ ω ) = I dN (φ∗ ωI ) ∧ φ∗ (dxI ) + φ∗ ω I ∧ d(φ∗ dxI ) .. ∀X ∈ Vect (M ). . To prove the homotopy formula set D := [d. X0 . the hat indicates that the corresponding entry is missing. An immediate consequence of the homotopy formula is the following invariant description of the exterior derivative: r (dω )(X0 . ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 3.

Exercise 3. Z )) − ω ([X.6) we deduce (dω )(X. Z ) + ω ([X.2.2.2.2.2. Y ) = Xω (Y ) − ω ([X.5. Y. Z ]). Consider a 2-form ω and three vector ﬁelds X . Equality (3. Z ]) − d(iX ω )(Y.7) (3. Y ]. Z ) − ω (Y. Z ) = Xω (Y.5) (3. Z ) − Zω (X. The case r = 1. Y and Z . [X.3) is a simple consequence of the homotopy formula. Finish the proof of (3.2. Y ]. X ) = Y (iX ω (Z )) − Z (iX ω (Y )) − (iX ω )([Y. Y ]) − (dω (X ))(Y ) = Xω (Y ) − Y ω (X ) − ω ([X. We deduce from the homotopy formula dω (X. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ . [Y. On the other hand. Y ].2. Prove Lemma 3.3) in the case r = 1. (3. Y ) − ω ([Y.3) for r = 1 to the 1-form iX ω . Y ) − ω (X. We deduce from the homotopy formula (dω )(X.2.2. Y.3) in the general case.4) The general case in (3. We get d(iX ω )(Y.2. Y ]).4) and we get (dω )(X. since LX commutes with the contraction operator.5) into (3. Let ω be an 1-form and let X. Y ) = (iX dω )(Y ) = (LX ω )(Y ) − (dω (X ))(Y ). Z ) − Y ω (X. Hence dω (X.2. Z ) = (iX dω )(Y. We prove it in two special case r = 1 and r = 2. Z ) + Zω (X. X ). CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS Part (c) of the proposition is proved in a similar way. Z ) = X (ω (Y.3) can be proved by induction.6.2.2. Y ∈ Vect (M ). If we use (3. The case r = 2.8) (3.2.88 CHAPTER 3. Y. X ). Z ). Z ].7) in (3. This proves (3. Z ]). We apply now (3. Z )) − ω ([X. We substitute (3. X ) = X (ω (Y. Z ]. The proof of the proposition is complete. Since LX commutes with contractions we deduce (LX ω )(Y. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3.2.2.6) (3. Y ) −ω ([X. Z ) = (LX − diX )ω (Y. [X.7. Z ]) = Y ω (X.2. Z ) − ω (Y. we deduce Xω (Y ) = LX (ω (Y )) = (LX ω )(Y ) + ω ([X. Y ]).

so that dω looks very much like a curl. ∗ ∼ ∗ ∼ 1 In particular. the scalars ω (X ) and ω (Y ) are constants. X ˆj . Then dω = ∂P ∂Q ∂R + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx ∧ dy ∧ dz.. X and Y are left invariant.2 Examples Example 3..2. Xr ). Xr ∈ LG we have dω (X0 .. ⊔ ⊓ This looks very much like a divergence..2. .2.. (b) Let ω ∈ Ω1 (R3 ). (−1)i+j ω ([Xi . (The exterior derivative in R3 ). (c) Let ω = P dy ∧ dz + Qdz ∧ dx + Rdx ∧ dy ∈ Ω2 (R3 ). ω = P dx + Qdy + Rdz . X (3. The exterior derivative of a form in Ω∗ lef t can be described only in terms of the algebraic structure of LG . Thus. ∗ 1 Indeed. Xr ) = 0≤i<j ≤r ˆi .. L∗ G = Ωlef t (G).11 we deﬁned the Lie algebra LG of G as the space of left invariant vector ﬁelds on G. (a) Let f ∈ C ∞ (R3 ).. Xj ].2.8. Since ω . ... DERIVATIONS OF Ω• (M ) 89 3. More generally.. Y ) = Xω (Y ) − Y ω (X ) − ω ([X..2. let ω ∈ L∗ G = Ωlef t (G).. Let G be a connected Lie group. Set Ωr lef t (G) = left invariant r -forms on G.3) imply that for all X0 .9. X1 . Y ]).9) ⊔ ⊓ . For X.2..2. . In Example 3. Y ]). the ﬁrst two terms in the above equality vanish so that dω (X. Then ∂f ∂f ∂f df = dx + dy + dz. X1 .. Y ) = −ω ([X.3. Y ∈ LG we have (see (3. then the same arguments applied to (3. Example 3.3) ) dω (X.. then we get a natural isomorphism ∼ r ∗ Ωr lef t (G) = Λ LG . Then dω = dP ∧ dx + dQ ∧ dy + dR ∧ dz = ∂Q ∂P − ∂x ∂y dx ∧ dy + ∂R ∂Q − ∂y ∂z dy ∧ dz + ∂P ∂R − ∂z ∂x dz ∧ dx. If we identify LG = T1 G. ∂x ∂y ∂z The differential df looks like the gradient of f . if ω ∈ Ωr lef t . .1. .

C).90 CHAPTER 3. E ) ∼ = C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ). Hence it has to be an operator ∇ : Vect (M ) × C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ). we expect that after “rescaling” the direction X the derivative along X should only rescale by the same factor. Deﬁnition 3. Technically. Namely..3 Connections on vector bundles 3. ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M ) : ∇f X u = f ∇X u. the transport along a ﬂow was a method of comparing objects in different ﬁbers which otherwise are abstract linear spaces with no natural relationship between them. u) → ∇X u. the local ﬂow generated by the vector ﬁeld X on M no longer induces bundle homomorphisms. we can formulate the following deﬁnition.3. (X. ⊔ ⊓ . i.3. For tensor ﬁelds. (b) If we think of the usual directional derivative. u ∈ C ∞ (E ). and ∀u ∈ C ∞ (E ). For such an arbitrary E . To obtain something that looks like a derivation we need to formulate clearly what properties we should expect from such an operation. one would like to have a procedure of measuring the rate of change of a section u of E along a direction described by a vector ﬁeld X . The only product that exists on an abstract vector bundle is the multiplication of a section with a smooth function. (a) It should measure how fast is a given section changing along a direction given by a vector ﬁeld X . ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M ). The conditions (a) and (b) can be rephrased as follows: for any u ∈ C ∞ (E ). is C ∞ (M )-linear so that it deﬁnes a bundle map ∇u ∈ Hom (T M. the map ∇u : Vect (M ) → C ∞ (E ). such that. A covariant derivative (or linear connection) on E is a K-linear map ∇ : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ). However. Let E be a K-vector bundle over the smooth manifold M (K = R.1.e.1 Covariant derivatives We learned several methods of differentiating tensor objects on manifolds. Summarizing. and very often one is interested in measuring the “oscillations” of sections of vector bundles. ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M ). we encounter a problem which was not present in the case of tensor bundles. it has to satisfy a sort of (Leibniz) product rule. X → ∇X u. we have ∇(f u) = df ⊗ u + f ∇u. (c) Since ∇ is to be a derivation. Hence we require ∇X (f u) = (Xf )u + f ∇X u. the tensor bundles are not the only vector bundles arising in geometry. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS 3.

given ∇0 ∈ A(E ) and A ∈ Ω1 (EndE ) one can verify that the operator ∇A = ∇0 + A : C ∞ (E ) → Ω1 (E ). Since E |Uα is trivial. To see this.3. Let ∇0 . is a linear connection. The space C ∞ (KM ) of smooth sections coincides with the space C ∞ (M. A ∈ C ∞ (Hom (E. ✍Notation. The space A(E ) of linear connections on E is an afﬁne space modeled on Ω1 (End (E )). satisfying A(f u) = f A(u). ∀u ∈ C ∞ (E ). Kr ) → C ∞ (M.. To check that A (E ) is an afﬁne space. the trivial one. it admits at least one connection.3. More precisely. . The guiding principle behind this fact is the product formula.. One checks easily that ∇ is a connection so that A(E ) is nonempty. 2) are . pick a smooth partition of unity (µβ ) subordinated to this cover. consider two connections ∇0 and ∇1 . T ∗ M ⊗ E )) ∼ = C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ∗ ⊗ E ) ∼ = Ω1 (E ∗ ⊗ E ) ∼ = Ω1 (EndE ). dfr ). Next.3. We will refer to these sections as differential k-forms with coefﬁcients in the vector bundle F . We can deﬁne ∇0 : C ∞ (M. This is called the trivial connection. Now deﬁne ∇ := α ⊔ ⊓ µα ∇α .2. if Ei (i = 1. fr ) = (df1 . Kr ) of Kr -valued smooth functions on M . Thus. Denote such a connection by ∇α . This concludes the proof of the proposition. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 3.. . ∇1 be two connections on a vector bundle E → M ..3..3. Let E be a vector bundle. We ﬁrst prove that A (E ) is not empty. One checks easily that ∇ is a connection. choose an open cover {Uα } of M such that E |Uα is trivial ∀α. T ∗ M ⊗ Kr ) ∇0 (f1 .4. Then for any α ∈ C ∞ (M ) the map ∇ = α∇1 + (1 − α)∇0 : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ ⊗ E ) is again a connection. Let Kr M = K × M be the rank r trivial vector bundle over M . as in the above example. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 3. ⊔ ⊓ The tensorial operations on vector bundles extend naturally to vector bundles with connections.3. CONNECTIONS ON VECTOR BUNDLES 91 ∼ r Example 3. Conversely. Proof.. For any vector bundle F over M we set Ωk (F ) : =C ∞ (Λk T ∗ M ⊗ F ). Their difference A = ∇1 − ∇0 is an operator A : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ).

v ∈ C (E1 ). In particular. Consider the sections eα = φ(δα ). for any section uα eα of E |U we have α i ∇u = duα ⊗ eα + Γβ iα u dx ⊗ eβ . u + v. (3.. X ∈ Vect (M ). As x moves in U . 2 A moving frame is what physicists call a choice of local gauge. and we write this as i Γβ iα = dx ⊗ Γi . u = ∇∗ X v. whence the terminology moving frame. To get a more concrete description.2) It is convenient to view Γβ iα as an r × r -matrix valued 1-form. Thus. Pick a coordinate neighborhood U such E |U is trivial.92 CHAPTER 3. A section u ∈ C ∞ (E |U ) can be written as a linear combination u = uα eα uα ∈ C ∞ (U. Let E → M be a K-vector bundle of rank r over the smooth manifold M . ∇X u . T ]u. . ∗ has a natural connection ∇∗ deﬁned by the identity The dual bundle E1 1 ∞ ∞ ∗ X v. the collection (e1 (x).1) ∀T ∈ End (E ). er (x)) describes a basis of the moving ﬁber Ex .. pick local coordinates (xi ) over U . if ∇ is a covariant derivative in E . the covariant derivative is completely described by its action on a moving frame. A moving frame2 is a bundle isomorphism φ : Kr U = Kr × M → E |U . where ∗ •. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS two bundles with connections ∇i . then E1 ⊗ E2 has a naturally induced connection ∇E1 ⊗E2 uniquely determined by the product rule. It is often useful to have a local description of a covariant derivative. K). K). any is the pairing induced by the natural duality between the ﬁbers of E1 1 E End( E ) connection ∇ on a vector bundle E induces a connection ∇ on End (E ) ∼ = E ∗ ⊗ E by (∇End(E ) T )(u) = ∇E (T u) − T (∇E u) = [∇E . . ∇E1 ⊗E2 (u1 ⊗ u2 ) = (∇1 u1 ) ⊗ u2 + u1 ⊗ ∇2 u2 . r . α = 1. Thus.3. Γiα ∈ C (U. This can be obtained using Cartan’s moving frame method. (3. we have ∇u = duα ⊗ eα + uα ∇eα ... . ∀u ∈ C (E1 ). where δα are the natural basic sections of the trivial bundle Kr U .3.. • : C ∞ (E1 ) × C ∞ (E1 ) → C ∞ (M ) ∗ and E . Then ∇eα ∈ Ω1 (E |U ) so that we can write β i ∞ ∇eα = Γβ iα dx ⊗ eβ . u ∈ C ∞ (E ).. Hence.

The correspondence eα → fα deﬁnes an automorphism of E |U . while in the second case it is identiﬁed with ˆ u. K). (dg )ˆ u + gdu ˆ + Γg u ˆ = gdu ˆ + gΓˆ Hence ˆ = g −1 dg + g−1 Γg. With respect to the local frame (eα ) the section σ has a decomposition σ = uα eα . The map g is called the local gauge transformation relating e to f . du + Γu = g(du ˆ + Γˆ Using (3. Let Γ ˆβ ∇f α = Γ α fβ . or using the frame f . Γ The above relation is the transition rule relating two local gauge descriptions of the same connection.4) in the above equality we get ˆ u.3.. and we can rewrite (3.3. CONNECTIONS ON VECTOR BUNDLES 93 The form Γ = dxi ⊗ Γi is called the connection 1-form associated to the choice of local gauge. In the ﬁrst case.3. ☞A word of warning. The identiﬁcation {moving f rames} ∼ = {local trivialization} . ˆ denote the connection 1-form corresponding to the new moving frame.3. (3. i.3) A natural question arises: how does the connection 1-form changes with the change of the local gauge? Let f = (fα ) be another moving frame of E |U . The two decompositions are related by u = gu ˆ. Consider a section σ of E |U . the derivative ∇σ is identiﬁed with the Kr -valued 1-form du + Γu. (3.4): ˆ u).3.3. we can identify the E -valued 1-form ∇σ with a Kr -valued 1-form in two ways: either using the frame e. du ˆ + Γˆ These two identiﬁcations are related by the same rule as in (3. Using the local frame e we can identify this correspondence with a smooth map g : U → GL(r . A moving frame allows us to identify sections of E |U with Kr -valued functions on U .3.2) as ∇u = du + Γu.e. while with respect to (fβ ) it has a decomposition σ=u ˆβ fβ .4) Now.

(Complex line bundles).3. Then.3.5. On the overlap Uα ∩ Uβ these two frames are related by the local gauge transformation −1 eβ.i = gβα eα. We can use the local description in Proposition 3.i = t− α (δi ) and eβ.6.3. These are like an object and its image in a mirror. and there is a great chance of confusing the right hand with the left hand. This connection is independent of the various choices and it is called the pullback of ∇ by f Example 3.3. Let E → M be a rank r smooth vector bundle. A (L) is an afﬁne space modelled by the linear space of complex valued 1-forms. End (L) ∼ = L∗ ⊗ L is trivial since it can be − 1 deﬁned by transition maps (zαβ ) ⊗ zαβ = 1.i = gαβ eα. C). The bundle of endomorphisms of L.5 to deﬁne the notion of pullback of a connection.7. + gβα Γα gβα Γα gαβ = −(dgβα )gβα dgαβ ) + gαβ Γβ = (gαβ (3. Exercise 3.5). zαβ ⊔ ⊓ . Then any collection of matrix valued 1-forms Γα ∈ Ω1 (End Kr Uα ) satisfying −1 −1 −1 −1 over Uα ∩ Uβ .5) ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ uniquely deﬁnes a covariant derivative on E . • A smooth map f : N → M .3. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS should be treated carefully. • A rank r K-vector bundle E → M deﬁned by the open cover (Uα ).i = tβ (δi ). K). Suppose we are given the following data. denoted by (δi ). Let L → M be a complex line bundle over the smooth manifold M . the space of connections on L. Prove the above proposition. and transition maps gβα : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(Kr ).3. A connection on L is simply a collection of C-valued 1-forms ω α on Uα related on overlaps by ωβ = dzαβ + ω α = d log zαβ + ω α . The above arguments can be reversed producing the following global result. Thus. transition maps gβα ◦ f and 1-forms f ∗ Γα . if tα : Eα −→ Kr × Uα (respectively tβ : Eβ −→ Kr × Uβ ) is a trivialization of a bundle E over an open set Uα (respectively Uβ ). The standard basis in K . This is precisely the opposite way the two trivializations are identiﬁed. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 3. and (Uα ) a trivializing cover with transition maps gαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → GL(r . ∼ ∼ = = More concretely. these data deﬁne a connection f ∗ ∇ on f ∗ E described by the open cover f −1 (Uα ).94 CHAPTER 3. Let {Uα } be a trivializing cover with transition maps zαβ : Uα ∩ Uβ → C∗ = GL(1.i . induces two local moving frames on E : −1 1 eα. then the transition map “from α to β ” over r 1 Uα ∩ Uβ is gβα = tβ ◦ t− α . • A connection ∇ on E deﬁned by the 1-forms Γα ∈ Ω1 (End Kr Uα ) satisfying the gluing conditions (3.

3.6) is a system of linear ordinary differential equations in disguise. Denote by (eα )1≤α≤r a local moving frame trivializing E |U so that u = uα eα .6) The equation (3.3. More exactly. ˙ dt The above equation suggests a way of deﬁning Tt .6) becomes (using Einstein’s convention) duα dt uα (0) β = + Γα 0 tβ u . the main reason we could not construct natural derivations on the space of sections of a vector bundle was the lack of a canonical procedure of identifying ﬁbers at different points. To see this. i. dt where d = γ. deﬁne Tt u0 as the value at t of the solution of the initial value problem ∇ d u(t) = 0 dt . if u0 ∈ Eγ (0) then the path t → ut = Tt u0 ∈ Eγ (t) should be thought of as a “constant” path. ..3. Let E → M be a rank r K-vector bundle and ∇ a covariant derivative on E . For any u0 ∈ Eγ (0) . the only way we know how to derivate sections is via ∇. such that E |U is trivial. let us make the simplifying assumption that γ (t) lies entirely in some coordinate neighborhood U with coordinates (x1 .e. For any smooth path γ : [0. if the path γ (t) is given by the smooth map t → γ (t) = x1 (t).3. More precisely. . . u(0) = u0 (3. The rigorous way of stating this “constancy” is via derivations: a quantity is “constant” if its derivatives are identically 0. it offers a simple way of identifying different ﬁbers. The connection 1-form corresponding to this moving frame will be denoted by Γ ∈ Ω1 (End (Kr )). One should think of this Tt as identifying different ﬁbers. This is always happening. 1] → M we will deﬁne a linear isomorphism Tγ : Eγ (0) → Eγ (1) called the parallel transport along γ . .3. ut should satisfy ∇ d ut = 0. then Γt is the endomorphism given by Γt eβ = x ˙ i Γα iβ eα . Equation (3.2 Parallel transport As we have already pointed out. More explicitly.3. Now. xn ). and any t ∈ [0.3. We will see in this subsection that such a procedure is all we need to deﬁne covariant derivatives. .. 1]. xn (t) . In particular..7) where Γt = d dt Γ=γ ˙ Γ ∈ Ω0 (End (Kr )) = End (Kr ).. we will construct an entire family of linear isomorphisms Tt : Eγ (0) → Eγ (t) . we will show that once a covariant derivative is chosen. at least on every small portion of γ . = uα 0 (3. CONNECTIONS ON VECTOR BUNDLES 95 3. .

8) uα (0) = uα 0 This is obviously a system of linear ordinary differential equations whose solutions exist for any t. (a) d∇ |Ω0 (E ) = ∇. Uniqueness. t very small.9) This gives a geometric interpretation for the connection 1-form Γ: for any vector ﬁeld X .3. given a local moving frame for E in a neighborhood of γ (0). η ∈ Ωs (E ) d∇ (ω ∧ η ) = dω ∧ η + (−1)r ω ∧ d∇ η. The connection ∇ has a natural extension to an operator d∇ : Ωr (E ) → Ωr+1 (E ) uniquely deﬁned by the requirements.10) 3. if γ (t) is an integral curve for X . We let the reader check that this extension satisﬁes conditions (a) and (b) above.3. (3. Tt is identiﬁed with a t-dependent matrix which has a Taylor expansion of the form Tt = ½ − Γ0 t + O(t2 ). ⊔ ⊓ .3.3.3. Any operator with the properties (a) and (b) acts on monomials as in (3.8. Outline of the proof Existence. with Γ0 = (iX Γ) |γ (0) . the contraction −iX Γ = −Γ(X ) ∈ End (E ) describes the inﬁnitesimal parallel transport along the direction prescribed by the vector ﬁeld X .7) can be rewritten as duα ˙ i uβ = 0 dt + Γα iβ x . and let ∇ : Ω0 (E ) → Ω1 (E ) be a covariant derivative on E . (3.3. (b) ∀ω ∈ Ωr (M ). (3.3 The curvature of a connection Consider a rank k smooth K-vector bundle E → M over the smooth manifold M . We deduce u ˙ (0) = −Γt u0 .96 CHAPTER 3. (3. For ω ∈ Ωr (M ).3.11) Using a partition of unity one shows that any η ∈ Ωr (E ) is a locally ﬁnite combination of monomials as above so the above deﬁnition induces an operator Ωr (E ) → Ωr+1 (E ).11) so it has to coincide with the operator described above using a given partition of unity. u ∈ Ω0 (E ) set d∇ (ω ⊗ u) = dω ⊗ u + (−1)r ω ∇u. then. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS The system (3. in the non-canonical identiﬁcation of nearby ﬁbers via a local moving frame. Proposition 3. and Tt denotes the parallel transport along γ from Eγ (0) to Eγ (t) . In more intuitive terms.3.

Denote its curvature by F = F (∇) ∈ Ω2 (End (E )). The exterior derivative d deﬁnes the trivial connection on KM .10. Deﬁnition 3.3. (d∇ )2 is an EndK (E )-valued 2-form. . For any X.12. the operator (d∇ )2 can be identiﬁed with a section of HomK (E.11.9. then the curvature of the connection d + A is the 2-form F (A) deﬁned by F (A)u = (d + A)2 u = (dA + A ∧ A)u. Hence (d∇ )2 is a bundle morphism Λr T ∗ M ⊗ E → Λr+2 T ∗ M ⊗ E . This 0 coincides with the usual differential d : Ω0 (M ) ⊗ K → Ω1 (M ) ⊗ K. ⊔ ⊓ There is a major difference between the usual exterior derivative d. and it is usually denoted by F (∇). The ∧-operation above is deﬁned for any vector bundle E as the bilinear map Ωj (End (E )) × Ωk (End (E )) → Ωj +k (End (E )). B ∈ End (E ). the equality (d∇ )2 = 0 does not hold in general. (d∇ )2 (f ω ) = d∇ (df ∧ ω + f d∇ ω ) ⊔ ⊓ As a map Ω0 (E ) → Ω2 (E ). In ∂ the former case we have d2 = 0.3.3. For any smooth function f ∈ C ∞ (M ). The extension d∇ is the usual exterior derivative. Proof. Λ2 T ∗ M ⊗R E ) ∼ = E ∗ ⊗ Λ2 T ∗ M ⊗R E ∼ = Λ2 T ∗ M ⊗R EndK (E ). A. In the second case. Consider the trivial bundle Kr M . ⊔ ⊓ r Example 3. ⊔ ⊓ We conclude this subsection with an alternate description of the curvature which hopefully will shed some light on its analytical signiﬁcance.3. which is a consequence of the commutativity [ ∂x . i ∂xj where (xi ) are local coordinates on M .the trivial connection. Y ) is an endomorphism of E . We compute = −df ∧ d∇ ω + df ∧ d∇ ω + f (d∇ )2 ω = f (d∇ )2 ω. uniquely determined by (ω r ⊗ A) ∧ (η s ⊗ B ) = ω j ∧ η k ⊗ AB. Y ∈ Vect (M ) the quantity F (X.3. Let E → M be a smooth vector bundle on M and ∇ a connection on it. Still. ∀u ∈ C ∞ (M. The sections of this bundle are smooth K r valued functions on M . Kr ). the object (d∇ )2 ∈ Ω2 (EndK (E )) is called the curvature of ∇. The trivial bundle KM has a natural connection ∇0 . and any other connection differs from d by a Mr (K)-valued 1-form on M . something very interesting happens. and any ω ∈ Ωr (E ) we have (d∇ )2 (f ω ) = f {(d∇ )2 ω }. Lemma 3. Thus. CONNECTIONS ON VECTOR BUNDLES 97 Example 3. and an arbitrary d∇ . In the remaining part of this section we will give a different description of this endomorphism.3. If A is such a form. ∂ ] = 0. For any connection ∇ on a smooth vector bundle E → M .

Y ] .3. Deﬁnition 3. the answer is negative. A connection ∇ such that F (∇) = 0 is called ﬂat.15) ∂ ∂ If in the above formula we take X = ∂x and Y = ∂x .13. . ⊔ ⊓ A natural question arises: given an arbitrary vector bundle E → M do there exist ﬂat connections on E ? If E is trivial then the answer is obviously positive.12)-(3.Y ] )∇u − ∇Y ∇X u = (∇X ∇Y − ∇Y ∇X − ∇[X. iZ . and this has to do with the global structure of the bundle. ∇j fail to commute. u ∈ Ω0 (E ). (3. i j and we set ∇i := ∇ ∂ .3.13) (3. The operators d∇ . ∂xi ∂xj (3. In general.3.3. iZ d∇ + d∇ iZ = ∇Z . where (xi ) are local coordinates on M . then we deduce ∂xi ∂xj (3.16) Thus.98 CHAPTER 3. Hence F (X. the endomorphism Fij measures the extent to which the partial derivatives ∇i . ∇Z satisfy the usual super-commutation identities. ∇j ].14) Fij = −Fji := F ( ∂ ∂ .3.14) F (X. This is in sharp contrast with the classical calculus and an analytically oriented reader may object to this by saying we were careless when we picked the connection.Y ] . iX iY + iY iX = 0. ∇X iY − iY ∇X = i[X.3. Y )u = iY iX (d∇ )2 u = iY (iX d∇ )∇u = iY (∇X − d∇ iX )∇u = (iY ∇X )∇u − (iY d∇ )∇X u = (∇X iY − i[X.Y ] )u. In the second half of this book we will discuss in more detail this fact. we denote by iZ : Ωr (E ) → Ωr−1 (E ) the C ∞ (M ) − linear operator deﬁned by iZ (ω ⊗ u) = (iZ ω ) ⊗ u.3. Y ) = [∇X . The covariant derivative ∇Z extends naturally as a linear operator ∇Z : Ωr (E ) → Ωr (E ) by ∇Z (ω ⊗ u) := (LZ ω ) ⊗ u + ω ⊗ ∇Z u. Maybe an intelligent choice will restore the classical commutativity of partial derivatives so we should concentrate from the very beginning to covariant derivatives ∇ such that F (∇) = 0. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS For any vector ﬁeld Z .12) (3. ∀ω ∈ Ωr (M ). ∇Y ] − ∇[X.3. ) = [∇i . For any u ∈ Ω0 (E ) we compute using (3. ∇j = ∇ ∂ .

. t. Pick a moving frame (e1 . Using (3.. x2 ) described in Figure 3. 0). . xn ) along the curve t in a similar way using the coordinate x2 instead of x1 .. where p0 = (0... er ) of E over U .18) Though the above equation looks very complicated it will be the clue to understanding the geometric signiﬁcance of curvature. . 0. 0).3.1.. Let E → M be a rank r smooth K-vector bundle. .17) ∇i eβ = Γα iβ eα . τ → (x1 + τ. 1 ≤ α. . . xn ) to (x1 + s. The connection 1-form associated to this moving frame is i Γ = Γi dxi = (Γα iβ )dx . . t. . ∂ Γj ∂ Γi − j + Γi Γj − Γj Γi i ∂x ∂x . (3..1: Parallel transport along a coordinate parallelogram. 0.16) we compute Fij eβ = (∇i ∇j − ∇j ∇i )eβ = ∇i (Γj eβ ) − ∇j (Γi eβ ) = so that Fij = ∂ Γα jβ ∂xi − ∂ Γα jβ ∂xj γ α α eα + Γγ jβ Γiγ − Γiβ Γjγ eα . . ... . CONNECTIONS ON VECTOR BUNDLES 99 3.3.. . . x2 ..3...3. In this subsection we describe the geometric meaning of curvature. and maybe this will explain this choice of terminology. . Consider local coordinates (x1 ..3. p1 = (s. p 3 p 2 p 0 p 1 Figure 3.. .. p2 = (s. p3 = (0. x2 . xn ). 0). . β ≤ r. Denote by T1 parallel transport (using the connection ∇) from (x1 .4 Holonomy The reader may ask a very legitimate question: why have we chosen to name curvature. It is deﬁned by the equalities (∇i := ∇ ∂ ∂xi ) (3.. s the Assume for simplicity that the point of coordinates (0. . . . Throughout this subsection we will use Einstein’s convention. 0). Deﬁne T2 Look at the parallelogram Ps. . the deviation from commutativity of a given connection. 0. . . and ∇ a connection on it.t in the “plane” (x1 . . xn ) on an open subset U ⊂ M such that E |U is trivial.. 0) lies in U .3..

t) = T1 T2 T1 u0 = T1 u2 = u2 + sΓ1 (p2 )u2 + C3 s2 + O(3). t s t u2 = u2 (s. (3. For any u ∈ E0 we have F12 u = − ∂2 Ts. t) = ½ − tΓ2 + st ∂ Γ1 ∂ Γ2 − + Γ2 Γ1 − Γ1 Γ2 ∂x2 ∂x1 |p0 u0 . ∂s∂t We see that the parallel transport of an element u ∈ E0 along a closed path may not return it to itself.. The outcome ∂ ∂ is a linear map Ts. 1 ∂x ∂x Using u2 described as in (3. The curvature is an inﬁnitesimal measure of this deviation. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS We now perform the counterclockwise parallel transport along the boundary of Ps. t) = T2 T1 u = T2 u1 = u1 − tΓ2 (p1 )u1 + C2 t2 + O(t3 ) = u0 − sΓ1 (p0 )u0 − tΓ2 (p1 )(u0 − sΓ1 (p0 )u0 ) + C1 s2 + C2 t2 + O(3) = O(k) denotes an error ≤ C (s2 + t2 )k/2 as s. t → 0.3. we have −s t s −s u3 = u3 (s.14. Proposition 3.20) we get after an elementary computation u3 = u3 (s. In the sequel the letter C (eventually indexed) will denote constants.3.100 CHAPTER 3. Now use the approximation Γ2 (p1 ) = Γ2 (p0 ) + s to deduce u2 = ∂ Γ2 (p0 ) + O(2). Similarly. t) = T1 u0 = u0 − sΓ1 (p0 )u0 + C1 s2 + O(s3 )..20) The Γ-term in the right-hand-side of the above equality can be approximated as Γ1 (p2 ) = Γ1 (p0 ) + s ∂ Γ1 ∂ Γ1 (p0 ) + t 2 (p0 ) + O(2).t .19) C1 is a constant vector in E0 whose exact form is not relevant to our computations. Proof.. ∂x1 ∂ Γ2 − Γ2 Γ1 ∂x1 |p0 u0 ½ − sΓ1 (p0 ) − tΓ2 (p1 ) + tsΓ2 (p1 )Γ1 (p0 ) u0 + C1 s2 + C2 t2 + O(3). ½ − sΓ1 − tΓ2 − st +C1 s2 + C2 t2 + O(3). F12 is an endomorphism of E0 . s : E → E can be approximated using (3. (3.t = T2 T1 T2 T1 .t u.0) .3. where E0 is the ﬁber of E over p0 Set F12 := F ( ∂x 1 ∂x2 ) |(0..9) The parallel transport T1 0 p1 s u1 = u1 (s.3.3.t can be described as −t −s t s Ts. The parallel transport along ∂Ps.t : E0 → E0 .

Let E → M be a vector bundle with a connection ∇. t) = u0 + st ∂ Γ2 (p0 ) + C7 t2 + O(3). the last equality states that the curvature is the the “amount of holonomy per unit of area”. ⊔ ⊓ . = −F12 (p0 )u0 as claimed. Alternatively. Exercise 3.3.21) we get u4 (s.3. Prove that any vector bundle E over the Euclidean space Rn is trivializable.t = ½ − stF12 + O(3). we have −t u4 = u4 (s. We can do so along paths starting at a ﬁxed point. ∂x2 ∂ Γ1 ∂ Γ2 − + Γ2 Γ1 − Γ1 Γ2 |p0 u0 ∂x2 ∂x1 +C8 s2 + C9 t2 + O(3) ∂ 2 u4 ∂s∂t = u0 − stF12 (p0 )u0 + C8 s2 + C9 t2 + O(3). but using different paths ending at the same point we may wind up with trivializations which differ by a twist. Hint: Use the parallel transport deﬁned by a connection on the vector bundle E to produce a bundle isomorphism E → E0 × Rn . The curvature provides an inﬁnitesimal measure of that twist. where E0 is the ﬁber of E over the origin. CONNECTIONS ON VECTOR BUNDLES 101 +C4 s2 + C5 t2 + O(3).√s dTs. Thus we have −F12 = dT√s. t) = T2 = u3 + tΓ2 (p3 )u3 + C6 t2 + O(3).t ds Loosely speaking. so it has to be 0.16. Ts. If we had kept track of the various constants in the above computation we would have arrived at the conclusion that C8 = C9 = 0 i.t . The holonomy of ∇ along a closed path γ is the parallel transport along γ . Deﬁnition 3.3. Finally. ⊔ ⊓ Clearly Remark 3.15.3.3.0 ≡.21) with Γ2 (p3 ) = Γ2 (p0 ) + t Using (3.3. ⊔ ⊓ We see that the curvature measures the holonomy along inﬁnitesimal parallelograms. ⊔ ⊓ The result in the above proposition is usually formulated in terms of holonomy. using the parallel transport.e. (3. The same goes for C9 .17. A connection can be viewed as an analytic way of trivializing a bundle. the constant C8 is the second order correction in the Taylor expansion of s → Ts. = dareaPs.3.

Y ]) = ∇Z .Y ] )F − (∇Y iZ iX − i[Y. Z we have iX D = ∇X − DiX . Y )] u = ∇X . Proposition 3.) Let E → M and ∇ as above. Proof. ⊔ ⊓ Example 3.18.3.3. Also for any u ∈ Ω0 (E ) we have (∇X iY iZ F )u = ∇X (F (Z.Z ] u − [∇X .Z ] iX + i[Z. The Bianchi identity now follows from the classical Jacobi identity for commutators. For any vector ﬁelds X . Then DF (∇) = 0. The Bianchi identity describes one remarkable algebraic feature of the curvature. Y.Z ] iY − iZ i[X. where d is the trivial connection. Roughly speaking. This extends to an “exterior derivative” D : Ωp (End (E )) → Ωp+1 (End (E )). it induces a connection in E ∗ ⊗ E ∼ = End (E ) which we continue to denote by ∇. We will use the identities (3. F (Z. ∇[Y.X ] iY )F − (∇X iY iZ + ∇Y iZ iX + ∇Z iX iY )F.3. ∇Z ]] u.19. ⊔ ⊓ . The curvature of this connection is F (ω ) = dω. Y .14).[X. Y )u) − F (Z. Z ) = iZ iY iX DF = iZ iY (∇X − DiX )F = iZ (∇X iY − i[X.Y ]] .102 CHAPTER 3.Y ] )F − iZ (∇Y − DiY )iX F = (∇X iZ iY − i[X.Y ] iZ F = F (Z. and ω is a K-valued 1-form on M . We have seen that the associated exterior derivative d∇ : Ωp (E ) → Ωp+1 (E ) does not satisfy the usual (d∇ )2 = 0.Z ]iX − ∇Z iY iX )F = (i[X.5 The Bianchi identities Consider a smooth K-vector bundle E → M equipped with a connection ∇. In particular. (The Bianchi identity.3.3. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS 3. We compute immediately i[X.12)–(3. and the curvature is to blame for this. Any connection on K has the form ∇ω = d + ω . Y )∇X u = [∇X .Y ] − ∇[Z. [X. Recall that ∇ induces a connection in any tensor bundle constructed from E . Hence. (DF )(X. ∇[X.Y ] iZ + i[Y. the Bianchi identity states that (d∇ )3 is 0. The Bianchi identity is in this case precisely the equality d2 ω = 0. [∇Y . Let K be the trivial line bundle over a smooth manifold M .

However.3. a 2-form whose coefﬁcients are vector ﬁelds on M . e). Still. ⊔ ⊓ The proof of this lemma is left to the reader as an exercise.. n = dim M .6 Connections on tangent bundles The tangent bundles are very special cases of vector bundles so the general theory of connections and parallel transport is applicable in this situation as well. •) is a tensor T ∈ Ω2 (T M ). Recall that. we will no longer think of the elements of Tx M as vectors. To ﬁnd such an interpretation.3. and it is thus very natural to work with deﬁne a moving frame of the tangent bundle. f Y ) = f T (X. they automatically ∂ . Deﬁnition 3. The coefﬁcients Γk ij are usually known as the Christoffel symbols of the connection.Y ] ∈ End (T M ). In the remaining of this subsection we will try to sketch the geometrical meaning of torsion. e) . Hence. With the above notations we set ∇i ∂j = Γk ij ∂k (∇i = ∇∂i ).3. Y ∈ Vect (M ) consider T (X. once local coordinates (xi ) are chosen. CONNECTIONS ON VECTOR BUNDLES 103 3. For X. we have to ﬁrst choose local coordinates on the manifolds. let ∇ be a connection on T M . ∇Y ] − ∇[X. ∂i = ∂x i this frame. For tangent bundles it happens that.21. A connection on T M is said to be symmetric if T = 0. Denote by (xi ) the coordinates in A induced by the frame (p. f ) are afﬁne frames of A and respectively B . Y ) = [∇X . These are pairs (p. The tangent space Tx M can be coordinatized using afﬁne frames. Y ] ∈ Vect (M ).3. Lemma 3. As usual we construct the curvature tensor F (X. where p is a point in Tx M . It will be convenient to regard Tx M as an afﬁne space modeled by Rn . so that T (•. the torsion has the description k T (∂i . and then a local moving frame for the vector bundle. this is not the only tensor naturally associated to ∇. where p is thought of as the origin. . i. but instead we will treat them as points.20. ∂j ) = (Γk ij − Γji )∂k .e. In terms of Christoffel symbols. both modelled by Rn . we have to look at the ﬁner structure of the tangent space at a point x ∈ M . Y ). Y ) = ∇X Y − ∇Y X − [X. ⊔ ⊓ We guess by now the reader is wondering how the mathematicians came up with this object called torsion. B are two afﬁne spaces.3. Suppose that A. (p. e). For an arbitrary vector bundle there is no correlation between these two choices. when looking for a local description for a connection on a vector bundle. Y ) = T (X. The tensor T is called the torsion of the connection ∇. and (p. Thus. A frame allows one to identify Tx M with Rn . and e is a basis of the underlying vector space. Then ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M ) T (f X. the tangent bundles have some peculiar features which enrich the structure of a connection.

CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS and by (y j ) the coordinates in B induced by the frame (q . an afﬁne map is described by a “rotation” S .3. As in Proposition 3. X ) + ∇ ˆ Z F (X. and then describing T This is equivalent to describing the inﬁnitesimal afﬁne transport at a given point x0 ∈ M along a direction given by a vector X = X i ∂i ∈ Tx0 M . The total afﬁne transport will be ˆ tX + O(t2 ).23. Consider a smooth vector bundle E → M over the smooth manifold M . Prove that T M is torsionless. An afﬁne isomorphism T : A → B can then be described using these coordinates as n T : Rn x → Ry x → y = Sx + v. fact. This vector measures the “drift” of the origin. and S is an invertible n × n real matrix. where v is a vector in Rn . then they deﬁne an afﬁne frame Ax at each x ∈ M : (Ax = (0. Given a connection ∇ on T M . Consider the vector valued 1-form ω ∈ Ω1 (T M ) deﬁned by ω (X ) = X ∀X ∈ Vect (M ).e. If xt is a point along the integral curve of X . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3. We assume that both E and T M are equipped with connections and moreover the connection on ˆ the induced connection on Λ2 T ∗ M ⊗ End (E ). (∂i )).22. We ˆx write T = S + If now (xi ) are local coordinates on M . The afﬁne frame of Tx0 M is Ax0 = (0.3. f ). i. Thus. In ˙t . close to x0 then its coordinates satisfy i i 2 xi t = x0 + tX + O (t ). (∂i )). Y ) = 0. ∇ ⊔ ⊓ .3. Since we will not need this fact we will not include a proof of it. Denote by ∇ ∀X.14 one can show the torsion measures the translation component of the holonomy along an inﬁnitesimal parallelogram. Exercise 3. where T ∇ denotes the torsion of ∇. The frame (∂i ) suffers a parallel transport measured as usual by ½ − tiX Γ + O(t2 ). Z ∈ Vect (M ) ˆ X F (Y. Z ) + ∇ ˆ Y F (Z. the “amount of drift per unit of area”. and a smooth path γ : I → M .104 CHAPTER 3. we will determine Tt by imposing the initial condition T0 = ½. we will construct a family of afﬁne isomorphisms Tt : Tγ (0) → Tγ (t) called the afﬁne transport of ∇ along γ . Show that if ∇ is a linear connection on T M . then d∇ ω = T ∇ . This shows the origin x0 of Ax0 “drifts” by tX + O(t2 ). followed by a translation v . Tt = (½ − tiX Γ)+ The holonomy of ∇ along a closed path will be an afﬁne transformation and as such it has two components: a “rotation”” and a translation. Y..

namely the notion of 1-density on a manifold.4.3. A 1-density on M is then a collection of functions µα ∈ C ∞ (Uα ) related by −1 µβ . We call |Λ|M the density bundle of M . µα = δαβ ∂ ∂ It may help to think that for each point p ∈ Uα the basis ∂x 1 . integration. The gluing rules describe how the numerical value of the volume changes from one choice of units to another. where n is the dimension of M .1.4.4). In particular. integration requires a background measure. It helps to have local descriptions of densities. This choice of a cover produces a trivializing cover of T M with transition maps Tαβ = ∂xi α ∂xj β 1≤i. The densities on a manifold resemble in many respects the differential forms of maximal degree..1 Integration of 1-densities We spent a lot of time learning to differentiate geometrical objects but. Classically. . R) satisfying the cocycle condition. just as in classical calculus. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 105 3.j ≤n . Denote the local coordinates on Uα by (xi α ). A density is a map µ : C ∞ (det T M ) → C ∞ (M ). The bundle of r -densities on M is r |Λ|r M : =|Λ| (T M ). and in this subsection we will describe the differential geometric analogue of a measure. For any r ∈ R we can form the real line bundle |Λ|r (E ) deﬁned by the same open cover and transition maps tβα := | det gβα |−r = | det gαβ |r : Uαβ → R>0 ֒→ GL(1. ⊔ ⊓ ∞ (|Λ| ) its subspace Denote by C ∞ (|Λ|M ) the space of smooth sections of |Λ|M . pick an open cover of M consisting of coordinate neighborhoods (Uα ). smooth real vector bundle over a manifold M deﬁned by an open cover (Uα ) and transition maps gβα : Uαβ → GL(k. such that µ(f e) = |f |µ(e). Deﬁnition 3. Let M be a smooth manifold and r ≥ 0. Denote by det T M = Λdim M T M the determinant line bundle of T M .. any smooth map φ : M → N between manifolds of the same dimension induces a pullback transformation φ∗ : C ∞ (|Λ|N ) → C ∞ (|Λ|M ). A change in coordinates should be thought of as a change in the measuring units. R). To this aim.4. The ﬁber at p ∈ M of this bundle consists of r -densities on Ep (see Subsection 2. When r = 1 we will use the notation |Λ|M = |Λ|1 M . for all smooth functions f : M → R. and all e ∈ C ∞ (det T M ). Let E → M be a rank k. and by C0 M consisting of compactly supported densities. .4 Integration on manifolds 3. the story is only half complete without the reverse operation.2.. Set δαβ = | det Tαβ |. ∂xn of Tp M spans an inﬁnitesimal α α parallelepiped and µα (p) is its “volume”.

.106 described by CHAPTER 3. It has a nowhere vanishing section |dvn | deﬁned by |dvn |(e1 ∧ . ⊔ ⊓ The importance of densities comes from the fact that they are exactly the objects that can be integrated. The volume density deﬁned by g is the density denoted by |dVg | which associates to each e ∈ C ∞ (det T M ) the pointwise length x → |e(x)|g .ij dxi α ⊗ dxα . . φn = φn (x1 . . .j ≤m . Then any top degree form ω ∈ Ωm (M ) deﬁnes a density |ω | on M which associates to each section e ∈ C ∞ (det T M ) the smooth function x → |ωx ( e(x) )| Observe that |ω | = | − ω |. Then the restriction of |dVg | to Uα has the description |dVg | = |gα | |dxα |. (b) Suppose M is a smooth manifold of dimension m. .. Example 3. In this case. in particular. In the coordinates (xi α ) the metric g can be described as g= i.4... to which we associate the density |dxα |. then. (a) Consider the special case M = Rn . The reader should think of |dvn | as the standard Lebesgue measure on Rn .. If φ : Rn → Rn is a smooth map. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS (φ∗ µ)(e) = µ (det φ∗ ) · e = | det φ∗ | µ(e). This extends to a trivialization of T Rn and. . xn ). If (Uα ..2. More precisely. .j j gα. we have the following abstract result. . ∀e ∈ C ∞ (det T M ). the bundle of densities comes with a natural trivialization. φ∗ (|dvn |) = det ∂φi ∂xj · |dvn |. We denote by |gα | the determinant of the symmetric matrix gα = (gα..ij )1≤i. (xi α ) ) is an atlas of M . . en the canonical basis. Denote by e1 . any smooth density on Rn takes the form µ = f |dvn |. xn )... ∧ en ) = 1.. (c) Suppose g is a Riemann metric on the smooth manifold M . where f is some smooth function on Rn . viewed as a collection of n smooth functions φ1 = φ1 (x1 . then on each Uα we have top degree forms m dxα := dx1 α ∧ · · · ∧ dxα . so this map Ωm (M ) → C ∞ (|Λ|M ) is not linear..

where µα is some smooth function compactly supported on Uα . for any open set U ⊂ M . and can be written as αµ = µα |dxα |. Rn where in the right-hand-side stands the Lebesgue integral of the compactly supported function ρ. and we denote by |dxα | (n = dim M ) the density on Uα deﬁned by |dxα | ∂ ∂ ∧ . deﬁne A µ= M M µ = def α∈A Uα αµ. the product αµ is a density supported in Uα . and any µ ∈ C0 M U . ∞ (M ) such that ∀α ∈ A the support supp α lies entirely (i) A smooth partition of unity A ⊂ C0 in some precompact coordinate neighborhood Uα ..3. for any smooth manifolds M . smooth function. we have dimension n. ∞ (|Λ| ) with supp µ ⊂ (b) M is a local operation.e. Finally. (ii) For each Uα we pick a collection of local coordinates (xi α ). i.4.e.. We set αµ := Uα Rn µα |dxα |. and any µ ∈ C0 M φ∗ µ = M N µ. For any µ ∈ C ∞ (|Λ|). INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 107 Proposition 3. Proof.4. (a) M is invariant under diffeomorphisms. Under this identiﬁcation |dxi α | corresponds to the Lebesgue measure |dvn | on Rn . and such that the cover (Uα ) is locally ﬁnite. To establish the existence of an integral we associate to each manifold M a collection of data as follows. any diffeomorphism φ : M → N . Rn ρ|dvn | = ρ(x)dx. . M is called the integral on M .3. N of the same ∞ (|Λ| ). and µα is a compactly supported. we have µ= M ∞ (Rn ) we have (c) For any ρ ∈ C0 U µ. ∧ n 1 ∂xα ∂xα = 1.. There exists a natural way to associate to each smooth manifold M a linear map M ∞ : C0 (|Λ|M ) → R uniquely deﬁned by the following conditions. The local coordinates allow us to interpret µα as a function on Rn . i..

4. Let A. consider a partition of unity ∞ (N ).1) over α and (3.2) Summing (3.1) Similarly βµ = Uβ α Uαβ αβµ. Note that supp αβ ⊂ Uαβ = Uα ∩ Uβ . Form the partition of unity A ∗ B := αβ .4. From the classical change in variables formula we deduce that. intersects only ﬁnitely many of the Uα To prove property (a) we will ﬁrst prove that the integral deﬁned as above is independent of ∞ (M ).108 CHAPTER 3. and the local coordinates (xi ) the various choices: the partition of unity A ⊂ C0 α α∈A . µx α |dxα | = Rn µy α |dyα | is the classical change in variables formula for the Lebesgue integral. and any µ ∈ C0 N (φ∗ α)φ∗ µ = φ−1 (Uα ) Uα αµ. We will prove A B = M = M . µy α = det The equality Rn ∂xi α j ∂yα µx α. for any coordiA ⊂ C0 ∞ (|Λ| ) we have nate neighborhood Uα containing the support of α ∈ A. We have Let µ ∈ C0 M αµ = Uα β U α ⊂ Rn βαµ = β Uαβ αβµ. and thus it ′ s which form a locally ﬁnite cover. local coordinates (yα α α α ∞ (|Λ| ) we have For each µ ∈ C0 M y αµ = αµx α |dxα | = αµα |dyα |. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS • Independence of coordinates. We can view αµ as a compactly supported function on Rn .4. Fix the partition of unity A. . β ) ∈ A × B A∗B M ∞ ⊂ C0 (M ). (3.4. These determine two densities |dxi | and respectively |dy j |. To prove property (a) for a diffeomorphism φ : M → N . (3. (α. y ∞ where µx α . ∞ (M ) two partitions of unity on M . µα ∈ C0 (Uα ) are related by The above sum contains only ﬁnitely many nonzero terms since supp µ is compact.2) over β we get the desired conclusion. B ⊂ C0 We will show that A B = M M . • Independence of the partition of unity. and consider a new collection of i ) on each U . ∞ (|Λ| ).

pick U ⊂ M . ⊔ ⊓ We see that det T ∗ M is trivializable if and only if it admits a nowhere vanishing section.2 Orientability and integration of differential forms Under some mild restrictions on the manifold. We use this partition of unity to compute integrals over U . A pair (orientable manifold.4. More precisely.e. for M = Rn .4. we can assume that all the local coordinates chosen are Cartesian. and we leave the reader to ﬁll in the details. The uniqueness of the integral is immediate. More precisely.. We denote by Or (M ) the set of orientations on the smooth manifold M . he glued the opposite sides of a paper rectangle attaching arrow to arrow as in Figure 3. i. and then choose a ∞ (U ) subordinated to the open cover (V ) partition of unity B ⊂ C0 β β ∈B . orientation) is called an oriented manifold.4. the oriented manifolds are the “2-sided manifolds”. Property (a) now follows by αµ = α∈A β ∈B Vαβ αβµ = αβ ∈A∗B Vαβ αβµ = U µ. For any partition of unity ∞ A ⊂ C0 (M ) with associated cover (Vα )α∈A we can form a new partition of unity A ∗ B of U with associated cover Vαβ = Vα ∩ Vβ .4. We say that two volume forms ω1 and ω2 are equivalent if there exists f ∈ C ∞ (M ) such that ω2 = ef ω1 . the calculus with densities can be replaced with the richer calculus with differential forms. and thus Or (M ) = ∅. The 2-sidedness can be formulated rigorously as follows. This is indeed an equivalence relation. ⊔ ⊓ 3. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 109 summing over α the above equality. . one can distinguish between an “inside face” and an “outside face” of the manifold. This explains the “big surprise” produced by the famous counter-example due to M¨ obius in the ﬁrst half of the 19th century. The mild restrictions referred to above have a global nature. To prove property (b) on the local character of the integral. Let us observe that if M is orientable. then for every point p ∈ M we have a natural map Or (M ) → Or (Tp M ). He produced a 1-sided surface nowadays known as the M¨ obius band using paper and glue. For any density µ on M supported on U we have µ= M α Vα The collection φ∗ α = α ◦ φ α∈A forms a partition of unity on M . and using the independence of the integral on partitions of unity.3. Property (c) is clear since. (Think of a 2-sphere in R3 (a soccer ball) which is naturally a “2-faced” surface. Such a section is called a volume form on M . A smooth manifold M is said to be orientable if the determinant line bundle det T M (or equivalently det T ∗ M ) is trivializable.) The 2-sidedness feature is such a frequent occurrence in the real world that for many years it was taken for granted. Or (M ) ∋ or → or p ∈ Or (Tp M ). and an equivalence class of volume forms will be called an orientation of the manifold.2. we have to require that the background manifold is oriented. Deﬁnition 3. Roughly speaking.

∀q ∈ M . It is clear that if ω1 and ω2 are equivalent volume form then or ω1 .5. However. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS Figure 3. Proof. This map is clearly a surjection because or −ω. We see this is just a special instance of the more general question we addressed in Chapter 2: how can one decide whether a given vector bundle is trivial or not.2: The Mobius band. In the remaining part of this section we will describe several simple ways to detect orientability.p = −or ω. ∀q ∈ M.p . If or is given by the volume form ω and or ′ is given by the volume form ω ′ . The function M ∋ q → ǫ(q ) = or ′ q /or q ∈ {±1} is continuous. then for every p ∈ M the map Or (M ) ∋ or → or p ∈ Or (Tp M ) is a bijection. If the orientation or on M is deﬁned by a volume form ω .p = or ω2 . orientable smooth manifold M .4.110 CHAPTER 3. orientable manifold. then ωp ∈ det Tp is a nontrivial volume form on Tp M . ⊔ ⊓ The last proposition shows that on a connected.p on Tp M . a choice of an orientation of one of its tangent spaces uniquely determines an orientation of the manifold. How can one decide whether a given manifold is orientable or not. and thus constant. it is often convenient to decide the orientability issue using ad-hoc arguments. This shows that the two forms ω ′ and ω are equivalent and thus or = or ′ . ǫ(q ) = ǫ(p) = 1. for any volume form ω . ∗M deﬁned as follows. which canonically deﬁnes an orientation or ω. Proposition 3.p . then there exists a nowhere vanishing smooth function ρ : M → R such that ω ′ = ρω . We deduce sign ρ(q ) = ǫ(q ). The orientability question can be given a very satisfactory answer using topological techniques. Suppose or and or ′ are two orientations on M such that or p = or ′ p . A natural question arises. In particular. . If M is a connected.

3. This is clearly a trivial line bundle since it has a tautological nowhere vanishing section p → p ∈ νp . Example 3. An element ω ∈ det Tp S n deﬁnes the canonical orientation if p ∧ ω ∈ det Rn+1 deﬁnes the canonical orientation of Rn+1 . by p we denoted the position vector of p as a point inside .3: The normal line bundle to the round sphere. This trick works for example when M ∼ = S n . ⊔ ⊓ Example 3.4. The canonical orientation on Rn is the orientation deﬁned by the volume form dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn .3). we have det(Rk ⊕ T M ) = det Rk ⊗ det T M. then clearly T M is orientable. In the sequel we will exclusively deal with its canonical orientation. To this aim we will use the relation Rn+1 ∼ = νp ⊕ Tp S n . The unit sphere S n ⊂ Rn+1 is orientable. The line bundle ν has a remarkable feature: ν ⊕ T S n = Rn+1 .7. Then M is orientable.. Suppose M is a manifold such that the Whitney sum Rk M ⊕ T M is trivial. The n ﬁber of ν at a point p ∈ S is the 1-dimensional space spanned by the position vector of p as a point in Rn . where x1 . Hence all spheres are orientable. In particular.. Indeed. (see Figure 3. let ν denote the normal line bundle. Both det Rk and det(Rk ⊕ T M ) are trivial.. Indeed. We deduce det T M is trivial since det T M ∼ = det(Rk ⊕ T M ) ⊗ (det Rk )∗ . .4. ⊔ ⊓ ☞Important convention. xn are the canonical Cartesian coordinates. Above. If the tangent bundle of a manifold M is trivial. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 111 Figure 3.6. all Lie groups are orientable.4. To describe this orientation it sufﬁces to describe a positively oriented basis of det Tp M for some p ∈ S n .

where the smooth functions µα are nowhere vanishing. xα ) on Uα such that det ∂xi α ∂xj β > 0 on Uα ∩ Uβ . This will insure the positivity condition ∆αβ > 0.. and we will prove that det T ∗ M is trivial by proving that there exists a volume form.e.. i. A smooth manifold M is orientable if and only if there exists an open cover n (Uα )α∈A . We assume that there exists an open cover with the properties in the lemma.8.112 CHAPTER 3. The lemma is proved. Then n ω |Uα = µα dx1 α ∧ · · · ∧ dxα .4.3) implies that on an overlap Uα1 ∩ · · · ∩ Uαm the forms ωα1 . (3. R). (xi α )). ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 3. and gluing cocycle gβα : Uαβ → GL(r. The form ω is nowhere vanishing since condition (3. xα will change dxα ∧ · · · ∧ dxα by a factor ǫ(ϕ) so we can always arrange these variables in such an order so that µα > 0. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS the Euclidean space Rn+1 . We call this orientation outer normal ﬁrst. . βωϕ(β ) . ... let ω be a volume form on M and consider an atlas (Uα . ⊔ ⊓ We can rephrase the result in the above lemma in a more conceptual way using the notion of orientation bundle. We can think of p as the “outer” normal to the round sphere.. ∞ (M ) subordinated to the cover (U ) Consider a partition of unity B ⊂ C0 α α∈A . 1. = ∆αβ = det j µ α ∂xβ n 1 n A permutation ϕ of the variables x1 α . and local coordinates (x1 α . When n = 1 it coincides with the counterclockwise orientation of the unit circle S 1 .3) Proof. Suppose E → M is a real vector bundle of rank r on the smooth manifold M described by the open cover (Uα )α∈A .4. . Conversely.. 2. Deﬁne ω := β n where for all α ∈ A we deﬁne ωα := dx1 α ∧ · · · ∧ dxα . and on the overlaps they satisfy the gluing condition µβ ∂xi α . there exists a map ϕ : B → A such that supp β ⊂ Uϕ(β ) ∀β ∈ B....4. .. ωαm differ by a positive multiplicative factor.

13.8 can now be rephrased as follows.13).4 where we showed that an orientation or on a vector space V induces a canonical. By now the reader may ask where does orientability interact with integration. see (2. We deﬁne orientation bundle ΘM of a smooth manifold M as the orientation bundle associated to the tangent bundle of M . Using connected sums and products we can now produce many examples of manifolds.4. an orientation or on a smooth manifold M deﬁnes an isomorphism ıor : C ∞ (det T ∗ M ) → C ∞ (|Λ|M ).4. α . (3. the connected sums of g tori is an orientable manifold.3. Supply the details of the proof of Proposition 3.4. The statement in Lemma 3. Since M is oriented we can choose a coordinate atlas Uα .9.10.2.12. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3.4. In particular. The answer lies in Subsection 2.j ≤M > 0. In particular. Prove the above result. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 113 The orientation bundle associated to E is the real line bundle Θ(E ) → M described by the open cover (Uα )α∈A . Proposition 3.8 and Proposition 2.4.4.4. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ The reader can check immediately that the product of two orientable manifolds is again an orientable manifold. The connected sum of two orientable manifolds is an orientable manifold. and gluing cocycle ǫβα := sign det gβα : Uαβ → R∗ = GL(1.4.4. We ought to pause and explain in more detail the isomorphism ıor : C ∞ (det T ∗ M ) → ∞ C (|Λ|M ).12. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3.2. Similarly. We want to emphasize that this deﬁnition depends on the choice of orientation. Corollary 3. (xi α ) such that det ∂xi β ∂xj α 1≤.2. Proposition 3. For any compactly supported differential form ω on M of maximal degree we deﬁne its integral by ω := M M ıor ω. ΘM := Θ(T M ). R). Any complex manifold is orientable.4. n = dim M. ⊔ ⊓ From Lemma 3.i. linear isomorphism ıor : det V ∗ → |Λ|V . the complex Grassmannians Grk (Cn ) are orientable.11.76 we deduce the following result. A smooth manifold M is orientable if and only if the orientation bundle ΘM is trivializable. Using Lemma 3.4.4) and on each coordinate patch Uα the orientation is given by the top degree form dxα = dx1 α ∧ · · · ∧ dxn .8 we deduce immediately the following consequence.

On S 2 we have r ≡ 1 and dr ≡ 0 so that xdy ∧ dz |S 2 = sin ϕ cos θ (cos θ sin ϕdθ + sin θ cos ϕdϕ)) ∧ (− sin ϕ)dϕ The standard orientation associates to this form de density sin3 ϕ cos2 θ |dϕdθ |.4. ω = xdy ∧ dz .14. θ ). where S 2 has the canonical orientation. which is precisely ıor ω . and due to the condition (3. | |Λ| |M ) satisfy µα = µβ on the overlap Uαβ .π ]×[0. ρα ∈ C ∞ (Uα ). and let S 2 denote the unit sphere. and we deduce ω= S2 [0. ∂θ = ∂y ∂ϕ = −∂z . 0) we have ∂r = ∂x = p. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS ϕ O θ r P y x Figure 3.4) the collection of densities µα = ρα |dxα | ∈ C ∞ (Uα .4: Spherical coordinates.2π ] = sin3 ϕ cos2 θdϕ ∧ dθ. Example 3. 0. We want to compute S 2 ω |S 2 . A top degree differential form ω is described by a collection of forms ωα = ρα dxα . Thus they glue together to a density on M .4.) x = r sin ϕ cos θ y = r sin ϕ sin θ . π 0 sin3 ϕ cos2 θ |dϕdθ | = sin3 ϕdϕ · 2π 0 cos2 θdθ .114 z CHAPTER 3.4. z = r cos ϕ At the point p = (1. To compute this integral we will use spherical coordinates (r. Consider the 2-form on R3 . These are deﬁned by (see Figure 3. so that the standard orientation on S 2 is given by dϕ ∧ dθ . ϕ.

Thus ∆ ≡ 1 which establishes the right invariance of dVG . then for each x ∈ G deﬁne Tx = ℓ G ((Lg )∗ T )x dVG (g).5) The differential form dVG is the unique left-invariant n-form (n = dim G) on G satisfying (3. and in particular.4.5) (assuming a ﬁxed orientation on G). Set dVG = 1 c ω so that dVG = 1. The invariant measure dVG provides a very simple way of producing invariant objects on G. Fix once and for all an orientation on the Lie algebra LG .4. for any h ∈ G we have (Lh )∗ T = u=hg ℓ G (Lh )∗ ((Lg )∗ T )dVG (g) = ℓ G ((Lhg )∗ T )dVG (g) = G (Lu )∗ T L∗ h−1 dVG (u) = T ( L∗ h−1 dVG = dVG ). the set ∆(G) is bounded. 3 As we will see in the next subsection the above equality is no accident. ·). Since G is connected ∆(G) ⊂ R+ . and since G is compact. More precisely. and in particular. or ∆(x−1 ) > 1. We claim dVG is also right invariant. We claim that T is left invariant.3. Consider a positively oriented volume element ω ∈ det L∗ G . This deﬁnes an orientation. To prove this. consider the modular function G ∋ h → ∆(h) ∈ R deﬁned by ∗ Rh (dVG ) = ∆(h)dVG . we get a positive scalar c= G ω. we would deduce the set (∆(xn ))n∈Z is unbounded. . (Invariant integration on compact Lie groups). G (3.4.15. connected Lie group. Let G be a compact. G → (R \ {0}. Then x → T x deﬁnes a smooth tensor ﬁeld on G. Since (Rh1 h2 )∗ = (Rh2 Rh1 )∗ = Rh h2 1 ∆(h1 h2 ) = ∆(h1 )∆(h2 ) Hence h → ∆h is a smooth morphism ∀h1 .4. = 115 ⊔ ⊓ Example 3. by integration. h2 ∈ G. If there exists x ∈ G such that ∆(x) = 1. so it has to be a The quantity ∆(h) is independent of h because Rh G ∗ R∗ we deduce scalar multiple of dVG . ∗ dV is a left invariant form. We can extend ω by left translations to a left-invariant volume form on G which we continue to denote by ω . INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 4π = volume of the unit ball B 3 ⊂ R3 . Indeed. then either ∆(x) > 1. if T is tensor ﬁeld on G.

. The set ∂M is called the boundary of M . Deﬁnition 3. ⊔ ⊓ 3.16. the higher dimensional formula will follow from the simplest 1-dimensional situation. x ≤ 0 }. ⊔ ⊓ G Exercise 3. (a) There exists a smooth n-dimensional manifold M that contains M as a closed subset. . CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS If we average once more on the right we get a tensor G∋x→ which is both left and right invariant. A smooth manifold with boundary of dimension n is a topological space with the following properties. (b) Prove that if G is a compact Lie group.17. and this requires the concept of manifold with boundary. (b) The interior of M . Y ] ∈ LG . .. for any X ∈ LG .. (c2 ) ∂M ∩ N = { x1 = 0 }.4. . For any X ∈ LG denote by ad(X ) the linear map LG → LG deﬁned by LG ∋ Y → [X. there exist smooth local coordinates (x1 . b] → R is a smooth function and df = f ′ (t)dt.. is non empty. (a) If ω denotes a left invariant volume form prove that ∀X ∈ LG LX ω = − tr ad(X )ω.3 Stokes’ formula The Stokes’ formula is the higher dimensional version of the fundamental theorem of calculus (Leibniz-Newton formula) b a df = f (b) − f (a). then tr ad(X ) = 0. The standard example is the lower half-space 1 n n 1 Hn − = { (x . Let G be a Lie group. (c) For each point p ∈ ∂M := M \ M 0 . x1 (q ) < 0... denoted by M 0 . (Rg )∗ T ℓ x dVG .116 CHAPTER 3. We will spend most of the time ﬁnding the correct formulation of the general version. x ) ∈ R . In fact. ⊔ ⊓ .4. A manifold with boundary M is called orientable if its interior M 0 is orientable.4. where f : [a. xn ) deﬁned on an open neighborhood N of p in M such that (c1 ) M 0 ∩ N = q ∈ N.

A simple application of the implicit function theorem shows that the pair (X. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 3. and f : X → R is a smooth function such that 0 ∈ R is a regular value of f .4.e. i. This will be the only way in which we will orient boundaries throughout this book. where ǫ is chosen so that for x1 < 0. Then its boundary ∂M is also a smooth manifold of dimension dim ∂M = dim M − 1. Prove that any manifold with boundary is diffeomorphic to a manifold with boundary constructed via the process described in Example 3. then so is its boundary. ☞Important convention.20... . In the case (a) we take X = R.4. for every i = 1.19. We can take M = R3 . The differential dx1 is usually called an outer conormal since x1 increases as we go towards the exterior of M . Deﬁne M := x ∈ X . ⊔ ⊓ . the form ǫdx1 ∧ dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn is positively oriented.4. and a diffeomorphism F : U1 → U2 such that F (M1 ) = M2 .3. and f (x) = (x − a)(x − b).17.4.4. z ) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) − 1.e. y. We now proceed to described this induced orientation on ∂M . The rule by which we get the induced orientation on the boundary can be rephrased as {outer conormal} ∧ {induced orientation on boundary} = {orientation in the interior}. M ) deﬁnes a manifold with boundary. There is a (noncanonical) way to associate to an orientation on M 0 an orientation on the boundary ∂M . f (x) ≤ 0 . and M2 ⊂ M2 are said to be diffeomorphic if. (a) A closed interval I = [a. b] is a smooth 1-dimensional manifold with boundary ∂I = {a.. ǫ = ±1. −dx1 is then the inner conormal for analogous reasons.21. f (x) = 0 =⇒ df (x) = 0.4. if M is orientable. b}. (b) The closed unit ball B 3 ⊂ R3 is an orientable manifold with boundary ∂B 3 = S 2 . xn ) as in Deﬁnition 3. Moreover. while in the case (b) we take X = R3 and f (x. We can take M = R. Note that examples (a) and (b) are special cases of this construction.4. ⊔ ⊓ The proof is left to the reader as an exercise. 2 there exists an open neighborhood Ui of Mi in Mi . Two manifolds with boundary M1 ⊂ M1 . For any p ∈ ∂M choose local coordinates (x1 . If we do not pay attention to this convention then our results may be off by a sign. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 117 Example 3. (c) Suppose X is a smooth manifold. Let M be a smooth manifold with boundary. Then the induced orientation of Tp ∂M is deﬁned by ǫdx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn ∈ det Tp ∂M. i. We may call this rule “outer (co)normal ﬁrst” for obvious reasons. Let M be an orientable manifold with boundary. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 3..18.18(c). inside M . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3.

Case 2. ∂x1 since R ∂f dx1 = f (∞.. xn ). Then dω = i (−1)i+1 ∂f ∂xi dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn . One veriﬁes as in Case 1 that ∂f 1 dx ∧ · · · ∧ dxn = 0 for i = 1.i + = {x ≥ 0} is given by the Theorem 3. The general case is a linear combination of these special situations. In the above formula d denotes the exterior derivative. the hat indicates a missing term. Consider the hyperplane Hi ⊂ Rn deﬁned by the equation {xi = 0}. x2 . where f (x) is a compactly supported smooth function. and ∂M has the induced orientation.. Via partitions of unity the veriﬁcation is reduced to the following two situations. Let ω= i fi (x)dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxi ∧ · · · ∧ dxn .. Proof.24 (Stokes formula). ⊔ ⊓ ω. . We have to show dω = 0. .4.4. Let M be an oriented n-dimensional manifold with boundary ∂M and ω ∈ Ωn−1 (M ) a compactly supported form.22..4. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3. ∂x1 and f has compact support. x2 . The canonical orientation on S n ⊂ Rn+1 coincides with the induced orientation of S n+1 as the boundary of the unit ball B n+1 . Then dω = M0 ∂M (n − 1)-form (−1)i dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxi ∧ · · · dxn where.. xn ) − f (−∞.. The (n − 1)-form ω is compactly supported in Hn − . Rn It sufﬁces to consider only the special case ω = f (x)dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn . We compute dω = Rn Rn ∂f dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn = ∂x1 Rn−1 R ∂f dx1 dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn = 0. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS Example 3.118 CHAPTER 3. Prove that i the induced orientation of Hi as the boundary of the half-space Hn. ∂xi Hn − . The (n − 1)-form ω is compactly supported in Rn . as usual. Case 1.23.

The Stokes formula continues to hold ω ∀ω ∈ Ωn−1 (I n ). 3 ⊔ ⊓ S2 B3 Remark 3.. Consider the complex line bundle Ln → S 2 constructed in Example 2.4. For example. dω = In ∂I The boundary is smooth outside a set of measure zero and is given the induced orientation: “ outer (co)normal ﬁrst”. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 3..25. 1]n its topological boundary is no longer a smooth manifold. This concludes the proof of the Stokes formula. .4. . However.36. . x2 . h] then we deduce dω |x=0 = lim h−n h→ 0 n ∂Ih ω. xn ) dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn Rn−1 = f (0.. g10 (z ) = z −n = g01 (z )−1 .. when M is the cube [0.4. It only depends on the behavior of ω on the boundary.1. .. x2 . xdy ∧ dz = dx ∧ dy ∧ dz = vol (B 3 ) = 4π .3. U0 = S 2 \ {South pole}.4.4.3.3. 2 The last equality follows from the fact that the induced orientation on ∂ Hn − is given by dx ∧ · · · ∧ n dx . INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS For i = 1 we have ∂f dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn = ∂x1 0 Rn−1 −∞ 119 Hn + ∂f dx1 dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn ∂x1 = Rn−1 f (0. x2 .. xn )dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn = ∂ Hn − ω. Indeed if ω ∈ Ωn−1 (Rn ) and Ih = [0. The above considerations extend easily to more singular situations. and gluing cocycle g10 : U0 ∩ U1 → C∗ . Example 3..6) ⊔ ⊓ When n = 1 this is the usual deﬁnition of the derivative. (3. ⊔ ⊓ Example 3. thus answering the question raised at the end of Section 3. U1 = S 2 \ {North pole}. Stokes formula illustrates an interesting global phenomenon. xn ) − f (−∞.28..26. The above equality can be used to give an explanation for the terminology “exterior derivative” we use to call d. Recall that Ln is described by the open cover S 2 = U0 ∪ U1 .4. It shows that the integral M dω is independent of the behavior of ω inside M . We now have sufﬁcient technical background to describe an example of vector bundle which admits no ﬂat connections.27.. its singularities are inessential as far as integration is concerned.

satisfying a gluing relation on the overlap (see Example 3. Let G be a Lie group.120 CHAPTER 3. One also says that V has a structure of G-module. v ) → T (g)v ∈ V. and at fault is the gluing cocycle deﬁning L. We deduce from the Stokes formula (which works for complex valued forms as well) that ω0 = 0 ω1 = − ω1 = 0. one of the most spectacular application is Hermann Weyl’s computation of the characters of representations of compact semi-simple Lie groups. dz dg10 + ω0 = n + ω0 . The orientation of E + coincides with the orientation given by the form dθ .7) ω1 = − If the connection is ﬂat. Let E + be the Equator equipped with the induced orientation as the boundary of the northern hemisphere. n = 0. We devote this subsection to the description of the most elementary aspects of the representation theory of compact Lie groups. we have ω1 − ω0 = n from which we deduce 0= E+ dz = nidθ. Undoubtedly. If V is a real (respectively complex) vector space. ⊔ ⊓ 3. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS where we identiﬁed the overlap U0 ∩ U1 with the punctured complex line C∗ . ω1 ∈ 1 Ω (U1 ) ⊗ C. then dω0 = 0 on U0 and dω1 = 0 on U1 . as the boundary of the southern hemisphere. .4 Representations and characters of compact Lie groups The invariant integration on compact Lie groups is a very powerful tool with many uses. In a future chapter we will quantify the measure in which the gluing data obstruct the existence of ﬂat connections. where z = exp(iθ ). g10 z E+ E+ E− On the other hand. The invariant integration occupies a central place in his solution to this problem. Recall that a (linear) representation of G is a left action on a (ﬁnite dimensional) vector space V G×V →V (g.3.4. z ω0 − ω1 = ni dθ = 2nπ i !!! E+ Thus there exist no ﬂat connections on the line bundle Ln . A connection on Ln is a collection of two complex valued forms ω0 ∈ Ω1 (U1 ) ⊗ C. and E − the equator with the opposite orientation. such that the map T (g) is linear for any g. then it is said to be a real (respectively complex) G-module. over the Equator.

Then U1 G-module given by (g. U2 ). and the tensor product “⊗” deﬁne a structure of semiring with 1 on G − M od.29.4. the action of g ∈ G is given by (g. V ⊗k . Y ∈ LG we have d |t=0 Adexp(tX ) (Y ) = ad(X )Y = [X. then an invariant subspace (or submodule) is a subspace U ⊂ V such that T (g)(U ) ⊂ U . h → C g (h) = ghg −1 . Then G = GL(n. The direct sum “⊕”.4. U2 ) is also a G-module. . u∗ ) → T1 (g −1 )† u∗ . ∗ is a Example 3. L) −→ T2 (g)LT1 (g −1 ). The collection of isomorphisms classes of complex G-modules is denoted by G − M od. the conjugation C g : G → G. g → Adg . Moreover V ∗ . Suppose G is a Lie group with Lie algebra LG − T1 G. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 121 Example 3. Proposition 3. Y ]. The operator Adg is a linear isomorphism of LG . ∀g ∈ G. A morphism of G-modules V1 and V2 is a linear map L : V1 → V2 such that. V1 T1 (g ) L Û V2 Ù V1 Ù T2 (g ) . can be given the more explicit description so(n) ∋ X −→ gXg −1 ∈ so(n). then LG = so(n).33. L Û V2 The space of morphisms of G-modules is denoted by HomG (V1 . ⊔ ⊓ Example 3. Explicitly. ∀g ∈ SO(n). i. ∀L ∈ Hom(U1 . For every g ∈ G. 2) be two complex G-modules. For example.34.e. Let G be a Lie group. Λm V and S ℓ V are complex G-modules.30. the diagram below is commutative. 0 is represented by the null representation {0}. g → 1. Prove that for any X.4.4. C) acts linearly on V in the tautological manner.32. A G-module is said to be irreducible if it has no invariant subspaces other than {0} and V itself. for any g ∈ G.3. T2 (g)L = LT1 (g). with Lie algebra LG . and the adjoint representation Ad : SO(n) → Aut(so(n)).4. if G = SO(n). Let Ti : G → Aut (Ui ) (i = 1.. Let V = Cn .4. Ad(g ) ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3. V2 ). ⊔ ⊓ The proof of this proposition is left to the reader. ⊔ ⊓ dt Deﬁnition 3. while 1 is represented by the trivial module G → Aut (C). ⊔ ⊓ If V is a G-module. We denote by Adg : LG → L the differential of h → C g (h) at h = 1. and the resulting map G → Aut(LG ).31.4. Hence Hom (U1 . is called adjoint representation of G. sends the identity 1 ∈ G to itself.

any other nontrivial G-morphism L : V1 → V2 has to be an isomorphism. Proof.4. where dVG (g) denotes the normalized bi-invariant measure on G.4. then for all u ∈ U . ⊔ ⊓ In the sequel.4. T ∗ (g) = T −1 (g) = T (g−1 ). Similarly. If x ∈ U ⊥ . v2 ∈ V . We deduce that. if V1 and V2 are not isomorphic as G-modules. ⊔ ⊓ If we denoted by Irr (G) the collection of isomorphism classes of irreducible G-modules. Let L ∈ HomG (V1 . Let V be a complex G-module and h a G-invariant Hermitian metric. Proof. ∀g ∈ G. . then we can rephrase the above corollary by saying that Irr (G) generates the semigroup (G − M od. T ∗ (g)u) = h(x. so that U ⊥ is G-invariant. where “⊥” denotes the orthogonal complement with respect to h. Then there exists a Hermitian metric h on V which is G-invariant.36. gv2 ) = h(v1 . U2 ) can be identiﬁed with the linear subspace in Hom (U1 . the operator T (g) is unitary.38 (Schur lemma). v ) := G h(gu. V2 ) = ∼ V2 1 if V1 = . T (g)T ∗ (g) = ½V . ∀g ∈ G. Proposition 3.37. h(gv1 . V2 be two irreducible complex G-modules.. Then ker L ⊂ V1 is an invariant subspace of V1 . gv )dVG (g). v2 ). Assume now that V1 ∼ = V2 and S : V1 → V2 is an isomorphism of G-modules. Let V1 . ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 3.35 (Weyl’s unitary trick). ∀v1 . i. Then dimC HomG (V1 . and ∀g ∈ G h(T (g)x. ⊕). U2 ) consisting of the linear maps U1 → U2 unchanged by the above action of G.e. According to the previous discussion.4. Lemma 3. L has to be in isomorphism of G-modules. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS We see that HomG (U1 . u) = h((x. One can now check easily that h is G-invariant. and V a complex Gmodule. either ker L = 0 or ker L = V1 . Thus T (g)x ∈ U ⊥ . V2 ) = {0}. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 3. Since h is G-invariant it follows that. Range (L) ⊂ V2 is an invariant subspace of V2 . Deﬁne its G-average by h(u. T (g −1 )u) = 0. we conclude Range L = V2 .122 CHAPTER 3. If U is an invariant subspace of V then so is U ⊥ . Hence. then HomG (V1 . ∼ 0 if V1 = V2 Proof. G will always denote a compact Lie group. Thus. The ﬁrst situation forces Range L = 0 and. To gain a little more insight we need to use the following remarkable trick due to Isaac Schur. V2 ). Let G be a compact Lie group. since V2 is irreducible. Every G-module V can be decomposed as a direct sum of irreducible ones. Let h be an arbitrary Hermitian metric on V . Hence.

irreducible S 1 -module S 1 × V ∋ (eiθ . there exists α ∈ R such that (verify!) λ(eiθ ) = exp(iαθ ). λ looks like an exponential. We have thus obtained a smooth map λ : S 1 → C∗ . (c) χUi∗ = χUi -the complex conjugate of χUi . Invoking again ⊓ the above discussion we deduce T ≡ λ½V1 .4.39.40. (a)χU1 ⊕U2 = χU1 + χU2 . i. The character of V is the smooth function χV : G → C. z ) → einθ z. Thus. L ≡ λS . h ∈ G. Example 3. χV (g) := tr T (g). (The irreducible (complex) representations of S 1 ). (eiθ . Exercise 3.e. Then the following hold.41. and ker (λ½V1 −T ) = 0. Deﬁnition 3. v ) −→ Tθ v ∈ V. U2 complex G-modules and χUi their characters.4. In particular. As in the discussion of the modular function we deduce that |λ| ≡ 1. Describe the irreducible representations of T n -the n-dimensional torus.4. such that Hence λ : S 1 → C∗ is a group morphism. (b) χUi (1) = dim Ui . i. . exp(2π iα) = 1. this implies that each Tθ is an S 1 -automorphism since it obviously commutes with the action of this group. Moreover.. ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 3. ∀θ ∈ R.4. for any integer n ∈ Z we have a representation S 1 → Aut (C) ρn λ(eiθ · eiτ ) = λ(eiθ )λ(eiθ ). U1 . the representations of S 1 . (a) Let V be a complex G-module. ⊔ Schur’s lemma is powerful enough to completely characterize S 1 − M od. Let G be a compact Lie group. Let V be a complex where Tθ1 · Tθ2 = Tθ1 +θ2 mod 2π . V2 ) = 1. g → T (g) ∈ Aut (V ). INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 123 Consider the automorphism T = S −1 L : V1 → V1 . The map λ½V1 −T is an endomorphism of G-modules. Hence Tθ = λ(θ )½V which shows that dim V = 1 since any 1-dimensional subspace of V is S 1 -invariant.42. This shows dim HomG (V1 . (The character of a representation is an example of class function). ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ The exponentials exp(inθ ) are called the characters of the representations ρn . so that α ∈ Z. Since V1 is a complex vector space T admits at least one (non-zero) eigenvalue λ. Conversely. χU1 ⊗U2 = χU1 · χU1 .e. (b) A class function is a continuous function f : G → C such that f (hgh−1 ) = f (g) ∀g.4.3.

each T (g) is a unitary operator on U . G Note that P T (h) = T (h)P .. Proof of (e). UiG = {x ∈ Ui . Proof of (d). Hence P is a projection onto U G .e. Proof. each P u is G-invariant. U1 ). where UiG denotes the space of G-invariant elements of Ui . i.U1 ) = dimC (Hom (U2 . ﬁx an invariant Hermitian metric on U = Ui . The action of G on U ∗ is given by T (g−1 )† . if x ∈ U is G-invariant. we have T (g−1 )† = T (g). P 2 = P .. ⊔ ⊓ . U1 ). x = Ti (g)x ∀g ∈ G}. P u = T (g)u dVG (g). then Px = G T (g)xdg = G x dVG (g) = x. T (γ )u dVG (γ ) = P u. ∀h ∈ G. U G = Range P . P 2u = G T (g)P u dVG (g) = G P u dVG (g) = P u.124 (d) G CHAPTER 3.e.e. Since T (g) is unitary. Thus. U ). U1 ))G = dimC HomG (U2 .. Note also that P is a projector. i. i. To prove (c). P ∈ HomG (U. and in particular dimC U G = tr P = G tr T (g) dVG (g) = G χU (g) dVG (g). This proves (c). The parts (a) and (b) are left to the reader. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS χUi (g)dVG (g) = dim UiG . G Thus. since HomG coincides with the space of G-invariant morphisms. Indeed. χU1 · χU2 dVG (g) = ∗ dVG (g ) = χU1 · χU2 ∗ dVG (g ) = χU1 ⊗U2 G G G G χHom(U2 . Conversely. We now compute T (h)P u = G T (hg )u dVG (g) = G ∗ T (γ )u Rh −1 dVG (γ ). (e) G χU1 (g) · χU2 (g)dVG (g) = dim HomG (U2 . Consider P : U → U.

but its solution requires a lot more work that goes beyond the scope of this book.4. Then U ∼ = V if and only if χU = χV . Let U .4. Describing the invariants of a group action was a very fashionable problem in the second half of the nineteenth century. V be irreducible G-modules. cV These facts can be presented coherently by considering the Z-graded vector space I• c (V ) := k ∗ Λk inv V . k ∗ Denote by bc k (V ) the complex dimension of the space of G-invariant elements in Λc V . Decompose U and V as direct sums of irreducible G-modules U = ⊕m 1 (mi Ui ) V = ⊕ℓ 1 (nj Vj ). the problem of describing the representations of a compact Lie group boils down to describing the characters of its irreducible representations.42. Proof. The equivalence “representation” ⇐⇒ “characters” stated by this corollary now follows immediately from Schur’s lemma and the previous corollary. ⊔ ⊓ Thus.43. Its Poincar´ e polynomial is PI• (t) = c (V ) tk bc k (V ) = tk χΛk ∗ dVG (g ). as the space of complex multi-linear skew-symmetric maps V × · · · × V → C. U∼ =V 125 G Proof.4. The complex exterior algebra • Λc V ∗ is a complex G-module. This problem was completely solved by Hermann Weyl. ⊔ ⊓ Hence χU = mi χVi and χV = nj χVj . cV G To obtain a more concentrated formulation of the above equality we need to recall some elementary facts of linear algebra. Corollary 3. χV ) = χU · χV dg = δU V = 1 .42 using Schur’s lemma. For each endomorphism A of V denote by σk (A) the trace of the endomorphism Λk A : Λk V → Λk V. We will spend the remaining part of this subsection analyzing the equality (d) in Theorem 3. Follows from Theorem 3. .4. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS Corollary 3.4. Then (χU . V be two G-modules. Formula (d) mentioned above is a truly remarkable result. Let U . 0 . U∼ =V . Let V be a complex G-module and denote by χV its character.3. One has the equality bc k (V ) = G χ Λk ∗ dVG (g ). It allows (in principle) to compute the maximum number of linearly independent invariant elements.44.

(3. .2. so that the Poincar´ e polynomial of I• elements in Λk V r (V ) = ⊕k Ir is r k PI• (t) = r (V ) k k ∗ On the other hand. (see Exercise 2.4.4. Using the results of Subsection 2.7) and (3.4. skew-symmetric maps V × · · · × V → R. e.10) = dVG (g). br k (V ) is equal to the complex dimension of Λr V ⊗ C. (3. We will have the chance to use this result in computing topological invariants of manifolds with a “high degree of symmetry” like. skew-symmetric maps V × · · · × V → C. the complex Grassmannians. .4. it is a complex G-module. Let V be a complex G-module.7) det ½V + t T (g) dVG (g). then g acts on Λk V ∗ by Λk T (g −1 )† = Λk T (g).. Denote by Λ• r V the space of R-multi-linear. so that Λr V ⊗ C is the space of R-multi-linear. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS Equivalently.8) Consider now the following situation. The real dimension of the subspace Ik r (V ) of G-invariant k ∗ will be denoted by br (V ).g. Explicitly.4. Hence χ Λk ∗ = σk T (g ) . (We implicitly assumed that each T (g) is unitary with respect to some G-invariant metric on V ).5 we deduce • ∗ ∼ • ∗ Λ• r V ⊗ C = Λc V ⊗C Λc V = ∗ j ⊕i+j =k Λi c V ⊗ Λc V ∗ t k br k (V ).9) we deduce PI• (t) = r (V ) k σi T (g) σj T (g) ti+j dVG (g) G i+ j = k = G det det G ½V + tT (g) det ½V + t T (g) dVG (g) ½V + tT (g) 2 (3.126 CHAPTER 3. We complexify it. cV We conclude that PI• (t) = c (V ) tk σk T (g) dVG (g) = G G (3. ∗ • The vector space Λ• r V is a real G-module.9) k Each of the above summands is a G-invariant subspace. Using (3.25) the number σk (A) is the coefﬁcient of tk in the characteristic polynomial σt (A) = det(½V + tA).2. If g ∈ G acts on V by T (g). and as such.4. σk (A) is given by the sum σk (A) = 1≤i1 ···ik ≤n det aiα iβ (n = dim V ).

The exterior derivative also has a ﬁbered version but its true meaning can only be grasped by referring to Leray’s spectral sequence of a ﬁbration and so we will not deal with it. we have an entire (smooth) family of them (Fb )b∈B . The aim of this subsection is to discuss what happens when we deal with an entire family of objects parameterized by some smooth manifold.e. where (xi ) are local coordinates on the standard ﬁber F . Let p : E → B be an orientable bundle with oriented basis B . The interested reader can learn more about this operation from [40]. The general case reduces to this one since any bundle is locally a product. Deﬁnition 3. for each y ∈ Uαβ . then so is the total space E (as an abstract smooth manifold). This requires a ﬁbered version of orientability. The natural orientation can thus be called the ﬁber-ﬁrst orientation. where ωF ∈ det Tf F (respectively ωB ∈ det Tb B ) deﬁnes the orientation of Tf F (respectively Tb B ). Chapter 3. ⊔ ⊓ .45. ⊔ ⊓ ☞Important convention.4. such that the gluing maps 1 Ψβ ◦ Ψ− α : F × Uαβ → F × Uαβ (Uαβ = Uα ∩ Uβ ) p p Ψ are ﬁberwise orientation preserving.5. Assume now that. α (b) There exists an open cover (Uα ). We will ﬁrst deﬁne a ﬁbered version of integration. and trivializations p−1 (Uα ) −→ F × Uα .. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3.4.4. the diffeomorphism F ∋ f → Ψαβ (f. and the gluing maps are ﬁberwise orientation preserving.46. In the sequel all orientable bundles will be given the ﬁber-ﬁrst orientation. (a) The manifold F is orientable. We will discuss only the ﬁbered version of integration. Sec.b) E is given by ΩF × ωB . On the total space E we will always work with split coordinates (xi . The bundle is said to be orientable if the following hold.5 Fibered calculus In the previous section we have described the calculus associated to objects deﬁned on a single manifold. and (y j ) are local coordinates on the base B (the parameter space). y ) ∈ F preserves any orientation on F . The model situation is the bundle E = Rk × Rm → Rm = B.3. instead of a single manifold F . y j ). This convention can be brieﬂy described as orientation total space = orientation ﬁber ∧ orientation base. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS 127 3. If the base B of an orientable bundle p : E → B is orientable. In more rigorous terms this means that we are given a smooth ﬁber bundle p : E → B with standard ﬁber F . Let p : E → B be a smooth bundle with standard ﬁber F .4. y ) −→ y. i. (x. If E = F × B then the orientation of the tangent space T(f. The natural orientation of the total space E is deﬁned as follows.

Then for any ω ∈ Ω∗ cpt (E ) and η ∈ ωcpt (B ) such that deg ω + deg η = dim E we have E/B dE ω = (−1)r dB ω.128 CHAPTER 3. and ω = f dxI ∧ dy J .4. |I | = r ⊔ ⊓ The operator E/B is called the integration-along-ﬁbers operator. E/B If B is oriented and ω η ar as above then ω ∧ p∗ (η ) = ω B E/B E ∧ η. E/B uniquely deﬁned by its action on forms supported on domains D of split coordinates p D∼ = Rr × Rm → Rm . f ∈ Ccpt = E/B Rr 0 .e. |I | = r . One shows using partitions of unity that these local deﬁnitions can be patched together to produce a well deﬁned map E/B •−r : Ω• cpt (E ) → Ωcpt (B ). then If ω = f dxI ∧ dy J . (x. i. ∞ (Rr +m ). Proof.4. The details are left to the reader. Proposition 3. (x. It sufﬁces to consider only the model case p : E = Rr × Rm → Rm = B. The proof goes exactly as in the non-parametric case. There exists a linear operator p∗ = •−r : Ω• cpt (E ) → Ωcpt (B ). CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS Let p : E → B be an orientable ﬁber bundle with standard ﬁber F . (Fubini) The last equality implies immediately the projection formula p∗ (ω ∧ p∗ η ) = p∗ ω ∧ η..47. ∂y j .48.11) ∂f i dx ∧ dxI ∧ dy J + (−1)|I | ∂xi j ∂f I dx ∧ dy j ∧ dy J .4. Then dE ω = i p (3. y ) → y. r = dim F. f dxI dy J . when B is a point. Proposition 3. Let p : E → B be an orientable bundle with an r -dimensional standard ﬁber ∗ F . y ) → y.

Suppose that p : E → B is an oriented ﬁbration. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 3. there exists a unique volume form ωE/B on Eb = p−1 (b) with the property that. (a) A smooth manifold E with boundary ∂E .49. (Gelfand-Leray). and ωB is a volume form on B . Example 3. A ∂ -bundle is a collection (E. (a) Prove that.51. The projection p : [0. y ) = 0. This form is called the Gelfand-Leray residue of ωE rel p. y ) → t = ax + by . (ii) A smooth map p : E → B such that the restrictions p : Int E → B and p : ∂E → B are smooth bundles. One can think of a ∂ -bundle as a smooth family of manifolds with boundary.4. ⊔ ⊓ Standard Models A ∂ -bundle is obtained by gluing two types of local models. Hence ∂ dE ω = (−1)|I | j ω. The interior ﬁber is the open interval (0.3. p f ωE = E B Eb f ωE/B ωB .4. Stokes’ formula shows that the ﬁrst integral is always zero. deﬁnes a ∂ -bundle. (b) Prove that for every compactly supported smooth function f : E → R we have p∗ (f ωE ) b = Eb f ωE/B ωB (b). a2 + b2 = 0. ∀b ∈ B.4. The ﬁber of p : ∂ (I × M ) → M is the disjoint union of two points. ∂E.50. dxI ∧ dy j ∧ dy J = (−1)r dB ∂y r E/B E/B R j + (−1)|I | Rr j ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 3. m) → m. INTEGRATION ON MANIFOLDS ∂f i dx ∧ dxI ∂xi ∂f I dx ∧ dy j ∧ dy J . The above integrals are deﬁned to be zero if the corresponding forms do not have degree r . ∂y j 129 dE ω = E/B Rr i The second equality is left to the reader as an exercise. we have ∗ ωE (x) = ωE/B (x) ∧ (p∗ ωB )(x) ∈ Λdim E Tx E. The standard ﬁber of p : Int E → B is called the interior ﬁber. B ) consisting of the following. 1). Rr × Rm → Rm ⊔ ⊓ • Interior models . Compute the Gelfand∧dy Leray residue dxdt along the ﬁber p(x. ωE is a volume form on E . (c) Consider the ﬁbration R2 → R. for every x ∈ Eb . for every b ∈ B .4. 1] × M → M (t. p. (x.

where Hr + := (x1 . x1 ≥ 0 . E/B This is “the mother of all homotopy formulæ”. It will play a crucial part in Chapter 7 when we embark on the study of DeRham cohomology. Let p : (E. Remark 3. Then for any ω ∈ Ω• cpt (E ) we have ω= ∂E/B E/B dE ω − (−1)r dB ω (Homotopy formula).55.53. If p : Int E → B is orientable and the basis B is oriented as well. Let p : (E. CALCULUS ON MANIFOLDS m m Hr + × R → R . · · · .130 • Boundary models CHAPTER 3. Prove the above theorem. Exercise 3. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 3. E/B ⊔ ⊓ The last equality can be formulated as = ∂E/B E/B dE − (−1)r dB .4. (ii) The induced orientation as the boundary of E .4.52.4. ∂E ) → B be an orientable ∂ -bundle with an r -dimensional interior ﬁber. then on ∂E one can deﬁne two orientations.4.54. xr ) ∈ Rr . Exercise 3. ⊔ ⊓ . These two orientations coincide. Prove that the above orientations on ∂E coincide. ∂E ) → B be a ∂ -bundle. (i) The ﬁber-ﬁrst orientation as the total space of an oriented bundle ∂E → B .

In particular. one can say that such surfaces are endowed with a clear procedure of measuring lengths of piecewise smooth curves. The simplest way to do achieve this is to assume that each tangent space is endowed with an inner product (which can vary from point to point in a smooth way). A “canvas surface” can be deformed in many ways but with some limitations: it cannot be stretched as a rubber surface because the ﬁbers of the canvas are ﬂexible but not elastic. These are manifolds with an extra structure arising naturally in many instances. On such manifolds one can speak of the length of a curve. Loosely speaking. the Riemannian geometry studies the properties of surfaces (manifolds) “made of canvas”. we will study the problem formulated in Chapter 1: why a plane (ﬂat) canvas disk cannot be wrapped in an one-to-one fashinon around the unit sphere in R3 .Chapter 4 Riemannian Geometry Now we can ﬁnally put to work the abstract notions discussed in the previous chapters. this means that the only operations we can perform are those which do not change the lengths of curves on the surface. where |γ ˙ (t)| is the Euclidean length of the tangent vector γ ˙ (t). and the angle between two smooth curves. Answering this requires the notion of Riemann curvature which will be the central theme of this chapter. one can think of “canvas surfaces” as those surfaces on which any “reasonable” curve has a well deﬁned length. this problem can be solved if we assume that there is a procedure of measuring lengths of tangent vectors at any point on our manifold. Classical vector analysis describes one method of measuring lengths of smooth paths in R3 . and we are clearly faced with one problem: how do we make sense of the length |γ ˙ (t)|? Obviously. 1] → R3 is such a paths.1 Deﬁnitions and examples To motivate our deﬁnition we will ﬁrst try to formulate rigorously what do we mean by a “canvas surface”. then its length is given by 1 length (γ ) = 0 |γ ˙ (t)|dt. 4.1 Metric properties 4. We want to do the same thing on an abstract manifold. Alternatively. Thus.1. Adapting a more constructive point of view. 131 . If γ : [0.

⊔ ⊓ The reader can check easily that g is well deﬁned.. g0 ) is the classical Euclidean geometry. If γ : [a. ). there exits a map φ : B → A such that ∀β ∈ B supp β ⊂ Uφ(β ) . the restriction gx : Tx M × Tx M → R is an inner product on the tangent space Tx M . b] → M is a piecewise smooth path. symmetric positive deﬁnite (0. The tensor g is called a Riemann metric on M . then we deﬁne its length by b l(γ ) = a |γ ˙ (t)|γ (t) dt. i. The space Rn has a natural Riemann metric g0 = (dx1 )2 + · · · + (dxn )2 . ∂xi ∂xj Proposition 4. Proof. .1. 2)–tensors. (a) A Riemann manifold is a pair (M. We will use again partitions of unity. . •). 2)–tensor ﬁeld on M . . pick a partition of unity B ⊂ C0 α α∈A . |v |x := gx (v. The length of a tangent vector v ∈ Tx M is deﬁned as usual. for any x ∈ M . We will frequently use the alternative notation (•. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY Deﬁnition 4. g) is a Riemann manifold then. The geometry of (Rn .e. (The Euclidean space).1. •)x = gx (•. If we choose local coordinates (x1 . and it is indeed a Riemann metric on M .1. 2) are said to be isometric if there exists a diffeomorphism φ : M1 → M2 such that φ∗ g2 = g1 . (b) Two Riemann manifolds (Mi . xn ) on M . ⊔ ⊓ If (M. g) consisting of a smooth manifold M and a metric g on the tangent bundle.2. i. then we get a local description of g as g = gij dxi dxj . v )1/2 . Let (xi α ) be a collection of local coordinates on Uα . Example 4. ∞ (M ) subordinated to the cover (U ) Now.. The only thing that is not obvious is that RM is non-empty. a smooth. gij = g( ∂ ∂ .132 CHAPTER 4.1. and denote by RM the set of Riemann metrics on M . ⊔ ⊓ . Then RM is a non-empty convex cone in the linear space of symmetric (0. Cover M by coordinate neighborhoods (Uα )α∈A .3. gi ) (i = 1. . Then deﬁne g= β ∈B βgφ(β ) . Using these local coordinates we can construct by hand the metric gα on Uα by 2 n 2 gα = (dx1 α ) + · · · + (dxα ) .e. Let M be a smooth manifold.

Let (M.1.1. g) be a Riemann manifold and S ⊂ M a submanifold. x) = 1.1). HA has a natural metric induced by the Euclidean metric on Rn .1: The unit sphere and an ellipsoid look “different”. any invertible symmetric n × n matrix deﬁnes a quadratic hypersurface in Rn by HA = x ∈ Rn . where (•. METRIC PROPERTIES 133 For example. . and the induced metric is called the round metric of S n−1 . Remark 4. One can visualize a Riemann structure as deﬁning a “shape” of the manifold. For example. ⊔ ⊓ Figure 4. but they look “different ” (see Figure 4. the unit sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 is diffeomorphic to the ellipsoid 2 z2 x2 +y +3 2 = 1. (Induced metrics on submanifolds). If ı : S → M denotes the natural inclusion then we obtain by pull back a metric on S gS = ı∗ g = g |S . and there is no natural way of selecting one of them. Example 4.1. •) denotes the Euclidean inner product on Rn . appearances may be 12 22 . On any manifold there exist many Riemann metrics. (Ax. then HIn is the unit sphere in Rn .5.4. However. Figure 4.2: A plane sheet and a half cylinder are “not so different”. when A = In . For example.4.

⊔ ⊓ g= 1 − x2 − y 2 Exercise 4. Consider a Lie group G. but the metric structures are the same since we have not changed the lengths of curves on our sheet.1. h). One checks easily that the correspondence G ∋ g → ·. i. The Poincar´ e model of the hyperbolic plane is the Riemann manifold (D. and it is left invariant. Y ) = X. endowed with the metric h= Show that the Cayley transform z = x + iy → w = − i establishes an isometry (D. (The hyperbolic plane). · is a smooth tensor ﬁeld. g) where D is the unit open disk in the plane R2 and the metric g is given by 1 (dx2 + dy 2 ). The ﬁrst question one may ask is whether there is a notion of “straight line” on a Riemann manifold.e.1. ⊔ ⊓ g 4. They look different. Y g = (Lg−1 )∗ X. The conclusion to be drawn from these two examples is that we have to be very careful when we use the attribute “different”.8. If G is also compact. Y ∈ Tg G. v > 0}. .4..1. 4v 2 Example 4. z+i = u + iv z−i ⊔ ⊓ 1 (du2 + dv 2 ).2 to produce metrics which are both left and right invariant. X. In the Euclidean space R3 there are at least two ways to deﬁne a line segment. and denote by LG its Lie algebra. L∗ g h = h ∀g ∈ G. we can use the averaging technique of Subsection 3. In Figure 4. Then any inner product ·. (Left invariant metrics on Lie groups). v ) ∈ R2 . (Lg−1 )∗ Y . where (Lg−1 )∗ : Tg G → T1 G is the differential at g ∈ G of the left translation map Lg−1 .2 The Levi-Civita connection To continue our study of Riemann manifolds we will try to follow a close parallel with classical Euclidean geometry. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY deceiving. · g on G deﬁned by hg (X. · on LG induces a Riemann metric h = ·.2 it is illustrated the deformation of a sheet of paper to a half cylinder. Let H denote the upper half-plane H = {(u. ⊔ ⊓ Example 4. ∀g ∈ G.7.134 CHAPTER 4.1.6. g) ∼ = (H.

1] → R3 satisfying γ ¨ (t) = 0. X ) + Xg(Y. Y ) + g(X.1. The connection ∇ is usually called the Levi-Civita connection associated to the metric g. Y ) = g(∇Z X. Moreover. ∂xi i. there are inﬁnitely many connections to choose from.1. Using the symmetry of the connection we compute Zg(X. Y ∈ Vect (M ).1.e. We will soon see however that both points of view yield the same conclusion.1) Since we have not said anything about calculus of variations which deals precisely with problems of type (i). we would like this connection to be compatible with the metric. Z ∈ Vect (M ) we have Zg(X. As we know. We will achieve this by producing an explicit description of a connection with the above two mproperties. Y ].9. The following fundamental result will solve this dilemma. Let us ﬁrst reformulate (4. j. ∇i ∂k ) = 0. X ) + g(∇X Y.. ∇i := ∇∂i . i.. Uniqueness.. Consider a Riemann manifold (M.1) can be rephrased as ∇0 ˙ (t) = 0. i. where ∂i := ∂ . Z ) = g(∇Z X.e. ∀X. Y ) − Y g(Z.e. Then there exists a unique symmetric connection ∇ on T M compatible with the metric g i. the connection is compatible with the metric. Y. For any X. Proposition 4. Let ∇ be such a connection. ∂k ) = ∇i δjk − g0 (∇i ∂j . ∂k ) − g0 (∂j . T (∇) = 0.e. Of course. Condition (4. but even so. ∇Z Y ) since ∇g = 0. it has a natural trivial connection ∇0 deﬁned by ∇0 i ∂j = 0 ∀i.1). and as such. ∇g = 0. ∇g = 0 and ∇X Y − ∇Y X = [X.2) so that the problem of deﬁning “lines” in a Riemann manifold reduces to choosing a “natural” connection on the tangent bundle.1. METRIC PROPERTIES (i) A line segment is the shortest path connecting two given points. the tangent bundle of R3 is equipped with a natural trivialization. then 0 0 0 ∇0 i g0 (∂j . Y ) − g(∇Y Z. we will use the second interpretation as our starting point. Z ) . if g0 denotes the Euclidean metric. g). Proof. γ ˙ (t) γ (4.1.1.4. 135 (4. all the Christoffel symbols vanish. (ii) A line segment is a smooth path γ : [0.

1. Y ].. The routine details are left to the reader. (4.3) ∂ ∂xi . nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY +g(X. The above equality establishes the uniqueness of ∇. b) → M. ..e.. X ) + Zg(X. A geodesic on a Riemann manifold (M. the scalars Γℓ ij denote the Christoffel symbols of ∇ in these coordinates.3) indeed deﬁnes a connection with the required properties. Deﬁnition 4.. Z = ∂j = ∂x ). Y ) = {Xg(Y. Y ) 2 −g([X. 1 n and the path γ is described by γ (t) = (x (t). ˙ (t) γ where ∇ is the Levi-Civita connection. dt Then. Set d =γ ˙ (t) = x ˙ i ∂i . ∂k ) = gkℓ Γℓ ij = 1 (∂i gjk − ∂k gij + ∂j gik ) . X ]. x (t)). Z ].. We conclude that 1 g(∇X Z. 2 (4. . . ⊔ ⊓ We can now deﬁne the notion of “straight line” on a Riemann manifold. xn ) on M we deduce from (4.1.1. X ) − g([Z.. we can rewrite the geodesic equation as a second order. g) is a smooth path γ : (a. 2 Above.136 CHAPTER 4. Y )}. ∇∂i ∂j = Γℓ ij ∂ℓ . Using local coordinates (x1 . It boils down to showing that (4. that j k g(∇i ∂j . Y ]. Z ) − Y g(Z.1. . satisfying ∇γ ˙ (t) = 0. xn ) with respect to which the Christoffel symbols are (Γk ij ). Y ]. i.1..4) Existence. ∇X Z ) = g([Z. X ) + g([X. If (giℓ ) denotes the inverse of (giℓ ) we deduce 1 kℓ Γℓ ij = g (∂i gjk − ∂k gij + ∂j gik ) . . Y ). Z ) + g([Y.10. ˙ (t) = x ¨i ∂i + x ˙ i ∇ d ∂i = x ¨i ∂i + x ˙ ix ˙ j ∇j ∂i ∇dγ dt dt =x ¨ ∂k + k Γk ˙ ix ˙ j ∂k ji x k (Γk ij = Γji ).3). (4. Y ) + 2g(∇X Z. . . with X = ∂i = ∂ ∂ Y = ∂k = ∂x . X ]. ∇Y X ) + g(Y.1. ∇Z Y ) − g(Z.5) ⊔ ⊓ Using local coordinates (x1 . Z ) + g([Z.

⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Example 4. any γx.1.1. |X | = r }. [4]). Y ]) = [ad(X ). where the bracket in the right hand side is the usual commutator of two endomorphisms. . ⊔ ⊓ One can think of a geodesic as deﬁning a path in the tangent bundle t → (γ (t).1.X : (−ε. then the Riemann manifold is called geodesically complete.14. The above proposition shows that the geodesics deﬁne a local ﬂow Φ on T M by Φt (x. γ ˙ (t)).g. γ ˙ (0) = X . We have d d |γ ˙ (t)|2 = g(γ ˙ (t). we deduce that Sr (M ) are invariant subsets of the geodesic ﬂow. then the length of γ ˙ (t) is independent of time.X .13 (Conservation of energy). For any compact subset K ⊂ T M there exists ε > 0 such that for any (x. X ) = (γ (t)..15. Any X ∈ LG deﬁnes an endomorphism ad(X ) of LG by ad(X )Y := [X.. We deduce the following local existence result. Describe the inﬁnitesimal generator of the geodesic ﬂow. n. i.. Let G be a connected Lie group.1. Y ]. X ) ∈ K there exists a unique geodesic γ = γx. Let (M. Proposition 4. we can use the classical BanachPicard theorem on existence in initial value problems (see e. 137 (4. Proposition 4.1.4. .. γ ˙ (t)) = 2g(∇γ ˙ (t)) = 0. and let LG be its Lie algebra. ⊔ ⊓ Proof. g).11. If the path γ (t) is a geodesic. X ) ∈ T M . The Jacobi identity implies that ad([X.12. METRIC PROPERTIES so that the geodesic equation is equivalent to x ¨ k + Γk ˙ ix ˙j = 0 ij x ∀k = 1. g) be a Riemann manifold. ˙ (t) .X is deﬁned at each moment of time t for any (x. Deﬁnition 4.1. if we consider the sphere bundles Sr (M ) = {X ∈ T M . γ ˙ (t)) γ = γx. ε) → M such that γ (0) = x. The local ﬂow deﬁned above is called the geodesic ﬂow of the Riemann manifold (M. ⊔ ⊓ The geodesic ﬂow has some remarkable properties.1. γ dt dt Thus.6) k Since the coefﬁcients Γk ij = Γij (x) depend smoothly upon x. When the geodesic glow is a global ﬂow.e. Exercise 4. ad(Y )].

1. We want to describe its geodesics.e. (4..3) we get h(∇X Z. i.e.e. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. Y ]. First. we deduce γ ˙ i = 0. X ]. Y )}.1.. If we take X. at 1 ∈ G. Z ].7). we have to determine the associated Levi-Civita connection. we have 1 [X. X ].8) 2 This formula correctly deﬁnes a connection since any X ∈ Vect (G) can be written as a linear combination X= αi Xi αi ∈ C ∞ (G) Xi ∈ LG .. these vector ﬁelds are left invariant.1. Prove that its restriction to LG satisﬁes (4.1.. Using (4. Y = 1 {− [X. for any X ∈ LG . Y. the operator ad(X ) is skew-adjoint. i. Y }. If γ (t) is a geodesic. Y = so that.7). Z + [Y. Z ∈ LG . Y ) 2 −h([X. Z ]. then h(Y. h(Z. (4. Y ]. Let G be a Lie group and h a bi-invariant metric on G. [X.1. X ) + Zh(X. X − [Z.j Since [Xi . we can write γ ˙ (t) = 0 = ∇γ ˙ (t) = ˙ (t) γ γi Xi . We obtain the following equality (at 1 ∈ G) ∇X Z.7) We can now extend this inner product to a left invariant metric h on G.138 CHAPTER 4. In particular. This means that γ is an integral curve of the left invariant vector ﬁeld X so that the geodesics through the origin with initial direction X ∈ T1 G are γX (t) = exp(tX ). Xi ]. Y ) = 1 {Xh(Y. ⊔ ⊓ . · on LG such that. Xj ] = −[Xj . Z ] . RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY Assume that there exists an inner product ·..1. Y ]. X ) = const.16. [X. Xj ]. Z ] ∀X. Z ) = const. on any compact Lie groups there exist metrics satisfying (4. so that the ﬁrst three terms in the above formula vanish. h(X. Z ) + h([Y. i. Z = − Y. 2 Using the skew-symmetry of ad(X ) and ad(Z ) we deduce ∇X Z. i. Y ) = const. so that γ ˙ i Xi + i 1 2 γi γj [Xi . Z ) − Y (Z. X ) − h([Z. Z ]. γ ˙ (t) = γi (0)Xi = X. Y . 2 1 ∇X Z = [X. Z ∈ LG .

0) satisﬁes (4. the circles of maximal diameter on S 3 .. which will be given later in the book. compact Lie group....16.1. The geodesics through 1 will be the exponentials γα1 . and its restriction to (1.αn (t) is a closed curve. i. Let L be a ﬁnite dimensional real Lie algebra. .. so that SU (2) is diffeomorphic with the unit sphere S 3 ⊂ R4 .20. The Killing pairing or form is the bilinear map κ : L × L → R. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. Prove that SO(n) and SU (n) and SL(n. and we let the reader verify that these are in fact the great circles of S 3 . METRIC PROPERTIES 139 Deﬁnition 4.18. R) are semisimple Lie groups.7) since the bracket is 0. If the numbers αk are linearly dependent over Q. a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 1 ... θ ) are the natural angular coordinates on T n . Prove that the Killing form is positive semideﬁnite1 and satisﬁes (4.e. requires substantially more work.1. when the α’s are linearly independent over Q then a classical result of Kronecker (see e. 1 .7).1.. then obviously γα1 .1. The round metric on S 3 is biinvariant with respect to left and right (unit) quaternionic multiplication (verify this). 0.. A Lie group G is called semisimple if its Lie algebra is semisimple.1.1. i. y ∈ L. Its proof.g. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. Show that the parallel transport of X along exp(tY ) is (Lexp( t Y ) )∗ (Rexp( t Y ) )∗ X.. κ(x.19... eiαn t ) αk ∈ R. Let G be a compact Lie group. y ) := −tr (ad(x) ad(y )) x. and obviously. This is known as Weyl’s theorem.. then the ﬂat metric is deﬁned by g = (dθ 1 )2 + · · · + (dθ n )2 .21..1. The n-dimensional torus T n ∼ = 1 1 1 n S × · · · × S is an Abelian. [42]) states that the image of γα1 . but U (n) is not.αn is dense in T n !!! (see also Section 7. and on SU (2)).αn (t) t → (eiα1 t . .1. The Lie algebra L is said to be semisimple if the Killing pairing is a duality... If (θ . 2 2 ⊔ ⊓ Example 4.1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4.4. The geodesics of this metric are the 1-parameter subgroups of S 3 . On the contrary.... (Geodesics on ﬂat tori. any semisimple Lie group with positive deﬁnite Killing form is compact. its restriction to the origin satisﬁes the skewsymmetry condition (4.17.4 to come) The special unitary group SU (2) can also be identiﬁed with the group of unit quaternions a + bi + cj + dk .1. all the geodesics on S 3 are closed.e. The metric g on T n is bi-invariant. Hint: Use Exercise 4.. Thus. ⊔ ⊓ The converse of the above exercise is also true. 0.7).

j.140 CHAPTER 4.23. We can formulate this by saying that (gij ) is Euclidean up to order zero. We deﬁne the exponential map at q by expq : V ⊂ Tq M → M. g) be a Riemann manifold and U an open coordinate neighborhood with coordinates 1 (x . ∀i. Hence.sX (t) = γq.3 The exponential map and normal coordinates We have already seen that there are many differences between the classical Euclidean geometry and the the general Riemannian geometry in the large. Let q ∈ U be the point with coordinates (0.1. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 4. things are not “as bad”. The global topology of the manifold is responsible for this “failure”. Let (M. locally.1. The tangent space Tq M is a Euclidean space..X (st). We have the following result. k ∂y ∂y k We now describe a geometric way of producing such coordinates using the geodesic ﬂow. Local Riemannian geometry is similar in many respects with the Euclidean geometry.. The supremum of all radii r with this property is denoted by ρM (q ). Then there exists r > 0 such that the exponential map expq : Dq (r ) → M is a diffeomorphism onto. In this section we will deﬁne using the metric some special collections of local coordinates in which things are very close to being Euclidean. Denote as usual the geodesic from q with initial direction X ∈ Tq M by γq. we have seen examples in which one of the basic axioms of Euclidean geometry no longer holds: two distinct geodesic (read lines) may intersect in more than one point. 0). In particular. Proposition 4. Via a linear change in coordinates we may as well assume that gij (q ) = δij . The inﬁmum ρM = inf ρM (q ) q . We would like to “spread” the above equality to an entire neighborhood of q . the geodesic γq.1.e. To achieve this we try to ﬁnd local coordinates (y j ) near q such that in these new coordinates the metric is Euclidean up to order one. gij (q ) = δij ∂δij ∂gij (q ) = (q ) = 0. g) and q ∈ M as above..22.X (t) is deﬁned for all |t| ≤ 1.. The positive real number ρM (q ) is called the injectivity radius of M at q ... there exists a small neighborhood V of 0 ∈ Tq M such that. . the open “disk” of radius r centered at the origin.. Locally however. ∀s > 0 γq. . for any X ∈ V .X (t). and we can deﬁne Dq (r ) ⊂ Tq M . We will try to ﬁnd a local change in coordinates (xi ) → (y j ) in which the expression of the metric is as close as possible to the Euclidean metric g0 = δij dy i dy j .X (1). all of the classical incidence axioms hold. X → γq. For example. Note the following simple fact. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 4. xn ). Let (M. k. i.

j. . from which we deduce the lemma.22 relies on the following key fact.. .. xn ) the resulting cartesian coordinates in Tq M . the open set expq (Dq (r )) is called a normal neighborhood.25.. In normal coordinates (xi ) (at q ) the Christoffel symbols Γi jk vanish at q . the vectors ei = ∂∂ xi the ﬁrst equality.. and denote by (x1 .1. 141 ⊔ ⊓ Proof..X (0) = X.1. Then we have gij (q ) = δij and ∂ g ij (q ) = 0 ∀i. METRIC PROPERTIES is called the injectivity radius of M .26... The Fr´ echet differential at 0 ∈ Tq M of the exponential map D0 expq : Tq M → Texpq (0) M = Tq M is the identity Tq M → Tq M .. ⊔ ⊓ . By deﬁnition (D0 expq )X = γ ˙ q... the normal coordinates provide a ﬁrst order contact between g and the Euclidean metric.22 follows immediately from the above lemma using the inverse function theorem. form an orthonormal basis of Tq M and this proves Proof. ∂ xk Thus.1.. ∀i is the geodesic j k Γi jk (x(t))m m = 0. k. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 4. . mn ) ∈ Rn the curve t → xi (t) mi t ∂∂ so that xi 1≤i≤n t → expq . and denote by g ij the expression of the metric tensor in these coordinates. Lemma 4. For 0 < r < ρM (q ). By construction. any point p ∈ expq (Dq (r )) can be uniquely written as p = expq (xi ei ). Proof. en ) of Tq M . and will be denoted by Br (q ) for reasons that will become apparent a little later.1. It deﬁnes a line t → tX in Tq M which is mapped via the exponential map to the geodesic γq. To prove the second equality we need the following auxiliary result.24. The coordinates thus obtained are called normal coordinates at q .1. . The proof of Proposition 4. xn ) provides a coordinatization of the open set expq (Dq (r )) ⊂ M . so that the collection (x1 .. j k j n Γi jk (0)m m = 0 ∀m ∈ R In particular.4. Proposition 4.1. Lemma 4. For any (m1 . Let (xi ) be normal coordinates at q ∈ M . xi (t) = mi t.X (t). ⊔ ⊓ Now choose an orthonormal frame (e1 . Consider X ∈ Tq M .

The partial derivatives of F at (q. g) be a Riemann manifold. The reader may ask whether we can go one step further.1. ∀m ∈ Br (q ).0) F ( )= . Proof. ∗ ½ and in particular. ∇ Using ∇g = 0 we deduce ∂ g ij (q ) ∂ xk ∂ ∂ xj ∂ = 0 at q. i i i i ∂x ∂x ∂X ∂X ∂X i Thus. We must warn the reader that the above result does not guarantee that the postulated connecting geodesic lies entirely in Br (q ). Lemma 4.1. j. using normal coordinates (xi ) near q we get coordinates (xi .0) F has the form ½ 0 . . 0). 0) ∈ T M such that expm X is well deﬁned for all (m.9) ⊔ ⊓ ∂ = ( ∂x k g ij ) |q = 0. D(q. At this step we are in for a big surprise. ∂ xi (4. We compute the differential of F at (q. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY The result in the above lemma can be formulated as g ∇ ∂ ∂ xj ∂ ∂ . 0) ∈ T M . 0) are D(q. This is where the curvature of the Levi-Civita connection comes in. This thing is in general not possible and.27. As we have already mentioned. One may try to look for curves of minimal length joining two given points. it is nonsingular. there is a geometric way of measuring the “second order distance” between an arbitrary metric and the Euclidean metric. we have ε < ρM (m) and Bε (m) ⊃ Br (q ). We begin with a technical result which is interesting in its own. and we will devote an entire section to this subject. In particular. and ﬁnd local coordinates which produce a second order contact with the Euclidean metric. 4. This is a different ball game. Let (M. X j ) near (q. X ) → (m. Using the smooth dependence upon initial data in ordinary differential equations we deduce that there exists an open neighborhood V of (q.142 CHAPTER 4. We will prove that the geodesics deﬁned as in the previous subsection do just that. j.1. in fact. k so that. this is not the unique way of extending the notion of Euclidean straight line to arbitrary Riemann manifolds.4 The length minimizing property of geodesics We deﬁned geodesics via a second order equation imitating the second order equation deﬁning lines in an Euclidean space.0) F ( ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ )= + . any two points of Br (q ) can be joined by a unique geodesic of length < ε. i ∂ x ∂ xk = 0. ∀i. and ε > 0 such that. expm X ). at least locally. First. ∀i. the matrix deﬁning D(q. X ) ∈ V . For each q ∈ M there exists 0 < r < ρM (q ). We get a smooth map F : V → M × M (m.

Choose 0 < r < min(ε. Consider the smooth map f : [0. Proof. Lemma 4. i. |X |m < ε. 1]). i.e. and assume 0 < R < ρM (m). γ is the shortest path joining its endpoints. R) × (0. Clearly. 1). If we use normal coordinates on BR (m) we can express f as the embedding (0. We have to prove that the curve t → expm (δX (t)) are orthogonal to the radial geodesics s → expm (sX (t)). Let t → X (t). and its differential is nowhere zero. with equality if and only if ω ([0. m2 ∈ Br (q ) =⇒ (m1 . We assume that the map t → X (t) ∈ S1 (0) is an embedding. ρM (q )) such that m1 . it is injective. Theorem 4. r and ε as in the previous lemma. The proof relies on two lemmata. METRIC PROPERTIES 143 It follows from the implicit function theorem that F maps some neighborhood V of (q. and Bε (m) = expm (Dε (m)) ⊃ Br (q ).. and consider the unique geodesic γ : [0.4. In BR (m) ⊂ M . 1] → M. 0 ≤ s ≤ R. 1) → Tm M. . f (s. m ∈ Bδ (q )} for some sufﬁciently small ε and δ. It is the unique geodesic with this property since F : V → U is injective. If ω : [0. we deduce that. X ) . Thus. Let m ∈ M be an arbitrary point. t) = expm (sX (t)) (s. the map expm : Dε (m) ⊂ Tm M → M is a diffeomorphism onto its image.29 (Gauss).e.. X (t) is a curve on the unit sphere S1 (0) ⊂ Tm M . q ) ∈ M × M .1. m2 ) ∈ U. |X | = δ .28.1. (s. R) × (0. for any m ∈ Br (q ). the curve t → expm (tX ) is a geodesic of length < ε joining m to expm (X ). 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 denote a smooth curve in Tm M such that |X (t)|m = 1. We can choose V to have the form {(m. 0) ∈ T M diffeomorphically onto some neighborhood U of (q. t) ∈ (0. R] × [0. 0 < δ < R.1. In particular. 1]) = γ ([0. 1] → M of length < ε joining two points of Br (q ). ⊔ ⊓ We can now formulate the main result of this subsection. 1] → M is a piecewise smooth path with the same endpoints as γ then 1 0 1 |γ ˙ (t)|dt ≤ 0 |ω ˙ (t)|dt. for any m ∈ M . Let q . the geodesics through m are orthogonal to the hypersurfaces Σδ = expq (Sδ (0)) = expm (X ). t) → sX (t).

144 Set ∂s := f∗ CHAPTER 4. The objects ∂s . The equality holds if and only if X (t) = const and ρ ˙ (t) ≥ 0. and since ∂f = |X (t)| = 1 ∂ρ . piecewise smooth curve ω : [a. ∇∂s ∂t . ∂ρ ∂t and ∂f ∂t are orthogonal. · denotes the inner product deﬁned by g. ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 4. t) = expm (0) so that ∂t |s=0 = 0. The length of the curve ω (t) is ≥ |ρ(b) − ρ(a)|. We conclude that the quantity ∂s . ∇∂s ∂t = ∂s . since [∂s . and ∂t are sections of the restriction of T M to the image of f . as needed.) are geodesics. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY ∂ ∂s ∈ Tf (s. Using the normal coordinates on BR (m) we can think of ∂s as a vector ﬁeld on a region in Tm M . Then ω ˙ = Since the vectors ∂f ∂ρ ∂f ∂f ρ ˙+ . t = const. Deﬁne ∂t similarly. t) := expm (ρX (t)). t). ∂t + ∂s . and as such we have the equality ∂s = X (t). Now consider any continuous. ∂t = 0 ∀(s. ∂t is independent of s. b] → BR (m) \ {m}. ∂t = 0 ∀(s.t) M. 2 since |∂s | = |X (t)| = 1. Let f (ρ. we deduce ∇∂s ∂s = 0. ∂t ] = 0. where ·. For s = 0 we have f (0. ∇∂t ∂s = ∂t |∂s |2 = 0. In other words. Each ω (t) can be uniquely expressed in the form ω (t) = expm (ρ(t)X (t)) |X (t)| = 1 0 < |ρ(t)| < R. ∂t = ∇∂s ∂s .30. Since the curves s → f (s. We have to show ∂s . and therefore ∂s . On the other hand. Using the metric compatibility of the Levi-Civita connection along the image of f we compute ∂s ∂s . we deduce (using the symmetry of the Levi-Civita connection) 1 ∂s . so that ω (t) = f (ρ(t). t).1. t). the shortest path joining two concentrical shells Σδ is a radial geodesic. Proof.

28 also implies that any two nearby points can be joined by a unique minimal geodesic. ˙ = 0. q such that l(ω ) = d(p. 1] → M of length < ε such that γ (i) = mi .10) Corollary 4. Letting δ → 0 we deduce l(ω ) ≥ R = l(γ ). q ) = inf l(ω ). The same argument used in the proof of Theorem 4.34. For any δ > 0 this path must contain a portion joining the shell Σδ (m0 ) to the shell ΣR (m0 ) and lying between them.31.4.32. (4. Prove the above corollary. Proof. Equality holds if and only if ρ(t) is monotone.1. m1 ∈ Br (q ). b] → M joining m0 to m1 .1.e. i. Let m0 . i = 0. Let q ∈ M .28 shows that for any 0 < r < ρM (q ) the radial geodesics expq (tX ) are minimal. 1] → M piecewise smooth path joining p to q A piecewise smooth path ω connecting two points p.1. Exercise 4. q ) < r .33.1.1. 1. any minimal path can be reparametrized such that it satisﬁes the geodesic equation. and consider a geodesic γ : [0. ⊔ ⊓ . By the previous lemma the length of this segment will be ≥ R − δ. From Theorem 4. If ω ([a. q ) is said to be minimal.1. Any Riemann manifold has a natural structure of metric space. b]) does not coincide with γ ([0. Then for all r > 0 sufﬁciently small expq (Dr (0))( = Br (q ) ) = p ∈ M d(p. This completes the proof of the lemma. Corollary 4.28 we deduce immediately the following consequence. For any q ∈ M we have the equality ρM (q ) = sup r .1. In particular we have the following consequence. Consider any other piecewise smooth path ω : [a. ⊔ ⊓ The proof of Theorem 4.1. 1]) then we obtain a strict inequality. The image of any minimal path coincides with the image of a geodesic. Set R = |X |.1. METRIC PROPERTIES we get |ω ˙ |2 = |ρ ˙ |2 + The equality holds if and only if b a ∂f ∂t 145 ∂f ∂t 2 ≥ |ρ ˙ |2 . X b |ω ˙ |dt ≥ a |ρ ˙ |dt ≥ |ρ(b) − ρ(a)|.1. and X (t) is constant. Corollary 4.1. Thus = 0. In other words. we set d(p. ω : [0.10) .28 is now immediate. r satisﬁes (4. More precisely. We can write γ (t) = expm0 (tX ) X ∈ Dε (m0 ). ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 4.

⊔ ⊓ In the last result of this subsection we return to the concept of geodesic completeness.1. 1] if d(q. γ (t)) < R + ε < ρM (q ). ˙ jx ¨ i + Γi x jk (x)x (4. Choose ax 0 < ε < 2 ρM (q ). m1 ∈ BR (q ) the map t → d(q.11) to get d2 2 ˙ |2 1 − nC |x|3 . The geodesic γm0 . not necessarily contained in BR (q ).12) .m1 (t) of length < ε. A subset U ⊂ M is said to be convex if any two points in U can be joined by a unique minimal geodesic which lies entirely inside U .12) is nonnegative.m1 (t) = expq (r (t)X (t)) X (t) ∈ Tq M with r (t) = d(q. d 2 It sufﬁces to show dt 2 (r ) ≥ 0 for t ∈ [0. We will prove that ∀m0 . For any q ∈ M there exists 0 < R < ιM (q ) such that for any r < R the ball Br (q ) is convex.m1 (t)) is convex and thus it achieves its maxima at the endpoints t = 0. 1] ∋ t → γm0 . we deduce that there exists a constant C > 0 (depending only on the magnitude of the second derivatives of the metric at q ) such that |Γi jk (x)| ≤ C |x|. (r ) ≥ 2|x dt2 If we chose from the very beginning R + ε ≤ (nC )−1/3 .m1 (t) can be uniquely expressed as γm0 . Note that d(q. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 4.1.11) ˙ (t) = where x Since Γi jk (0) = 0 (normal coordinates).1.m1 (t)). because along the geodesic we have |x| ≤ R + ε. γm0 .1. Using the geodesic equation we obtain ¨ i ≥ −C |x||x ˙ |2 . 1.m1 takes the form (xi (t)). the right-hand-side of (4. This establishes the convexity of t → r 2 (t) and concludes the proof of the proposition. The geodesic γm0 .35. We compute easily d2 2 ¨ n ) + |x ˙ |2 (r ) = 2r 2 (¨ x1 + · · · + x dt2 ˙ i ei ∈ Tq M . and we have 2 r 2 = (x1 )2 + · · · + (xn )2 . We will see that this can be described in terms of the metric space structure alone. m1 in BR (q ) can be joined by a unique minimal geodesic [0.1. γm0 . 1 Proof.1. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY Deﬁnition 4. (4. At this moment it is convenient to use normal coordinates (xi ) near q .36. x We substitute the above inequality in (4. and 0 < R < ε such that any two points m0 . m1 ) are sufﬁciently small. then. m0 ) and d(q.146 CHAPTER 4. The path γ satisﬁes the equation x ˙ k = 0.

Kn ⊂ Kn+1 and n Kn = M such that if pn ∈ Kn then d(q. Denote by gα the metric on 1 Uα deﬁned by gα = d− α g so that the diameter of Uα in the new metric is 1. (e) There exists a sequence of compact sets Kn ⊂ M . Example 4. We devote this subsection to describing this more general “vector analysis”.4. ⊔ ⊓ 4.37 (Hopf-Rinow). ⊔ ⊓ ∂ ∂ ∂ +Q +R . pn ) → ∞. geodesically convex open sets. the tori T n . g) be a Riemann manifold and let (Uα ) be an open cover consisting of bounded. (b) The closed and bounded (with respect to the metric structure) sets of M are compact. Moreover.. Let M be a Riemann manifold and q ∈ M . Using a partition of unity (ϕi ) subordinated to this cover we can form a new metric g ˜= i ϕi gα(i) (supp ϕi ⊂ Uα(i) ). We now have two structures at our disposal: a Riemann metric. and we will use both of them to construct a plethora of operations on tensors. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 4.39.g. METRIC PROPERTIES 147 Theorem 4. If we think of V as a ﬁeld of forces in the space.1. using the metric we can construct by duality the lowering-the-indices isomorphism L : Vect (M ) → Ω1 (M ). First. and an orientation. Think for example of a manifold where there exist closed geodesic.1.1. On a complete manifold there could exist points (sufﬁciently far apart) which can be joined by more than one minimal geodesic. (d) M is geodesically complete. then W is the inﬁnitesimal work of V . Prove the Hopf-Rinow theorem. on any manifold there exist complete Riemann metrics. Let M = R3 with the Euclidean metric. Let (M. ∂x ∂y ∂z . Let (M. (c) M is complete as a metric space.40. e. Set dα = (diameter (Uα ))2 .38.41.1.5 Calculus on Riemann manifolds The classical vector analysis extends nicely to Riemann manifolds. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. On a Riemann manifold there is an equivalent way of describing the exterior derivative. Prove that g ˜ is a complete Riemann metric.1. on a (geodesically) complete manifold any two points can be joined by a minimal geodesic. The following assertions are equivalent: (a) expq is deﬁned on all of Tq M .1.1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. g) be an oriented Riemann manifold. Hence. A vector ﬁeld V on M has the form V =P Then W = LV = P dx + Qdy + Rdz.

43. . at p.1. Denote temporarily by D the operator ε ◦ ∇. i Let ω ∈ Ωk (M ). We will use a strategy useful in many other situations. . . and set ∂i := ∂∂ . X1 .42. (∇ denotes the Levi-Civita connection. Our discussion about normal coordinates will payoff. Near p it can be written as ω= I ωI dxI . Xk ). for any ordered multi-index I : (1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ik ≤ n). The equality d = D is a local statement. Choose (xi ) normal coordinates at an arbitrary point p ∈ M . Xk ∈ Vect (M ). . ⊔ ⊓ = I dxi ∧ (∂j ωI dxI + ωI ∇i (dxI )) = I Since the point p was chosen arbitrarily this completes the proof of Proposition 4. Xk ) = i=0 ˆ i . ∇i = ∇∂i .42. In normal coordinates at p we have (∇i ∂i ) |p = 0 from which we get the equalities (∇i dxj ) |p (∂k ) = −(dxj (∇i ∂k )) |p = 0. . where as usual. . . .) . Then the exterior derivative d is related to the Levi-Civita on Λk T ∗ M connection via the equality d = ε ◦ ∇. X ⊔ ⊓ for all X0 . Note xi that D= dxi ∧ ∇i . Exercise 4. . β ∈ Ωk (M ). Let CHAPTER 4. . and it sufﬁces to prove it in any coordinate neighborhood. Thus. Dω = I dxi ∧ ∇i (ωI dxI ) dxi ∧ ∂j ωI = dω. Show that for any k-form ω on the Riemann manifold (M. Proof. .148 Proposition 4. . RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY ε : C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ Λk T ∗ M ) → C ∞ (Λk+1 T ∗ M ) denote the exterior multiplication operator ε(α ⊗ β ) = α ∧ β.1. ∀α ∈ Ω1 (M ). . . g) the exterior derivative dω can be expressed by k dω (X0 . (−1)i (∇Xi ω )(X0 .1. we set dxI := dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxik . . .

.1..44 is proved. (4. ∂n ) = (det(g ij ))1/2 .. the ﬁrst term in(4. . We have the following not so surprising result. ⊔ ⊓ . and ei = ∂i |p . T )p . Set ∂i = ∂∂ xi g ij = g(∂i .. (4.. We compute (∇X dVg )(e1 .. Using the orientation we can construct (using the results in subsection 2. . Since the expression in (4. Thus.4) a natural volume form on M which we denote by dVg .g ) def M ∞ f dvg ∀f ∈ C0 (M )..1. ep is a basis of Tp M . .1. ∀X ∈ Vect (M ). In particular. given two tensor ﬁelds T1 .. ∂n )) |p − i dvg (e1 . . Proposition 4...1.. This is the positively oriented volume form of pointwise norm ≡ 1.44.. T2 (p)).1... .14) We consider each term separately.. where |g| := det(gij ). In particular.4. .. We have to show that for any p ∈ M (∇X dVg )(e1 . Such a factor is zero since we are working in normal coordinates. we may as well assume X = ∂k . then dVg = |g|dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn . The other terms are zero as well since in normal coordinates at p we have the equality ∇X ∂i = ∇∂k ∂i = 0. so that X (det(g ij ))1/2 |p = ∂k (det(g ij ))1/2 |p is a linear combination of products in which each product has a factor of the form ∂k g ij |p .1. If (x1 .. ∇X dVg = 0..1. any such tensor has a pointwise norm 1/2 M ∋ p → |T |g. . ∂k ). Proposition 4. en ) = 0.14) is zero.. Proof. n. ∂n )... S )p = gp (T1 (p). xn ) are local coordinates such that dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn is positively oriented..13) . s) we can form their pointwise scalar product M ∋ p → g(T... where e1 .. Choose normal coordinates (xi ) near p. en ) = X (dVg (∂1 .p = (T.. and we call it the metric volume.. we can integrate (compactly supported) functions on M by f = (M. . Note ﬁrst that dVg (∂1 . for some k = 1. Thus. METRIC PROPERTIES 149 r (M ) which we continue to denote The Riemann metric deﬁnes a metric in any tensor bundle Ts by g.. (∇X ∂i ) |p .2. T2 of the same type (r.13) is linear in X .

∀α β ∈ Ωk (M ). g) is an oriented Riemann manifold. θ. and X ∈ Vect (M ). (a) For any smooth function f on the Riemann manifold (M. The divergence of F is the scalar deﬁned as div F = ∗d ∗ WF = ∗dΦF If f is a function on R3 . (b) If (M. In other words g(grad f. uniquely determined by α ∧ ∗β = (α. ⊔ ⊓ . the smooth function deﬁned by the equality LX dVg = (div X )dVg . g) we denote by grad f . To any vector ﬁeld F = P ∂x + Q∂y + R∂z on R3 we associated its inﬁnitesimal work WF = L(F ) = P dx + Qdy + Rdz.1.47.14.1. ∗1 = dVg . Express gradg f in spherical (b) Denote by h the restriction to S 2 of the function h coordinates. y.150 CHAPTER 4.15) Example 4. The exterior derivative of WF is the inﬁnitesimal ﬂux of the vector ﬁeld curl F dWF = (∂y R − ∂z Q)dy ∧ dz + (∂z P − ∂x R)dz ∧ dx + (∂x Q − ∂y P )dx ∧ dy = Φcurl F = ∗Wcurl F . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 4. ˆ (x. then we compute easily = ∗ {(∂x P + ∂y Q + ∂z R)dx ∧ dy ∧ dz } = ∂x P + ∂y Q + ∂z R.1. or gradg f . RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY Once we have an orientation. In particular. or div g X . (4.1. X ) = df (X ) = X · f ∀X ∈ Vect (M ). Exercise 4. ϕ) deﬁned as in Example 3. Consider the unit sphere S2 = (x. z ) = z .4.46. we also have the Hodge ∗-operator ∗ : Ωk (M ) → Ωn−k (M ). ⊔ ⊓ and denote by g the Riemann metric on S 2 induced by the Euclidean metric g0 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 on R3 . z ) ∈ R3 .45. we denote by div X . 2 2 2 ∗d ∗ df = ∂x f + ∂y f + ∂x f = ∆f. y. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 . the vector ﬁeld g-dual to the 1-form df . β )dVg . The inﬁnitesimal energy ﬂux of F is the 2-form ΦF = ∗WF = P dy ∧ dz + Qdz ∧ dx + Rdx ∧ dy. (a) Express g in the spherical coordinates (r.

4.k (α. β )dVg = (−1)k+(n−k+1)(n−k) M α ∧ ∗δβ. For simplicity. . The proof will rely on the following technical result which is interesting in its own. (dα. METRIC PROPERTIES 151 Proposition 4.1. Then (a) div X = tr (∇X ). xn ) are local coordinates such that dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn is positively oriented. Denote by δ the operator δ = ∗d∗ : Ωk (M ) → Ωk−1 (M ). β )dVg = M M dα ∧ ∗β = M d(α ∧ ∗β ) + (−1)k M α ∧ d ∗ β. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ . M where νn. g). We have (dα. Proof. •). β )dVg = (−1)νn. δβ )dVg .k ∗ d ∗ . This establishes the assertion in the lemma since (n − k + 1)(k − 1) + k ≡ νn.49. Deﬁnition 4. Let α be a (k − 1)-form and β a k-form such that at least one of them is compactly supported. Deﬁne d∗ : Ωk (M ) → Ωk−1 (M ) by d∗ := (−1)νn.1. (c) If (x1 .. instead of the more precise g(•. Then M 1 |g| ∂i ( |g|X i ). where we view ∇X as an element of C ∞ (End (T M )) via the identiﬁcations ∇X ∈ Ω1 (T M ) ∼ = C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ T M ) ∼ = C ∞ (End (T M )). we will denote the inner products by (•.1.1.. Since d ∗ β ∈ Ωn−k+1 (M ) and ∗2 = (−1)(n−k+1)(k−1) on Ωn−k+1 (M ) we deduce M (dα.50. The ﬁrst integral in the right-hand-side vanishes by the Stokes formula since α ∧ ∗β has compact support. (b) div X = ∗d ∗ α. Lemma 4..k δ = (−1)νn. Let X be a vector ﬁeld on the oriented Riemann manifold (M.k = nk + n + 1.k (mod 2). •). then div X = where X = X i ∂i . and denote by α the 1-form dual to X .48.

.1.1.16) Ω(X1 . (4.. .. Using the above equality in (4.... ..1. Since the form f Ω is compactly supported we deduce from Stokes formula d(iX f Ω) = 0... ..49 we deduce − f (div X )dVg = − ∞ f δαdVg ∀f ∈ C0 (M ). α)dVg . Part (a) of the proposition follows after we substitute the above equality in (4.. .. .152 CHAPTER 4. Proof of (c) We use the equality LX ( |g|dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn ) = div (X )( |g|dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn ).... . M M This completes the proof of (b). Then (LX Ω)(X1 .. Using Lemma 4.. Xn ) = i Ω(X1 . ∇X Xi . . ∇Xi X..17) Over the neighborhood where the local moving frame is deﬁned. and let (X1 . i (4. we can ﬁnd smooth functions fij . Hence {(Xf ) + f (div X )} dVg = d(iX f Ω)... Xn )) = i Ω(X1 . .. Xi ]. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY Proof of the proposition.. M We have thus proved that for any compactly supported function f we have the equality − f (div X )dVg = M M (Xf )dVg = M df (X )dVg = M (grad f. Xn ) = X (Ω(X1 .1.. [X. Y ] = ∇Y X that (LX Ω)(X1 . Xn ). such that ∇Xi X = fij Xj ⇒ tr (∇X ) = fii .. .. Xn )) − Since ∇Ω = 0 we get X · (Ω(X1 .16) we deduce from ∇X Y − [X. ∞ (M ) we have Proof of (b) For any f ∈ C0 LX (f ω ) = (Xf )Ω + f (div X )Ω. Xn ) be a local moving frame of T M in a neighborhood of some point.. Set Ω := dVg . Xn ).. . X )dVg = M (df... On the other hand. ..1..17). Xn ). LX (f Ω) = (iX d + d iX )(f Ω) = d iX (f Ω). ...

(b) g(∇Y X. g) be an oriented Riemann manifold (possibly with boundary).1. β = α. Since n carries a ﬁber metric. Let (M. ∇Z X ) = 0 for all Y. METRIC PROPERTIES 153 The desired formula follows derivating in the left-hand-side. g).1. Using partitions of unity we can extend ν to a vector ﬁeld deﬁned on M .54 (Integration by parts). For any k-forms α. d∗ β )dVg M .1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. Z ) + g(Y.e.3. Let (M. n admits nowhere vanishing sections.52. Proposition 4. for each x ∈ ∂M . and each such section deﬁnes an orientation in the ﬁbers of n. Since both M and ∂M are oriented manifolds it follows that ν is a trivial line bundle. This will be called the unit outer normal. (a) LX g = 0.1. (A vector ﬁeld X satisfying the above equivalent conditions is called a Killing vector ﬁeld). β deﬁne α. and denote by η the 1-form dual to X .1. Show that δη = 0. Show that the following conditions on X are equivalent.53. β M = M (α. and any positively oriented ωx ∈ det Tx ∂M . By deﬁnition. In particular. One uses the fact that LX is an even s-derivation and the equalities LX dxi = ∂i X i dxi (no summation). over the boundary det T M = det(T ∂M ) ⊗ n so that n∼ = det T M ⊗ det(T ∂M )∗ . M is a closed ˜ of the same dimension. oriented Riemann manifold with boundary. Let (M. div (X ) = 0.. Consider a Killing vector ﬁeld X on the oriented Riemann manifold (M. g) be a Riemann manifold and X ∈ Vect (M ). ⊔ ⊓ whenever the integrals in the right-hand-side are ﬁnite. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 4. and will be denoted by ν . β )dVg = M α ∧ ∗β. the product σx ∧ ωx is a positively oriented element of det Tx M . β )dVg = M ∂M (α ∧ ∗β ) |∂M + (α. Z ∈ Vect (M ). g) be an oriented Riemann manifold with boundary ∂M . Let (M. α ∈ Ωk−1 (M ) and β ∈ Ωk (M ). Along ∂M we have a vector bundle subset of a boundary-less manifold M decomposition ˜ ) |∂M = T (∂M ) ⊕ n (T M where n = (T ∂M )⊥ is the orthogonal complement of T ∂M in (T M ) |∂M . proved in Subsection 3.51. we can select a unique outer normal of pointwise length ≡ 1. i.4. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4.1. An outer normal is a nowhere vanishing section σ of n such that. g) be a compact. Indeed. Then (dα.

We have to compare the two signs ǫJ and ǫ′ J .1.1. β = dxJ . n}. . β M = α.1. 1∈J where J ′ = J \ {1}. and therefor. .18) ∗dxJ = ǫJ dxJ (ǫJ = ±1) and iν dxJ = ′ −dxJ 0 . n} obtained by writing the two increasing multi-indices one after the other. As in the proof of Lemma 4.. We have c (4. Note that ν = −∂1 .53 we can rephrase the above equality as dα. since the boundary ∂M has the orientation c ′ −dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn .1. it sufﬁces to consider only the cases α = dxI . d∗ β M. Note that. and that the metric is the Euclidean metric. so that ǫJ = −ǫ′ J . .19).. ﬁrst J and then J c .18) and (4. .. . Similarly. Using the ·. d∗ β )dVg M where ˆ ∗ denotes the Hodge ∗-operator on ∂M with the induced metric g ˆ and orientation. n}). we deduce that the sign ǫ′ J is (−1)×(the signature of the permutation J ∪J of {2. The proposition now follows from (4.19). The sign ǫJ is the signature of the permutation J ∪J c of {1.. Denote by J c the ordered (n − k)-index complementary to J so that (as sets) J ∪ J c = {1.. 1∈J .1. The ﬁrst part of the proposition follows from Stokes formula arguing precisely as in Lemma 4. This is a local (even a pointwise) assertion so we may as well assume 1 n n 1 M = Hn + = {(x . in (4.19) J dx J = ±1).. Proof. the only nontrivial situation left to be discussed is 1 ∈ J . · notation of Deﬁnition 4.. if 1 ∈ J . ⊔ ⊓ . By linearity.49.18) and (4. Let I be an ordered (k − 1)-index. then 1 ∈ J c so that (α ∧ ∗β ) |∂M = 0 = α |∂M ∧ˆ ∗(iν β ) |∂M . x ≥ 0}. Obviously sign (J ∪J c ) = sign (J ′ ∪J c ).1. and J be an ordered k-index. To prove the second part we have to check that (α ∧ ∗β ) |∂M = α |∂M ∧ˆ ∗(iν β ) |∂M .1. x ) ∈ R . RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY α |∂M ∧ˆ ∗(iν β ) |∂M + (α.... iν β ∂M + α. β )dVg = dα ∧ ∗β = d(α ∧ ∗β ) + (−1)k α ∧ d ∗ β.1..1.49 we have (dα..154 = ∂M CHAPTER 4. On the boundary we have the equality ′ Jc ˆ ∗(iν dxJ ) = −ˆ ∗(dxJ ) = −ǫ′ (ǫ′ (4.

Let (M. − ∆M f.1.1. Then div (X )dVg = M ∂M (X.1. ∂g ∂ν ∂M . Then f. ∆M g M M = df. β so that the previous results hold for noncompact manifolds as well provided all the integrals are ﬁnite. Denote by α the 1-form dual to X .1. and β = dg . ⊔ ⊓ Using Proposition 4.48 we deduce that in local coordinates (x1 . Corollary 4. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 4. with α = f . ∗d ∗ α)dVg = − (X. ν )dvg∂ .54).1. then the geometers’ Laplacian is 2 2 ∆0 = −(∂i + · · · + ∂n ). g M = ∂f . g) as in Proposition 4.1. ν )dvg∂ . and X a vector ﬁeld on M .1.58 (Green).. The second identity is now obvious. ∆M g and f.56. d∗ α)dVg M = ∂M ∂M ⊔ ⊓ Remark 4. The compactness assumption on M can be replaced with an integrability condition on the forms α. and f.1. the geometer’s Laplacian takes the form 1 ∆M = − ∂i |g|g ij ∂j . g) be a compact. Note that when g is the Euclidean metric.g ∂ν ∂M − f. xn ). Let (M. Let (M. |g| where (gij ) denotes as usual the matrix inverse to (gij ). oriented Riemann manifold with boundary. . The ﬁrst equality follows immediately from the integration by parts formula (Proposition 4.4. which differs from the physicists’ Laplacian by a sign. ⊔ ⊓ . Proof.55 (Gauss). We have div (X )dVg = M M 1 ∧ ∗d ∗ αdVg = α(ν )dvg∂ = M (1.54. A smooth function f on M satisfying the equation ∆M f = 0 is called harmonic. dg M − f. ∂g ∂ν ∂M ..57. where g∂ = g |∂M . METRIC PROPERTIES 155 Corollary 4. g ∈ C ∞ (M ).. The geometric Laplacian is the linear operator ∆M : C ∞ (M ) → C ∞ (M ) deﬁned by ∆M = d∗ df = − ∗ d ∗ df = − div (grad f ). g) be an oriented Riemann manifold. (1. Proof.

The group SU (2) is given the orientation deﬁned by e1 ∧ e2 ∧ e3 ∈ Λ3 su(2). (a) Prove that the only harmonic functions on a compact oriented Riemann manifold M are the constant ones. B ∈ Λ3 su(2)∗ . 1 + r2 where r 2 = (u1 )2 + · · · + (un )2 . f ∈ C ∞ (M ) are such that ∆M u = f show that M f = 0. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. (c) B has a unique extension as a left-invariant 3-form on SU (2) known as the Cartan form on SU (2)) which we continue to denote by B .61. Hint: Use the natural diffeomorphism SU (2) ∼ = S 3 . Denote by (u1 . In particular. . Chapter XII) ∞ 0 r n −1 (Γ(n/2))2 dr = . (a) Show that the Killing form deﬁnes a bi-invariant metric on SU (2). Γ( n+1 2 ) ts−1 e−t dt. Compute SU (2) B . or [102]. and then compute the volume of the group with respect to this metric. where ei ∈ su(2) are the Pauli matrices e1 = i 0 0 −i e2 = 0 1 −1 0 e3 = 0 i i 0 (b) Show that the trilinear form on su(2) deﬁned by B (X. un ) the coordinates on the round sphere S n ֒→ Rn+1 obtained via the stereographic projection from the south pole.60. Y ].1.1. Y. ⊔ ⊓ Hint: Use the “doubling formula” π 1/2 Γ(2s) = 22s−1 Γ(s)Γ(s + 1/2). and the computations in the previous exercise. RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY Exercise 4. . (a) Show that the round metric g0 on S n is given in these coordinates by g0 = 4 (du1 )2 + · · · + (dun )2 . (b) If u. Z ) = [X. and the classical Beta integrals (see [39]. . ⊔ ⊓ .1. Consider the Killing form on su(2) (the Lie algebra of SU (2)) deﬁned by X. .59. Y = −tr X · Y. (1 + r 2 )n 2Γ(n) ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4. Z . (b) Show that the n-dimensional “area” of S n is σn = where Γ is Euler’s Gamma function Γ(s) = 0 ∞ Sn dvg0 = 2π (n+1)/2 . is skew-symmetric.156 CHAPTER 4.

and loosely speaking. Rijk ⊔ ⊓ In terms of the Christoffel symbols we have ℓ ℓ ℓ m ℓ m Rijk = ∂j Γℓ ik − ∂k Γij + Γmj Γik − Γmk Γij . The Riemann curvature tensor achieves just that. and we will conclude with the Gauss-Bonnet theorem which shows that the local object which is the Riemann curvature has global effects.2 The Riemann curvature Roughly speaking. We will describe some special examples. we do not need to go beyond this order of approximation to recover all the information. a Riemann metric on a manifold has the effect of “giving a shape” to the manifold. V ) = −g(R((Y. xn ) we have the description ℓ ∂ℓ = R(∂j . we will use Einstein’s summation convention.2. U ). 4. (b) g(R(X. we need to look deeper in the structure. Y. ☞ Unless otherwise indicated.2.1 Deﬁnitions and properties Let (M. Y )V. ∂k )∂i . U. Y )U. and go beyond the ﬁrst order approximations we have used so far. Z )X = 0. where F (∇) is the curvature of the Levi-Civita connection. deﬁned as R(g) = F (∇). Thus.2. As Riemann himself observed. provides a second order approximation to the geometry of the manifold.1. . V ) = −g(R(X.4. To recover it. U. Rijkℓ := gim Rjkℓ Theorem 4. V ∈ Vect (M )). .Y ] Z. ∂ℓ )∂j . ∂ℓ )∂j . and a large (in volume) manifold is different from a small one. . a very short (in diameter) manifold is different from a very long one. THE RIEMANN CURVATURE 157 4. Y )Z = [∇X . Y )Z + R(Z. there is a lot more information encoded in the Riemann manifold than just its size. The Riemann curvature is the tensor R = R(g). Y )U.2. In local coordinates (x1 .2 (The symmetries of the curvature tensor). and denote by ∇ the Levi-Civita connection. Deﬁnition 4. X ). g) be a Riemann manifold. (a) g(R(X. The Riemann curvature is a tensor R ∈ Ω2 (End (T M )) explicitly deﬁned by R(X. In this section we introduce the reader to the Riemann curvature tensor and its associates. ∇Y ]Z − ∇[X. R(∂k . However. Z. V ). The Riemann curvature tensor R satisﬁes the following identities (X. . X )Y + R(Y. It is an object which is very rich in information about the “shape” of a manifold. ∂i = g ∂i . (c) (The 1st Bianchi identity) R(X. . Lowering the indices we get a new tensor m = g R(∂k .

U ) = g((∇X ∇Y − ∇Y ∇X )U. Subtracting the two equalities we deduce (b). U ) is trivial. If R satisﬁes the symmetry conditions R(X1 . X3 . X3 . (E. and similarly. since (locally) X .3. Y ) = 0 In local coordinates the above identities have the form Rijkℓ = −Rjikℓ = −Rijℓk . The 1st Bianchi identity is then equivalent to ∇X ∇Y Z − ∇Y ∇X Z + ∇Z ∇X Y − ∇X ∇Z Y + ∇Y ∇Z X − ∇Z ∇Y X = 0. We may as well assume that [X. i Rjkℓ i i = 0. U ) = 2g(∇Y ∇X U. Proof. X3 . X1 .158 (d) g(R(X. Thus. X2 . X2 . X = X i ∂i ). X (Y g(U. Z pairwise commute. ∇Y U ).g. Y can be written as linear combinations (over C ∞ (M )) of commuting vector ﬁelds. U )) = 2Y g(∇X U. Y ). X3 . Y )U. X1 . Y ). U ) + 2g(∇X U. (e) (The 2nd Bianchi identity) Riemannian geometry (∇X R)(Y. Y ) → R(X. X4 ) + R(X3 . We compute Y (Xg(U. U )) = 2g(∇X ∇Y U. V )X. we can assume the vector ﬁelds X . (a) It follows immediately from the deﬁnition of R as an End(T M )-valued skew-symmetric bilinear map (X. V ) + g(R(X. Then Q(U. Y )U. Let R : E × E × E × E → R be a quadrilinear map on a real vector space E . X4 ) = −R(X2 . Y ] = 0. X3 . V ) = g(R(X. U ). X4 ) = R(X1 . Rijkℓ = Rkℓij . X1 . Y )V. X2 . (b) We have to show that the symmetric bilinear form Q(U. X4 ). The identity now follows from the symmetry of the connection: ∇X Y = ∇Y X etc. Y . X4 ) + R(X2 . Chapter 5). X ) + (∇Z R)(X. Lemma 4. Deﬁne S (X1 . U ) + 2g(∇X U. Z ) + (∇Y R)(Z. U ) = 0. (d) We will use the following algebraic lemma ([60]. + Rℓjk + Rkℓj j j (∇i R)j mkℓ + (∇ℓ R)mik + (∇k R)mℓi = 0. V ) = g(R(U. X4 ) . ∇Y U ). it sufﬁces to check Q(U. (c) As before.2. X2 .

g) be a Riemann manifold with curvature tensor R. X3 . X1 . Any two vector ﬁelds X .e. Y ) = tr (U → R(U. . X2 )X3 . X1 ) 2 159 − S (X3 . X4 ) − R(X3 . Chapter 1.2)-tensor (as the metric). then R(X1 . Let (M. X2 ) + S (X4 . The Riemann curvature R = g(R(X1 . We begin by presenting the simplest ones.) The Riemann curvature tensor is the source of many important invariants associated to a Riemann manifold. xn ) are local coordinates on M and the curvature R has the local expression R = then the Ricci curvature has the local description Ric = (Ricij ) = ℓ ℓ Rjℓi . We view it as a (0. X2 . tensors (Rijkl ) ∈ (Rn )⊗4 satisfying the conditions. X2 ) 1 = S (X1 . X3 . X1 .2)-tensor (X. ∀i. X4 ) − S (X2 . X )Y ). Rijkℓ = Rkℓij = −Rjikℓ. X4 ) = −R(X1 . The symmetries of the Riemann curvature imply that Ric is a symmetric (0. X2 ) . X )Y. X4 . j. Rijkℓ + Riℓjk + Rikℓj = 0. X4 .4. Deﬁnition 4. ..e.23). ℓ. X3 . Prove that dim Cn = n 2 +1 n − 2 4 = 1 n 2 2 n +1 2 − n . This concludes the proof of (d). i.3.2. . X2 . ⊔ Exercise 4. ℓ ) (Rkij ⊔ ⊓ If (x1 .5. i.2. X3 ). X2 .. Section G. Y ) ∈ C ∞ (M ).The Riemann curvature R(X1 . X1 . X3 . X4 . Denote by Cn of n-dimensional curvature tensors. the 1st Bianchi identity shows that the associated form S is identically zero. k. ⊓ (e) This is the Bianchi identity we established for any linear connection (see Exercise 3. . The Ricci curvature is the trace of this endomorphism. Y ) → Ric (X. X3 . X2 . X4 ) satisﬁes the symmetries required in the lemma and moreover. . Ric (X. 4 ⊔ ⊓ (Hint: Consult [13]. Y on M deﬁne an endomorphism of T M by U → R(U. The proof of the lemma is a straightforward (but tedious) computation which is left to the reader. X4 .

In particular. the scalar curvature is described by ℓ s = gij Ricij = gij Riℓj . Y ) = (R(X. Let (M. (|X ∧ Y |1/2 measures the area of the parallelogram in Tp M spanned by X and Y . the less curved is the corresponding sphere. g) be a Riemann manifold and p ∈ M . Y. Y ) depends only upon the 2-plane in Tp M generated by X and Y . then the sectional curvatures are measured in meter−2 . rescaled metric gλ = λ2 g. X ) (X. Y ∈ Vect (M ) we have Kgλ (X. (4.2. Y ) = Kp (Z. Y ) which is non-zero since X and Y are linearly independent. X ) (Y. this implies Ricgλ = Ricg . (Y. Y )Y.6.2. In particular. Y ) = λ−2 Kg (X.7.9.2. W ). ⊔ ⊓ . Intuitively.W) is a 2-dimensional subspace of Tp M prove that Kp (X. for any two linearly independent vectors X.2. Given a metric g on a smooth manifold M . Thus Kp is in fact a function on Gr2 (p) the Grassmannian of 2-dimensional subspaces of Tp M . However. The scalar curvature s of a Riemann manifold is the trace of the Ricci tensor. we obtained a new. For any linearly independent X. if g is the canonical metric on the 2-sphere of radius 1 in R3 .1) ⊔ ⊓ where (gij ) is the inverse matrix of (gij ). Deﬁnition 4. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4.8. The function Kp : Gr2 (p) → R deﬁned above is called the sectional curvature of M at p. Y ) . W ∈ Tp M such that span(X. For example. Y ). then gλ is the induced metric on the 2-sphere of radius λ in R3 . X ) . the scalar curvature changes by the same factor upon rescaling the metric.) Remark 4. ⊔ ⊓ According to the above exercise the quantity Kp (X. Z. In local coordinates. Y ∈ Tp M set Kp (X.2. the larger the constant λ.160 Riemannian geometry Deﬁnition 4. the sectional curvatures are sensitive to metric rescaling.Y)= span(Z. Let X. |X ∧ Y | where |X ∧ Y | denotes the Gramm determinant |X ∧ Y | = (X. In general. A simple computation shows that the Christoffel symbols and Riemann tensor of gλ are equal with the Christoffel symbols and the Riemann tensor of the metric g. If we thing of the metric as a quantity measured in meter2 . and a constant λ > 0.

2 We can now easily compute the curvature R(X. then the sectional curvature along π is 1 [X. Kg (π ) = 4 Denote the Killing form by κ(X. Y ]) 4 = = 1 4 1 4 [[X. Y ].1. •. Z ]]} − [[X.2 Examples Example 4. [X. Y ]. G is a Lie group. Y ) is an orthonormal basis of π . Y ]. W 4 4 1 1 = − [X. Y ]. Y )Z. Y ) = −tr ad(X ) ad(Y ) . ad(Y )Ei i . We have shown that the Levi-Civita connection of this metric is 1 ∇X Y = [X.10.2. En of LG . Y )Z = 1 1 {[X. [X. ad(Z )W = − [X. W = ad(Z )[X. and •. Y ] ≥ 0. 4 4 Now let π ∈ Gr2 (Tg G) be a 2-dimensional subspace of Tg G. Y ]. 4 4 4 2 4 We deduce 1 1 R(X. such that.The Riemann curvature Exercise 4. Z ] 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 (Jacobi identity) = [[X. Ei ) = − [X. Ei i 1 4 ad(X )Ei . Gr2 (M ) ∋ (p. Z ]. Ei ]. Z ]] − [Y. [X. If (X. ⊔ ⊓ 4. for some g ∈ G. Z ]] − [[X. Y = Y j Ej ∈ LG we have 1 Ric (X.11. Y ].15. Y ]. Z = − Y. • is a metric on the Lie algebra LG satisfying ad(X )Y. [X. Y ) = tr (Z → [[X. Thus. Z ]. Z ] = − [[X. π ) → Kp (π ) is a smooth map. In other words.2. Ei ]. Y ]. [Y. n = dim M . . Y ]. Z ]+ [Y. Y ]. [Z. viewed as left invariant vector ﬁelds on G. . Y ∈ LG .2. Z ]. Z ]] − [Y. To compute the Ricci curvature we pick an orthonormal basis E1 . Ei ] = i i 1 4 ad(Y )[X. [Y. . Ei ]. Prove that Gr2 (M ) = disjoint union of Gr2 (p) p ∈ M 161 can be organized as a smooth ﬁber bundle over M with standard ﬁber Gr2 (Rn ). W ] . ∀X. if M is a Riemann manifold. W = − [[X. Y ]. Consider again the situation discussed in Example 4. ad(X )Z . For any X = X i Ei . • is the restriction of a bi-invariant metric m on G. .

∂1 )dx1 ∧ dx2 = R1212 dx1 ∧ dx2 . where |g| = det(gij ). Although the results are not as “crisp” as in the bi-invariant case many nice things do happen. For details we refer to [73]. and consider local coordinates on M . We can now easily compute the scalar curvature. we can construct a 2-form 1 1 1 Kdvg = s(g)dVg = ε(g) = R1212 dx1 ∧ dx2 .2. on a compact semisimple Lie group the Ricci curvature is a symmetric positive deﬁnite (0. Using the same notations as above we get s= 1 4 Ric (Ei . and the form dx1 ∧ dx2 deﬁnes the orientation. Ei = − tr ad(Y ) ad(X ) = κ(X.4. We want to emphasize that this form is deﬁned only when M is oriented. if M is oriented. We can rewrite this using the pfafﬁan construction of Subsection 2. Due to the symmetries of R. dVg = dx1 ∧ dx2 . ⊔ ⊓ Example 4. ∂2 is an orthonormal basis of Tq M . ∂2 ∂2 . the scalar K is known as the total curvature or the Gauss curvature of the surface. x2 ). if G is a compact semisimple group and the metric is given by the Killing form then the scalar curvature is 1 ⊔ ⊓ s(κ) = dim G. 2)-tensor. 2π 2π . Many problems in topology lead to a slightly more general situation than the one discussed in the above example namely to metrics on Lie groups which are only left invariant. The curvature R is a 2-form with coefﬁcients in the bundle of skew-symmetric endomorphisms of T M so we can write R = A ⊗ dVg . 4 4 i In particular. Thus at q . Ei ). and ε(g) = 1 1 g R(∂1 . 4 Remark 4.2. at q . (x1 .2.12. it is a scalar multiple of the Killing metric. In particular. Rijkl = −Rijlk = Rklij .162 =− 1 4 Riemannian geometry 1 1 ad(Y ) ad(X )Ei . |g| 2 In this case. Y ). |g| = 1 since ∂1 . 2π 4π 2π |g| The 2-form ε(g) is called the Euler form associated to the metric g. A = 1 |g| 0 R1212 R2112 0 Assume for simplicity that (x1 . Ei ) = i 1 4 κ(Ei . and more precisely. we deduce that the only nontrivial component of the Riemann tensor is R = R1212 .13. The sectional curvature is simply a function on M K= 1 1 R1212 = s(g). Hence. Let M be a 2-dimensional Riemann manifold (surface). x2 ) are normal coordinates at a point q ∈ M . In particular.

3 Cartan’s moving frame method ´ Cartan at the beginning of the 20th century. t] in the (x . Cartan’s insight This method was introduced by Elie was that the local properties of a manifold equipped with a geometric structure can be very well understood if one knows how the frames of the tangent bundle (compatible with the geometric structure) vary from one point of the manifold to another.. it has a matrix description as Tt = cos θ (t) − sin θ (t) sin θ (t) cos θ (t) . Example 4. that (x1 .4 can be rephrased as sin θ (t) = −tg (R(∂1 .2. R1212 = θ Hence R1212 is simply the inﬁnitesimal angle measuring the inﬁnitesimal rotation suffered by ∂1 along St .. and ∂i := ∂xi .The Riemann curvature Hence we can write ε(g) = 163 1 1 P f g (−A)dvg =: P f g (−R)..2.e. The 1-forms θ α measure the inﬁnitesimal displacement of a point P with respect to the frame (Xα ). We can think of the Euler form as a “density” of holonomy since it measures the holonomy per elementary parallelogram.2) where we set dXα := i ∂Xα ∂xj dxj ⊗ ∂i . the moving frame of T ∗ Rn deﬁned by α θ α (Xβ ) = δβ .. x2 ) √ Assume √ as before 1 are normal coordinates at q . . α deﬁned by Introduce the 1-forms ωβ α dXβ = ωβ Xα . x ) are the usual Cartesian coordinates. ∂2 ) of Tq M . We will begin our discussion with the model case of Rn . ⊔ ⊓ 4. Throughout this subsection we will use Einstein’s convention. Note that the T M -valued 1-form θ = θ αXα is the differential of the identity map ½ : Rn → Rn expressed using the given moving frame. x2 ) plane. and with respect to the orthogonal basis (∂1 . and consider the square St = [0. Xα = Xα i ∂ 1 n where (x . . Denote by (θ α ) the dual coframe. α = 1. i. The result in Subsection 3. t] × [0. . so that ˙ (0). i ∂ .14.3. n.2. ∂2 )∂2 . . This is an orthogonal transformation of Tq M . . Consider an orthonormal moving frame on Rn . 2π 2π The Euler form has a very nice interpretation in terms of holonomy. . ∂1 ) + O(t2 ). Denote the (counterclockwise) holonomy along ∂St by Tt . (4.

(a1) fβγ αγ while (b) gives α − f α = gα (b1) fβγ βγ γβ .164 Riemannian geometry α ) which measures the inﬁnitesimal rotation sufWe can form the matrix valued 1-form ω = (ωβ fered by the moving frame (Xα ) following the inﬁnitesimal displacement x → x + dx. g).2. ⊔ ⊓ We now try to perform the same computations on an arbitrary Riemann manifold (M.β ≤n uniquely deﬁned by the requirements α = −ω β .2. (a) ωβ α α . there is no natural way to deﬁne dXα to produce α entering the structural equations. and we can rewrite this as α . The signiﬁcance of these structural equations will become evident in a little while. dωβ (4. ∀α. in the last equality we interpret ω as a n × n matrix whose entries are 1-forms. (b) dθ α = θ β ∧ ωβ Proof.3)–(4. gβγ 2 βγ α satisfy the conditions (a)&(b) above. Suppose that there exist forms ωβ α exist functions fβγ such that α α γ ωβ = fβγ θ .4) are called the structural equations of the Euclidean space.2) we deduce γ α α = −ωγ ∧ ωβ . α) Proposition 4. ∀α. Cartan). dim M = n. Xβ = ω · Xα . There exists a collection of 1-forms (ωβ 1≤α.4) The equations (4. Using the equality d2 Xβ = 0 in (4. In particα ) is a skew-symmetric matrix since ular. dθ α = θ β ∧ ωβ (4. Then there Uniqueness. = −gγβ g θ ∧ θ γ . and θ as a column matrix. or equivalently . ω = (ωβ 0 = d Xα . dω = −ω ∧ ω.15 (E. Then the condition (a) is equivalent to α = −f β . Since the collection of two forms (θ α ∧ θ β )1≤α<β ≤n deﬁnes a local frame of Λ2 T ∗ Rn . Unfortunately.2. Since θ = d½ we deduce α 0 = d2 ½ = dθ = dθ α ⊗ Xα − θ β ⊗ dXβ = (dθ α − θ β ∧ ωβ ) ⊗ Xα . ω · Xβ . and we construct similarly its dual coframe (θ α )1≤α≤n . We choose a local orthonormal moving frame (Xα )1≤α≤n . We will ﬁnd them using a different (dual) search the forms ωβ strategy.2. Xβ + Xα .3) Above. α . or dθ = −ω ∧ θ.2. β . uniquely determined by the conditions there exist functions gβγ dθ α = 1 α β α α . or a n × 1 matrix whose entries are 1-forms.2.

and we have dθ α (Xβ .The Riemann curvature 165 The above two relations uniquely determine the f ’s in terms of the g’s via a cyclic permutation of the indices α. In particular. We refer to [92] for more details on this aspect of the Riemann tensor. (Xγ ) − ω ˆγ (Xβ ) = (θ β ∧ ω ˆβ =ω ˆβ Thus the ω ˆ ’s satisfy both conditions (a) and (b) of Proposition 4. The Cartan structural equations of a Riemann manifold take the form dθ = −ω ∧ θ. we deduce in standard manner that ω ˆβ α The differential of θ can be computed in terms of the Levi-Civita connection (see Subsection 4. Example 4. Xγ ). . What have we gained by constructing the forms ω .5). and after all. y > 0} endowed with the metric g = y −2 (dx2 + dy 2 ). where the f ’s are given by (4.2.6) Comparing these with the Euclidean structural equations we deduce another interpretation of the Riemann curvature: it measures “the distance” between the given Riemann metric and the Euclidean one”.1.e. ∇Xγ Xβ = ω ˆβ β α = −ω ˆα . The technique of orthonormal frames is extremely versatile in concrete computations. Deﬁne ω ˆβ α ∇Xβ = ω ˆβ Xα . using the computation in Example 3. Xγ ) = Xβ θ α (Xγ ) − Xγ θ α (Xβ ) − θ α (∇Xβ Xγ ) + θ α (∇Xγ Xβ ) δ δ α = const) = −θ α(ˆ ωγ (Xβ )Xδ ) + θ α(ˆ ωβ (Xγ )Xδ ) (use θ α (Xβ ) = δβ α α α )(Xβ .16. Hence α (Xγ )Xα . dω + ω ∧ ω = Ω. consider the Levi-Civita connection ∇. γ 1 α γ α β fβγ = (gβγ + gγα − gαβ ) (4.5) 2 α = f α θ γ . Deﬁne ωβ βγ α ⊔ ⊓ the forms ωβ satisfy both (a) and (b). i.2. We let the reader check that Existence. We will use the moving frame method to compute the curvature of the hyperbolic plane. the matrix valued 1-form (ωβ tion in this local moving frame.2. (4.15 so that we must have α α . the upper half space H+ = {(x. Since ∇ is compatible with the Riemann metric.12 we deduce that the 2-form Ω = (dω + ω ∧ ω ) is the Riemannian curvature of g. The reader may now ask why go through all this trouble.. = ωβ ω ˆβ α ) is the 1-form associated to the Levi-Civita connecIn other words. β. what is their signiﬁcance? α by To answer these questions.2.2. y ) .3.5).

Note that θ α |S = 0 for α > k. Denote by ∇M (respectively ∇S ) the Levi-Civita connection of (M. Using the moving frames method..166 Riemannian geometry 1 1 The pair (y∂x . .17. Xk+1 . gS ). Denote the dual coframe by (θ α )1≤α≤m . Now choose a local orthonormal moving frame (X1 .. that is a vector ﬁeld X of M along S . θ y = y dy ) is its dual coframe. and S a k-dimensional submanifold in M .. . Deﬁne a new metric gu := e2f g. g) be a Riemann manifold of dimension m. Suppose (M. Xk . .. a section of (T M ) |S . Thus. The restriction of g to S induces a Riemann metric gS on S .2. Ω = dω = 1 1 0 − y2 0 The Gauss curvature is K= 1 1 g(Ω(∂x .4 The geometry of submanifolds We now want to apply Cartan’s method of moving frames to discuss the the local geometry of submanifolds of a Riemann manifold. ∂x ) = y 4 (− 4 ) = −1. The metric g produces an orthogonal splitting of vector bundles (T M ) |S ∼ = T S ⊕ NS S. |g| y ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 4.. g) is a Riemann manifold.6) we deduce that the Riemann curvature is 1 0 0 −1 y2 dy ∧ dx = θx ∧ θy . ∂y )∂y . y y y 1 1 dθ y = d( dy ) = 0 = (− dx) ∧ θ x . We compute easily 1 1 1 dθ x = d( dx) = 2 dx ∧ dy = ( dx) ∧ θ y . Note that ω ∧ ω = 0. and its is the orthogonal complement of T S in (T M ) |S . y y Thus the connection 1-form in this local moving frame is ω= 1 0 −y 1 0 y dx. splits into two components: a tangential component X τ .. We want to analyze the relationship between the Riemann geometry of M (assumed to be known) and the geometry of S with the induced metric.2. y∂y ) is an orthonormal moving frame. g) (respectively of (S. describe the scalar curvature of gu in terms of u and the scalar curvature of g... ⊔ ⊓ 4. and (θ x = y dx. X ν .. Xm ) such that the ﬁrst k vectors (X1 . The NS is called the normal bundle of S ֒→ M .2. Let (M. and a normal component. Using the structural equations (4. . Xk ) are tangent to S . and u ∈ C ∞ (M ).

β ≤ k. We deduce 0= k β =1 θ β ∧ µα β. β ≤ k. and µλ β = fβγ θ . Exercise 4. β ≤ m.The Riemann curvature 167 M by this frame. then there exist scalars Aij .. This can be equivalently rephrased as M τ ∇S ∀X.15 implies that along S α σβ = µα β 1 ≤ α. .. 1 ≤ α ≤ k. γ ≤ k satisfying Using Cartan lemma we can ﬁnd smooth functions fβγ λ λ λ γ fβγ = fγβ . θp ∈ Λ1 V are such that p i=1 θi ∧ ωi = 0. (1 ≤ α. . j ≤ p such that Aij = Aji and p θi = j =1 Aij ωj . 1 ≤ β. Y ∈ Vect (S ). 1 ≤ i. . p ≤ d. . At this point we want to use the following elementary result. X ).2. λ > k . A. . k < α ≤ m.8) B. The uniqueness part of Proposition 4. β ≤ k ) be the connection 1-forms of ∇S corresponding to the frame (X .7) yields k (4. We can view N as a symmetric bilinear map Vect (S ) × Vect (S ) → C ∞ (NS ).7) dθ = β =1 α β α θ β ∧ µα β .18 (Cartan Lemma).2. (1 ≤ α. . dθ α = θ β ∧ µα β 1 ≤ α. µβ = −µα 1 ≤ α. Let V be a d-dimensional real vector space and consider p linearly independent elements ω1 .. and let Denote by (µα β ). ⊔ ⊓ λ . We distinguish two situations. . If θ1 . Since θ β |S = 0 for β > k the equality (4. Now form λ β N = fβγ θ ⊗ θ γ ⊗ Xλ .2.2. .2. . σβ 1 k We will analyze the structural equations of M restricted to S ֒→ M .. ωp ∈ Λ1 V . X Y = (∇X Y ) (4. β ≤ m) the connection 1-forms associated to ∇ α .

Then for any X. N = − U. Z. V ). N ∈ C ∞ (NS ).Y ] Z 2 The ﬁrst fundamental form is the induced metric. . V ).N = ∇M U V. • . T heorema Egregium (Gauss). (4. U ). T ) . (4. β γ = λ>k β The last term is precisely the normal component of ∇M V U . so that we have established ∇M V U ν β Xλ . T = RS (X. N = N(V. V ∈ Vect (S ). We have thus proved the following equality.168 If U. N(Y. (4. N = ∇M U V ν . There is an alternative way of looking at N.2.2. then N(U. Y. Note that S ∇M X Y = ∇X Y + N(X. then N(U. If we write g(•. ∇M U N τ = N(U. ∇M U N . Let RM (resp. T ∈ Vect (S ) we have RM (X.10) The 2nd fundamental form can be used to determine a relationship between the curvature of M and that of S . Z ) . Y )X = [∇M X . V ) = N(V. µλ β (V )U λ γ fβγ θ (V ) θ β (U ) X λ = N(U. U ) = ∇M U V ν . (S . T ) − N(X. We have thus established − V.2. Y ). ∇Y ]Z − ∇[X.11) We have M M RM (X. V ) = λ>k Riemannian geometry U = U β Xβ = θ β (U )Xβ 1 ≤ β ≤ k. Proof. N − V. Choose U. g |S ). N(Y. Y )Z. More precisely we have the following celebrated result. ∇M V N τ . •) = •. Y )Z. T + N(X. g) (resp. N τ M = ∇M U V. ∇U N = − V. RS ) denote the Riemann curvature of (M.9) The map N is called the 2nd fundamental form2 of S ֒→ M . V ∈ Vect (S ) and V = V γ Xγ = θ γ (V )Xγ 1 ≤ γ ≤ k. Z ) .

T ) . Y ) = − ∇M X n. T + ∇M X N(Y. Z ) − ∇[X. The above result is especially interesting when S is a transversally oriented hypersurface. Y )Y. This marked the beginning of a new era in geometry.e. N(Y. It changed dramatically the way people looked at manifolds and thus it fully deserves the name of The Golden (egregium) Theorem of Geometry. . Y ). T S − ∇M Y ∇X Z. i. Then (X1 .2. T ) = − ∇M Y n. Y )Z. i. according to (4. On the right-hand-side we have an extrinsic term (it depends on the “space surrounding S ”). T ) Nn (X.10) we have Nn (X. X ) · Nn (Y. We can now explain rigorously why we cannot wrap a plane canvas around the sphere.Y ] Z. and moreover. the extrinsic term was discovered ﬁrst (by Gauss). Xm−1 . Y is RS (X. This is precisely the equality (4. N(X. T = RM (X. all hypersurfaces are transversally oriented since NS is locally trivial by deﬁnition.2. T . T − ∇S [X. n . S is a a codimension 1 submanifold such that the normal bundle NS is trivial3 . Z ) (4. .10) RM (X.. and choose an orthonormal moving frame (X1 . we deduce using (4. ∇Y ]Z. when we deform a plane canvas. T S = ∇M X ∇Y Z. Y In this case. Notice that. Y ) − |Nn (X. Z ).12) In particular. Y ]. n) is an orthonormal moving frame of (T M ) |S .2.Y ] Z. the sectional curvature along the plane spanned by X.2. This is a truly remarkable result. Nn (Y.Y ] Z − N([X. Nn is a bona-ﬁde symmetric bilinear form. T ⊔ ⊓ − ∇M Y N(X. while 3 Locally. Gauss formula becomes RS (X. T ) + N(X.e... Let us further specialize. . and very much to Gauss surprise (?!?) one does not need to look outside S to compute it. Historically. T ) Nn (Y. Z ) − ∇Y ∇X Z + N(X. Z ). Z ) Nn (X. X = Nn (X. the only thing that changes is the extrinsic geometry. Then RS (X. 169 Take the inner product with T of both sides above. Z ). a length 1 section of NS . Y )|2 . and the second fundamental form is completely described by Nn (X.8)-(4. Z ). T = Nn (X.. •) is NS -valued. Pick an orthonormal frame n of NS . Y )Z.The Riemann curvature S M S S = ∇M X ∇Y Z + N(Y.. Nn (Y. T − Nn (X. while in the left-hand-side we have a purely intrinsic term (which is deﬁned entirely in terms of the internal geometry of S ). X . Z ) .. Y ) := N(X. Z ). T ) − ∇S [X.2..11). T S = [∇S X . Since N(•. Y )Z. and assume M = Rm . T − N(Y. Xm−1 ) of T S . Y )Z. Z ) Nn (Y..

Au. e1 Ae1 . This implies the quadric QA = {u ∈ R3 . Example 4. u = 1}. e1 Ae2 . Au0 . Let A : R3 → R3 be a selfadjoint. Au 1 Au + ∂i Au.19. the round sphere has constant positive curvature. x = 0} = (Au0 )⊥ . 3 Consider an orthonormal frame (e0 . e2 Ae2 . any intrinsic quantity is invariant under “bending”. no matter how we deform the plane canvas we will always get a surface with Gauss curvature 0 which cannot be wrapped on a surface of constant positive curvature! Gauss himself called the total curvature a“bending invariant”. Denote the Cartesian ∂ coordinates in R3 with respect to this frame by (x0 . QA is a transversally oriented hypersurface in R3 since the map QA ∋ u → Au deﬁnes a nowhere 1 vanishing section of the normal bundle. In particular. Thus. x2 ). and set ∂i := ∂x . e2 ) of R such that e0 = n(u0 ). Aej |u0 = ei . |Au0 | |Au0 | 1 |Au0 |2 Ae1 .2. x1 . Set n = |Au | Au. ∂j |u0 .170 Riemannian geometry the intrinsic geometry is not changed since the lengths of the“ﬁbers” stays the same. . ∂j ) = ∂i n. e2 ) to i a local moving frame of T QA near u0 . Let u0 ∈ QA . Then Tu0 QA = {x ∈ R3 .2. Aej . The second fundamental form of QA at u0 is Nn (∂i . is nonempty and smooth (use implicit function theorem to check this). Au −1/2 )Au + 1 A∂i u |Au| ∂i Au. r2 ⊔ ⊓ Thus. e1 . e2 We can now compute the Gaussian curvature at u0 . (Quadrics in R3 ). ∂j ) |u0 = = = ∂i ( Au. Ku0 = . Extend (e1 . 3 / 2 | Au | |Au| 1 A∂i u. In particular.13) 1 1 ∂i u. We compute ∂i n = ∂i Au |Au| =− Hence Nn (∂i . invertible linear operator with at least one positive eigenvalue. ej |u0 |Au0 | (4. when A = r −2 I so that QA is the round sphere of radius r we deduce Ku = 1 ∀|u| = r.

Let Σ be a transversally oriented.15) ∂i n = −Nn (∂i . ∂2 ) . We orient NΣ such that orientation NΣ ∧ orientation T Σ = orientation R3 .The Riemann curvature 171 Example 4. Consider the Euler form εΣ on Σ with the metric induced by the Euclidean metric in R3 . The map G is called the Gauss map of Σ ֒→ S 2 . because the orientability issue is decided by the sign of the determinant 1 0 0 0 −Nn (∂1 . ∂1 n ∂2 n. |u| = 1}. (Gauss). ∂1 )∂1 − Nn (∂i .2. ∂1 ) + Nn (∂i . ∂1 |q and ∂2 |q as deﬁning a (positively oriented) frame of R3 . ∂1 ) Nn (∂1 . ∂2 ) At q .g. Note that the Whitney sum NΣ ⊕ T Σ is the trivial bundle R3 Σ . we deduce G∗ preserves (reverses) orientations ⇐⇒ R1212 > 0 (< 0).14) . ∂i n. Let n be the unit section of NΣ deﬁning the above orientation. Then. taking into account our orientation conventions. ∂j n = Nn (∂i . We obtain in this way a map G : Σ → S 2 = {u ∈ R3 . In particular. e. ∂2 n ∂2 n. Nn (∂1 . ∂1 )Nn (∂j . compact surface in R3 . ∂2 )∂2 . we have 2πεΣ (∂1 . ∂2 ). and let (x1 . x2 ) be normal coordinates at q ∈ Σ such that orientation Tq Σ = ∂1 ∧ ∂2 . ∂2 n (4. ∂1 ) Nn (∂2 . ∂2 ) = R1212 = Now notice that We can think of n. 0 −Nn (∂2 . ∂2 ) . Nn (∂2 . We can rephrase this coherently as an equality of matrices ∂1 n.2. Denote by Nn the second fundamental form of Σ ֒→ R3 . ∂1 n ∂1 n. ∂2 ) (4. ∂2 )Nn (∂j . ∂1 ) −Nn (∂2 .20. ∂1 ) −Nn (∂1 . The last equality can be rephrased by saying that the derivative of the Gauss map G∗ : Tq Σ → Tn(q) S 2 acts according to ∂i → −Nn (∂i . ∂1 )∂1 − Nn (∂i . Σ ∋ x → n(x) ∈ S 2 . It really depends on how Σ is embedded in R3 so it is an extrinsic object.2. ∂1 ⊥ ∂2 so that.. a connected sum of a ﬁnite number of tori. ∂2 )∂2 .

∂1 ) Nn (∂1 . If g0 and g1 are two Riemann metrics on S and εgi (S ) (i = 0. ∂2 n ∂2 n. . t . ⊔ ⊓ εΣ = Using (4. ∂2 ) Nn (∂2 . 1].16) put together yield 2π |εΣ (∂1 .2. ∂1 n ∂1 n. The Gauss curvature describes by what factor the area of this parallelogram was changed. ∂2 ) 2 Riemannian geometry × Nn (∂1 . Hence the quantity S εg (S ) is independent of the Riemann metric g so that it really depends only on the topology of S !!! The idea behind the proof is very natural. 1) are the corresponding Euler forms then S εg0 (S ) = S εg1 (S ). We will show d εg = 0 ∀t ∈ [0.5 The Gauss-Bonnet theorem for oriented surfaces We conclude this chapter with one of the most beautiful results in geometry. ∂2 n . ∂1 ) Nn (∂1 . ∂1 ) Nn (∂2 . dt S t It is convenient to consider a more general problem. But it will do more than that. ∂2 )| = |dv0 (∂1 n. = ∂1 n.15) we get 4. ∂2 ) Nn (∂1 .172 = Hence Nn (∂1 . Its meaning reaches deep inside the structure of a manifold and can be viewed as the origin of many fertile ideas. G∗ (∂2 ))|. ∂2 ) Nn (∂2 . ∂2 n (4. 1 ∗ 1 ∗ (4. Preliminary version.2.14) and (4.16) If we denote by dv0 the metric volume form on S 2 induced by the restriction of the Euclidean metric on R3 . In Chapter 9 we will investigate in greater detail the Gauss map of arbitrary submanifolds of an Euclidean space. We will have more to say about it in the next subsection.17) GΣ dv0 = G ε 2.2. we see that (4. ∂1 ) Nn (∂1 .) Let S be a compact oriented surface without boundary. ∂2 ) Nn (∂1 . This may sound like forcing our way in through an open door since everybody can “see” they are different.2. The elements of Riemann geometry we discussed so far will allow us to produce an invariant powerful enough to distinguish a sphere from a torus. (Gauss-Bonnet Theorem.2. From this point of view the curvature is a “distortion factor”. ∂2 ) ∂1 n. Theorem 4.21. 2π 2π Σ S This is one form of the celebrated Gauss-Bonnet theorem . The Gauss map “stretches” an inﬁnitesimal parallelogram to some inﬁnitesimal region on the unit sphere. ∂1 ) Nn (∂2 . Unfortunately this is not a conclusive explanation since we can see only 3-dimensional things and possibly there are many ways to deform a surface outside our tight 3D Universe. ∂2 ) Nn (∂2 .2. ∂2 n)| = |dv0 (G∗ (∂1 ). Recall one of the questions we formulated at the beginning of our study: explain unambiguously why a sphere is “different” from a torus. Note that the last equality offers yet another interpretation of the Gauss curvature. Denote by gt the metric gt = g0 + t(g1 − g0 ).2.

Exercise 4.22.18).2)-tensors while the dot denotes the t-derivative. then by taking the traces of both sides of the above equality we deduce s(g)(x) .2. t ) be a Lemma 4. Show that s Rijkℓ = Eik gjℓ − Eiℓ gjk + Ejℓ gik − Ejk giℓ + (giℓ gjk − gik gjℓ ).2. The functional g → E(g) is called the HilbertEinstein functional. Ricg = n where s(x) denotes the scalar curvature. ∀t.25.24. g).23. g). Example 4.The Riemann curvature 173 Deﬁnition 4. λ(x) = n Thus. 2)-tensor .2. where s(g) denotes the scalar curvature of (M. ⊔ ⊓ 1 Eij := Rij (x) − s(x)gij (x) 2 is called the Einstein tensor of (M.11 we deduce that a certain constant multiple of the Killing metric on a compact semisimple Lie group is an Einstein metric.2.2. this shows that on a Riemann 3-manifold the full Riemann tensor is completely determined by the Einstein tensor. g). In the above formula ·. Deﬁnition 4.26. the Riemann manifold is Einstein if and only if it satisﬁes (4. Then d E(gt ) = − dt M 1 Ricgt − s(gt )gt . A Riemann manifold (M. We refer to [13] for an in depth study of the Einstein manifolds.2.2. Consider a 3-dimensional Riemann manifold (M. Observe that if the Riemann metric g satisﬁes the condition Ricg (x) = λ(x)g(x) (4. g ˙t 2 t dVgt . 2 In particular.18) for some smooth function λ ∈ C ∞ (M ). g) of dimension n is said to be Einstein if the metric g satisﬁes Einstein’s equation s(x) g. Using the computations in Example 4. Let M be a compact oriented manifold. For any Riemann metric g on E deﬁne EM (M. ⊔ ⊓ We have the following remarkable result.2. g) = M s(g)dVg . ⊔ ⊓ The (0. Let M be a compact oriented manifold without boundary and g t = (gij 1-parameter family of Riemann metrics on M depending smoothly upon t ∈ R. n := dim M. · t denotes the inner product induced by gt on the space of symmetric (0.

2. Γ ˆ i = 0. . We will adopt a “roll up your sleeves.2. ∂k g ˆij = 0.22) i In particular. (ii) E(g) = 2 S εg .27. Prove that the scalar curvature of an Einstein manifold of dimension ≥ 3 is constant. Theorem 4. (Schouten-Struik. at q. where δ = ∗d ∗ . ⊔ ⊓ Notice that when (S.2. g) is a compact oriented Riemann surface two very nice things happen. The tensor h is a symmetric (0. . g ˆij = g ˆij = δij . δg ˆα = (4. i (4. and denote by (x1 .2. Proof of the lemma We will produce a very explicit description of the integrand d s(gt )dVgt dt = d d s(gt ) dVgt + s(gt ) dV t dt dt g (4. ˆh = g where L is the lowering the indices operator deﬁned by g ˆ. Its g ˆ-trace is the scalar trg ˆij hij = tr L−1 (h). Let q be an arbitrary point on S . (i) (S. In particular.2.23) hii .24) . [87]). A hat over a quantity means we think of that quantity at t = 0.2. ˆ i ∂j = 0. We will study the integrand (4.19) d of dt E(gt ). Many nice things happen at q. g) is Einstein. the computations are not as hopeless as they may seem to be. . while g will be denoted simply by g.21 is thus an immediate consequence of Lemma 4. g ˆ will denote (gt ) for t t = 0.23. As we will see.2. By this we mean that we will work in a nicely chosen collection of local coordinates. 2)-tensor. for any smooth function u we have (∆M. Denote by ∇ the Levi-Civita connection of g and let Γi denote its Christoffel symbols jk i in the coordinates (x ). Hint: Use the 2nd Bianchi identity. and we will keep track of the zillion indices we will encounter.2. and we list a few of them which will be used later. and just do it” strategy reminiscent to the good old days of the tensor calculus frenzy.2.21) If α = αi dxi is a 1-form then.g ˆ u)(q ) = − Set h = (hij ) := (g ˙ ) = (g ˙ ij ). ∇ jk ∂i αi . while a dot means differentiation with respect to t at t = 0.20) (4.174 Riemannian geometry Exercise 4.2. at q trg ˆh = i ∂i 2 u. . (4. For typographical reasons we will be forced to introduce new notations. (Recall that only R1212 is nontrivial). Thus. (4. The general case is entirely analogous. xn ) a collection of g ˆ-normal coordinates at q .19) at t = 0.

j ˆ ij − hij R g ˆ ∂i hkk + i. and then evaluating at q we obtain ˙ k − ∂j Γ ˙k ˆ k − ∂j Γ ˆ k + δij ∂k Γ s ˙=g ˙ ij ∂k Γ ij ik ij ik ˆ ij + =g ˙ ij R i ˙ k − ∂i Γ ˙k .28) = − Ric. Finally.2. and we get. Differentiating s at t = 0.2. ∂m ) = ∂k him . at q. (∇ . ˆ k h)(∂i . (4. g ˙ + ∆M. 2 We substitute (4.2.2. yield 1 km ˙ m = 1 (∂i g Γ ˆjk − ∂k g ˆij + ∂j g ˆik ) + g ˆ (∂i hjk − ∂k hij + ∂j hik ) ij 2 2 1 = (∂i hjm − ∂m hij + ∂j him ) .k ∂i ∂k hik ∂i ∂k hik .2.25). upon differentiation at t = 0.25) i at t = 0. 175 The Ricci tensor is k k k m k m Rij = Rikj = ∂k Γk ij − ∂j Γik + Γmk Γij − Γmj Γik .k (∂k ∂i hik − ∂k 2 hii + ∂k ∂i hik ) − 2 1 2 i. (4.27) s ˙=− =− 1 2 i.2.g ˙+ ˆtrg ˆg i.26) which.The Riemann curvature The curvature of g is given by m ℓ m ℓ ℓ ℓ ℓ = ∂k Γℓ = −Rijk Rikj ij − ∂j Γik + Γmk Γij − Γmj Γik . 2 g ˙ ij = −hij . We get The term g ˙ ij can be computed by derivating the equality gik gjk = δk g ˙ ik g ˆjk + g ˆik hjk = 0.27) in (4.26) -(4. at q ˆ ij + hij R i.j (4.k (∂i 2 hkk − ∂i ∂k hik ) i.2.k To get a coordinate free description of the last term note that. ∂k Γ ii ik (4. the scalar curvature is m k k m k s = trg Rij = g ij Rij = gij ∂k Γk ij − ∂j Γik + Γmk Γij − Γmj Γik . so that ˙ ’s we use the known formulæ To evaluate the derivatives Γ Γm ij = 1 km g (∂i gjk − ∂k gij + ∂j gik ) .k i.

trg ˆij (∇ ˆ (∇h) = g Using (4.2.2.28) can be rewritten (at q) as ˆ ˆ ˙ ). We deﬁne its Euler characteristic as the number 1 ε(g). ⊔ ⊓ Green’s formula shows the last two terms vanish and the proof of the Lemma is concluded.2. and d |g| = dt g ˙ ii = |g ˆ| · trg ˙) = g ˆ. ˆ ˆ i h)jk dxk . oriented surface without boundary. g ˆ |g i Hence ˙ (g) = E M 1 ˙ s(ˆ g )ˆ g − Ricg ˆ . i.2. the Euler characteristic is a topological invariant of the surface.g ˙ + δtrg ˆ trg ˆg ˆ (∇g ˆ. Hence.176 Riemannian geometry −1 ˆ. 3)-tensor. a 1-form −1 ˆ ˆ trg ˆ (∇h) = tr(Lg ˆ ∇h). (4. χ(S ) = 2π S where g is an arbitrary Riemann metric on S . and (4. g ˙ ˆ(g ˆ|.2. the Euler characteristic is independent of the metric used to deﬁne it. dVg = ± so that d ˙ g = ± 1 |g ˆ|−1/2 |g|dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn . 1)tensor.29) The second term of the integrand (4.e. + ∆M. g 2 g ˆ dVg ˆ+ M ˆ ˙ ) dVg ∆M.g ˙ + δtrg ˆ trg ˆg ˆ (∇g |g|dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn . a Z-graded vector space naturally associated to a surface whose Euler characteristic coincides with the number deﬁned above. g ˆij = δij . g ˙ g ˆ ˆ ˙ ).22) we deduce that the last term in (4. 1 (2 − χ(S )) 2 ⊔ ⊓ Remark 4. δtrg ˆ (∇h) = δ trg ˆ(∇g We have thus established that s ˙ = − Ric.28.2.. Let S be a compact. Deﬁnition 4. In the local coordinates (xi ) we have where Lg ˆ is the raising the indices operator deﬁned by g ˆ h is a (0. ⊔ ⊓ . Using the g The total covariant derivative ∇ ˆ-trace we can construct a (0. The reason for this terminology will become apparent when we discuss DeRham cohomology. According to the theorem we have just proved. The number g(S ) = is called the genus of the surface. So far we have no idea whether χ(S ) is even an integer.20).19) is a lot easier to compute.2.29. dV 2 dt At q the metric is Euclidean.

Sk . We denote by g the metric on Sf induced by the Euclidean metric in R3 . Since Sf is diffeomorphic to a sphere Kg dVg = 2πχ(S 2 ) = 4π. Consider f : (−4. Since the Lie bracket is trivial we deduce from the computations in Subsection 4.5]. 2π S2 To compute the Euler characteristic of the torus we think of it as an Abelian Lie group with a biinvariant metric. . ∞) a smooth. 0].2. . −3. Sf Set ± ±1 Sf := Sf ∩ {±x > 0}. (iv) f is non-decreasing on [−4. i=1 In the proof of this proposition we will use special metrics on connected sums of surfaces which require a preliminary analytical discussion. 4) → (0. One such function is graphed in Figure 4.2) are two compact oriented surfaces without boundary then χ(S1 #S2 ) = χ(S1 ) + χ(S2 ) − 2. even function such that (i) f (x) = 1 for |x| ≤ 2.2.The Riemann curvature 177 Proposition 4. Sf := Sf ∩ {±x > 1} 4 One such diffeomorphism can be explicitly constructed projecting along radii starting at the origin. In terms of genera. Because of properties (i)-(iv). χ(S 2 ) = 2 and χ(T 2 ) = 0. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 4. To compute χ(S 2 ) we use the round metric g0 for which K = 1 so that χ(S 2 ) = 1 2π dvg0 = 1 areag0 (S 2 ) = 2. Proof. If Si (i=1.30.2. Sf is a smooth surface diffeomorphic4 to S 2 . 4]. Thus upon iteration we get k χ(S1 # · · · #Sk ) = i=1 χ(Si ) − 2(k − 1).5.2 that its curvature is zero.31.3 Denote by Sf the surface inside R3 obtained by rotating the graph of f about the x-axis. for any compact oriented surfaces S1 . . (iii) f (x) = 1 − (x − 3)2 for x ∈ [3. the last equality can be rephrased as k g(S1 # · · · #Sk ) = g(Si ). This concludes the proof of the proposition. (ii) f (x) = 1 − (x + 3)2 for x ∈ [−4. . .

3: Generating a hot-dog-shaped surface S 1 D1 S2 D 2 O Figure 4.178 Riemannian geometry f S f S f S + f Figure 4.4: Special metric on a connected sum .

Remark 4. Hence Kg dvg = 0. 2) be a local coordinate neighborhood diffeomorphic with a disk in the plane.31) Proof of the Proposition 4. It is a classical result that the only compact oriented surfaces are the connected sums of g-tori (see [68]).33. so that the genus of a compact oriented surface is a complete topological invariant.2. Pick a metric gi on Si such that (D1 . In particular. ⊔ ⊓ This completes the proof of the proposition.The Riemann curvature Since f is even we deduce Kg dvg = 1 2 Kg dvg = 2π.4). (By deﬁnition Σ0 = S 2 . so that over this region Kg = 0.2.2. The connected sum S1 #S2 is obtained by chopping off −1 1 the regions Sf from D1 and Sf from D2 and (isometrically) identifying the remaining cylinders ± ∩ {|x| ≤ 1} = C and call O the overlap created by gluing (see Figure 4. We can now compute χ(S1 #S2 ) = 1 2π 1 = 2π = Kg ˆ dvg ˆ S1 # S2 (4.30) + 1 2π S2 Kg2 dVg2 − Kg dVg D2 = χ(S1 ) + χ(S2 ) − 2. Sf 179 ± Sf (4.31) S1 \D1 Kg1 dVg1 + 1 2π 1 2π S1 Kg1 dVg1 − 1 2π 1 2π S2 \D2 D1 Kg2 dVg2 + 1 2π Kg dVg O Kg dVg (4.2.2.30) On the other hand. g1 ) is isometric + − with Sf and (D2 . Corollary 4. Then χ(Σg ) = 2 − 2g and g(Σg ) = g.2. g2 ) is isometric to Sf .32 (Gauss-Bonnet). a sphere is not diffeomorphic to a torus. C (4. on the neck C = {|x| ≤ 2} the metric g is locally Euclidean g = dx2 + dθ 2 . Let Σg denote the connected sum of g-tori. Denote the metric Sf thus obtained on S1 #S2 by g ˆ.31 Let Di ⊂ Si (i = 1. ⊔ ⊓ .2.

γ ˙ (t).1. L = Q − U = kinetic energy − potential energy = m|q 2 The scalar m is called the mass. Consider a smooth manifold M .1. In the calculus of variations one is interested in those paths as above with minimal action. The action of a path (trajectory) γ : [0. we can form the lagrangian L(q. p1 ∈ M . ⊔ ⊓ 180 .2 of “The Feynmann Lectures on Physics” [35]. as a physical quantity. the fundamental problem of the calculus of variations can be easily formulated as follows. which in our opinion is the most eloquent argument for the raison d’ˆ etre of the calculus of variations.1 The 1-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equations From a very “dry” point of view. We recommend to anyone looking for an intellectual feast the Chapter 16 in vol. Fix two points p0 . and we will barely touch its physical signiﬁcance. and let L : R × T M → R by a smooth function called the lagrangian.1. 1] → M connecting these points is the real number S (γ ) = SL (γ ) deﬁned by 1 S (γ ) = SL (γ ) := 0 L(t. The action of a piecewise smooth path γ : [0. γ (t))dt. 1] → R3 is a quantity called the Newtonian action. Example 5. The limited space we will devote to this subject will hardly do it justice. the Newtonian action is measured in the same units as the energy. 5. Note that.1 The least action principle 5. Given a smooth function U : R3 → R called the potential. given by 1 ˙|2 − U (q ). ˙ q ) : R3 × R3 ∼ = T R3 → R.Chapter 5 Elements of the Calculus of Variations This is a very exciting subject lieing at the frontier between mathematics and physics.

Then the path γ satisﬁes the Euler-Lagrange equations ∂ d ∂ L(t. . v ∈ Tq M . v )1/2 (v ∈ Tq M ). k = 1. 1 L2 (v.2. q ) = gq (v. These are said to be holonomic local coordinates on T M . ⊔ ⊓ Before we present the main result of this subsection we need to introduce a bit of notation. q n ) deﬁnes local coordinates on T M . . . . where ∂i := We set q ˙i := v i so that v=q ˙i ∂i . q i ) are holonomic local coordinates on T M such that γ (t) = (q i (t)).1. n = dim M. q ˙n .1.1. and γ ˙ = (q ˙j (t)). Theorem 5. A path γ : [0. if (q ˙j . (i) γ (i) = pi . .4. q i ). . . . q 1 . (ii) SL (γ ) ≤ SL (˜ γ ). . ˙ γ) = L(t. γ. where q ∈ M . Furthermore. q i ) = k (t. dt ∂ γ ˙ ∂γ More precisely. q ˙j . ˙ γ ). i = 0. q n ) of local coordinates on a smooth manifold M automatically induces local coordinates on T M . To any Riemann manifold (M. q ). ∂q i and . . then γ is a solution of the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations d ∂L ∂L (t. The action deﬁned by L2 is called the energy of a path. 1] → M is a smooth path such that the following hold. for any smooth path γ ˜ : [0.5. v ). Any point in T M can be described by a pair (v. 2 We see that the action deﬁned by L1 coincides with the length of a path. and p0 . Let L : R × T M → R be a lagrangian. The collection (q ˙1 . This will be the only type of local coordinates we will ever use. v has a decomposition v = v i ∂i . γ.3 (The least action principle). . p1 ∈ M two ﬁxed points. k dt ∂ q ˙ ∂q Deﬁnition 5. q ˙j . ⊔ ⊓ ∂ . . Suppose γ : [0. q ) = gq (v. . L2 : T M → R deﬁned by L1 (v.1. 1] → M satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equations with respect to some lagrangian L is said to be an extremal of L. . Any collection (q 1 . 1. 1] → M joining p0 to p1 . g) one can naturally associate two lagrangians L1 . Tangent bundles are very peculiar manifolds. . . THE LEAST ACTION PRINCIPLE 181 Example 5.

. ∂s ∂s ∂s dt ∂s ∂ q ˙j dαs = (q ˙i (s.1.1 1 L = m|q ˙|2 − U (q ). Note that δα ˙ = dt and at endpoints δα = 0. In fact. Deﬁnition 5.6.1. ds Assume for simplicity that the image of γ is entirely contained in some open coordinate neighborhood U with coordinates (q 1 . i = 0. ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS To get a better feeling of these equations consider the special case discussed in Example 5. pair (δα. 1.1. t)).1. Exercise 5. ε) × [0. ˙ L = −∇U (q ). 1] → M. In the proof of the least action principle we will use the notion of variation of a path.5. we set δα := ∂q i ∂ dαs ∂q ˙j ∂ ∂α |s=0 = ∂i δα ˙ := |s=0 = . the d δα. Then SL (α0 ) ≤ SL (αs ) ∀s. αs (i) = pi ∀s. such that α0 (t) = γ (t). ⊔ ⊓ Proof of Theorem 5. we can write αs (t) = (q i (s.1) These are precisely Newton’s equation of the motion of a particle of mass m in the force ﬁeld −∇U generated by the potential U . ∂q ˙ ∂q and the Euler-Lagrange equations become mq ¨ = −∇U (q ). 1] → M be a smooth path. . Let αs be a variation of γ rel endpoints. . ⊔ ⊓ . Let γ : [0.1). then we say that α is a variation rel endpoints.182 CHAPTER 5. (5. If moreover. such that X (t) = 0 for t = 0. dt The quantity δα is a vector ﬁeld along γ called inﬁnitesimal variation (see Figure 5. . Then. A variation of γ is a smooth map α = αs (t) : (−ε. Prove that if t → X (t) ∈ Tγ (t) M is a smooth vector ﬁeld along γ . for very small |s|. so that d |s=0 SL (αs ) = 0. Hint: Use the exponential map of some Riemann metric on M . γ ˙ (t)) ∈ T M . t)) and Following the tradition. 1 then there exists at least one variation rel endpoints α such that δα = X . q n ). 2 Then ∂ ∂ L = mq.3. δα ˙ ) ∈ T (T M ) is a vector ﬁeld along t → (γ (t).1.

q n ). 1]. This is true locally. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 5. At this point we use the following classical result of analysis. so that the Euler-Lagrange equations have to be independent of such choices. α ˙s .1: Deforming a path rel endpoints We compute (at s = 0) 0= d d SL (αs ) = ds ds 1 1 L(t.1. if any.1. are objects independent of any choice of local coordinates. namely that the image of γ lies in a coordinate neighborhood. . x ˙j = ∂xj k q ˙ . (5. If (xi ) is another collection of local coordinates on M and (x ˙ j .1.1. then f is identically zero. . (a) In the proof of the least action principle we used a simplifying assumption. αs ) = 0 0 ∂L i δα dt + ∂q i 1 0 ∂L j δα ˙ dt.6 we deduce that it holds for any vector ﬁeld δαi ∂i along γ . ∂q ˙j s Integrating by parts in the second term in the right-hand-side we deduce 1 0 d ∂L − i ∂q dt ∂L ∂q ˙i δαi dt. In terms of inﬁnitesimal variations this means we need to look only at vector ﬁelds along γ supported in local coordinate neighborhoods.1] such that 1 0 ∞ f (t)g(t)dt = 0 ∀g ∈ C0 (0.5. 1). localized on small intervals of [0. .7.2) we deduce the desired conclusion. xi ) are the coordinates induced on T M .1. Using this result in (5. THE LEAST ACTION PRINCIPLE 183 γ p q Figure 5. . We check this directly. ∂q k . and for the above arguments to work it sufﬁces to choose only a special type of variations. From Exercise 5. We leave the reader ﬁll in the details. (b) The Euler-Lagrange equations were described using holonomic local coordinates. If f (t) is a continuous function on [0. The minimizers of the action. then we have the transition rules xi = xi (q 1 .2) The last equality holds for any variation α.

˙ q ) = gij (q )q ˙i q ˙j . namely on symplectic manifolds. These are intrinsic equations we formulated in a coordinate dependent fashion. g) be a Riemann manifold.2. 1 L2 (q. ∂q k 2 ∂q k .4.1. which again requires a nondegeneracy condition on the lagrangian. i. These equations have the advantage that can be formulated on manifolds more general than the cotangent bundles. L2 in Example 5. For more details and examples we refer to the monographs [5. The example below will illustrate this approach on a very special case when L is the lagrangian L2 deﬁned in Example 5.8. these equations are independent of coordinates. Another far reaching method of globalizing the formulation of the Euler-Lagrange equation is through the Legendre transform.. Let (M.) Much like the geodesics equations on a Riemann manifold. 2 so that ∂L2 = gjk q ˙j ∂q ˙k ∂L2 1 ∂gij i j = q ˙q ˙ .1. Is there any way of writing these equation so that the intrinsic nature is visible “on the nose”? If the lagrangian L satisﬁes certain nondegeneracy conditions there are two ways of achieving this goal. Via the Legendre transform the Euler-Lagrange equations become a system of ﬁrst order equations on the cotangent bundle T ∗ M known as Hamilton equations. Example 5. One method is to consider a natural nonlinear connection ∇L on T M as in [77] . ∂q i ∂q i ∂xj ∂q k ∂q i ∂ x ˙j d dt ∂L ∂q ˙i = d dt ∂xj ∂L ∂q i ∂ x ˙j = ∂xj d ∂ 2 xj k ∂L q ˙ + ∂q k ∂q i ∂ x ˙j ∂q i dt ∂L ∂x ˙j . the Hamilton equations carry a lot of information about the structure of symplectic manifolds.2. and they are currently the focus of ⊔ ⊓ very intense research.2. These are manifolds carrying a closed 2-form whose restriction to each tangent space deﬁnes a symplectic duality (see Subsection 2. We now see that the Euler-Lagrange equations in the q -variables imply the Euler-Lagrange in the x-variable. We will compute the Euler-Lagrange equations for the lagrangians L1 . The Euler-Lagrange equations for an extremal γ (t) can then be rewritten as a “geodesics equation” ∇L ˙ γ ˙ γ. The æsthetically conscious reader may object to the way we chose to present the EulerLagrange equations. ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS ∂xj ∂ ∂ 2 xj k ∂ ∂ = + q ˙ ∂q i ∂q i ∂xj ∂q k ∂q i ∂ x ˙j ∂ ∂x ˙i ∂ ∂xj ∂ = j j = j ∂q ˙ ∂q ˙ ∂x ˙ ∂q i ∂ x ˙j Then ∂L ∂xj ∂L ∂ 2 xj k ∂L = + q ˙ .e.1.184 so that CHAPTER 5. in which the extremals will turn out to be precisely the geodesics on a Riemann manifold. 25].

when we express the Euler-Lagrange equations for a minimizer γ0 of this action. is the geodesic equation in disguise.1. |γ ˙ 0 | = 1. Consider a smooth manifold M . ˙ q ) = (gij q ˙i q ˙j )1/2 .9.1.1. This fact almost explains why the geodesics are the shortest paths between two nearby points. and we get 1 q ¨m + gkm 2 ∂gjk ∂gik ∂gij + − k j i ∂q ∂q ∂q q ˙i q ˙j = 0.1. .5) is none other than the Christoffel symbol Γm ij so this equation is precisely the geodesic equation. Thus. (5. The tangent bundle T M is usually referred to as the space of states or the lagrangian phase space. Consider now the lagrangian L1 (q.1.4) When we derivate with respect to t the equality gik q ˙i = gjk q ˙j we deduce gkm ∂gjk i j 1 q ˙q ˙ = gkm i ∂q 2 ∂gjk ∂gik + j ∂q ∂q i q ˙i q ˙j . ˙ q )dt. we may as well assume it is parameterized by arclength. We ﬁrst need to introduce a bit of traditional terminology commonly used by physicists. A point in T M is said to be a state. gkj q ˙j = dt 2 ∂q k We recognize here the equation (5.e. ⊔ ⊓ Example 5. Note that the action p1 SL q (t) = p0 L(q.1.1. we get Since gkm gjm = δj 185 ∂gjk i j 1 ∂gij i j q ˙q ˙ = q ˙q ˙ . is independent of the parametrization t → q (t) since it computes the length of the path t → q (t).5. as we have seen. We substitute this equality in (5. ⊔ ⊓ 5.3) q ¨m + g km ∂gjk 1 ∂gij − i ∂q 2 ∂q k q ˙i q ˙j = 0.2 Noether’s conservation principle This subsection is intended to offer the reader a glimpse at a fascinating subject touching both physics and geometry.4).5) The coefﬁcient of q ˙i q ˙j in (5.3) which. A lagrangian L : R × T M → R associates to each state several meaningful quantities. i. The Euler-Lagrange equations for L1 are ∂gij i j q ˙q ˙ ˙j d gkj q ∂q k . i ∂q 2 ∂q k (5. = dt gij q 2 gij q ˙i q ˙j ˙i q ˙j Along the extremal we have gij q ˙i q ˙ j = 1 (arclength parametrization) so that the previous equations can be rewritten as d 1 ∂gij i j q ˙q ˙ ..1. THE LEAST ACTION PRINCIPLE The Euler-Lagrange equations are q ¨j gjk + m . (5.1.

and one can say it is a very important building block of quantum physics in general. ⊔ ⊓ i dt ∂ q ˙ ∂q At the beginning of the 20th century (1918). . F = −∇U . 1 ˙|2 − U (q ). Let X be a vector ﬁeld on a smooth manifold M deﬁning a global ﬂow Φs . conservation became almost synonymous with symmetry. It eased the leap from classical to quantum mechanics. Φ (x) . This ﬂow induces a ﬂow Ψs on the tangent bundle T M deﬁned by s Ψs (v. Then the energy is conserved along γ .10 (Conservation of energy). ∂q i ∂L . One can think of Ψs as deﬁning an action of the additive group R on T M . most of them. • The generalized force: F = ∂L . physicists say that X is an inﬁnitesimal symmetry of the given mechanical system described by the lagrangian L. q. ˙ q ) as describing the motion of a particle under the inﬂuence of the generalized force. γ ˙ ) = 0. x) = Φs ∗ (v ). i.e. ∂q ˙i This terminology can be justiﬁed by looking at the lagrangian of a classical particle in a potential force ﬁeld.186 CHAPTER 5. L = m|q 2 The momenta associated to this lagrangian are the usual kinetic momenta of the Newtonian mechanics p i = mq ˙i .. Let γ (t) be an extremal of a time independent lagrangian L = L(q. By direct computation we get d d d H (γ. What is then this Noether principle? To answer this question we need to make some simple observations. γ ˙ ) = (pi q ˙ i − L) = dt dt dt = ∂L ∂q ˙i q ˙i + ∂L i ∂L i ∂L i q ¨ − iq ˙ − iq ¨ ∂q ˙i ∂q ∂q ˙ d ∂L ∂L − i q ¨i = 0 (by Euler − Lagrange). while H is simply the total energy H= 1 m|q ˙|2 + U (q ).1. dt Proof. and in fact. Proposition 5. Emmy Noether discovered that many of the conservation laws of the classical mechanics had a geometric origin: they were. ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS • The generalized momenta: pi = • The energy: H = pi q ˙ i − L. ˙ q ). d H (γ. In the few instances of conservation laws where the symmetry was not apparent the conservation was always “blamed” on a “hidden symmetry”. 2 It will be convenient to think of an extremal for an arbitrary lagrangian L(t. reﬂecting a symmetry of the lagrangian!!! This became a driving principle in the search for conservation laws. Alternatively.

then the quantity PX = X i is conserved along the extremals of L. Then d i . ∀s. Let L be a lagrangian on T M . and by LX the Lie derivative on T M along X. q i ). The lagrangian L is said to be X . i ∂q ∂q ∂ q ˙j (5.1.1.1. and X a vector ﬁeld on M .5. We describe this derivative using the local coordinates (q ˙j . ⊔ ⊓ a 1-parameter group of isometries of S 2 generated by ∂θ Deﬁnition 5.14 (E. ⊔ ⊓ Denote by X ∈ Vect (T M ) the inﬁnitesimal generator of Ψs . q i (s) := Ψs (q ˙j . The rotations about the z -axis deﬁne ∂ . We compute d d PX (γ. ∂q i ∂q k ∂ q ˙j Corollary 5. Hence X = Xi j ∂ ∂ k ∂X + q ˙ . Euler-Lagrange .6) ∂X i k ∂L q ˙ + X i i = 0. q i ). We see that L is X -invariant if and only if LX L = 0. If the lagrangian L is X -invariant.1. THE LEAST ACTION PRINCIPLE 187 Example 5.13. Proof. where θ is the longitude on S 2 .1. The lagrangian L is X -invariant if and only if Xi ∂L ∂X j ∂L +q ˙k k = 0.1.12.11. Consider an extremal γ = γ (q i (t)) of L. ∂q j ∂q i ∂q j since ∂ q ˙j /∂q i = 0 on T M . ∂q k ∂ q ˙i ∂q The classical conservation-of-momentum law is a special consequence of Noether’s theorem. Noether).invariant if L ◦ Ψs = L. γ ˙) = dt dt = X i (γ (t)) ∂L ∂q ˙i = d ∂X i k ∂L q ˙ + Xi k i ∂q ∂q ˙ dt ∂L ∂q ˙i ⊔ ⊓ ∂L = X i pi ∂q ˙i ∂L (5.6) ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 5. Let M be the unit round sphere S 2 ⊂ R3 . Set q ˙j (s).1. |s=0 q i (s) = X k δk ds d ds |s=0 ∂ q ˙j (s) ∂q j we use the deﬁnition of the Lie derivative on M To compute − d j ∂ ∂ q ˙ = LX (q ˙i i ) = j ds ∂q ∂q Xk j ∂q ˙j k ∂X − q ˙ ∂q k ∂q k j ∂ ∂ i ∂X = − q ˙ .

Consider a surface of revolution S in R3 obtained by rotating about the z -axis the curve y = f (z ) situated in the yz plane. z ) we can describe S as r = f (z ). θ ) as local coordinates on S .2: A surface of revolution Corollary 5. the i-th component of the momentum ⊔ ⊓ in Noether’s conservation law.. The conservation of momentum has an interesting application in the study of geodesics. If nent of the force is zero. Az ˙ 2 + r2θ 2 = 0.16. ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS z r y O x Figure 5. The lagrangian deﬁning the geodesics on S is L= We see that L is independent of θ : ∂L ∂θ 1 ˙2 .e. r = f (z ). ˙ q. ⊔ ⊓ . so that the generalized momentum ∂L ˙ = r2θ ˙ ∂θ is conserved along the geodesics. then is conserved). If we use cylindrical coordinates (r. Take X = ∂ ∂q i dpi dt ∂L ∂q i = 0. i.1. In these coordinates.e.188 CHAPTER 5. the i-th compo- = 0 along any extremal.1. ) on Rn .. Proof. i. then the induced metric has the form gS = {1 + (f ′ (z ))2 }dz 2 + f 2 (z )dθ 2 = A(z )dz 2 + r 2 dθ 2 .15. (Geodesics on surfaces of revolution). Example 5. the Euclidean metric in R3 has the form ds2 = dr 2 + dz 2 + r 2 dθ 2 . q. θ. Consider a lagrangian L = L(t. We can choose (z.

q is a continuous. |γ ˙ | · |∂/∂θ | r |γ ˙| ˙|γ i. and consider p. θ (t)). 1] → M connecting p to q .1 Variational formulæ Let M be a connected Riemann manifold. Consider a geodesic γ (t) = (z (t). where φ ∈ (−π. The space of inﬁnitesimal variations of γ is an inﬁnite dimensional linear space denoted by Tγ = Tγ Ωp. Denote by Ωp. This is precisely what we intend to do in the case of geodesics. intuitive approach of [71]. The conservation of energy implies that |γ ˙ |2 = 2L = H is constant along the geodesics. and on the cylinder {x2 + y 2 = 1} ⊂ R3 . This should be compared with the situation in calculus. and compute the angle φ between γ ˙ and ∂ ∂θ .1. THE VARIATIONAL THEORY OF GEODESICS This fact can be given a nice geometric interpretation.e.2.q (M ) the space of all continuous. q ∈ M .5.q .q = Ωp. ⊔ ⊓ 5..2. With some extra effort this space can be organized as an inﬁnite dimensional manifold. and V (t)+ = V ( t)− for all but ﬁnitely many t-s. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 5. To decide this issue one has to look at the second derivative.1. This situation is a bit more complicated since the action functional S= 1 2 |γ ˙ |2 dt is not deﬁned on a ﬁnite dimensional manifold. Theorem 5. On a a surface of revolution r = f (z ) the quantity r cos φ is constant along any geodesic.2 The variational theory of geodesics We have seen that the paths of minimal length between two points on a Riemann manifold are necessarily geodesics. 5. π ) is the oriented angle the geodesic makes with the parallels z = const. However. It is a function deﬁned on the “space of all paths” joining the two given points. when a critical point of a function f may not be a minimum or a maximum. q1 it may happen that it is not a minimal path. given a geodesic joining two points q0 . We will not attempt to formalize these prescriptions. piecewise smooth vector ﬁeld V along γ such that V (0) = 0 and V (1) = 0 and hց 0 lim V (t ± h) exists for every t ∈ [0. they are vectors V (t)± ∈ Tγ (t)M . 189 We get cos φ = ˙ γ. Describe the geodesics on the round sphere S 2 .18.17 (Clairaut). We deduce the following classical result. r cos φ = r 2 θ ˙ |−1 . but rather follow the ad-hoc. An inﬁnitesimal variation of a path γ ∈ Ωp. ˙ ∂/∂θ r2θ = . 1]. . piecewise smooth paths γ : [0.

We differentiate under the integral sign using the equality ∂ |α ˙ s |2 = 2 ∇ ∂ α ˙ s.) Proof. Let γ ∈ Ωp. ∂s Let 0 = t0 < t2 < · · · < tk = 1 be a partition of [0. ε). E∗ (δα) := d |s=0 E (αs ) = − ds 1 t (δα)(t).1) where ∇ denotes the Levi-Civita connection. so that the quantity ∆t γ ˙ = lim (γ ˙ (t + h) − γ ˙ (t − h)) is nonzero only for ﬁnitely many t’s. ti ) is a smooth map. The velocity γ ˙ (t) has a ﬁnite number of discontinuities. Since αs = γ for s = 0 we conclude k ti ti−1 E∗ (δα) = i=1 ∇ ∂ δα.q . h→0+ Theorem 5.1] as in Deﬁnition 5.2.2.190 CHAPTER 5. (ii) There exists a partition 0 = t0 < t1 · · · < tk−1 < tk = 1 of [0. ∇∂α ∂s ∂α ∂ ∂ and ∂t commute we have ∇ ∂ ∂α Since the vector ﬁelds ∂s ∂ ∂t = ∇ ∂t ∂s .3 (The ﬁrst variation formula). ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS Deﬁnition 5. ∆t γ ˙ − 0 ˙ dt.1] such that the restriction of α to each (−ε.2. α ˙s .1. 1] → M such that (i) ∀s ∈ (−ε. and let α be a variation of γ .q .2. δα. (Note that the right-hand-side depends on α only through δα so it is really a linear function on Tγ . α ˙ s |s=0 dt. αs ∈ Ωp. A variation of γ is a continuous map α = αs (t) : (−ε. ∇ d γ dt (5.2. Consider now the energy functional E : Ωp. Set α ˙s = ∂αs ∂t . ∂t . ∂s ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 5.2. Given V ∈ Tγ construct a variation α such that δα = V . Fix γ ∈ Ωp. ⊔ ⊓ Every variation α of γ deﬁnes an inﬁnitesimal variation δα := ∂αs |s=0 . ε) × [0.q . ε) × (ti−1 . E (γ ) = 1 2 1 0 |γ ˙ (t)|2 dt. γ ˙ . ∂s ∂s and we get d |s=0 E (αs ) = ds 1 0 ˙ s.1.q → R.

0) . δα. δα → E∗ (δα) is called the ﬁrst derivative of E at γ ∈ Ωp. Prove the above corollary. ∂s1 ∂s2 (5. V2 ∈ Tx0 X . a critical path may have a discontinuous ﬁrst derivative. A path γ ∈ Ωp. t) → αs1 . ε) × (−ε. and we obtain k k 191 E∗ (δα) = This is precisely equality (5. THE VARIATIONAL THEORY OF GEODESICS We use the equality ∂ ˙ + δα.q .0) . s2 ) → α(s1 . 2.2. Given V1 . Corollary 5. ∂si ∂ 2 f ( α(s1 . Exercise 5.. If x0 is a critical point of f . s2 . The map α is continuous. s2 ) ∈ X such that α(0. ⊔ ⊓ The map E∗ : Tγ → R.q be a critical path. s2 ) ) |(0.s2 (t).s2 : (−ε. the Hessian f∗∗ (V1 . ∂t ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 5. Let γ ∈ Ωp.2. a priori.0 . and has second order derivatives everywhere except maybe on ﬁnitely many “coordinate” planes si = const. γ ˙ i=1 ti ti−1 ti ti−1 − i=1 δα. i. We will have more to say about it in Chapter 11. then we can deﬁne the Hessian at x0 f∗∗ : Tx0 X × Tx0 X → R as follows.q is critical if and only if it is a geodesic. ε) ⊂ R2 and γ := α0. Let f : X → R be a smooth function on the ﬁnite dimensional smooth manifold X . This is a manifestation of a more general analytical phenomenon called elliptic regularity. (s1 . or ∂α | . ∇ ∂ γ ˙ dt. df (x0 ) = 0. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Remark 5. ∀V ∈ Tγ . 0) = x0 and Now set f∗∗ (V1 .4. Set δi α := ∂s i (0. t = const. γ ∂t ∂t ∂t to integrate by parts.2.e. 0) = Vi . ε) × [0.2. We want to deﬁne a second derivative of E in order to address the issue raised at the beginning of this section. Set U := (−ε. i = 1.2. We now return to our energy functional E : Ωp.2. ε) × (−ε. 1] → M.2. ∇ ∂ γ ˙ δα.2) Note that since x0 is a critical point of f .5. We will imitate the ﬁnite dimensional case which we now brieﬂy analyze.7.q is called critical if E∗ (V ) = 0. Note that. Consider a 2-parameter variation of γ α := αs1 .5. The above corollary shows that this is not the case: the criticality also implies smoothness. V2 ) is independent of the function α satisfying (5.2. Note that δi α ∈ Tγ .2). V2 ) = ∂α (0.q → R.1). 2. i = 1. consider a smooth map (s1 . γ ˙ = ∇ ∂ δα. A path γ ∈ Ωp.6.

∇ ∂ ∂s1 ∇∂ ∂t ∂α dt. V1 ). ∂t Using the commutativity of ∇ ∂ ∂t with ∂α ∂t ∂ ∂s1 we deduce ∂α ∂t = ∆t ∇ ∂ δ1 α . E∗∗ is a bilinear functional on Tγ . According to the ﬁrst variation formula we have ∂E =− ∂s2 Hence ∂2E =− ∂s1 ∂s2 1 t δ2 α.9 (The second variation formula). δ2 α) := Theorem 5. 1 ∂ 2 E (αs1 . ∂t ∇ ∂ ∂s1 δ2 α. V2 ) = E∗∗ (V2 . We can now deﬁne the Hessian of E at γ by E∗∗ (δ1 α. the deﬁnition of the curvature implies ∇ ∂ ∂s1 ∇∂ =∇∂ ∇ ∂t ∂t ∂ ∂s1 + R(δ1 α. ∆t δ1 α − 0 δ2 α. ∀V1 .2.192 CHAPTER 5.3) where R denotes the Riemann curvature.2. Corollary 5. ∆t t ∂α − ∂t 1 0 δ2 α. V2 ∈ Tγ . ∆1 γ ˙ − 1 t δ2 α. ∇ ∂ ∂s1 ∆t ∂α ∂t − 0 ∇ ∂ ∂s1 δ2 α. ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 5. we have ∆t γ ˙ = 0 and ∇ ∂ γ ˙ = 0. ∂s1 ∂s2 E∗∗ (δ1 α. ∇ ∂ ∂t ∂α dt. Given V1 . δ2 α) = − t δ2 α. ∂t ∂ ∂s1 ∆t = ∆t ∇ ∂ ∂s1 Finally. E∗∗ (V1 . In particular.2.8. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Putting all the above together we deduce immediately the equality (5. ∂t (5.3). Proof.4) Since γ is a geodesic.2.s2 ) |(0.10. ∂t (5.2. V2 ∈ Tγ construct a 2-parameter variation α such that Vi = δi α.2. . ˙ δ1 α)γ ˙ dt. ∇ ∂ γ ˙ dt − ∂t 0 δ2 α. ∇2 ∂ δ1 α − R(γ.0) . γ ˙ ).

Let γ ∈ Ωp. 2.5.q be a geodesic.q be a geodesic.11.2.13. ε) × [0.q . q ∈ M . ∂t ∂t Deﬁnition 5. Two points γ (t1 ) and γ (t2 ) on γ are said to be conjugate along γ if there exists a nontrivial Jacobi ﬁeld J along γ such that J (ti ) = 0. Deﬁnition 5. ∇2 t δα = ∇t ∇t = ∇s ∇t ∂α ∂t ∂α ∂s = ∇t ∇s ∂α ∂t ⊔ ⊓ + R(γ.17.q be a geodesic and (αs ) a geodesic variation of γ . and moreover. Let γ ∈ Ωp. the evaluation map evq : Jp → Tp M V → ∇t V (p) is a linear isomorphism. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 5.2. Show that dim Jp = dim M . (b) Show that a vector ﬁeld J along γ which vanishes at endpoints. then there exists a geodesic variation αs of γ such that J = δα. ∀V ∈ Tγ . Deﬁne Jp to be the space of Jacobi ﬁelds V along γ such that V (p) = 0. and t → αs (t) is a geodesic for all s.2 Jacobi ﬁelds In this subsection we will put to work the elements of calculus of variations presented so far.15. THE VARIATIONAL THEORY OF GEODESICS 193 5. for all vector ﬁelds W along γ . ∂t Proof. ˙ δα) . (a) Prove that J is a Jacobi ﬁeld if and only if E∗∗ (J. i = 1.2. is a Jacobi ﬁeld if any only if E∗∗ (J.16. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 5.12. Then the inﬁnitesimal variation δα satisﬁes the Jacobi equation ∇2 ˙ δα)γ ˙ (∇t = ∇ ∂ ). A smooth vector ﬁeld J along a geodesic γ is called a Jacobi ﬁeld if it satisﬁes the Jacobi equation ∇2 ˙ J )γ. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 5. Let γ ∈ Ωp.2.2. t δα = R(γ.2. Let γ ∈ Ωp.2. g) be a Riemann manifold and p. Exercise 5. Let γ (t) be a geodesic. Proposition 5.2. α0 = γ . Let (M.14. 1] → M such that. We set as usual δα = ∂α ⊔ ⊓ ∂s |s=0 . ˙ δα) ∂α ∂α = R(γ. V ) = 0. A geodesic variation of γ is a smooth map αs (t) : (−ε.2. and J a vector ﬁeld along γ . Show that if J is a Jacobi ﬁeld along a geodesic γ . ˙ ⊔ ⊓ t J = R(γ. W ) = 0. ⊔ ⊓ .

⊔ ⊓ The following result (partially) explains the geometric signiﬁcance of conjugate points. Let γ ∈ Ωp.3).t1 ] such that J0 = 0 and Jt1 = 0. let αs denote a variation of γ such that δα = U .2. One can verify easily (using Clairaut’s theorem) that γ is a geodesic. U ). One computes easily that d2 E (αs2 ) = 2E∗∗ (U. E∗∗ (U.q be a nondegenerate. Consider γ : [0.2.q is said to be nondegenerate if q is not conjugated to p along γ . We will prove that Vt is a Jacobi ﬁeld along γ which contradicts the nondegeneracy of γ . We conclude that the poles are conjugate along any meridian (see Figure 5. t ∈ [0.2. Denote by Jt a Jacobi ﬁeld along γ |[0. minimal geodesic.2. hence a new geodesic γθ . t ≥ t1 .20. ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS N γ S Figure 5. t1 ] 0. Theorem 5. Thus (γθ ) is a geodesic variation of γ with ﬁxed endpoints. Deﬁne V ∈ Tγ by Vt = Jt . Then p is conjugate with no point on γ other than itself. Step 1.19. In particular.3: The poles are conjugate along meridians.194 CHAPTER 5. Example 5.5) Indeed. 2π ] → S 2 a meridian on the round sphere connection the poles. a geodesic segment containing conjugate points cannot be minimal ! Proof. A geodesic γ ∈ Ωp. The counterclockwise rotation by an angle θ about the z -axis will produce a new meridian. δγ is a Jacobi ﬁeld vanishing at the poles. We argue by contradiction. Let p1 = γ (t1 ) be a point on γ conjugate with p.18. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 5. (5. U ) ≥ 0 ∀U ∈ Tγ . ds2 .

2. 2 d2 |s=0 E (αs2 ) ≥ 0. Thus. Often. V ) = 0. THE VARIATIONAL THEORY OF GEODESICS Since γ is minimal for any small s we have length (αs2 ) ≥ length (α0 ) so that E (αs2 ) ≥ 1 2 1 0 2 195 |α ˙ s2 |dt = 1 1 = length (αs2 )2 ≥ length (α0 )2 2 2 1 length (γ )2 = E (α0 ). X ≤ 0 ∀X. Y )Y.5). ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 5. ds2 Hence This proves (5.2. Step 3. ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 5. V ) = 0. this dependence is very powerful. We deﬁne its index.20 can be reformulated as follows: the index of a nondegenerate minimal geodesic is zero. Step 2. q ∈ M and any geodesic γ ∈ Ωp.e.2.2. V + τ U ) = fU (τ ) ∀τ. The index of a geodesic obviously depends on the curvature of the manifold. Y ∈ Tx M ∀x ∈ M. is conjugate to γ (0) which by Exercise 5.2. τ = 0 is a global minimum of fU (τ ) so that ′ fU (0) = 0.2.2. γ (t) is conjugate to γ (0) is discrete.2. This follows immediately from the second variation formula and the fact that the nontrivial portion of V is a Jacobi ﬁeld.23. Step 3 follows from the above equality using the bilinearity and the symmetry of E∗∗ .21 is ﬁnite. E∗∗ (V. Prove that the set t ∈ R . denoted by ind (γ ). 1) . The ﬁnal ⊔ ⊓ conclusion (that V is a Jacobi ﬁeld) follows from Exercise 5.2.15.6) .5) and Step 2 we deduce 0 = E∗∗ (V.22. Let γ ∈ Ωp. V ) ≤ E∗∗ (V + τ U.q be a geodesic. Then for any p. as the cardinality of the set Cγ = t ∈ (0. (5. Let γ : R → M be a geodesic.21.. From (5. i. E∗∗ (U. ind (γ ) = 0. Exercise 5. ∀U ∈ Tγ . R(X.5. Let M be a Riemann manifold with non-positive sectional curvature. Theorem 5.q .2.

so that 0 1 ∇2 t J. 1] → M the point γ (1) is not conjugated to γ (0).2. Riemann manifold and q0 ∈ M . v ∈ Tq0 M . ⊔ ⊓ The notion of conjugacy is intimately related to the behavior of the exponential map.6) 1 0 |∇t J |2 dt ≤ 0. ˙ J dt. Let (M. γ ˙ )γ. Thus ∇2 ˙ J )γ. Let Jt be a Jacobi ﬁeld along γ vanishing at the endpoints. A point q ∈ M is conjugated to q0 along some geodesic if and only if it is a critical value of the exponential map expq0 : Tq0 M → M. Theorem 5. ˙ J dt. Proof. the vector ﬁeld W = ∂ |s=0 expq0 (tv (s)) ∂s is a Jacobi ﬁeld along γv . ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS Proof. Hence. Obviously W (0) = 0. complete. 1. Assume ﬁrst that q is a critical value for expq0 . J dt = 1 0 1 R(γ. 0 Since J (τ ) = 0 for τ = 0. and we deduce ∇t J. Conversely.7) . ˙ t J = R(γ.196 CHAPTER 5. ˙ J dt = − 1 0 1 R(J. t) → expq0 (tv (s)) is a geodesic variation of the radial geodesic γv : t → expq0 (tv ). 0 We integrate by parts the left-hand-side of the above equality.24. g) be a connected.2. and v is a critical point. Let v (s) be a path in Tq0 M such that v (0) = v and v ˙ (0) = X . γ ˙ )γ. assume v is not a critical point for expq0 . and moreover W (1) = ∂ |s=0 expq0 (v (s)) = Dv expq0 (X ) = 0. This implies ∇t J = 0 which coupled with the condition J (0) = 0 implies J ≡ 0. It sufﬁces to show that for any geodesic γ : [0. ∂s ∂ expq0 (tv (s)) = ∇s v (s) |s=0 = 0. For any X ∈ Tv (Tq0 M ) denote by JX the Jacobi ﬁeld along γv such that JX (q0 ) = 0. Let q = expq0 v . we deduce using (5. ∂t On the other hand this is a nontrivial ﬁeld since ∇t W = ∇s |s=0 This proves q0 and q are conjugated along γv . The proof is complete. (5. for some X ∈ Tv (Tq0 M ). J |1 0− |∇t J |2 dt = − R(J. Then Dv expq0 (X ) = 0.2. The map (s. ˙ J )γ.

Since v is not a critical point. Thus. ⊔ ⊓ .2. a Jacobi ﬁeld along γv vanishing at both q0 and q must have the form JX . in other words is very small. q ∈ M } ≤ πr. THE VARIATIONAL THEORY OF GEODESICS 197 Figure 5. Ric (X. The lesson to learn from this intuitive experiment is that the price we have to pay for lengthening the sphere is decreasing the curvature. Hence diam (M ) = sup{dist (p. A possible shape one can obtain may look like in Figure 5. Our next result offers a more quantitative description of this phenomenon. a highly curved surface cannot have a large diameter. Theorem 5. If for all X ∈ Vect (M ) (n − 1) |X |2 .5. The long tube is very similar to a piece of cylinder so that the total (= scalar) curvature is very close to zero. Hopf-Rinow theorem implies that M must be compact. and in particular.25. ⊔ ⊓ We will see in the next chapter that this corollary has a lot to say about the topology of M .4. p. The existence of such a Jacobi ﬁeld follows from Exercise 5.26 (Myers). The map Tv (Tq0 M ) → Jq0 X → JX is a linear isomorphism. Equivalently.2. As in that exercise. Consider now the following experiment. q ) . Stretch the round two-dimensional sphere of radius 1 until it becomes “very long”.4: Lengthening a sphere.16. this means X = 0 so that JX ≡ 0. ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 5. denote by Jq0 the space of Jacobi ﬁelds J along γv such that J (q0 ) = 0. Let M be an n-dimensional complete Riemann manifold.2. X ) ≥ r2 then every geodesic of length ≥ πr has conjugate points and thus is not minimal. On a complete Riemann manifold M with non-positive sectional curvature the exponential map expq has no critical values for any q ∈ M . where X ∈ Tv (Tq0 M ) satisﬁes Dv expq0 (X ) = 0.2.

. Let M be a Riemann manifold and q ∈ M . Y ) ∀X. Y ∈ LG .1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 5. γ ˙ )γ. by Hopf-Rinow theorem G has to be complete. then (n − 1)π 2 /ℓ2 − Ric (γ. Its geodesics through the origin 1 ∈ G are the 1-parameter subgroups exp(tX ) which are deﬁned for all t ∈ R. .27.28. Since γ is minimal we deduce E∗∗ (V. and we found 1 Ric (X. Denote by Wt = δγs the associated Jacobi ﬁeld along γ0 (t). Wi ) = 0 sin2 πt/ℓ (n − 1)π 2 /ℓ2 − Ric (γ. A semisimple Lie group G with positive deﬁnite Killing pairing is compact. ˙ γ ˙ ) dt ≥ 0. Hence. ˙ γ ˙ ) < 0. Set Wi = sin(πt/ℓ)ei . Fix a minimal geodesic γ : [0. and we obtain n −1 i=1 ℓ E∗∗ (Wi . 4 The corollary now follows from Myers’ theorem.2. so that. Wi ) = − ℓ 0 Wi . ⊔ ⊓ We already know that the Killing form of a compact. ˙ ei We sum over i = 1. Set q0 = γ (0). n −1 i=1 E∗∗ (Wi .19.2. at least for some Wi . . ℓ] → M of length ℓ. The Killing form deﬁnes in this case a bi-invariant Riemann metric on G. see Exercise 4. Wi ) < 0. we have E∗∗ (Wi . This contradicts the minimality of γ . Hence. ELEMENTS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS Proof. Y ) = κ(X. γ ˙ )γ ˙ dt dt. and q1 = γ (ℓ). semisimple Lie group is positive deﬁnite. we have computed the Ricci curvature of the Killing metric. . If ℓ > πr . Proof. The proof is complete. On the other hand. ∇t Wi + R(Wi . . and let ei (t) be an orthonormal basis of vector ﬁelds along γ such that en (t) = γ ˙ (t). Prove the following. Corollary 5. = 0 sin2 (πt/ℓ) π 2 /ℓ2 − R(ei . Wi ) < 0. For the unitary vectors X. Then ℓ E∗∗ (Wi . V ) ≥ 0 ∀V ∈ Tγ .198 CHAPTER 5. The next result shows that the converse is also true. Form f (t) = |Wt |2 . Y ∈ Tq M consider the family of geodesics γs (t) = expq t(X + sY ). n − 1.

Prove that 1 gkℓ (x) = δkℓ − Rkijℓ xi xj + O(3). ⊔ ⊓ . The interdependence “curvature-topology” on a Riemann manifold has deep reaching ramiﬁcations which stimulate the curiosity of many researchers. X )X. Prove that if the Ricci curvature is negative deﬁnite at q then vol0 (Dr (q )) ≤ volg (expq (Dr (q )) 199 for all r sufﬁciently small. Y q t4 + O(t5 ). Above. |x| ≤ r }. (b) f (t) = t2 − 3 i (c) Denote by x a collection of normal coordinates at q .2. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 5. 1 R(Y.2.29. 3 1 det gij (x) = 1 − Rij xi xj + O(3). We refer to [27] or [71] and the extensive references therein for a presentation of some of the most attractive results in this direction. vol0 denotes the Euclidean volume in Tq M while volg denotes the volume on the Riemann manifold M . 3 (d) Let Dr (q ) = {x ∈ Tq M . THE VARIATIONAL THEORY OF GEODESICS (a) Wt = DtX expq (Y ) = Frechet derivative of v → expq (v ).5.

This chapter will set the above observations on a rigorous foundation. Notice that S 2 has a remarkable property which distinguishes it from T 2 : on the sphere any closed curve can be shrunk to a point while on the torus there exist at least two “independent” unshrinkable curves (see Figure 6.1: Looking for unshrinkable loops. For example. Figure 6. and we deduced the intuitively obvious fact that a sphere is not diffeomorphic to a torus because they have distinct genera. The Gauss-Bonnet theorem involves a heavy analytical machinery which may obscure the intuition. In particular. 200 . We used the Gauss-Bonnet theorem in the opposite direction.1). this means the sphere is not diffeomorphic to a torus.Chapter 6 The Fundamental group and Covering Spaces In the previous chapters we almost exclusively studied local properties of manifolds. the Gauss-Bonnet theorem implies that on a connected sum of two tori there cannot exist metrics with curvature everywhere positive because the integral of the curvature is a negative universal constant. This study is interesting only if some additional structure is present since otherwise all manifolds are locally alike. We noticed an interesting phenomenon: the global “shape” (topology) of a manifold restricts the types of structures that can exist on a manifold.

THE FUNDAMENTAL GROUP 201 6. 1] → X. (t. 1] × X → Y (t. The two loops γ1 . k = 1.6.1.1.1. Deﬁnition 6. (b) Two topological spaces X .4.1. We write this as f0 ≃ f1 . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 6. s) → Γt (s). γ2 : I → C.1. The product of γ1 and γ2 is the loop γ1 (2s) . The space of loops in X based at x0 is denoted by Ω(X. Y are said to be homotopy equivalent if there exist maps f : X → Y and g : Y → X such that f ◦ g ≃ ½Y and g ◦ f ≃ ½X . (a) Let γ1 .1. x0 ) ∀t ∈ [0. 1]. and We write this as γ0 ≃x0 γ1 . Fi ≡ fi for i = 0. γ1 ∗ γ2 (s) = γ2 (2s − 1) . 1/2 ≤ s ≤ 1 γ − (s) = γ (1 − s). 1] × I → X.1 Basic notions In the sequel all topological spaces will be locally path connected spaces. ⊔ ⊓ Example 6. γk (t) = exp(2kπt). such that Γi (s) = γi (s) i = 0.5. f1 : X → Y are said to be homotopic if there exists a continuous map F : [0. ⊔ ⊓ Note that a loop is more than a closed curve. such that γ (0) = γ (1) = x0 . We write this X ≃ Y . (a) Let X and Y be two topological spaces. γ1 : I → X based at x0 are said to be homotopic rel x0 if there exists a continuous map Γ : [0.1. ⊔ ⊓ The inverse of a based loop γ is the based loop γ − deﬁned by . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 6. 1.2. x0 ). (c) The identity loop is the constant loop ex0 (s) ≡ x0 . it is a closed curve + a description of a motion of a point around the closed curve.1 The fundamental group 6. (b) Two loops γ0 . γ2 be two loops based at x0 ∈ X . x) → Ft (x). The annulus {1 ≤ |z | ≤ 2} is homotopy equivalent to the unit circle. Two continuous maps f0 . 1. The unit disk in the plane is contractible. (s → Γt (s)) ∈ Ω(X.1.3. (a) Let X be a topological space and x0 ∈ X . A loop based at x0 is a continuous map γ : [0. Example 6. 0 ≤ s1/2 . such that. (c) A topological space is said to be contractible if it is homotopy equivalent to a point. 2 are different though they have the same image.

x) → Ft (x) such that. The following result is left to the reader as an exercise.7. Moreover the induced operation is associative. the product operation descends to an operation “·” on Ω(X. Then any continuous map f : X → Y such that f (x0 ) = y0 induces a morphism of groups f∗ : π1 (X.202 The Fundamental group and covering spaces Intuitively. y0 ) be two base-point-preserving continuous maps.. We prove (c). and one can check immediately that γ ≃x0 γ ′ ⇒ f (γ ) ≃y0 f (γ ′ ). x0 ) ∋ γ → f (γ ) ∈ Ω(Y. (c) Let f0 . z0 ) are continuous maps. satisfying the following functoriality properties. such that f (x0 ) = y0 and g(y0 ) = z0 . Let α0 ≃x0 α1 .. x0 ) → (Y. f g . f1 : (X. The fundamental group π1 (X. Proof. β0 ≃x0 β1 and γ0 ≃x0 γ1 be three pairs of homotopic based loops. ·) is a group. the set of homotopy classes of based loops. x0 ) → (Y. (b) α0 ∗ α− 0 ≃x0 ex0 .1. and it is denoted by π1 (X. Lemma 6. Assume f0 is homotopic to f1 rel x0 .1. ⊔ ⊓ Hence. The image of a based loop γ in π1 (X. y0 ). (b) If (X. The statements (a) and (b) are now obvious. and then γ2 (twice faster). Fix two points. The group (Ω(X. (t. y0 ). Let X and Y be two topological spaces. Hence the correspondence Ω(X. x)}x∈X . Let γ ∈ Ω(X.6. x0 ) → π1 (Y. the product of two loops γ1 and γ2 is the loop obtained by ﬁrst following γ1 (twice faster). ⊔ ⊓ The elements of π1 (X. Fi (x) ≡ fi (x). then (g ◦ f )∗ = g∗ ◦ f∗ . To get more information about X one should study all the groups {π1 (X. x0 ∈ X and y0 ∈ Y . Then (f0 )∗ = (f1 )∗ . there exists a continuous map F : I × X → Y . ·) is called the fundamental group (or the Poincar´ e group) of the topological space X . i. for i = 0. y0 ) → (Z. Proposition 6. y0 ) descends to a map f : π1 (X. (d) (α0 ∗ β0 ) ∗ γ0 ≃x0 α0 ∗ (β0 ∗ γ0 ). x0 )/≃x0 . x0 ) is denoted by [γ ]. 1 and Ft (x0 ) ≡ y0 . x0 )/≃x0 . x0 ). it has a unit and each element has an inverse. (c) α0 ∗ ex0 ≃x0 α0 . Then (a) α0 ∗ β0 ≃x0 α1 ∗ β1 .x0 ) . x0 ) → π1 (Y. This is clearly a group morphism. x0 )/≃x0 .1. Then f (γ ) ∈ Ω(Y. x0 ) “sees” only the connected component of X which contains x0 . (a) (½X )∗ = ½π1 (X.8. x0 ).e. y0 ). Hence (Ω(X. Deﬁnition 6. x0 ) are the “unshrinkable loops” discussed at the beginning of this chapter.

pt) ∼ π1 (pt.10.2. However.1. Exercise 6. all the fundamental groups π1 (X. x0 ) → (Y. THE FUNDAMENTAL GROUP 203 x γ 0 − α α x 1 Figure 6. the fundamental group of a connected space X is independent of the base point modulo some isomorphism. 1] → X joining x0 to x1 induces an isomorphism α∗ : π1 (X.12.1.1. if X is connected.1. x0 ) → π1 (X. x0 ) we have β0 = f0 (γ ) ≃y0 f1 (γ ) = β1 .9. ⊔ ⊓ . A connected space X such that π1 (X.9. Any continuous path α : [0. Prove that the spheres of dimension ≥ 2 are simply connected. Proposition 6. Let f0 .14. (b) π1 (annulus) ∼ π1 (S 1 ). pt) = {1}. Example 6. deﬁned by. x1 ).1.1. Prove Proposition 6. f1 : (X.6.1. x ∈ X are isomorphic. The above homotopy is realized by Bt = Ft (γ ). Corollary 6. pt) to underscore this weak dependence on the base point. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 6. and Ft a homotopy rel x0 connecting them. ⊔ ⊓ A priori. For any γ ∈ Ω(X. pt) = {1} is said to be simply connected. the fundamental group of a topological space X may change as the base point varies and it almost certainly does if X has several connected components. (a) π1 (Rn . α∗ ([γ ]) := [α− ∗ γ ∗ α].1. Two homotopically equivalent connected spaces have isomorphic fundamental groups.11. see Figure 6. x). y0 ) be two continuous maps. We will write π1 (X. Let X be a connected topological space.2: Connecting base points. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Thus. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 6. and thus path connected since it is locally so.13.

zn−1 . any ﬂat connection induces a group morphism −1 T : π1 (X. . . . . Note that πt (ζ ) = ζ .1. where · denotes the group multiplication. . 1] since we can homotop it out of any neighborhood of P . Notice ﬁrst that the natural embedding Ck+1 ֒→ Cn+1 induces an embedding CPk ֒→ CPn . For t ∈ [0. This proves that CPn is simply connected. πt is a homotopy rel pt connecting γ = π0 (γ ) to a loop γ1 in H ∼ = CPn−1 based at pt. πt ﬂows the point ζ along the line P ζ until it reaches the hyperplane H.14. in terms of homogeneous coordinates this embedding is given by [z0 . Our induction hypothesis shows that γ1 can be shrunk to pt inside H . . 1) is Abelian.204 The Fundamental group and covering spaces Exercise 6. and by Exercise 6.16. Let E → X be a rank r complex vector bundle over the smooth manifold X . and let ∇ be a ﬂat connection on E . 0] (= [z0 . zn−1 (1 − tzn ).. 0. . ⊔ ⊓ . pt). zn−1 (1 − zn ). . . . . . 0] ∈ CPn . In homogeneous coordinates π (ζ ) = [z0 (1 − zn ). CP1 ∼ = S 2 . We next k assume CP is simply connected for k < n and prove the same is true for n. Deﬁne a new operation “⋆ ” on Ω(G. 1) by (α ⋆ β )(s) = α(s) · β (s). . . 0. we denote by π (ζ ) the intersection of the line P ζ with the hyperplane H. piecewise smooth γ ∈ Ω(X. (1 − t)zn ]. We will establish this by induction. We want to compute the fundamental group of the complex projective space CPn . . . More precisely. so that Tγ ∈ GL (Cr ). and let γ ∈ Ω(CPn . . . 0.17. x0 ) → GL(Cr ) γ → Tγ . 0] ∈ CPn . . zk . . . and identify the ﬁber Ex0 with Cr . (b) Tβ ∗α = Tα ◦ Tβ . (a) Prove that α≃x0 β ⇒ Tα = Tβ . Let G be a connected Lie group.1. .1. zn ] ∈ CPn .e. we want to show it is simply connected. More precisely. . Thus. x0 ) denote by Tγ = Tγ (∇) the parallel transport along γ . and ∀ζ ∈ H. For n = 1. More precisely. . . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 6. 1] deﬁne πt (ζ ) = [z0 (1 − tzn ). if ζ = [z0 . . We now use a classical construction of projective geometry. . .15. We project γ from P to the hyperplane H = CPn−1 ֒→ CPn . (a) Prove that α ⋆ β ≃1 α ∗ β . . . . Geometrically. Choose as base point pt = [1. Clearly. Clearly π is continuous. For any continuous. Pick x0 ∈ X . F (∇) = 0. ⊔ ⊓ Example 6. We may assume γ avoids the point P = [0. ∀t. . . : zk ] → [z0 . (b) Prove that π1 (G. . the sphere S 2 is simply connected.1. i. . 0] when zn = 1). This morphism (representation) is called the monodromy of the connection.

6.1. THE FUNDAMENTAL GROUP

205

**6.1.2 Of categories and functors
**

The considerations in the previous subsection can be very elegantly presented using the language of categories and functors. This brief subsection is a minimal introduction to this language. The interested reader can learn more about it from the monograph [54, 67]. A category is a triplet C = (Ob(C), Hom(C), ◦) satisfying the following conditions. (i) Ob(C) is a set whose elements are called the objects of the category. (ii) Hom(C) is a family of sets Hom (X, Y ), one for each pair of objects X and Y . The elements of Hom (X, Y ) are called the morphisms (or arrows) from X to Y . (iii) ◦ is a collection of maps ◦ : Hom(X, Y ) × Hom(Y, Z ) → Hom(X, Z ), (f, g) → g ◦ f, which satisﬁes the following conditions. (C1) For any object X , there exists a unique element ½X ∈ Hom(X, X ) such that,

f ◦ ½X = f g ◦ ½X = g ∀f ∈ Hom(X, Y ), ∀g ∈ Hom(Z, X ).

(C2) ∀f ∈ Hom(X, Y ), g ∈ Hom(Y, Z ), h ∈ Hom(Z, W ) h ◦ (g ◦ f ) = (h ◦ g) ◦ f. Example 6.1.18. • Top is the category of topological spaces. The objects are topological spaces and the morphisms are the continuous maps. Here we have to be careful about one foundational issue. Namely, the collection of all topological spaces is not a set. To avoid this problem we need to restrict to topological spaces whose subjacent sets belong to a certain Universe. For more about this foundational issue we refer to [54]. • (Top, ∗) is the category of marked topological spaces. The objects are pairs (X, ∗), where X is a topological space, and ∗ is a distinguished point of X . The morphisms (X, ∗) → (Y, ⋄) are the continuous maps f : X → Y such that f (∗) = ⋄. • F Vect is the category of vector spaces over the ﬁeld F. The morphisms are the F-linear maps. • Gr is the category of groups, while Ab denotes the category of Abelian groups. The morphisms are the obvious ones. • R Mod denotes the category of left R-modules, where R is some ring. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 6.1.19. Let C1 and C2 be two categories. A covariant (respectively contravariant) functor is a map F : Ob(C1 ) × Hom(C1 ) → Ob(C2 ) × Hom(C2 ), such that, if X → Y , then F(X ) −→ F(Y ) (respectively F(X ) ←− F(Y )), and (i) F(½X ) = ½F(X ) , (ii) F(g) ◦ F(f ) = F(g ◦ f ) (respectively F(f ) ◦ F(g) = F(g ◦ f )).

f F(f ) f

(X, f ) → (F(X ), F(f )),

F(f )

⊔ ⊓

206

The Fundamental group and covering spaces

Example 6.1.20. Let V be a real vector space. Then the operation of right tensoring with V is a covariant functor ⊗V : R Vect → R Vect, U U ⊗ V, (U1 → U2 )

L

(U1 ⊗ V

Lt

L⊗ 1 V

→ U2 ⊗ V ).

**On the other hand, the operation of taking the dual deﬁnes a contravariant functor,
**

∗

: R Vect → R Vect, V

V ∗ , (U → V )

L

(V ∗ → U ∗ ).

The fundamental group construction of the previous is a covariant functor π1 : (Top, ∗) → Gr. ⊔ ⊓

In Chapter 7 we will introduce other functors very important in geometry. For more information about categories and functors we refer to [54, 67].

6.2 Covering Spaces

6.2.1 Deﬁnitions and examples

As in the previous section we will assume that all topological spaces are locally path connected. Deﬁnition 6.2.1. (a) A continuous map π : X → Y is said to be a covering map if, for any y ∈ Y , there exists an open neighborhood U of y in Y , such that π −1 (U ) is a disjoint union of open sets Vi ⊂ X each of which is mapped homeomorphically onto U by π . Such a neighborhood U is said to be an evenly covered neighborhood. The sets Vi are called the sheets of π over U . (b) Let Y be a topological space. A covering space of Y is a topological space X , together with a covering map π : X → Y . (c) If π : X → Y is a covering map, then for any y ∈ Y the set π −1 (y ) is called the ﬁber over y . ⊔ ⊓ Example 6.2.2. Let D be a discrete set. Then, for any topological space X , the product X × D is a covering of X with covering projection π (x, d) = x. This type of covering space is said to be trivial. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 6.2.3. Show that a ﬁbration with standard ﬁber a discrete space is a covering. ⊔ ⊓

Example 6.2.4. The exponential map exp : R → S 1 , t → exp(2π it) is a covering map. However, its restriction to (0, ∞) is no longer a a covering map. (Prove this!). ⊔ ⊓ ˜,g Exercise 6.2.5. Let (M, g) and (M ˜) be two Riemann manifolds of the same dimension such ˜ ˜ that (M , g ˜) is complete. Let φ : M → M be a surjective local isometry i.e. Φ is smooth and ˜ |v |g = |Dφ(v )|g ˜ ∀v ∈ T M . Prove that φ is a covering map. The above exercise has a particularly nice consequence. ⊔ ⊓

6.2. COVERING SPACES

207

Theorem 6.2.6 (Cartan-Hadamard). Let (M, g) be a complete Riemann manifold with non-positive sectional curvature. Then for every point q ∈ M , the exponential map expq : Tq M → M is a covering map. Proof. The pull-back h = exp∗ q (g ) is a symmetric non-negative deﬁnite (0, 2)-tensor ﬁeld on Tq M . It is in fact positive deﬁnite since the map expq has no critical points due to the nonpositivity of the sectional curvature. The lines t → tv through the origin of Tq M are geodesics of h and they are deﬁned for all t ∈ R. By Hopf-Rinow theorem we deduce that (Tq M, h) is complete. The theorem now follows from Exercise 6.2.5. ⊔ ⊓ ˜ and G be two Lie groups of the same dimension and φ : G ˜ → G a smooth, Exercise 6.2.7. Let G surjective group morphism. Prove that φ is a covering map. In particular, this explains why exp : R → S 1 is a covering map. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 6.2.8. Identify S 3 ⊂ R4 with the group of unit quaternions S 3 = {q ∈ H ; |q | = 1}. The linear space R3 can be identiﬁed with the space of purely imaginary quaternions R3 = Im H = {xi + y j + z k}. (a) Prove that qxq −1 ∈ Im H, ∀q ∈ S 3 . (b) Prove that for any q ∈ S 3 the linear map Tq : Im H → ImH is an isometry so that Tq ∈ SO(3). Moreover, the map S 3 ∋ q → Tq ∈ SO(3) is a group morphism. (c) Prove the above group morphism is a covering map. ⊔ ⊓ x → qxq −1

Example 6.2.9. Let M be a smooth manifold. A Riemann metric on M induces a metric on the determinant line bundle det T M . The sphere bundle of det T M (with respect to this metric) is a 2 : 1 covering space of M called the orientation cover of M . ⊔ ⊓

1 2 Deﬁnition 6.2.10. Let X1 → Y and X2 → Y be two covering spaces of Y . A morphism of covering spaces is a continuous map F : X1 → X2 such that π2 ◦ F = π1 , i.e., the diagram below is commutative.

π

π

X1

π1

℄

F

Û X2

π2

Y

208

The Fundamental group and covering spaces

If F is also a homeomorphism we say F is an isomorphism of covering spaces. π Finally, if X → Y is a covering space then its automorphisms are called deck transformations. The deck transformations form a group denoted by Deck (X, π ). ⊔ ⊓

exp Exercise 6.2.11. Show that Deck (R → S 1 ) ∼ = Z.

⊔ ⊓

Exercise 6.2.12. (a) Prove that the natural projection S n → RPn is a covering map. n (b) Denote by UR 1 the tautological (real) line bundle over RP . Using a metric on this line bundle n form the associated sphere bundle S (UR 1 ) → RP . Prove that this ﬁber bundle deﬁnes a covering space isomorphic with the one described in part (a). ⊔ ⊓

**6.2.2 Unique lifting property
**

Deﬁnition 6.2.13. Let X → Y be a covering space and F : Z → Y a continuous map. A lift of f is a continuous map F : Z → X such that π ◦ F = f , i.e. the diagram below is commutative. X

F f π

Z

ÛY

π

Ù

π

⊔ ⊓

Proposition 6.2.14 (Unique Path Lifting). Let X → Y be a covering map, γ : [0, 1] → Y a path in Y and x0 a point in the ﬁber over y0 = γ (0), x0 ∈ π −1 (y0 ). Then there exists at most one lift of γ , Γ : [0, 1] → Y such that Γ(0) = x0 . Proof. We argue by contradiction. Assume there exist two such lifts, Γ1 , Γ2 : [0, 1] → X . Set S := t ∈ [0, 1]; Γ1 (t) = Γ2 (t) .

The set S is nonempty since 0 ∈ S . Obviously S is closed so it sufﬁces to prove that it is also open. We will prove that for every s ∈ S , there exists ε > 0 such that [s − ε, s + ε] ∩ [0, 1] ⊂ S . For simplicity, we consider the case s = 0. The general situation is entirely similar. We will prove that there exists r0 > 0 such that [0, r0 ] ⊂ S . Pick a small open neighborhood U of x0 such that π restricts to a homeomorphism onto π (U ). There exists r0 > 0 such that γi [0, r0 ] ⊂ U , i = 1, 2. Since π ◦ Γ1 = π ◦ Γ2 , we deduce Γ1 |[0,r0 ] = Γ2 |[0,r0 ] . The proposition is proved. ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 6.2.15. Let X → Y be a covering space, and f : Z → Y be a continuous map, where Z is a connected space. Fix z0 ∈ Z , and x0 ∈ π −1 (y0 ), where y0 = f (z0 ). Then there exists at most one lift F : Z → X of f such that F (z0 ) = x0 . Proof. For each z ∈ Z let αz be a continuous path connecting z0 to z . If F1 , F2 are two lifts of f such that F1 (z0 ) = F2 (z0 ) = x0 then, for any z ∈ Z , the paths Γ1 = Fi (αz ), and Γ2 = F2 (αz ) are two lifts of γ = f (αz ) starting at the same point. From Proposition 6.2.14 we deduce that Γ1 ≡ Γ2 , i.e., F1 (z ) = F2 (z ), for any z ∈ Z . ⊔ ⊓

π

6.2. COVERING SPACES

209

**6.2.3 Homotopy lifting property
**

Theorem 6.2.16 (Homotopy lifting property). Let X → Y be a covering space, f : Z → Y be a continuous map, and F : Z → X be a lift of f . If h : [0, 1] × Z → Y (t, z ) → ht (z )

π

is a homotopy of f (h0 (z ) ≡ f (z )), then there exists a unique lift of h H : [0, 1] × Z → X such that H0 (z ) ≡ F (z ). Proof. For each z ∈ Z we can ﬁnd an open neighborhood Uz of z ∈ Z , and a partition 0 = t0 < t1 < . . . < tn = 1, depending on z , such that h maps [ti−1 , ti ] × Uz into an evenly covered neighborhood of hti−1 (z ). Following this partition, we can now successively lift h |I ×Uz to a continuous map H = H z : I × Uz → X such that H0 (ζ ) = F (ζ ), ∀ζ ∈ Uz . By unique lifting property, the liftings on I × Uz1 and I × Uz2 agree on I × (Uz1 ∩ Uz2 ), for any z1 , z2 ∈ Z , and hence we can glue all these local lifts together to obtain the desired lift H on I × Z . ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 6.2.17 (Path lifting property). Suppose that X → Y is a covering map, y0 ∈ Y , and γ : [0, 1] → Y is a continuous path starting at y0 . Then, for every x0 ∈ π −1 (y0 ) there exists a unique lift Γ : [0, 1] → X of γ starting at x0 . Proof. Use the previous theorem with f : {pt} → Y , f (pt) = γ (0), and ht (pt) = γ (t).

π π

(t, z ) → Ht (z ),

⊔ ⊓

Corollary 6.2.18. Let X → Y be a covering space, and y0 ∈ Y . If γ0 , γ1 ∈ Ω(Y, y0 ) are homotopic rel y0 , then any lifts Γ0 , Γ1 which start at the same point also end at the same point, i.e. Γ0 (1) = Γ1 (1). Proof. Lift the homotopy connecting γ0 to γ1 to a homotopy in X . By unique lifting property this lift connects Γ0 to Γ1 . We thus get a continuous path Γt (1) inside the ﬁber π −1 (y0 ) which connects Γ0 (1) to Γ1 (1). Since the ﬁbers are discrete, this path must be constant. ⊔ ⊓ Let X → Y be a covering space, and y0 ∈ Y . Then, for every x ∈ π −1 (y0 ), and any γ ∈ Ω( Y, y0 ), denote by Γx the unique lift of γ starting at x. Set x · γ := Γx (1). By Corollary 6.2.18, if ω ∈ Ω(Y, y0 ) is homotopic to γ rel y0 , then x · γ = x · ω. Hence, x · γ depends only upon the equivalence class [γ ] ∈ π1 (Y, y0 ). Clearly x · ([γ ] · [ω ]) = (x · [γ ]) · [ω ], and x · ey0 = x,

π

210 so that the correspondence

The Fundamental group and covering spaces

π −1 (y0 ) × π1 (Y, y0 ) ∋ (x, γ ) → x · γ ∈ x · γ ∈ π −1 (y0 ) deﬁnes a right action of π1 (Y, y0 ) on the ﬁber π −1 (y0 ). This action is called the monodromy of the covering. The map x → x · γ is called the monodromy along γ . Note that when Y is simply connected, the monodromy is trivial. The map π induces a group morphism π∗ : π1 (X, x0 ) → π1 (Y, y0 ) Proposition 6.2.19. π∗ is injective. Proof. Indeed, let γ ∈ Ω(X, x0 ) such that π (γ ) is trivial in π1 (Y, y0 ). The homotopy connecting π (γ ) to ey0 lifts to a homotopy connecting γ to the unique lift of ey0 at x0 , which is ex0 . ⊔ ⊓ x0 ∈ π −1 (y0 ).

**6.2.4 On the existence of lifts
**

Theorem 6.2.20. Let X → Y be a covering space, x0 ∈ X , y0 = π (x0 ) ∈ Y , f : Z → Y a continuous map and z0 ∈ Z such that f (z0 ) = y0 . Assume the spaces Y and Z are connected (and thus path connected). f admits a lift F : Z → X such that F (z0 ) = x0 if and only if f∗ (π1 (Z, z0 )) ⊂ π∗ (π1 (X, x0 )) . (6.2.1)

π

Proof. Necessity. If F is such a lift then, using the functoriality of the fundamental group construction, we deduce f∗ = π∗ ◦ F∗ . This implies the inclusion (6.2.1).

Sufﬁciency. For any z ∈ Z , choose a path γz from z0 to z . Then αz = f (γz ) is a path from y0 to y = f (z ). Denote by Az the unique lift of αz starting at x0 , and set F (z ) = Az (1). We claim that F is a well deﬁned map. Indeed, let ωz be another path in Z connecting z0 to z . Set λz := f (ωz ), and denote by Λz its unique lift in X starting at x0 . We have to show that Λz (1) = Az (1). Construct the loop based at z0 − βz = ωz ∗ γz .

Then f (βz ) is a loop in Y based at y0 . From (6.2.1) we deduce that the lift Bz of f (βz ) at x0 ∈ X is a closed path, i.e., the monodromy along f (βz ) is trivial. We now have Λz (1) = Bz (1/2) = Az (0) = Az (1). This proves that F is a well deﬁned map. We still have to show that this map is also continuous. Pick z ∈ Z . Since f is continuous, for every arbitrarily small, evenly covered neighborhood U of f (z ) ∈ Y there exists a path connected neighborhood V of z ∈ Z such that f (V ) ⊂ U . For any ζ ∈ V pick a path σ = σζ in V connecting z to ζ . Let ω denote the path ω = γz ∗ σζ (go from z0 to z along γz , and then from z to ζ along σζ ). Then F (ζ ) = Ω(1), where Ω is the unique lift of f (ω ) starting at x0 . Since (f (ζ ) ∈ U , we deduce that Ω(1) belongs to the local sheet Σ, containing F (z ), which homeomorphically covers U . We have thus proved z ∈ V ⊂ F −1 (Σ). The proof is complete since the local sheets Σ form a basis of neighborhoods of F (z ). ⊔ ⊓

6.2. COVERING SPACES

π

211

Deﬁnition 6.2.21. Let Y be a connected space. A covering space X → Y is said to be universal if X is simply connected. ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 6.2.22. Let X1 → Y (i=0,1) be two covering spaces of Y . Fix xi ∈ Xi such that p0 (x0 ) = p(x1 ) = y0 ∈ Y . If X0 is universal, then there exists a unique covering morphism F : X0 → X1 such that F (x0 ) = x1 . Proof. A bundle morphism F : X0 → X1 can be viewed as a lift of the map p0 : X0 → Y to the total space of the covering space deﬁned by p1 . The corollary follows immediately from Theorem 6.2.20 and the unique lifting property. ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 6.2.23. Every space admits at most one universal covering space (up to isomorphism). Theorem 6.2.24. Let Y be a connected, locally path connected space such that each of its points admits a simply connected neighborhood. Then Y admits an (essentially unique) universal covering space. Sketch of proof. Assume for simplicity that Y is a metric space. Fix y0 ∈ Y . Let Py0 denote the collection of continuous paths in Y starting at y0 . It can be topologized using the metric of uniform convergence in Y . Two paths in Py0 are said to be homotopic rel endpoints if they we can deform one to the other while keeping the endpoints ﬁxed. This deﬁnes an equivalence relation ˜ , and we endow it with the quotient on Py0 . We denote the space of equivalence classes by Y ˜ topology. Deﬁne p : Y → Y by p([γ ]) = γ (1) ˜ , p) is a universal covering space of Y . Then (Y Exercise 6.2.25. Finish the proof of the above theorem.

exp pi

∀γ ∈ Py0 . ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓

Example 6.2.26. The map R → S 1 is the universal cover of S 1 . More generally, exp : Rn → T n √ (t1 , . . . , tn ) → (exp(2π it1 ), . . . , exp(2π itn )), i = −1, is the universal cover of T n . The natural projection p : S n → RPn is the universal cover of RPn . ⊔ ⊓ Example 6.2.27. Let (M, g) be a complete Riemann manifold with non-positive sectional curvature. By Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the exponential map expq : Tq M → M is a covering map. Thus, the universal cover of such a manifold is a linear space of the same dimension. In particular, the universal covering space is contractible!!! We now have another explanation why exp : Rn → T n is a universal covering space of the torus: the sectional curvature of the (ﬂat) torus is zero. ⊔ ⊓ ˜ → M its universal Exercise 6.2.28. Let (M, g) be a complete Riemann manifold and p : M covering space. ˜ has a natural structure of smooth manifold such that p is a local diffeomorphism. (a) Prove that M ˜ locally isometric with (b) Prove that the pullback p∗ g deﬁnes a complete Riemann metric on M g. ⊔ ⊓

212

The Fundamental group and covering spaces

Example 6.2.29. Let (M, g) be a complete Riemann manifold such that Ric (X, X ) ≥ const.|X |2 g, (6.2.2)

where const denotes a strictly positive constant. By Myers theorem M is compact. Using the ˜ is a complete Riemann manifold locally previous exercise we deduce that the universal cover M ˜ . Myers isometric with (M, g). Hence the inequality (6.2.2) continues to hold on the covering M ˜ is compact!! In particular, the universal cover theorem implies again that the universal cover M of a semisimple, compact Lie group is compact!!! ⊔ ⊓

**6.2.5 The universal cover and the fundamental group
**

p ˜ → X be the universal cover of a space X . Then Theorem 6.2.30. Let X

˜ → X ). π1 (X, pt) ∼ = Deck (X ˜ and set x0 = p(ξ0 ). There exists a bijection Proof. Fix ξ0 ∈ X ˜ ) → p−1 (x0 ), Ev : Deck (X given by the evaluation Ev (F ) := F (ξ0 ). For any ξ ∈ π −1 (x0 ), let γξ be a path connecting ξ0 to ξ . Any two such paths are homotopic rel ˜ is simply connected (check this). Their projections on the base X determine endpoints since X identical elements in π1 (X, x0 ). We thus have a natural map ˜ ) → π1 (X, x0 ) F → p(γF (ξ ) ). Ψ : Deck (X 0 The map Ψ is clearly a group morphism. (Think monodromy!) The injectivity and the surjectivity of Ψ are consequences of the lifting properties of the universal cover. ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 6.2.31. If the space X has a compact universal cover, then π1 (X, pt) is ﬁnite. Proof. Indeed, the ﬁbers of the universal cover have to be both discrete and compact. Hence they ˜ ). must be ﬁnite. The map Ev in the above proof is a bijection onto Deck (X ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 6.2.32 (H. Weyl). The fundamental group of a compact semisimple group is ﬁnite. Proof. Indeed, we deduce from Example 6.2.29 that the universal cover of such a group is compact. ⊔ ⊓ Example 6.2.33. From Example 6.2.11 we deduce that π1 (S 1 ) ∼ = (Z, +). Exercise 6.2.34. (a) Prove that π1 (RPn , pt) ∼ = Z2 , ∀n ≥ 2. n n ∼ (b) Prove that π1 (T ) = Z . ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓

6.2. COVERING SPACES

213

Exercise 6.2.35. Show that the natural inclusion U (n − 1) ֒→ U (n) induces an isomorphism between the fundamental groups. Conclude that the map det : U (n) → S 1 induces an isomorphism π1 (U (n), 1) ∼ = π1 (S 1 , 1) ∼ = Z. ⊔ ⊓

Chapter 7

Cohomology

7.1 DeRham cohomology

7.1.1 Speculations around the Poincar´ e lemma

To start off, consider the following partial differential equation in the plane. Given two smooth functions P and Q, ﬁnd a smooth function u such that ∂u = P, ∂x ∂u = Q. ∂y (7.1.1)

As is, the formulation is still ambiguous since we have not speciﬁed the domains of the functions u, P and Q. As it will turn out, this aspect has an incredible relevance in geometry. Equation (7.1.1) has another interesting feature: it is overdetermined, i.e., it imposes too many conditions on too few unknowns. It is therefore quite natural to impose some additional restrictions on the data P , Q just like the zero determinant condition when solving overdetermined linear systems. To see what restrictions one should add it is convenient to introduce the 1-form α = P dx + Qdy . The equality (7.1.1) can be rewritten as du = α. (7.1.2)

If (7.1.2) has at least one solution u, then 0 = d2 u = dα, so that a necessary condition for existence is dα = 0, (7.1.3) ∂P ∂Q = . ∂y ∂x A form satisfying (7.1.3) is said to be closed. Thus, if the equation du = α has a solution then α is necessarily closed. Is the converse also true? Let us introduce a bit more terminology. A form α such that the equation (7.1.2) has a solution is said to be exact. The motivation for this terminology comes from the fact that sometimes the differential form du is called the exact differential of u. We thus have an inclusion of vector spaces {exact forms} ⊂ {closed forms}. 214 i.e.,

7.1. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY

215

Is it true that the opposite inclusion also holds? Amazingly, the answer to this question depends on the domain on which we study (7.1.2). The Poincar´ e lemma comes to raise our hopes. It says that this is always true, at least locally. Lemma 7.1.1 (Poincar´ e lemma). Let C be an open convex set in Rn and α ∈ Ωk (C ). Then the equation du = α (7.1.4) has a solution u ∈ Ωk−1 (C ) if and only if α is closed, dα = 0. Proof. The necessity is clear. We prove the sufﬁciency. We may as well assume that 0 ∈ C . Consider the radial vector ﬁeld on C ∂ , r = xi ∂xi and denote by Φt the ﬂow it generates. More explicitly, Φt is the linear ﬂow Φt (x) = et x, x ∈ Rn . The ﬂow lines of Φt are half-lines, and since C is convex, for every x ∈ C , and any t ≤ 0 we have Φt (x) ∈ C . We begin with an a priori study of (7.1.4). Let u satisfy du = α. Using the homotopy formula, Lr = dir + ir d, we get dLr u = d(dir + ir d)u = dir α ⇒ d(Lr u − ir α) = 0. This suggests looking for solutions ϕ of the equation Lr ϕ = ir α, ϕ ∈ Ωk−1 (C ). If ϕ is a solution of this equation, then Lr dϕ = dLr ϕ = dir α = Lr α − iR dα = Lr α. Hence the form ϕ also satisﬁes Set ω := dϕ − α = ωI dxI . Using the computations in Subsection 3.1.3 we deduce Lr dxi = dxi , so that Lr ω =

I

(7.1.5)

Lr (dϕ − α) = 0.

I

(Lr ωI )dxI = 0.

We deduce that Lr ωI = 0, and consequently, the coefﬁcients ωI are constants along the ﬂow lines of Φt which all converge at 0. Thus, ωI = cI = const.

1. To see this.. ηI (7.5) produces a solution of (7. when I = 1 < 2 < · · · < k dx1 ∧ dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxk = d(x1 dx2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxk ). J .1. This proves the integral in (7.1.1.216 CHAPTER 7. i.e.4). then u is a form on C .1. If we write (Φt )∗ (ir α) = | I | =k −1 t ηI (x)dxI . COHOMOLOGY Each monomial cI dxI is exact. and to this aim.Deﬁne 0 u= −∞ (Φt )∗ (ir α)dt. i.7) We have to check two things. A.e.7) converges. so that t |ηI (x)| ≤ Cet |x|A(x) ∀t ≤ 0.7) is well deﬁned. the differential form u := ϕ − η solves (7.0≤τ ≤1 Then (Φt )∗ (ir α) = et ir J αJ (et x)dxJ . (7. We now proceed to solve (7. the equality Lr ω = 0 implies ω is exact. The integral in (7.1. so that if the above integral is convergent.4).6) Here the convexity assumption on C enters essentially since it implies that Φt (C ) ⊂ C ∀t ≤ 0. Hence there exists η ∈ Ωk−1 (C ) such that d(ϕ − η ) = α. then u(x) = I 0 −∞ t (x)dt dxI . For example.5). Thus. we ﬁrst write α= | J | =k αJ dxJ . Conclusion: any solution of (7. there exist ηI ∈ Ωk−1 (C ) such that dηI = cI dxI . and then we set A(x) := max |αJ (τ x)|. we use the ﬂow Φt .1.1.. .

On the other hand. x2 + y 2 Obviously.1. then du = S1 S1 α= S1 dθ = 2π.. It is still not clear what makes it impossible to patch-up local solutions.1. y ) we use the equality tan θ = so that (1 + tan2 θ )dθ = − i. Indeed. . if this was possible. The differential form u deﬁned by (7.7. The next subsection describes two ways to deal with this issue. However.5). Can we ﬁnd a smooth function u on R2 \ {0} such that du = α? We know that we can always do this locally. ⊔ ⊓ The Poincar´ e lemma is proved. Consider the form dθ on R2 \ {0} where (r.2. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY B.e. Lr u = lim 1 ( (Φs )∗ u − u ) s→0 s 0 1 = lim (Φs )∗ (Φt )∗ (ir α)dt − s→0 s −∞ s 217 0 −∞ (Φt )∗ (ir α)dt = lim = lim s→0 −∞ s (Φt )∗ (ir α)dt − t ∗ 0 −∞ 0 ∗ (Φt )∗ (ir α)dt s→0 0 (Φ ) (ir α)dt = (Φ ) (ir α) = ir α. {exact forms} = {closed forms}. we cannot achieve this globally. Example 7. 0) = 0. The local solvability does not in any way implies global solvability. ∂θ Hence on R2 \ {0} We see what a dramatic difference a point can make: R2 \ {point} is structurally very different from R2 . dα = d2 θ = 0 on R2 \ {0} so that α is closed on the punctured plane.6) is a solution of (7.1. θ ) we get du = S1 S1 ∂u dθ = ∂θ 2π 0 ∂u dθ = u(1.1. dθ = y x dy y2 −ydx + xdy y dx + and (1 + )dθ = . Something happens when one tries to go from local to global. ⊔ ⊓ The artiﬁce in the previous example simply increases the mystery. To write it in cartesian coordinates (x. using polar coordinates u = u(r. 2π ) − u(1. θ ) denote the polar coordinates in the punctured plane. 2 2 x x x x2 −ydx + xdy = α. Indeed.

Poincar´ e lemma shows that we can solve du = ω on each open set Uα so that we can ﬁnd a smooth function fα ∈ C ∞ (Uα ) such that dfα = ω . . For ﬁxed α.1. To solve the equation du = ω . always trying to implement (7. β such that Uαβ = ∅. This is however the approach Cech adopted in order to study the topology of manifolds. ˇ The Cech approach. Instead. The quantities fαβ change according to fαβ → fαβ + cα − cβ . The equation du = ω is globally solvable if we can alter each fα by a constant cα such that fαβ = (cβ − cα ) ∀α. u ∈ C ∞ (M ) we ﬁrst cover M by open sets (Uα ) which are geodesically convex with respect to some ﬁxed Riemann metric. This time we postpone asking why the global solvability is not always possible. its theoretical insights are invaluable. (7. Consider a closed 1-form ω on a smooth manifold.1.4) to global solvability. The above considerations extend to higher degree. Notice that we replaced the partial differential equation du = ω with a system of linear equations (7. Thus. the solutions of the equation du = ω on Uα differ only by additive constants. DeRham Let us try to analyze what prevents the “spreading” of local solvability of (7. i.8). and one can imagine that the complexity ˇ increases considerably.1.9). B 0 (M ) := {0} Z • (M ) := k ≥0 Z k (M ).8) On each Uα we have. where the constants fαβ are subject to the constraints (7.e. the global solvability issue leads to the following situation. It may happen that in the process we might have to return to an open set whose solution was already altered.) After several attempts one can point the ﬁnger to the culprit: the global topology of the manifold may force us to always return to some already altered local solution. (Try this on S 1 .1. and ω = dθ . and although it may seem computationally hopeless.9).218 CHAPTER 7.1.. We get a global solution if and only if fαβ = fα − fβ = 0 on each Uαβ = Uα ∩ Uβ = ∅. Pick a collection of local solutions fα . We will stay in the low degree range.9) We can start the alteration at some open set Uα . (7. and work our way up from one such open set to its neighbors.1. for each smooth manifold M one considers the Z-graded vector spaces B • (M ) = k ≥0 B k (M ). COHOMOLOGY ˇ 7. closed 0-forms. several choices of solutions. The quantities fαβ satisfy dfαβ = 0 on the (connected) overlaps Uαβ so they are constants. as we have seen.1. Altering a choice is tantamount to adding a constant fα → fα + cα . Clearly they satisfy the conditions fαβ + fβγ + fγα = 0 on every Uαβγ := Uα ∩ Uβ ∩ Uγ = ∅. Now we are in trouble. This is no computational progress since the complexity of the combinatorics of this system makes it impossible solve in most cases.2 Cech vs. The DeRham approach.

dη = 0 = closed k − forms. dω ∈ Ωk (M ). We form the quotients. the spaces H k (M ) may be inﬁnite dimensional.1. denoted by PM (t). These are constant on the connected components of M .1. the simplest of the DeRham groups. Hence PM (t) = k bk (M )tk . already contains an important topological information. ⊔ ⊓ We see that H 0 (M ). we may get an idea “who” is responsible for the global nonsolvability. Thus. ω ∈ Ωk−1 (M ) = exact k − forms. H k (M ). 219 H k (M ) := Z k (M )/B k (M ). Indeed H 0 (M ) = Z 0 (M ) = Thus.2 shows that H (R2 \ {0}) = 0. df = 0 . and its is reasonable to suspect that the higher cohomology groups may contain more topological information. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY where B k (M ) = and Z k (M = Clearly B k ⊂ Z k . Obviously the groups H k are diffeomorphism invariants. and it is called the k-th Betti number of M . is deﬁned by PM (t) = tk dim H k (M ).1.1. to any smooth manifold M we can now associate the graded vector space H • (M ) := k ≥0 f ∈ C ∞ (M ) . H 0 (M ) coincides with the linear space of locally constant functions. η ∈ Ωk (M ). Intuitively.3. . this space consists of those closed k-forms ω for which the equation du = ω has no global solution u ∈ Ωk−1 (M ). if we can somehow describe these spaces. Proof. For any smooth manifold M dim H 0 (M ) = number of connected components of M. Deﬁnition 7. The discussion in 1 ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. The Poincar´ e lemma shows that H k (Rn ) = 0 for k > 0. k ≥0 every time the right-hand-side expression makes sense. The Poincar´ e polynomial of M . Proposition 7.4. For any smooth manifold M the vector space H k (M ) is called the k-th DeRham cohomology group of M .1. The number dim H k (M ) is usually denoted by bk (M ).7. Thus.5. ⊔ ⊓ Clearly H k (M ) = 0 for k > dim M . Example 7. A priori.

d). n · · · → C n−1 −→ C n −→ C n+1 → · · · dn−1 d .1. COHOMOLOGY (−1)k bk (M ).220 The alternating sum χ(M ) := k CHAPTER 7.7..1. D• = n∈Z Dn be two Z-graded left R-modules. A degree k-morphism φ : C • → D • is an R-module morphism such that φ(C n ) ⊂ D n+k ∀n ∈ Z. This requires a little terminology from homological algebra. Deﬁnition 7. i. d) : n · · · → C n−1 −→ C n −→ C n+1 → · · · .e.8. Set Z n (C ) := ker dn B n (C ) := range (dn−1 ). Let be a cochain complex of R-modules. In this case cochain complexes are usually described as (C • = ⊕n∈Z C n . Exercise 7. a cochain complex is represented as a long sequence of R-modules and morphisms of R-modules (C • . and let C• = n∈Z C n.3 Very little homological algebra At this point it is important to isolate the common algebraic skeleton on which both the DeRham ˇ and the Cech approaches are built. 7. we will consider only the case C n = 0 for n < 0. ⊔ ⊓ In this book we will be interested mainly in cochain complexes so in the remaining part of this subsection we will stick to this situation. is called the Euler characteristic of M . ⊔ ⊓ We will spend the remaining of this chapter trying to understand what is that these groups do and which. Deﬁnition 7.6. ☞ In the sequel all rings will be assumed commutative with 1. (a) Let R be a ring. d). Moreover. A boundary (respectively coboundary) operator is a degree −1 (respectively a degree 1) endomorphism d : C • → C • such that d2 = 0. Traditionally.1. and d is a boundary (respectively a coboundary) operator. if any. Show that PS 1 (t) = 1 + t.1. where C • is a Z-graded R-module. dn dn−1 = 0. dn−1 d such that range (dn−1 ) ⊂ ker (dn ). is the connection between the two approaches outlined above. (b) Let C• = n∈Z Cn be a Z-graded R-module. A chain (respectively cochain) complex over R is a pair (C • .

X1 . . (Hint: Prove that [g. . by (dω )(X0 . where gl(n. ⊔ ⊓ For a cochain complex (C • . Deﬁne d : Λk g∗ → Λk+1 g∗ .1. Let (g. Xk ). It can be identiﬁed with the set of equivalence classes of cohomologous cocycles. .1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. Prove that H 1 (g) = {0}.2. Example 7. the hatˆindicates a missing argument. Then the sequence d d d 0 → Ω0 (M ) → Ω1 → · · · → Ωm (M ) → 0 (where d is the exterior derivative) is a cochain complex of real vector spaces called the DeRham complex..) ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7. g])∗ . and the elements of B n (C ) are called coboundaries. X. g]⊥ = 0. Y ∈ g . i. According to the computations in Example 3. . . d) = n ≥0 H n (C ). DERHAM COHOMOLOGY 221 The elements of Z n (C ) are called cocycles.7.10. . R) denotes the Lie algebra of n × n real matrices with the bracket given by the commutator. Its cohomology is called the Lie algebra cohomology.11. and it is denoted by H • (g). .9 the operator d is a coboundary operator. . d) is a cochain complex. d) one usually writes H • (C ) = H • (C. . as usual. . (−1)i+j ω ([Xi . ·]) be a real Lie algebra.1. X ˆ j . (b) Compute H 1 (gl(n. The quotient module H n (C ) := Z n (C )/B n (C ) is called the n-th cohomology group (module) of C . where [g. d) : · · · → C n−1 −→ C n −→ dn−1 d . Two cocycles c.1. . X0 . A cochain complex complex C is said to be acyclic if H n (C ) = 0 for all n > 0. . Y ] . . [·. c′ ∈ Z n (C ) are said to be cohomologous if c − c′ ∈ B n (C ).1.9. R)).12. . Show that H 1 (g) ∼ = (g/[g. . Xj ]. (a) Let g be a real Lie algebra. (C • . Let n C n+1 → · · · . ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. so that (Λ• g∗ . . Xk ) := 0≤i<j ≤k ˆi .e. g] = span [X. Let M be an m-dimensional smooth manifold. (The DeRham complex). (c) (Whitehead) Let g be a semisimple Lie algebra. its Killing pairing is nondegenerate. X where. Its cohomology groups are the DeRham cohomology groups of the manifold. where ⊥ denotes the orthogonal complement with respect to the Killing pairing.

such that ψ ◦ φ ≃ ½A .13. show that for each vector ﬁeld X on a smooth manifold M .15. δ) be two cochain complexes of R-modules.. i. y ∈ C. LX : Ω• (M ) → Ω• (M ) is a cochain morphism homotopic with the trivial map (≡ 0). there exists an associative multiplication such that C n · C m ⊂ C m+n ∀m. namely [LX . and we write this φ ≃ ψ . i. and [iX . and (B • . and B • (C ) · B • (C ) ⊂ B • (C ). The DeRham cohomology of a smooth manifold has an R-algebra structure induced by the exterior multiplication of differential forms. It sufﬁces to show Z • (C ) · Z • (C ) ⊂ Z • (C ). If d is a quasi-derivation. then H • (C ) inherits a structure of Z-graded R-algebra.1.1. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 7.e. then d(xy ) = ±(dx)y ± x(dy ) = 0. the Lie derivative along X .. or morphism of cochain complexes is a degree 0 morphism φ : A• → B • such that φ ◦ d = δ ◦ φ. If dx = dy = 0. d(x · y ) = ±(dx) · y ± x · (dy ) ∀x. d] = 0. Assume moreover that C is also a Z-graded R-algebra. ψ : A• → B • are said to be cochain homotopic . d) and (B • . d)..222 CHAPTER 7. ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. COHOMOLOGY be a cochain complex of R-modules. ⊔ ⊓ .1.14. we deduce xy = ±(dx′ dy ′ ). d]s = LX . if there exist cochain morphism φ : A → B and ψ : B → A. ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 7.1. i. if there exists a degree −1 morphism χ : {An → B n−1 } such that φ(a) − ψ (a) = ±δ ◦ χ(a) ± χ ◦ d(a). A cochain complex as in the above proposition is called a differential graded algebra or DGA. and φ ◦ ψ ≃ ½B . δ) are said to be homotopic.e. since d2 = 0. n. The commutation rules in Subsection 3. the diagram below is commutative for any n. The interior derivative iX is the cochain homotopy achieving this. Let (A• . If x = dx′ and y = dy ′ then. (a) A cochain morphism. (c) Two cochain complexes (A• .e. An φn dn Û An+1 Bn Ù φn+1 δn Ù Û B n+1 (b) Two cochain morphisms φ. Proof.2.

δ) induces a degree zero morphism in cohomology φ∗ : H • (A) → H • (B ). δ) are cochain homotopic. ψ : A → B are cochain homotopic. Let 0 → (A• . dA ) −→ (B • . ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 7. (a) Any cochain morphism φ : (A• . Let da = 0. then they induce identical morphisms in cohomology. • 2 0 • 1 (c) (½A )∗ = ½H • (A) . d) → (B • .1. d ) −→ (A2 . (b) If the cochain maps φ. (a) It boils down to checking the inclusions φ(Z n (A)) ⊂ Z n (B ) and φ(B n (A)) ⊂ B n (B ). Then φ(a) − ψ (a) = ±δ(χ(a) ± χ(da) = δ(±χ(a)) = coboundary in B. d) and (B • . φ∗ = ψ∗ . then their cohomology modules are isomorphic. and if (A• 0 . (b) We have to show that φ(cocycle) − ψ (cocycle) = coboundary.7. This means that we have a commutative diagram φ ψ . d ) are cochain morphisms.18. d ) −→ (A1 . These follow immediately from the deﬁnition of a cochain map. If two cochain complexes (A• . DERHAM COHOMOLOGY 223 Proposition 7. then (ψ ◦ φ)∗ = ψ∗ ◦ φ∗ .1. dB ) −→ (C • .17. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7.16.1.1. φ ψ Proof. dC ) → 0 be a short exact sequence of cochain complexes of R-modules. (c) Obvious.

In other words.224 CHAPTER 7.1. . ∂n : H n (C ) → H n+1 (A) and moreover.10) we deduce 0 = dC ψn (b) = ψn+1 dB (b). This description is not entirely precise since a depends on various choices. we can write 1 −1 B −1 B a = φ− n+1 ◦ d ◦ ψn (c) = φn+1 ◦ d b. dB (b) ∈ ker ψn+1 = range φn+1 . We will just indicate the construction of the connecting maps ∂n .1. Ù dA dB φn+1 dC ψn+1 0 Û AnÙ +1 dA Û B nÙ +1 dB Û C nÙ +1 dC Û0 Û0 Û0 0 Û AÙ n dA φn Û BÙ n dB ψn Û CÙ n dC 0 Û AnÙ −1 dA ψn−1 Û B nÙ −1 dB ψn−1 Û C nÙ −1 dC . We claim that a is a cocycle.e. The cohomology class x can be represented by some cocycle c ∈ Z n (C ). in which the rows are exact. the sequence (7. there exists a ∈ An+1 such that φn+1 (a) = dB n b. . . . . . From the commutativity of the diagram (7. . . (7. B B B φn+2 dA n+1 a = dn+1 φn+1 a = dn+1 dn b = 0.11) We will not include a proof of this proposition. ∂n−1 φ∗ ψ∗ ∂ (7.. i. . Start with x ∈ H n (C ). Indeed.. Since φn+2 is injective we deduce dA n+1 a = 0. Since ψn is surjective there exists b ∈ B n such that c = ψn (b).10) n · · · → H n−1 (C ) → H n (A) → H n (B ) → H n (C ) → H n+1 (A) → · · · . . . i. Ù . .e. If we trace back the path which lead us from c ∈ Z n (C ) to a ∈ Z n+1 (A).1.1. Then there exists a long exact sequence . We let the reader check that the correspondence Z n (C ) ∋ c → a ∈ Z n+1 (A) above induces a well deﬁned map in cohomology. COHOMOLOGY . . relies on a simple technique called diagram chasing.11) is exact. and in fact the entire proof. This construction. a is a cocycle. Ù . We believe this is one proof in homological algebra that the reader should try to produce on his/her own. .

dCyl(f ) dK ki Cyl(f )• ∼ = K • ⊕ C (f )• . ℓi f dL dC (f ) ki+1 ℓi = −dK f 0 dL · ki+1 ℓi . a canonical projections We have canonical inclusions α : L• → Cyl(f ). (iv) Prove that f induces an isomorphism in cohomology if and only if the cone of f is acyclic. δ(f ) are cochain maps.7. dK ) of R-modules. and π : Cyl(f ) → C (f ). DERHAM COHOMOLOGY 225 Exercise 7. dK [n] = (−1)n dK . We associate to any cochain map f : K • → L• two new cochain complexes: (a) The cone C (f )• .1. δ = δ(f ) : C (f ) → K [1] . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. For any cochain complex (K • . They are particularly useful in the study of derived categories. Form the Poincar´ e series PC (t) = tn dimF C n . . dCyl(f ) ki+1 = 0 ℓi 0 −½K i+1 0 ki −dK 0 · ki+1 . where the rows are exact.1.20. Let C • = n≥0 C n be a cochain complex of vector spaces over the ﬁeld F. n ≥0 1 This exercise describes additional features of the long exact sequence in cohomology. β ◦ α = ½L and α ◦ β is cochain homotopic to ½Cyl(f ) .19. ¯. ¯ : K • → Cyl(f )• . β f (ii) Show that we have the following commutative diagram of cochain complexes. (Abstract Morse inequalities). (i) Prove that α. 1 Suppose R is a commutative ring with 1. (b) The cylinder Cyl(f ).1. dC (f ) where C (f )• = K [1]• ⊕ L• . 0 Û L• π ¯ Û C (f )• Ù Û C (f ) δ(f ) Û K [1]• Û0 Û0 α 0 Û K• Ù• ½K ¯ f Ù Û Cyl(f ) β ½C (f ) π K f Ù Û L• 0 → K • −→ Cyl(f ) −→ C (f ) → 0 ¯ f π (iii) Show that the connecting morphism in the long exact sequence corresponding to the short exact sequence coincides with the morphism induced in cohomology by δ(f ) : C (f ) → K [1]• . and any integer n we denote by K [n]• the complex deﬁned by K [n]m = K n+m . Assume each of the vector spaces C n is ﬁnite dimensional. f • • • • β : Cyl(f ) → L .

21. We V n is equipped with a Euclidean metric. dn . Let (V • . d) := n ≥0 V n .22. In particular.226 and PH • (C ) (t) = n ≥0 CHAPTER 7. Prove that if at least two of the cohomology modules H • (A). Prove that there exists a unique c ∈ Z (V ) cohomologous to c such that |c| = min |c′ |. whenever it makes sense. and denote by d∗ n n : V can now form the Laplacians ∗ ∆n : V n → V n . and moreover χ(H • (B )) = χ(H • (A)) + χ(H • (C )). be a cochain complex of real vector spaces such that dim V n < ∞.1. for all n. n • (b) Prove that ∆n c = 0 if and only if dn c = 0 and d∗ n−1 c = 0. (a) Prove that ⊕n≥0 ∆n = (d + d∗ )2 . ∆n := d∗ n dn + dn−1 dn−1 . (Finite dimensional Hodge theory).1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. Let 0 → A• → B • → C • → 0 be a short exact sequence of cochain complexes of vector spaces over the ﬁeld F. the graded spaces C ∗ and H ∗ have identical Euler characteristics χ(C • ) = PC (−1) = PH • (C ) (−1) = χ(H • (C )). Deduce from all the above that the natural map ker ∆n → H n (V • ) is a linear isomorphism. Prove that there exists a formal series R(t) ∈ Z[[t]] with non-negative coefﬁcients such that PC • (t) = PH • (C ) (t) + (1 + t)R(t). ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. (d) Prove that c determined in part (c) satisﬁes ∆n c = 0. COHOMOLOGY tn dimF H n (C ). (Additivity of Euler characteristic). H • (B ) and H • (C ) have ﬁnite dimension over F. ker ∆n ⊂ Z (V ). ⊔ ⊓ . n n (c) Let c ∈ Z (V ). Assume that each n+1 → V n the adjoint of d . where | · | denotes the Euclidean norm in V n . c − c′ ∈ B n (C ) . In particular. then the same is true about the third one.

so that the map it induces in cohomology will also be a ring morphism.. 1. Deﬁnition 7.55 and the ﬁnite dimensional Hodge theory described in previous exercise to prove that the Koszul complex is acyclic if v0 = 0. ω −→ v0 ∧ ω. and the exterior differentiation is a quasi-derivation. if there exists a smooth map Φ : I × M → N (t.1.2. ⊔ ⊓ Note that the pullback is an algebra morphism φ∗ : Ω• (N ) → Ω• (M ).25. where dM and respectively dN denote the exterior derivative on M . In fact. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY Exercise 7.1. ∀k ≥ 0. Thus. (b) A smooth map φ : M → N is said to be a (smooth) homotopy equivalence if there exists a smooth map ψ : N → M such that φ ◦ ψ ≃sh ½N . ⊔ ⊓ 7. H k Λ• V. φ1 : M → N are said to be (smoothly) homotopic.. ∀α.1. and we write this φ0 ≃sh φ1 . β ∈ Ω• (N ).1. and ψ ◦ φ ≃sh ½M . i. ⊔ ⊓ .1.7. (c) Two smooth manifolds M and N are said to be homotopy equivalent if there exists a homotopy equivalence φ : M → N . The DeRham cohomology construction is a contravariant functor from the category of smooth manifolds and smooth maps to the category of Z-graded vector spaces with degree zero morphisms. d(v0 ) = 0. (It is known as the Koszul complex. Deﬁne dk = dk (v0 ) : Λk V → Λk+1 V.23. such that Φi = φi . m) → Φt (m). (a) Two smooth maps φ0 . Proposition 7.24. for i = 0.e. φ∗ induces a morphism in cohomology which we continue to denote by φ∗ . and v0 ∈ V . φ∗ : H • (N ) → H • (M ). i. and respectively N . φ∗ dN = dM φ∗ . we have a more precise statement.4 Functorial properties of the DeRham cohomology Let M and N be two smooth manifolds. Let V be a ﬁnite dimensional real vector space. For any smooth map φ : M → N the pullback φ∗ : Ω• (N ) → Ω• (M ) is a cochain morphism.) (b) Use the Cartan identity in Exercise 2. φ∗ (α ∧ β ) = (φ∗ α) ∧ (φ∗ β ). (a) Prove that k Λk+1 V −→ · · · · · · −→ Λk V −→ 227 dk−1 d dk+1 is a cochain complex.e.

27. For any ω ∈ Ω• (N ) we have the equality ∗ ∗ ∗ φ∗ 1 (ω ) − φ0 (ω ) = Φ (ω ) |1×M −Φ (ω ) |0×M = Φ∗ (ω ). our discussion on the ﬁbered calculus of Subsection 3. Then they induce identical maps in cohomology ∗ • • φ∗ 0 = φ1 : H (N ) → H (M ). The projection Φ : I × M → M deﬁnes an oriented ∂ -bundle with standard ﬁber I .228 CHAPTER 7. (∂I ×M )/M We now use the homotopy formula in Theorem 3. φ1 : Ω (N ) → Ω (M ) are cochain homotopic. φ1 : M → N be two homotopic smooth maps.4. Consider a smooth manifold M . and • • ı∗ V : Ω (M ) → Ω (V ). it sufﬁces to show that the pullbacks ∗ • • φ∗ 0 .4.4.26. ω → (ı∗ U ω. ω → ω |V . According to the general results in homological algebra.5 will pay off. V ֒→ M ). and U . ω → ω |U . η ) → −ω |U ∩V +η |U ∩V .5. such that ∗ • φ∗ 1 (ω ) − φ0 (ω ) = ±χ(dω ) ± dχω. Let φ0 . These induce the restriction maps • • ı∗ U : Ω (M ) → Ω (U ). ıV ω ). ∀ω ∈ Ω (M ). Thus. Proof. Denote by ıU (respectively ıV ) the inclusions U ֒→ M (resp. At this point. Corollary 7. Two homotopy equivalent spaces have isomorphic cohomology rings. we have to produce a map χ : Ω• (N ) → Ω∗•−1 (M ). (ω.1. V two open subsets of M such that M = U ∪ V . COHOMOLOGY Proposition 7. and we deduce Φ∗ (ω ) = (∂I ×M )/M (I ×M )/M dI ×M Φ∗ (ω ) − dM Φ∗ (ω ) (I ×M )/M = (I ×M )/M Φ∗ (dN ω ) − dM Φ∗ (ω ). .1. (I ×M )/M Thus χ(ω ) := (I ×M )/M Φ∗ (ω ) ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ is the sought for cochain homotopy. We get a cochain morphism ∗ r : Ω• (M ) → Ω• (U ) ⊕ Ω• (V ). There exists another cochain morphism δ : Ω• (U ) ⊕ Ω• (V ) → Ω• (U ∩ V ).54 of Subsection 3.

we can view it as a form on U .. Start with ω ∈ Ωk (U ∩ V ) such that dω = 0. The reader can prove directly that the above deﬁnition is independent of the various choices. and thus.1. i. This establishes the surjectivity of δ. Writing as before ω = ϕV ω + ϕU ω. ⊔ ⊓ Using the abstract results in homological algebra we deduce from the above lemma the following fundamental result. Let M = U ∪ V be an open cover of the smooth manifold M. ⊔ ⊓ r δ ∂ The connecting morphisms ∂ can be explicitly described using the prescriptions following Proposition 7. Then there exists a long exact sequence · · · → H k (M ) → H k (U ) ⊕ H k (V ) → H k (U ∩ V ) → H k+1 (M ) → · · · .e. V } is an open cover of M . upon extending ϕV ω by 0 outside V . DERHAM COHOMOLOGY Lemma 7. 0 ≤ ϕU . ϕU ω ∈ Ω∗ (V ). Then ∂ω := η.28.29 (Mayer-Vietoris). The short Mayer-Vietoris sequence 0 → Ω• (M ) −→ Ω• (U ) ⊕ Ω• (V ) −→ Ω∗ (U ∩ V ) → 0 is exact. Obviously r is injective.1. called the long Mayer-Vietoris sequence. ϕU ω ) = (ϕV + ϕU )ω = ω. supp ϕU ⊂ U. The surjectivity of δ requires a little more effort. . we deduce Thus. r δ 229 Proof. we can ﬁnd η ∈ Ωk+1 (M ) such that d(ϕV ω ) = d(−ϕU ω ) on U ∩ V. ϕU + ϕV = 1. supp ϕV ⊂ V. Theorem 7. ϕV ≤ 1.1. The Mayer-Vietoris sequence has the following functorial property. η |U = d(ϕV ω ) η |V = d(−ϕU ω ). Note that for any ω ∈ Ω∗ (U ∩ V ) we have supp ϕV ω ⊂ supp ϕV ⊂ V. The proof of the equality Range r = ker δ can be safely left to the reader. so we can ﬁnd a partition of unity {ϕU .7. Let us recall that construction. The collection {U.18 in the previous subsection. Note that δ(−ϕV ω.1. ϕV } ⊂ C ∞ (M ) subordinated to this cover. Similarly.

η → η.32. the diagram below is commutative. V } an open cover of N . COHOMOLOGY Proposition 7. V ′ = φ−1 (V ) form an open cover of M and moreover. 2π -periodic. where f : R → R is a smooth 2π -periodic function and 2π f (θ )dθ = 0. knowing the cohomologies of its constituents. if η = dF . then S1 η = F (2π ) − F (0) = 0. H k (N ) φ∗ r Û H k (U ) ⊕ H k (V ) Ù Û H k (U ′) ⊕ H k (V ′) φ∗ δ Û H k (U ∩ V ) Ù Û H k (U ′ ∩ V ′) φ∗ ∂ Û H k+1(N ) Ù Û H k+1(M ) ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ φ∗ H k (M ) Ù r′ δ′ ∂′ Exercise 7.30. and we deduce PS 1 (t) = 1 + t. We have H 0 (S 1 ) = R since S 1 is connected.1.31. and dF = η . A 1-form η ∈ Ω1 (S 1 ) is automatically closed. Example 7.1. S1 induces an isomorphism H 1 (S 1 ) → R. 7. Conversely if η = f (θ )dθ .1. The cohomology of S 1 can be easily computed using the deﬁnition of DeRham cohomology. 0 then the function F (t) = 0 t f (s)ds is smooth. S1 Indeed. where F : R → R is a smooth 2π -periodic function. it allows one to recover the cohomology of a manifold decomposed into simpler parts. (The cohomology of spheres). the map S1 : Ω1 (S 1 ) → R. Then U ′ = φ−1 (U ). Prove the above proposition. .1.230 CHAPTER 7. Let φ : M → N be a smooth map and {U. In principle. and it is exact if and only if η = 0. Thus. In this subsection we will illustrate this principle on some simple examples.5 Some simple examples The Mayer-Vietoris theorem established in the previous subsection is a very powerful tool for computing the cohomology of manifolds.

1.e. V and U ∩ V are ﬁnite.21) χ(Σ) = χ(Σ \ disk) + χ(disk) − χ ( (Σ \ disk) ∩ (disk) ) . and moreover χ(M ) = χ(U ) + χ(V ) − χ(U ∩ V ). Let {U. then Σ1 #Σ2 = (Σ1 \ disk) ∪ (Σ2 \ disk). The Mayer-Vietoris sequence gives H k (Unorth ) ⊕ H k (Usouth ) → H k (Unorth ∩ Usouth ) → H k+1 (S n+1 ) → 0. Since (Σ \ disk) ∩ disk is homotopic to a circle.1. Note that the overlap Unorth ∩ Usouth is homotopically equivalent with the equator S n .1. (7. we deduce (using again Exercise 7.1. and the Exercise 7. we deduce that all the Betti numbers of M are ﬁnite. From the decomposition Σ = (Σ \ disk) ∪ disk. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY 231 To compute the cohomology of higher dimensional spheres we use the Mayer-Vietoris theorem.21 in Subsection 7. V } be an open cover of the smooth manifold M. Let Σ be a surface with ﬁnite Betti numbers. ⊔ ⊓ Example 7.1. The Poincar´ e lemma implies that H k+1 (Unorth ) ⊕ H k+1 (Usouth ) ∼ =0 for k ≥ 0. The (n + 1)-dimensional sphere S n+1 can be covered by two open sets Usouth = S n+1 \ {North pole} and Unorth = S n+1 \ {South pole}. We assume that all the Betti numbers of U . and χ(disk) = 1. PS n (t) = 1 + tn . and then compute its Euler characteristic. We can rewrite the above equality as Qn+1 (t) = tQn (t) n > 0. .7.. Denote by Pn (t) the Poincar´ e polynomial of S n and set Qn (t) = Pn (t) − Pn (0) = Pn (t) − 1. Each is diffeomorphic to Rn+1 . Using the Mayer-Vietoris short exact sequence.3. For k > 0 the group on the left is also trivial. i.12) This resembles very much the classical inclusion-exclusion principle in combinatorics.1. we deduce χ(Σ) = χ(Σ \ disk) + 1 − χ(S 1 ) = χ(Σ \ disk) + 1. We will use this simple observation to prove that the Betti numbers of a connected sum of g tori is ﬁnite. If now Σ1 and Σ2 are two surfaces with ﬁnite Betti numbers.33. so that we have the isomorphisms H k (S n ) ∼ = H k (Unorth ∩ Usouth ) ∼ = H k+1 (S n+1 ) k > 0. Since Q1 (t) = t we deduce Qn (t) = tn .

31 of Subsection 4. Let p : E → B be a smooth vector bundle. Thus χ(Σ1 #Σ2 ) = χ(Σ1 \ disk) + χ(Σ2 \ disk) − χ(S 1 ) = χ(Σ1 ) + χ(Σ2 ) − 2.6 The Mayer-Vietoris principle We describe in this subsection a “patching” technique which is extremely versatile in establishing general homological results about arbitrary manifolds building up from elementary ones. the Euler characteristic of the intersection is zero. then so is the total space E . (It sufﬁces to see that Rn \ closed ball is of ﬁnite type).2. This equality is identical with the one proved in Proposition 4. surprising connection with the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. This is a pleasant.31 that χ(connected sum of g tori) = 2 − 2g.1. and U ⊂ M is a closed subset homeomorphic with the closed unit ball in Rdim M . . . which is homotopically a circle.2.1. A smooth manifold M is said to be of ﬁnite type if it can be covered by ﬁnitely many open sets U1 .36.1. ⊔ ⊓ . (c) The connected sums. Such a cover is said to be a good cover. The intersection of these cylinders is the disjoint union of two annuli so homotopically.1. ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. Then p : E → B is a trivializable bundle. . Deﬁnition 7. We can decompose a torus as a union of two cylinders. COHOMOLOGY where the two holed surfaces intersect over an entire annulus. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7. this overlap is a disjoint union of two circles.34. and the direct products of ﬁnite type manifolds are ﬁnite type manifolds. We conclude as in Proposition 4. Um such that any nonempty intersection Ui1 ∩ · · · ∩ Uik (k ≥ 1) is diffeomorphic to Rdim M .1. Let p : E → B be a smooth vector bundle such that B is diffeomorphic to Rn . And the story is not over. then M \ U is a ﬁnite type non-compact manifold. If the base B is of ﬁnite type. (b) If M is a ﬁnite type manifold.232 CHAPTER 7. In particular.2. it sufﬁces to cover such a manifold by ﬁnitely many open sets which are geodesically convex with respect to some Riemann metric. In the proof of this proposition we will use the following fundamental result.35.5. (a) All compact manifolds are of ﬁnite type. . Lemma 7.37. Hence χ(torus) = 2χ(cylinder) = 2χ(circle) = 0. To see this. ⊔ ⊓ 7.

Using the previous lemma we deduce that each EI = E |UI is a product F × Ui .39.1. For each ordered multi-index I := {i1 < · · · < ik } denote by UI the multiple overlap Ui1 ∩ · · · ∩ Uik . V ∩ N } is an M V -cover of N .1. (The maps ı• denote natural embeddings. V } is a M V -cover of M ∈ Mn . V. and thus it is diffeomorphic with some vector space. If {U. i. Deﬁnition 7. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY 233 Proof of Proposition 7. U.. then there exist morphisms of R-modules ∂n : Fn (U ∩ V ) → Fn+1 (M ). The morphisms of this category are the smooth embeddings.7. A contravariant Mayer-Vietoris functor (or M V -functor for brevity) is a contravariant functor from the category Mn .. x ∈ Rn \ {0}.38. and then use the ∇-parallel transport along the half-lines Lx . δ(x ⊕ y ) = F(ıU ∩V )(y ) − F(ıU ∩V )(x). r∗ δ ∂ where r ∗ is deﬁned by and δ is deﬁned by r ∗ = F(ıU ) ⊕ F(ıV ). if N ∈ Mn is an open submanifold of N . i. M → Fn (M ). Fn (U ∩ V ) ∂n Û Fn+1(M ) ÛF n+1 F (U ∩ V ∩ N ) n Ù ∂n Ù (N ) ⊔ ⊓ The vertical arrows are the morphisms F(ı• ) induced by inclusions. Prove Lemma 7. ⊔ ⊓ ✍ We denote by Mn the category ﬁnite type smooth manifolds of dimension n.1.37. Denote by F the standard ﬁber of E . ∞) ∋ t → tx ∈ Rn .e. Fix a connection ∇ on E . and {U. such that the sequence below is exact n · · · → Fn (M ) → Fn (U ) ⊕ Fn (V ) → Fn (U ∩ V ) → Fn+1 (M ) → · · · . Mi ∈ Mn . V } is an M V -cover of M such that {U ∩ N.) Moreover. U ∩ V ∈ Mn . the one-to-one immersions M1 ֒→ M2 . Hint: Assume that E is a vector bundle over the unit open ball B ⊂ Rn . Let (Ui )1≤i≤ν be a good cover of B . Let R be a commutative ring with 1. n with the following property. Hence (Ei ) is a good cover.e.1. . The ﬁber F is a vector space. [0.1.36. then the diagram below is commutative. to the category of Z-graded R-modules F = ⊕n∈Z Fn → GradR Mod.

V } of M . by reversing the orientation of all the arrows in the above deﬁnition. Let F. A correspondence2 between these functors is a collection of R-module morphisms φM = n∈Z φn M : Fn (M ) −→ Gn (M ).234 CHAPTER 7. the diagram below is commutative. ⊔ ⊓ where Mr n is the collection of all smooth manifolds which admit a good cover consisting of at most r open sets. We will prove the theorem using an induction over r . ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 7. then φ is a natural equivalence. F.41 (Mayer-Vietoris principle).1. G be two contravariant M V -functors.1. Let F. The family of ﬁnite type manifolds Mn has a natural ﬁltration 2 r M1 n ⊂ Mn ⊂ · · · ⊂ Mn ⊂ · · · . G be two (contravariant) Mayer-Vietoris functors on Mn and φ : F → G a correspondence. 2 Our notion of correspondence corresponds to the categorical notion of morphism of functors. such that. Deﬁnition 7. . for any M ∈ Mn and any M V -cover {U.40. the diagram below is commutative Fn (M2 ) φM 2 n F(ϕ) Û Fn (M1) φM 1 G (M2 ) Ù G(ϕ) Û G (M1) n ∂n Ù and. ϕ one morphism for each M ∈ Mn . Proof. Fn (U ∩ V ) φU ∩ V Û Fn+1(M ) Ù Û Gn+1(M ) φM Gn (U ∩ V ) Ù ∂n The correspondence is said to be a natural equivalence if all the morphisms φM are isomorphisms. G : Mn → GradR Mod. If k n k n φk Rn : F (R ) → G (R ) is an isomorphism for any k ∈ Z. for any embedding M1 ֒→ M2 . COHOMOLOGY The covariant M V -functors are deﬁned in the dual way.

i. Let M ∈ Mn and consider a good cover {U1 .45.1. Prove the ﬁve lemma. Lemma 7. Exercise 7.43. ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 7. for any M ∈ Mn . . ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7.42.) Consider the following commutative diagram of R-modules. then so are the φM ’s. (d) The Mayer-Vietoris principle is a baby case of the very general technique in algebraic topology called the acyclic models principle. Then. (The ﬁve lemma.44. and φ : F → G is a correspondence compatible with the multiplicative structures. The proof of the Mayer-Vietoris principle shows that if F is a MVfunctor and dimR F∗ (Rn ) < ∞ then dim F∗ (M ) < ∞ for all M ∈ Mn . . ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ The ﬁve lemma applied to our situation shows that the morphisms φM must be isomorphisms. The proof is obtained by reversing the orientation of the horizontal arrows in the above proof.1.7.1. Any ﬁnite type manifold has ﬁnite Betti numbers. Assume that F and G are functors from Mn to the category of Z-graded R-algebras. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY 235 The theorem is clearly true for r = 1 by hypothesis. .1. Then {U = U1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ur−1 . We thus get a commutative diagram Fn (U ) ⊕ Fn (Ur ) G (U ) ⊕ Gn (Ur ) n Ù Û Fn (U ∩ Ur ) Ù n Û G (U ∩ Ur ) ∂ ∂ Û Fn+1(M ) Ù n +1 Û G (M ) Û Fn+1(U ) ⊕ Gn+1(Ur ) Ù n+1 n+1 ÛF (U ) ⊕ G (Ur ) The vertical arrows are deﬁned by the correspondence φ. Ur } of M . then so is f0 . each of the R-module morphisms φM are in fact morphisms of R-algebras. Note the inductive assumption implies that in the above inﬁnite sequence only the morphisms φM may not be isomorphisms. ⊔ ⊓ . At this point we invoke the following technical result. Assume φk M is an isomorphism for all r r − 1 M ∈ Mn . .e. if φRn are isomorphisms of Z-graded R-algebras . Ur } is an M V -cover of M . (a) The Mayer-Vietoris principle is true for covariant M V -functors as well. (c) Assume R is a ﬁeld.. (b) The Mayer-Vietoris principle can be reﬁned a little bit. A−2 f −2 Û A−1 f −1 Û A0 f0 Û A1 f1 Û A2 Ù Û B2 f2 B− 2 Ù Û B− 1 Ù Û B0 Ù Û B1 Ù If fi is an isomorphism for any i = 0.1.

. Proof. We will now use the Mayer-Vietoris principle to compute the cohomology of products of manifolds. Theorem 7. η ∈ H • (M ) ). ⊔ ⊓ where πM (respectively πN ) are the canonical projections M × N → M (respectively M × N → N ). COHOMOLOGY ¨ 7. deﬁne φM : F(M ) → G(N ) by ∗ ∗ φM (ω ⊗ η ) = ω × η := πM ω ∧ πN η ( ω ∈ H • (M ).1. Gr (M ) = r ≥0 r ≥0 f ∗ |H p (M2 ) ⊗½H q (N ) . The K¨ unneth formula is a consequence of the following lemma. Let M ∈ Mm and N ∈ Mn .236 CHAPTER 7. G : Mm → GradR Alg. ∀f : M1 ֒→ M2 . Exercise 7. is called the cross product. For M ∈ MM . F:M → and G:M → where F(f ) = r ≥0 p +q =r n ≥0 p +q =n H p (M ) ⊗ H q (N ) . ∀f : M1 ֒→ M2 . Lemma 7. we deduce PM ×N (t) = PM (t) · PN (t).48. F and G are contravariant M V -functors. Then there exists a natural isomorphism of graded R-algebras H • (M × N ) ∼ = H • (M ) ⊗ H ∗ (N ) = In particular.47.1. (b) φRm is an isomorphism. (a) φ is a correspondence of MV-functors. The operation × : H • (M ) ⊗ H • (N ) → H • (M × N ) (ω ⊗ η ) → ω × η. Fr (M ) = r ≥0 r ≥0 p +q =r H p (M ) ⊗ H q (N ) H r (M × N ). We construct two functors F.7 The Kunneth formula We learned in principle how to compute the cohomology of a “union of manifolds”. We let the reader check the following elementary fact.46 (K¨ unneth formula).1. and G(f ) = r ≥0 (f × ½N )∗ |H r (M2 ×N ) .1. .

Thus.1.1. note that the inclusion : N ֒→ Rm × N. with πN a homotopy inverse. by the homotopy invariance of the DeRham cohomology we deduce G(Rm ) ∼ = H • (N ). These monomials are linearly independent (over R) and there are 2n of them. . and ∂ ′ (ω × η ) = ω ˆ × η . where On the other hand. ⊕p+q=r H p (U ∩ V ) ⊗ H q (N ) φU ∩ V ∂ Û ⊕p+q=r H p+1(M ) ⊗ H q (N ) ∂′ H r ((U × N ) ∩ (V × N )) Ù Ù Û H r+1(M × N ) φM We brieﬂy recall the construction of the connecting morphisms ∂ and ∂ ′ . For each ordered multi-index I = (1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ik ≤ n) we have a closed. In fact.7. Thus bk (T n ) = n . Using the Poincar´ e lemma and the above isomorphism we can identify the morphism φRm with ⊔ ⊓ ½R m . One can easily describe a basis of H ∗ (T n ). ⊔ ⊓ . T n .49. the ∗ ϕ and ψ = π ∗ ϕ form a partition of unity subordinated to the cover functions ψU = πM U V M V U × N. V }. φU ∩V (ω ⊗ η ) = ω × η . We have an isomorphism of R-algebras H • (T n ) ∼ = Λ• Rn . This proves (a). To establish (b). they form a basis of H ∗ (T n ). . V × N of M × N . and χ(T n ) = 0. One considers a partition of unity {ϕU . x) is a homotopy equivalence. . Choose angular coordinates (θ 1 . The only nontrivial thing to prove is that for any MV-cover {U. non-exact form dθ I . V } of M ∈ Mm the diagram below is commutative. k ω ˆ |U = −d(ϕV ω ) ω ˆ = d(ϕU ω ). By writing it as a direct product of n circles we deduce from K¨ unneth formula that PT n (t) = {PS 1 (t)}n = (1 + t)n . Then. . If ω ⊗ η ∈ H • (U ∩ V ) ⊗ H • (N ). Consider the n-dimensional torus. one can read the multiplicative structure using this basis. DERHAM COHOMOLOGY 237 Proof. ϕV } subordinated to the cover {U. Hence. dim H ∗ (T n ) = 2n . ∂ (ω ⊗ η ) = ω ˆ ⊗ η. θ n ) on T n . Example 7. x → (0.

51. (ω0 × η0 ) ∧ (ω1 × η1 ) = (−1)deg η0 deg ω1 (ω0 ∧ ω1 ) × (η0 ∧ η1 ). Denote by Ωk cpt (M ) the space of smooth compactly supported k-forms. there are many important differences. we can identify M with an open subset of N . ∀ω ∈ H • (M ). j = 0.238 CHAPTER 7. the following equality holds. The projection p induces a H • (M )-module structure on H • (E ) by ω · η = p∗ ω ∧ η. Then n 0 → Ω0 cpt (M ) → · · · → Ωcpt (M ) → 0 • (M ).2 The Poincar´ e duality 7. COHOMOLOGY Exercise 7. .50. and φ is an embedding. so this new construction is no longer a contravariant functor from the category of smooth manifolds and smooth maps. Show that for any ωi ∈ H ∗ (M ). ⊔ ⊓ 7. if dim M = dim N . This extension by zero deﬁnes a push-forward map • φ∗ : Ω• cpt (M ) → Ωcpt (N ).1 Cohomology with compact supports Let M be a smooth n-dimensional manifold. • is a covariant functor from the category M . Note that when M is compact this cohomology coincides with the usual DeRham cohomology. Let p : E → M be smooth bundle with standard ﬁber F . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. . Show that H • (E ) is a free H • (M )-module with generators e1 . . Its cohomology is denoted by Hcpt homology with compact supports. Let M ∈ Mm and N ∈ Mn . and it is called the DeRham cois a cochain complex. to the category of graded vector spaces.2. . to the In terms of our category Mn we see that Hcpt n category of graded real vector spaces. ηj ∈ H ∗ (N ). 1. d d One can verify easily that φ∗ is a cochain map so that it induces a morphism • • φ∗ : Hcpt (M ) → Hcpt (N ). and ω ∈ Ω• cpt (N ). . and then any η ∈ Ω• cpt (M ) can be extended by 0 outside M ⊂ N . (Leray-Hirsch). .1. η ∈ H • (E ). . We assume the following: (a) Both M and F are of ﬁnite type. The most visible one is that if φ : M → N is a smooth map. er . . .1. it is a rather nice functor. (b) There exist cohomology classes e1 . er ∈ H • (E ) such that their restrictions to any ﬁber generate the cohomology algebra of that ﬁber. i. On the other hand. As we will see. Although it looks very similar to the usual DeRham cohomology. ∗ then the pull-back φ ω may not have compact support.

The crucial step is the following technical result that we borrowed from [11]. β ) ∈ Ω• cpt (E ) × Ωcpt (E ) deﬁne α ⊙ β ∈ Ωcpt (E ⊕ E ) by ∂π = π |∂ E = (−π 0 ) ⊔ π 1 . . π E⊕E ∼ = {t} × E ⊕ E ֒→ I × (E ⊕ E ) → E.2. p Then there exists a smooth bilinear map j i+ j − r − 1 m : Ωi (E ) cpt (E ) × Ωcpt (E ) → Ωcpt such that. Proof. cpt cpt Hence 1 0 D (α. and moreover Theorem 7. β ) = p∗ p∗ α ∧ β − α ∧ p∗ p∗ β = π∗ (α ⊙ β ) − π∗ (α ⊙ β ) = ∂ E/E α ⊙ β. Lemma 7.´ DUALITY 7. Note that Deﬁne π t : E ⊕ E → E as the composition ∂ E = ( {0} × (E ⊕ E ) ) ⊔ ({1} × (E ⊕ E )) .2. j (Verify that the support of α ⊙ β is indeed compact. v1 ) → (t. α ∧ p∗ p∗ β = π∗ (α ⊙ β ) ∈ Ωi (E ). Let E → B be a rank r real vector bundle which is orientable in the sense described in Subsection 3. Consider the ∂ -bundle π : E = I × (E ⊕ E ) → E.2. β ) + (−1)deg α m(α. Denote by p∗ the integration-along-ﬁbers map •−r p∗ : Ω • cpt (E ) → Ωcpt (B ).) For α ∈ Ωi cpt (E ). k=n The last assertion of this theorem is usually called the Poincar´ e lemma for compact supports. p∗ p∗ α ∧ β − α ∧ p∗ p∗ β = (−1)r d(m(α. THE POINCARE • is a covariant M V -functor. dβ ). Hcpt k Hcpt (Rn ) = 239 0 . Observe that • • For (α. v0 + t(v1 − v0 )). π : (t.1. and β ∈ Ωcpt (E ) we have the equalities +j −r +j −r 1 0 p ∗ p ∗ α ∧ β = π∗ (α ⊙ β ) ∈ Ωi (E ). β )) − m(dα.5. α ⊙ β := (π 0 )∗ α ∧ (π 1 )∗ β. v0 . k<n .2. We ﬁrst prove the Poincar´ e lemma for compact supports.4. R .

deg ω = n.2.2 we deduce ω − τ ∧ p∗ p∗ ω = (−1)n dm(τ. deg ω < n Rn ω . The latter is always zero if deg ω < n. ∞ (Rn ) such that Consider δ ∈ C0 ⊔ ⊓ Proof of the Poincar´ e lemma for compact supports. Using Lemma 7. The integration along ﬁbers is simply the integration map. induces a short sequence • • • 0 → Ω• cpt (U ∩ V ) → Ωcpt (U ) ⊕ Ωcpt (V ) → Ωcpt (M ) → 0. β ) = E/E T ∗ (α ⊙ β ). i. The lemma holds with m(α. COHOMOLOGY dE T ∗ (α ⊙ β ) + (−1)r dE E/E T ∗ (α ⊙ β ). ω ˆ ). compactly supported n-form δ(x)dx = 1. We want to use Lemma 7. η ) = η ˆ−ω ˆ. If now ω is a closed. This completes the proof of the Poincar´ e lemma.2. . ω → p∗ ω = p 0 . ω ). n p∗ : Ω • cpt (R ) → R. E = {pt} × Rn → {pt}. j (ω. V ֒→ M. where T is the natural projection E = I × (E ⊕ E ) → E ⊕ E .1 we must construct a Mayer-Vietoris sequence.2 in which E is the rank n bundle over a point. we have ω = (p∗ p∗ τ ) ∧ ω. This sequence is called the MayerVietoris short sequence for compact supports. Let M be a smooth manifold decomposed as an union of two open sets M = U ∪ V . When deg ω = n we deduce that ω is cohomologous to ( ω )τ .. The hat ˆ denotes the extension by zero outside the support. compactly supported form ω on Rn is cohomologous to τ ∧ p∗ p∗ ω . Deﬁne the. Thus any closed. Rn τ := δ(x)dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn .240 We now use the ﬁbered Stokes formula to get D (α.e. 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1. i j where i(ω ) = (ˆ ω. β ) = E/E CHAPTER 7. closed.2. ⊔ ⊓ To ﬁnish the proof of Theorem 7. The sequence of inclusions U ∩ V ֒→ U. compactly supported form on Rn .

2. the simplicity of the connecting morphism δ goes in the right direction H original notation is worth the small formal ambiguity. If ω ∈ Ωk cpt (M ) is a closed form then d(ϕU ω ) = d(−ϕV ω ) on U ∩ V. Range (i) = ker(j ). 241 Proof.and its homology H ˜• → H ˜ •−1 .2. If φ : N ֒→ M is a morphism of Mn then for any MV-cover of {U. The reader can check immediately that the cohomology class of δω is independent of all the choices made. We have to prove that j is surjective. V } of M {φ−1 (U ). We set δω := d(ϕU ω ).2. k k k k k +1 → ··· · · · → Hcpt (U ∩ V ) → Hcpt (U ) ⊕ Hcpt (V ) → Hcpt (M ) → Hcpt δ The connecting homomorphism can be explicitly described as follows. we almost tautologically get a commutative diagram k Hcpt (N ) φ∗ δ k +1 −1 Û Hcpt (φ (U ∩ V )) k Hcpt (M ) Ù δ Ù k +1 Û Hcpt (U ∩ V ) φ∗ • is a covariant Mayer-Vietoris sequence. V }. ⊔ ⊓ From the proof of the Mayer-Vietoris principle we deduce the following. k ≤0 k ≤0 and correspondingly the associated homology ˜ • := H −• . For any M ∈ Mn .5. for any η ∈ Ω∗ cpt (M ). Clearly. ϕV ) a partition of unity subordinated to the cover {U. In particular. ϕV η ). Let (ϕU .´ DUALITY 7.4. ⊔ ⊓ We get a long exact sequence called the long Mayer-Vietoris sequence for compact supports. The morphism i is obviously injective. k (M ) < ∞. The above Mayer-Vietoris sequence is exact. we have • ϕU η ∈ Ω• cpt (U ) and ϕV η ∈ Ωcpt (V ). which shows that j is surjective. H cpt This makes the sequence ˜ • is a bona-ﬁde covariant Mayer-Vietoris functor since the a chain complex .2. η = j (−ϕU η. Corollary 7. Moreover. To be perfectly honest (from a categorical point of view) we should have considered the chain complex k ˜k = Ω Ω− cpt . This proves Hcpt ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7.3. and any k ≤ n we have dim Hcpt ˜ −n ← · · · ← Ω ˜ −1 ← Ω ˜0 ← 0 0←Ω ⊔ ⊓ . However. Then. so we stick to our upper indices. THE POINCARE Lemma 7. φ−1 (V )} is an MV-cover of N .

deg ω + deg η = n . this means that the Kronecker pairing descends to a pairing in cohomology. Indeed.2. The Kronecker pairing in cohomology is a duality for all M ∈ M+ . This is where the fact that all the cohomology groups are ﬁnite dimensional vector spaces plays a very important role). η κ . • denotes the natural pairing between a vector space V and its dual V ∗ . η κ κ n −k (M ) → R. compactly supported (n − k)If ω is closed.2 The Poincar´ e duality Deﬁnition 7. : Ωk (M ) × Ωcpt := M ω ∧ η.2.242 CHAPTER 7. The M V functors on M+ n are deﬁned exactly as for Mn . (The exactness of the Mayer-Vietoris sequence is preserved by transposition. Equivalently. if η = dη ′ . If moreover Thus. COHOMOLOGY 7. n Proof. if ω is closed. ﬁnite type. • κ n −k (M ) → R. •. η ) ∈ Ω• × Ω• cpt as 0 . •.7 (Poincar´ e duality). n −k of closed. • : V ∗ × V → R. We can extend this pairing to any (ω. oriented manifolds. This pairing is called the Kronecker pairing. η ′ ∈ Ωn (M ) cpt then Stokes dω ∧ η ′ = 0. η = M M n −k (M ))∗ .6. ⊔ ⊓ Given M ∈ M+ n . • deﬁned by ω. Denote by M+ n the category of n-dimensional. η = ω. •. ω ∧ dη ′ = ± D(ω ). D(ω ). The functor M+ n → Graded Vector Spaces deﬁned by M→ ˜ k (M ) = H k k n −k Hcpt (M ) ∗ is a contravariant M V -functor. : H k (M ) × Hcpt Theorem 7. a computation as above shows that D(ω ) = 0 ∈ (Hcpt a map in cohomology n −k D : H k (M ) → (Hcpt (M ))∗ . the restriction of D(ω ) to the space Zcpt n −k n −k −1 −k −1 forms vanishes on the subspace Bcpt = dΩcpt (M ). The morphisms are the embeddings of such manifold. Above.2. deg ω + deg η = n The Kronecker pairing induces maps n −k D = Dk : Ωk (M ) → (Ωcpt (M ))∗ . Hence D descends to ω is exact. . ω. η κ = M ω ∧ η . the linear functional D(ω ) deﬁnes an element of (Hcpt n −k (M ))∗ . there is a natural pairing •.

Then the connecting morphism in usual DeRham cohomology acts as ∂ω = d(−ϕV ω ) on U . η . φ∗ η φ Proof of Fact A.2. The Poincar´ e lemma for compact supports can be rephrased δ ˜ k (Rn ) = H The Kronecker pairing induces linear maps R .´ DUALITY 7. and δ† denotes its transpose. Hence φ M ֒→N ω |M ∧η = M φ∗ ω ∧ η = DM (φ∗ ω ). DM : H k (M ) → H Lemma 7.2. k=0 . φ k Dk is a correspondence of M V functors. d(ϕU ω ) on V ˜∗ ◦ DN = DM ◦ φ∗ . ˜ k (U ∩ V ) → H H n −k −1 n −k to be (−1)k δ† . Let M ֒→ N be a morphism in M+ n . . η = DN (ω ). We have to check two facts. where Hcpt (U ∩ V ) → Hcpt (U ∪ V ) denotes the connecting morphism in the DeRham cohomology with compact supports. If {U.8. ϕV be a partition of unity subordinated to the M V -cover {U. k>0 ˜ k (M ). Denoting by •. THE POINCARE 243 For purely formal reasons which will become apparent in a little while. we re-deﬁne the connecting morphism ˜ d ˜ k+1 (U ∪ V ). V } is an M V -cover of M ∈ M+ n . Let ϕU . Let ω ∈ H k (N ). η = (φ∗ )† DN (ω ). Consider a closed k -form ω ∈ Ω (U ∩ V ). then the diagram bellow is commutative H k (U ∩ V ) DU ∩V ∂ Û H k+1(M ) DM ˜ k (U ∩ V ) H Ù (−1)k δ† Ù ˜ k+1 (M ) ÛH ˜∗ ◦ DN (ω ). Fact A. V } of k M ∈ M+ n . Then the diagram below is commutative. • the natural duality between a vector space n −k (M ) we have and its dual we deduce that for any η ∈ Hcpt = N ω ∧ φ∗ η = Proof of Fact B. 0 . H k (N ) DN φ∗ ˜ k (N ) H Ù ˜∗ φ Û H k (M ) D Ù M ˜ k (M ) ÛH Fact B. Proof.

10.9.244 −k −1 (M ) such that dη = 0. and the vanishing now follows from Stokes formula. η = M ∂ω ∧ η = U ∂ω ∧ η + V ∂ω ∧ η − U ∩V ∂ω ∧ η =− U d(ϕV ω ) ∧ η + V dϕU ω ) ∧ η + U ∩V d(ϕV ω ) ∧ η. over U we have the equality d(ϕV ω ) ∧ η = d ( ϕV ω ∧ η ) . ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. We have Choose η ∈ Ωn cpt CHAPTER 7. Note that the ﬁrst two integrals vanish. As for the last term.2. the transpose Proof. COHOMOLOGY DM ∂ω. q := dim N − dim M = n − m) deﬁned by the composition M N H • (M ) → (H m−• (M ))∗ → (H m−• (N ))∗ → H •+n−m (N ). On the other hand. Since Hcpt n −k ∗∗ → (H k (M ))∗ Dt M : (Hcpt (M )) ⊔ ⊓ is an isomorphism. Corollary 7. . If M ∈ M+ n then • Hcpt (M ) ∼ = (H n−k (M ))• . η . The Poincar´ e duality now follows from the Mayer-Vietoris principle. D (f ∗ )† D −1 where (f ∗ )† denotes the transpose of the pullback morphism. Using the Poincar´ e duality we can associate to any smooth map f : M → N between compact oriented manifolds of dimensions m and respectively n a natural push-forward or Gysin map f∗ : H • (M ) → H •+q (N ). we have d(ϕV ω ) ∧ η = dϕV ∧ ω ∧ η = (−1)deg ω ω ∧ (dϕV ∧ η ) U ∩V U ∩V U ∩V = (−1)k U ∩V ω ∧ δη = (−1)k DU ∩V ω. k (M ) is ﬁnite dimensional. Indeed.2. The second term is dealt with in a similar fashion. This concludes the proof of Fact B. for any ﬁnite dimensional vector space there exists a natural isomorphism V ∗∗ ∼ ⊔ ⊓ = V. δη = (−1)k δ† DU ∩V ω.

e duality implies b2 = b0 = 1. η ) → is a duality.12. Its signature is called the signature of M . THE POINCARE 245 Corollary 7. connected. Hirzebruch showed that there exist no smooth manifolds M of dimension 12 or 20 with Poincar´ e polynomials 1 + t6 + t12 and respectively 1 + t10 + t20 . Then the pairing H k (M ) × H n−k (M ) → R (ω.2.1) there exists a compact. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. In particular. i. n-dimensional manifold. The symmetry of Betti numbers can be translated in the language of Poincar´ e polynomials as 1 tn PM ( ) = PM (t). Combine this fact with the K¨ unneth formula. In particular.2. I is skew-symmetric.2. Hint: Describe the Poincar´ e polynomial of a connect sum in terms of the polynomials of its constituents. it is a symplectic form. ⊔ ⊓ (7. ⊔ ⊓ . Assume P (0) = 1 and P satisﬁes (7. connected.2.2. P. When k is even (so that n is divisible by 4) I is a symmetric form.2. Seminaire Bourbaki 1953/54. and it is denoted by σ (M ). (b) Let P ∈ Z[t] be a polynomial of degree 2k with non-negative integer coefﬁcients.14. The result in the above exercise is sharp. ∀k. Hence b1 = 2g i. When k is odd..2. We have shown that χ(Σg ) = b0 − b1 + b2 = 2 − 2g. M The bilinear form I is called the cohomological intersection form of M . Show that if P satisﬁes the symmetry condition (7. If the coefﬁcient of tk is even then there exists a compact connected manifold M ∈ M+ 2k such that PM (t) = P (t).2.2.e. Serre. Let Σg denote the connected sum of g tori. For any compact manifold M ∈ M+ 4k +2 the middle Betti number b2k +1 (M ) is even. the Poincar´ PΣg (t) = 1 + 2gt + t2 . “Travaux de Hirzebruch sur la topologie des vari´ et´ es”. H 2k+1 (M ) must be an even dimensional space. t Example 7.1) Consider now a compact oriented smooth manifold such that dim M = 2k. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7.1). (a) Let P ∈ Z[t] be an odd degree polynomial with non-negative integer coefﬁcients such that P (0) = 1. Corollary 7. oriented manifold M such that PM (t) = P (t). Using his intersection theorem F. The Kronecker pairing induces a non-degenerate bilinear form I : H k (M ) × H k (M ) → R I(ω.n◦ 88. η ) = ω ∧ η.´ DUALITY 7. Note that in each of these cases both middle Betti numbers are odd.15.13. oriented. Let M be a compact. M ω∧η ⊔ ⊓ If M is connected H 0 (M ) ∼ = H n (M ) ∼ = R so that H n (M ) is generated by any volume form deﬁning the orientation.e. For details we refer to J. Since Σg is connected. bk (M ) = bn−k (M ).11.

φ) ∈ Ck (M ) we denote by [S. (a) Two cycles (S0 . and a smooth map Φ : Σ → M such that Φ|∂ Σ = φ. We denote by Ck (M ) the set of k-dimensional cycles in M . (c) A cycle (S. and we denote by Zk (M ) the set of equivalence classes. oriented manifold Σ with (oriented) boundary S . and “⊔” denotes the disjoint union. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 7. where S is a compact. if there exists a compact. φ) ∈ Ck (M ) is said to be degenerate if it is cobordant to a constant cycle. i. φ) ∈ Ck (M ) is called trivial if there exists a (k + 1)-dimensional. φ0 ) ∼c (S1 .3. We denote by Tk (M ) the set of trivial cycles.246 CHAPTER 7. φ0 ⊔ φ1 ) is a trivial cycle.e. Deﬁnition 7. and φ : S → M is a smooth map. Prove that (−S0 ⊔ S1 . 1. oriented kdimensional manifold without boundary. (a2) Φ |Si = φi . φ). i = 0. We denote by Dk (M ) the set of degenerate cycles. φ′ ) such that φ′ is map constant on the components of S ′ . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7.3. a cycle (S ′ . Let (S0 .1. φ1 ).3 Intersection theory 7. φ0 ) ∼c (S1 . φ] its image in Zk (M )..2. and we write this (S0 . φ1 ) ∈ Ck (M ) are said to be cobordant. ⊔ ⊓ The cobordism relation on Ck (M ) is an equivalence relation3 . and a smooth map Φ : Σ → M such that the following hold.3. For any cycle (S. . COHOMOLOGY S0 S 1 Figure 7. 3 We urge the reader to supply a proof of this fact.3. (a1) ∂ Σ = (−S0 )⊔S1 where −S0 denotes the oriented manifold S0 equipped with the opposite orientation. A k-dimensional cycle in M is a pair (S. (S1 .1: A cobordism in R3 7. (b) A cycle (S.1 Cycles and their duals Suppose M is a smooth manifold. φ1 ). oriented manifold with boundary Σ. φ0 ).3.

φ0 ] + [S1 .3. and they deﬁne an element in Zk (M ) which we denote by [0]. The compactly supported cohomology class δS is called the Poincar´ e dual of (S. for i = 0. φ0 ⊔ φ1 ]. where “⊔” denotes the disjoint union.e. φ′ ]. Thus. Exercise 7. φ0 ]. if ω is exact. we continue denote any such representative by δS . Let us point out that any trivial cycle is degenerate. INTERSECTION THEORY 247 Since M is connected. [Si i i c k i i i ′ ′ ′ [S0 ⊔ S1 . ′ . there exists δS ∈ Hcpt the vector space ( H k (M ) )∗ with Hcpt M ω ∧ δS = S φ∗ ω ∀ω ∈ H k (M ). n −k There exist many closed forms η ∈ Ωcpt (M ) representing δS . φ′ ] ∈ C (M ). 1. then φ∗ dω ′ = S S dφ∗ ω ′ = 0. If [S . φi ]. φ ] ∼ [S ′ . φ1 ] := [S0 ⊔ S1 .3. Moreover. φ1 ] ∈ Zk (M ) we deﬁne [S0 . Via the Poincar´ e duality we identify n −k n −k (M ) such that (M ). i.. 1. i. S Stokes formula shows that this map is well deﬁned.5.4. φ] = [−S. then (a) Let [Si . Prove the above proposition. φ0 ⊔ φ1 ] ∼c [S0 ⊔ S1 . In other words. Indeed. φ] ∈ Hk (M ).3. [S1 . Proposition 7. k Suppose M ∈ M+ n .7. each cycle deﬁnes an element in ( H k (M ) )∗ . but the converse is not necessarily true. . (b) The binary operation + induces a structure of Abelian group on Zk (M ).. φ). it is independent of the closed form representing a cohomology class. Suppose M is a smooth manifold. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ We denote by Hk (M ) the quotient of Zk (M ) modulo the subgroup generated by the degenerate cycles. all the trivial cycles are cobordant. φ′ 0 ⊔ φ1 ] so that the above map + : Zk (M ) × Zk (M ) → Zk (M ) is well deﬁned.e. φ) deﬁnes a linear map H (M ) → R given by H k (M ) ∋ ω → φ∗ ω. −[S. The trivial element is represented by the trivial cycles. When there is no risk of confusion. i = 0. Any k -cycle (S. Given [S0 . ω = dω ′ .

1) Pick (ω. We de⊔ ⊓ note by [M ] the cycle (M. Consider an n-dimensional.3. S = {pt} ⊂ Rn . and S is a point. Consider the manifolds M ∈ M+ m and N ∈ Mn . we can choose representatives with arbitrarily small supports. ∀(ω. Their “proﬁles” look like in Figure 7. (The manifolds M and N need not be compact.3. ω = 1. using Exercise 7. connected. where ∗ ∗ ω × η := πM ω ∧ πN η. we set (for typographical reasons). η ) ∈ Ω• (M ) × Ω• (N ). pt is canonically a 0-cycle.7.3. oriented manifold M . ✍ For any differential form ω . i. closed 0-form) λω = Rn pt λ = λ.50 (ω × η ) ∧ (δS × δT ) = (−1)(m−p)|η| (ω ∧ δS ) × (η ∧ δT ). M ×N M ×N .1. In particular.6. ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. Then.3. φ) ∈ Cp (M ). We denote by πM (respectively πN ) the natural projection M × N → M (respectively M × N → N ). We want to prove the equality δS ×T = (−1)(m−p)q δS × δT .248 CHAPTER 7. compact.e. Let M = Rn . ψ ) ∈ Cq (N ) we can associate the cycle (S × T. (7.2: The dual of a point is Dirac’s distribution Example 7.. + Example 7. deg ω + deg η = (m + n) − (p + q ).8.) To any pair of cycles (S. η ) ∈ Ω• (M ) × Ω• (N ) such that. ½M ). |ω | := deg ω . and (T. Then δ[M ] = 1 ∈ H 0 (M ).e. “At limit” they approach Dirac’s delta distribution. Rn Thus δpt can be represented by any compactly supported n-form with integral 1. φ × ψ ) ∈ Cp+q (M × N ). COHOMOLOGY Figure 7. Its Poincar´ e dual is a compactly supported n-form ω such that for any constant λ (i.2.

i.2) Indeed. ω i κ i = δj . In this case the last term equals (−1)q(m−p) ω ∧ δS η ∧ δT = (−1)q(m−p) (φ × ψ )∗ (ω ∧ η ).3. and |α| = |ωi |. ω i . ωj κ = (−1)|ω i |·|ω j| ωj . Consider a compact manifold M ∈ M+ n . ωj . Fix a basis (ωi ) of H (M ) such that i • each ωi is homogeneous of degree |ωi | = di . κω j .1). S ×T • Example 7. ⊔ ⊓ φ∗ ω S T ψ∗ η S T = (−1)q(m−p) This establishes the equality (7. i (7. In M × M there exists a remarkable cycle. ω i κ β.3. The only time when this pairing does not vanish is when |ω | = p and |η | = q .7. the diagonal ∆ = ∆M : M → M × M. β ∈ Ω• (M ) such that |α| + |β | = n.3.9. we have M ×M (α × β ) ∧ δM = i i (−1)|ω i i| M ×M (α × β ) ∧ (ω i × ωi ) = i (−1)|ω | (−1)|β |·|ω | (−1)|ω | (−1)|β |·|ω i i| M ×M (α ∧ ω i ) × (β ∧ ωi ) β ∧ ωi . and denote by ω the basis of H (M ) dual to (ωi ) with respect to the Kronecker pairing. for any homogeneous forms α. x → (x.. We claim that the Poincar´ e dual of this cycle is δ∆ = δ M = i (−1)|ω | ω i × ωi .e. INTERSECTION THEORY 249 The above integral should be understood in the generalized sense of Kronecker pairing.3. From the equalities α= i ωi ω i . α κ and β = j β. = i M α ∧ ωi M The i-th summand is nontrivial only when |β | = |ω i |. x). ωi κ . Using the equality |ω i | + |ω i |2 ≡ 0(mod 2) we deduce M ×M (α × β ) ∧ δ M = i M α ∧ ωi M β ∧ ωi = i α.

The above proposition shows that the correspondence n −k Ck (M ) ∋ (S.3.j ωi . Note that ∂ Σ = (−S0 ) ⊔ S0 so that δ−S0 + δS0 = δ−S0 ⊔S0 = δ∂ Σ = 0. α i. φ1 ). ω i κ (−1)|ωi |(n−|ωi |) β. To prove (d) consider Σ = [0.10. 1) are two k-cycles in M . δ : Hk (M ) → Hcpt This is usually called the homological Poincar´ e duality. 1] × S0 → M. ωi κ . α κ ) ∧ ( β. COHOMOLOGY M M ωi ω i . α κ β. Part (c) is obvious. φ0 ) is trivial. Φ(t. n −k (a) If (S0 . 1] × S0 and Φ : [0. φ0 ) ∼c (S1 . ωj κ ωi ∧ ω j = ωi. ωj κ ω j ) j = M i. n −k (M ). φi ) ∈ Ck (M ) (i = 0. (c) δS0 ⊔S1 = δS0 + δS1 in Hcpt n −k (M ). ∀(t. Proposition 7. ωj κ ωi . and suppose that (Si .2) is proved. then δS0 = δS1 in Hcpt (M ).250 we conclude ∆∗ (α × β ) = α∧β = ( M i CHAPTER 7. (b) If (S0 . Part (b) is left to the reader. x) = φ0 (x). . ωi κ = i α. (a) Consider a compact manifold Σ with boundary ∂ Σ = −S0 ⊔ S1 and a smooth map Φ : Σ → M such that Φ |∂ Σ = φ0 ⊔ φ1 . (d) δ−S0 = −δS0 in Hcpt Proof. Let M ∈ M+ n be a manifold.j κ β. ω i κ β. φ) → δS ∈ Hcpt (M ) ⊔ ⊓ descends to a map n −k (M ). We are not claiming that δ is an isomorphism. ω j κ = i (−1)|ωi |(n−|ωi |) α. For any closed k-form ω ∈ Ωk (M ) we have 0= Σ Φ∗ (dω ) = Σ dΦ∗ ω Stokes = ω= ∂Σ S1 φ∗ 1ω − S0 φ∗ 0 ω.3. ⊔ ⊓ Equality (7. x) ∈ Σ. then δS0 = 0 in Hcpt n −k (M ).

T ).3. then for each x ∈ φ−1 (S ) we deﬁne the local intersection number at x to be (or = orientation) ix (S. if the following hold. (a) φ−1 (S ) is a ﬁnite subset of T. and we write this S ⋔ φ.3: The intersection number of the two cycles on T 2 is 1 7.2 Intersection theory Consider M ∈ M+ n . Deﬁnition 7. −1 . we deﬁne the intersection number of S with T to be S · T := ix (S. x∈φ−1 (S ) ⊔ ⊓ Our next result offers a different description of the intersection number indicating how one can drop the transversality assumption from the original deﬁnition. We denote by ı : S ֒→ M inclusion map so that (S. or (Tφ(x) S ) ∧ or (φ∗ Tx T ) = or (Tφ(x) M ) .3. . or (Tφ(x) S ) ∧ or (φ∗ Tx T ) = −or (Tφ(x) M ) Finally.3. INTERSECTION THEORY 251 2 1 C 1 C 2 -1 1 1 Figure 7. ı) is a k-cycle. If S ⋔ Φ. and a k -dimensional compact oriented submanifold S of M .11.7. oriented manifold T is said to be transversal to S . A smooth map φ : T → M from an (n − k)-dimensional. T ) = 1 . (b) for every x ∈ φ−1 (S ) we have φ∗ (Tx T ) + Tφ(x) S = Tφ(x) M (direct sum).

δS e dual of S in Hcpt (M ). and M N ω ∧ δS = N N ω ∧ δS = M δS ∧ δT . and S ֒ of M. Then for any sufﬁciently “thin” closed neighborhood N of S ⊂ M we have S · (B. The proof of the proposition relies on a couple of technical lemmata of independent interest. k -dimensional submanifold S ֒→ M .3.e. (ii) The orientation of S ∩ U is deﬁned by dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxk . Consider a compact. (b) supp δS Proof. ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 7.12. A local transversal at p ∈ S is an embedding φ : B ⊂ Rn−k → M.3. φ) ∈ Ck (M ). . (i) S ∩ U = {xk+1 = · · · = xn = 0}. If we pick a closed form ω ∈ Ω (M ). Each point p ∈ φ(S ) has a geodesically convex open neighborhood entirely contained in N. S ֒ and (B.14. xn ) deﬁned on some neighborhood U of p ∈ M diffeomorphic with the cube {|xi | < 1. S ⋔ φ.13 (Localization lemma). (a) δS e dual δS ∈ Hcpt N ⊂ N.3. for some sufﬁciently “thin” neighborhood N of S . i. and denote + by N their union. and (T. n −k N the Poincar´ (N ) Denote by δS e dual of S in N . Then N ∈ M+ n . . Then S ·T = where δ• denotes the Poincar´ e dual of •. p = (0. oriented submanifold n . such that S ⋔ φ and φ−1 (S ) = {0}. φ) ∈ Ck (N ). (7. .3. supp δS ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 7. . then ω |N is also closed. Using the transversality S ⋔ φ. Proof. the implicit function theorem. φ) = B N φ∗ δS . and (S..15.3) φ∗ ω. and moreover. Cover φ(S ) by ﬁnitely many such neighborhoods. Let M ∈ M+ n and (S. B = open ball centered at 0 ∈ Rm−k . Let M ∈ M+ n . ∀i} such that the following hold. k-dimensional. k-dimensional. .252 CHAPTER 7. for any open n −k N neighborhood N of φ(S ) in M there exists δS ∈ Ωcpt (M ) such that n −k N represents the Poincar´ (M ). oriented. Hence. we deduce that. . S n −k N represents the Poincar´ N ⊂ N. Lemma 7. .3. there exist local coordinates (x1 . . Let M ∈ M+ → M a compact. 0). Fix a Riemann metric on M . Then. COHOMOLOGY Proposition 7. oriented submanifold of M n. φ) a local transversal at p ∈ S . and eventually restricting φ to a smaller ball. Let M ∈ M+ → M a compact. . It can be represented by a closed form in Ωcpt N k which we continue to denote by δS . φ) ∈ Cn−k (M ) a (n − k)-dimensional cycle intersecting S transversally.

xk+1 . y n−k ) = (ξ . . . v (ξ ) = B N φ∗ ξ δS . ∧ dxn deﬁnes the orientation of T M . y n−k ). y 1 . we associate the k-form ωϕ := ϕdx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxk = ϕdξ ∈ Ωk cpt (S ∩ U ). . . . . . . . . Extend the functions x1 . ..3.. Rk (7. φ). . For each ξ = (x1 . INTERSECTION THEORY n −k (iii) The map φ : B ⊂ R( → M is expressed in these coordinates as y 1 . i ≤ k}. 1]. . . We have M N ω ˜ ϕ ∧ δS = U N ωϕ ∧ δS = ωϕ = S ϕ(ξ )dξ. j = 1. . . . The form ωϕ is then the restriction to U ∩ S of the closed compactly supported form ω ˜ ϕ = ϕ(˜ x1 . .y n−k ) 253 x1 = 0.7. xk ∈ C ∞ (U ∩ N) to smooth compactly supported functions ∞ x ˜ i ∈ C0 (M ) → [0.. ǫ = S · (B. xn = y n−k . . (iv) N ∩ U = {|xj | ≤ 1/2 . and set v (ξ ) := Pξ N . . . . n}. Write N δS = f dxk+1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn + ̺. To any function ϕ = ϕ(ξ ) ∈ C ∞ (S ∩ U ) such that supp ϕ ⊂ {|xi | ≤ 1/2 ..4) The integral over U can be evaluated using the Fubini theorem. where φξ : B → M is deﬁned by φξ (y 1 . In other words. δS Equivalently. xk+1 = y 1 . xk ) ∈ S ∩ U denote by Pξ the (n − k)-“plane” Pξ = {(ξ . . xk = 0. Let ǫ = ±1 such that ǫdx1 ∧ . . . . . .3. . . . |xj | < 1 j > k}. . xn ) . . . . We orient each Pξ using the (n − k)-form dxk+1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn . . . . . x ˜k )dx ˜1 ∧ · · · ∧ dx ˜k .

Then U N ωϕ ∧ δS = U f ϕdx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn =ǫ U f ϕ|dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn | (|dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn | = Lebesgue density) F ubini = ǫ S ∩U ϕ(ξ ) Pξ N δS f |dxk+1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn | |dξ | |dξ | = ǫ ϕ(ξ )v (ξ )|dξ |. B The local transversal lemma is proved. Moreover. Proof of Proposition 7. and taking into account that ϕ was chosen arbitrarily. but a priori it may not be an integer. we have a remarkable consequence. T0 ∼c T1 . =ǫ S ϕ(ξ ) Pξ S Comparing with (7. i The compact set K := φ(T \ ∪Bi ) does not intersect S so that we can ﬁnd a “thin”. The left-hand-side makes sense for any cycles of complementary dimensions. In any event. . . 1. φ∗ δS union of the Bi ’s and M N ∧ δT = δS T N φ∗ δS = i Bi N φ∗ i δS . Let (Si .16. COHOMOLOGY where ̺ is an (n − k)-form not containing the monomial dxk+1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxn . φ) = ipi (S.254 CHAPTER 7. we deduce that N φ∗ δS = v (0) = ǫ. φi ).3.3.3.4). . pm }. ψi ) ∈ Cn−k (M ) where M ∈ M+ n . . T such that S is embedded and S ⋔ T .3) has a remarkable feature. Then. Bi ⊔ ⊓ Equality (7. Its right-hand-side is an integer which is deﬁned only for cycles S . . Corollary 7. closed N is compactly supported in the neighborhood” N of S ֒→ M such that K ∩ N = ∅. we can choose the neighborhoods Bi to be mutually disjoint. Then S·T = S · (Bi .12 Let φ−1 (S ) = {p1 . ⊔ ⊓ The transversality assumption implies that each pi has an open neighborhood Bi diffeomorphic to an open ball such that φi = φ |Bi is a local transversal at yi = φ(pi ). φi ) ∈ Ck (M ) and ((Ti . i = 0.3. If (a) S0 ∼c S1 . T ). From the local transversal lemma we get N φ∗ δS = S · (Bi .

(This is called a general position result. The theorem will follow from two lemmata. Since ∆ is embedded we may assume by the moving lemma that (S × T ) ⋔ ∆. Let S ∈ Ck (M ). ∆). The ﬁrst one will show that it sufﬁces to consider only the situation when one of the two cycles is embedded.20 (Moving lemma). Chapter 3. INTERSECTION THEORY (b) the cycles Si are embedded. this is always the case. Theorem 7. If S is embedded. Then. The homological intersection pairing is the Z-bilinear map I = IM : Hk (M ) × Hn−k (M ) → R.18 Let (S.3. Lemma 7. and T ∈ Cn−k (M ) be two cycles in M ∈ M+ n. the intersection number I(S.3. then the second cycle can be deformed so that it intersects the former transversally. x → (x. Then (−1)n−k = = M M ×M δS ×T ∧ δ∆ = M ×M M (δS × δT ) ∧ δ∆ ⊔ ⊓ ∆∗ (δS × δT ) = δS ∧ δT . Then I(S. T ) is an integer. Proof of Theorem 7. then T is cobordant to a cycle T The proof of this result relies on Sard’s theorem. We will use the equality (7.18.3. since otherwise ∆ would not be a cycle).17. when M is compact.7. and (c) Si ⋔ Ti . if one of the cycles is embedded.3.) Lemma 7. Proof. T ) ∈ Z. T ) ∈ Ck (M ) × Cn−k (M ).3. ⊔ ⊓ We have proved that in some special instances I(S. M ×M where ∆ is the diagonal cycle ∆ : M → M × M . Let M . x). then Deﬁnition 7. We want to prove that. S and T as in Theorem 7. Let M ∈ M+ n be compact manifold. so that I(S × T. (M ∈ M+ n ) deﬁned by I(S.1) δS ×T = (−1)n−k δS × δT .18. T ) = (−1)n−k δS ×T ∧ δ∆ . The second one will show that. ˜ such that S ⋔ T ˜. T ) = (−1)n−k I(S × T. ⊔ ⊓ . ⊔ ⊓ δS ∧ δT . Then.3. for any (S. I(S.3. T ) = M 255 S0 · T0 = S1 · T1 . ∆) ∈ Z.3. T ) ∈ Hk (M ) × Hn−k (M ). (It is here where the compactness of M is essential. For details we refer to [45].19 (Reduction-to-diagonal trick).

Then deg GΣ = χ(Σ) = 2 − 2g.3. Any point y ∈ N deﬁnes an n-dimensional cycle M × {y }. connected. We can then compute the degree of F using Theorem 7.23. Proposition 7. The topological degree of the map F is deﬁned by deg F := (M × {y }) · ΓF . We have δy = 1. Our candidate will be the Poincar´ e dual δy of a point y ∈ N . to prove the proposition it sufﬁces to check it for any particular form which generates H n (N ). Consider a connected sum of g-tori Σ = Σg embedded in R3 and let GΣ : Σ → S 2 be its Gauss map. The map F induces a morphism F R∼ = H n (N ) → H n (M ) ∼ =R ∗ which can be identiﬁed with a real number.3 The topological degree Consider two compact. N while equality (7.3. ⊔ ⊓ . Any smooth map F : M → N canonically deﬁnes an n-dimensional cycle in M × N ΓF : M → M × N x → (x.3.1) gives δM ×{y} = δM × δy = 1 × δy . Then for any n-form ω ∈ Ωn (N ) F ∗ ω = deg F M N ω. The above proposition guarantees that this number is an integer.3.3. ⊔ ⊓ Proof of the proposition Note that if ω ∈ Ωn (N ) is exact. Thus the topological degree counts these solutions (with sign).256 CHAPTER 7.24 (Gauss-Bonnet). Deﬁnition 7. M ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 7. N having the same dimension n. Let F : M → N as above. oriented smooth manifolds M .22. ΓF is called the graph of F. Thus.3.21.3. then ω= N M F ∗ ω = 0. F (x)).18 deg F = deg F N δy = M ×N (1 × δy ) ∧ δΓF = M Γ∗ F (1 × δy ) = F ∗ δy . ⊔ ⊓ Note that the intersections of ΓF with M × {y } correspond to the solutions of the equation F (x) = y . COHOMOLOGY 7. Since N is connected all these cycles are cobordant so that the integer ΓF · (M × {y }) is independent of y . Remark 7.

and consider a smooth map F : M → M Regard H • (M ) as a superspace with the obvious Z2 -grading H • (M ) = H even (M ) ⊕ H odd (M ). otherwise deg(F. Hint: Use the polar decomposition A = P · O (where P is a positive symmetric matrix and O is an orthogonal one) to deform A inside GL(n. Let M denote a compact oriented manifold.3. For x ∈ F −1 (y ) deﬁne deg(F.27. R) to a diagonal matrix. 1. Prove that λ(F ) = ∆ · ΓF .28. N are smooth.e. Let M → N be a smooth map (M . we refer to the beautiful book of Milnor.25. for all x ∈ F −1 (y ) the derivative Dx F : Tx M → Ty N is invertible.3. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7.3. Show that if F0 is cobordant to F1 then deg F0 = deg F1 . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. based only on Sard’s theorem. Exercise 7. and deﬁne the Lefschetz number λ(F ) of F as the supertrace of the pull back F ∗ : H • (M ) → H • (M ). M1 .26. In particular. It deﬁnes a smooth map FA : S n−1 → S n−1 . ⊔ ⊓ . and deduce from this the Lefschetz ﬁxed point theorem: λ(F ) = 0 ⇒ F has a ﬁxed point. connected manifolds M0 . ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. i = 0. N ∈ M+ n and the smooth maps Fi : Mi → N . Dx F preserves orientations −1 .2.3.4.3.7.3. compact oriented of dimension n). Let A be a nonsingular n × n real matrix. Assume y ∈ N is a regular value of F . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. INTERSECTION THEORY 257 This corollary follows immediately from the considerations at the end of Subsection 4. Consider the compact. i. x → Ax . |Ax| Prove that deg FA = sign det A. x) = Prove that deg F = F (x)=y F 1 .. [74].29. For an elementary approach to degree theory. x). homotopic maps have the same degree.

4. oriented manifolds M . and any η ∈ Ω• (B ) such that deg ω + deg η = dim E. Ω• (M ) Ωdim M −• (M )∗ p∗ (ω ).30. If the standard ﬁber F is compact.3. then we can rewrite the above equality as DB p∗ (ω ). The integration along ﬁbers •−r = p∗ : Ω • (B ) cpt (E ) → Ω E/B satisﬁes p∗ dE = (−1)r dB p∗ .31.48 we deduce that for any ω ∈ Ω• (E ). is the pushforward morphism deﬁned by the embedding if .4. p∗ (η ) k so that.9 can be equivalently deﬁned by f∗ = π∗ ◦ (if )∗ . In this subsection we will extensively use the techniques of ﬁbered calculus described in Subsection 3.2. the Gysin map coincides with the pushforward (Gysin) map deﬁned in Remark 7. Remark 7.3. Using Proposition 3.4. η = DE ω. η =⇒ DB p∗ (ω ) = (p∗ )† DE ω. then the total space E is also compact. Let dim B = m and dim F = r . Denote by if the embedding of M in M × N as the graph of f M ∋ x → (x. so that it induces a map in cohomology • p∗ : Hcpt (E ) → H •−r (B ). Hence 1 ∗ † p∗ = D− B (p ) DE . p∗ η = (p∗ )† DE ω.45) with standard ﬁber F and compact. ⊔ ⊓ . N of dimensions m and respectively n. This induced map in cohomology is sometimes called the Gysin map.9. Show that the push-forward map f∗ : H • (M ) → H •+n−m (N ) deﬁned in Remark 7.258 CHAPTER 7. η κ = ω. COHOMOLOGY 7.2. in this case.3. f (x)) ∈ M × N.5. where π∗ : H • (M × N ) → H •−m (N ) denotes the integration along ﬁbers while (if )∗ : H • (M ) → H •+n (M × N ). The natural projection M × N → N allows us to regard M × N as a trivial ﬁber bundle over N .4 Thom isomorphism theorem Let p : E → B be an orientable ﬁber bundle (in the sense of Deﬁnition 3. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. Consider a smooth map f : M → N between compact. oriented basis B . we have If we denote by DM : → the Poincar´ e duality isomorphism on a compact oriented smooth manifold M . The total space E is a compact orientable manifold which we equip with the ﬁber-ﬁrst orientation.

If it admits at least one section. φ) is a k-cycle in F . and we conclude that that if F carries nontrivial cycles ker p∗ may not be trivial. Deﬁnition 7. Denote by δσ its Poincar´ e dual in Hcpt Using the properties of the integration along ﬁbers we deduce that. Note that τE ∈ Hcpt .3. Denote by τσ the map •+r (E ) ω → (−1)rm δσ ∧ p∗ ω = p∗ ω ∧ δσ . for any ω ∈ Ωm (B ). Any smooth section σ : B → E deﬁnes an r (E ). since p ◦ φ is constant. if (S. The simplest example of standard ﬁber with only trivial cycles is a vector space.32. then the Gysin map • p∗ : Hcpt (E ) → H •−r (B ) is surjective. For example. by Poincar´ e duality we get δσ ∧ p∗ ω = (−1)rm p∗ ω ∧ δσ ω.33. τσ : H • (B ) → Hcpt Then τσ is a right inverse for p∗ . Hence p∗ δS = 0. embedded cycle in E of dimension m = dim B .⊔ ⊓ dual of the cycle deﬁned by the zero section ζ0 : B → E . Indeed ω = (−1)rm p∗ δσ ∧ ω = (−1)rm p∗ (δσ ∧ p∗ ω ) = p∗ (τσ ω ). cycle in any ﬁber π −1 (b). denoted by τE is the Poincar´ e r (E ). then it deﬁnes a m+r −k (E ).7.3. ⊔ ⊓ The map p∗ is not injective in general. rank (E ) = r ). Proof. we have E δσ ∧ p∗ ω = δσ B E/B ω. Let p : E → B a bundle as above. INTERSECTION THEORY 259 Let us return to the ﬁber bundle p : E → B . and consequently in E . On the other hand. Denote by δS its Poincar´ e dual in Hcpt m − k Then for any ω ∈ Ω (B ) we have B (p∗ δS ) ∧ ω = E δS ∧ p∗ ω = ± φ∗ p∗ ω = D S (p ◦ φ)∗ ω = 0. The Thom class of E . Let p : E → B be an orientable vector bundle over the compact oriented manifold B (dim B = m. b → 0 ∈ Eb . B E E = (−1)rm Hence B σ ∗ p∗ ω = (−1)rm B (pσ )∗ ω = (−1)rm p∗ δσ = E/B δσ = (−1)rm ∈ Ω0 (B ).3. Proposition 7.

and denote by NS the normal bundle of the embedding S ֒→ M . β )). Then the map •+r (E ) ω → τE ∧ p∗ ω τ : H • (B ) → Hcpt is an isomorphism called the Thom isomorphism.e.5) ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. where i : S ֒→ M denotes the canonical inclusion. β ) ∈ Ω• cpt (E ). Prove the equality (7. ∗ rm . N H • (S ) ∋ ω −→ exp∗ δS ∧ π ∗ ω ∈ Hcpt •+(n−k ) •+(n−k ) (M ). Remark 7. Using the identiﬁcation between O and N we obtain a natural submersive projection π : N → S corresponding to the natural projection NS → S . Suppose M ∈ M+ n . i. ⊔ ⊓ → M is a compact. we will use Lemma 7. The exponential map deﬁned by the metric g deﬁnes a smooth map exp : NS → M.3. and S ֒ Fix a Riemann metric g on M . Proof.3. In more intuitive terms. k-dimensional manifold. τ p∗ = (−1)rm . For β ∈ Ω• cpt (E ) we have (p∗ p∗ τE ) ∧ β − τE ∧ (p∗ p∗ β ) = (−1)r d(m(τE . where ζ• : H • (M ) → Hcpt map deﬁned by a section ζ : M → E . oriented. π associates to each x ∈ N the unique point in S which closest to x.2 of Subsection 7. N is the Poincar´ Then exp∗ δS e dual of the cycle (S.3.5).34 (Thom isomorphism).3.260 CHAPTER 7. One can prove that the Gysin map i∗ : H • (S ) → Hcpt is given by. i).35. which induces a diffeomorphism from an open neighborhood O of S in NS . where ζ : S → NS denotes the N is a compactly supported form representing the Thom class zero section. we deduce where m(τE .3. We have already established that p∗ τ = (−1)rm . ⊔ ⊓ •+dim M (E ) is the push-forward Exercise 7. (7.2. and representing the Poincar´ e dual of (S. the orthogonal complement of T N in (T M )|S . ⊔ ⊓ . This shows that exp∗ δS of the normal bundle NS . to an open (tubular) N ∈ Ωn−k (M ) with compact support contained in neighborhood N of S in M . Since p p∗ τE = (−1) • (−1)rm β = (τE ∧ p∗ (p∗ β ) + exact form ⇒ (−1)rm β = τE ◦ p∗ (β ) in Hcpt (E ). Fix a closed form δS N.37.3. (M ). Show that τE = ζ∗ 1.36. To prove the reverse equality.1..2. ζ ) in NS . Its inverse is the Gysin map • (−1)rm p∗ : Hcpt (E ) → H •−r (B ). COHOMOLOGY Theorem 7. Let p : E → B as in the above deﬁnition.

3. smooth manifold M . Let E → M be a real orientable vector bundle over the compact. any such section σ : M → T M tautologically deﬁnes an n-dimensional cycle in T M . independent of the two sections.41. Exercise 7. Any two sections σ0 . In the proof we will use an equivalent description of χ(M ). M n (T M ) is the Thom class Proof. Then M e(M ) = σ0 · σ1 . smooth manifold M . e(T M ) is called the Euler class of M . M τM ∧ δζ0 = ∗ ζ0 τM = If dim M is odd then e(M ) = σ0 · σ1 = −σ1 · σ0 = − e(M ). ⊔ ⊓ Note that the sections of T M are precisely the vector ﬁelds on M . Let M be a compact oriented n-dimensional manifold. and it is denoted by e(M ). oriented. n (E ) the Thom class of E . In particular.39. Note ﬁrst the following fact. INTERSECTION THEORY 261 7. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 7. The Euler n-dimensional. and denote by e(M ) ∈ H n (M ) its Euler class. and in fact. n e(M ) = χ(M ) = M k =0 (−1)k bk (M ). σ1 are cobordant.38. σ1 : M → T M be two sections of T M .3. Then the integral of e(M ) over M is equal to the Euler characteristic of M.3. The section σ0 . any two such cycles are homotopic: try a homotopy. oriented. if dim M is odd then e(M ) = 0. σ1 : M → T M determine cycles of complementary dimension. e(E ) := ζ0 where ζ0 : M → E denotes the zero section. and their Poincar´ e dual in Hcpt τM . Denote by τE ∈ Hcpt class of E is deﬁned by ∗ τE ∈ H n (M ).5 Gauss-Bonnet revisited We now examine a very special type of vector bundle: the tangent bundle of a compact. Hence σ0 · σ1 = = TM TM δσ0 ∧ δσ1 = M TM τM ∧ τM e(M ).40. afﬁne along the ﬁbers of T M .3.7. Prove that M is orientable if and only if T M is orientable as a bundle. Moreover. Let σ0 . and thus the intersection number σ0 · σ1 is a well deﬁned integer. . M M ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 7.3.3. Proposition 7. It is a number reﬂecting the topological structure of the manifold.

Consider a basis (ωj ) of H • (M ) consisting of homogeneous elements. ∀i.. j mod 2. we have δM = i κ i = δj . We now have the following remarkable result. n (M × M ) the Poincar´ Proof. i (−1)|ω | ω i × ωi . j.2). taking into account that |ωj | + |ω j | · |ωj | ≡ n|ωj | (mod 2).j (−1)|ω i |+n·|ω j| = (−1)|ω i |+n·|ω j| (−1)|ωi |·|ωj | ω i . Then χ(M ) = ∆ · ∆.j M ×M M ×M i (−1) |ω i | ω i × ωi ∧ j (−1)n|ωj | ωj × ω j = M ×M i.50 we deduce ∆·∆= δM ∧ δM = i.e.41 The tangent bundle of M × M restricts to the diagonal ∆ as a rank 2n vector bundle. COHOMOLOGY Lemma 7. i ⊔ ⊓ Proof of theorem 7. ωj According to (7. ω j κ . so. |ω i | + n|ωi | + |ωi |2 + |ωi | · |ω i | ≡ |ω i | mod 2. .3. Denote by δ M ∈ Hcpt e dual of ∆. (−1)|ω | = χ(M ). ω j and the congruences n≡0 to conclude that ∆·∆= ωi κ j = (−1)|ωi |·|ω | δi . i. The diagonal map M → M × M identiﬁes M with ∆ so that T ∆ ∼ = T M . We denote by (ω i ) the dual basis. then its dual basis is i |·|ω i| Similarly.3. ωj (−1)|ωi |·|ωj | ω i ∧ ωj × ωi × ω j κ ωi . if we start ﬁrst with the basis (ω i ). ω i . we also have δM = i (−1)n·|ωj | ωj × ω j . In the last expression we now use the duality equations ωi .42.3. Using Exercise 7.1. Denote by ∆ the diagonal cycle ∆ ∈ Hn (M × M ). (−1)|ω ωi .262 CHAPTER 7. If we choose a Riemann metric on M × M then we get an orthogonal splitting T (M × M ) |∆ = N∆ ⊕ T ∆.

3. Denote U the Poincar´ U ∈ H n (U). which in view of (7. M ⊔ ⊓ If M is a connected sum of g tori then we can rephrase the Gauss-Bonnet theorem as follows. Proof Use the isomorphisms T (M × M ) |∆ ∼ = T ∆ ⊕ N∆ ∼ = T M ⊕ N∆ and T (M × M ) |∆ = T M ⊕ T M.44.3. Regard ∆ as a submanifold in N∆ via the embedding given by the zero section. Corollary 7.7. U is the Thom class of the bundle N The cohomology class δ∆ ∆ → ∆. 2π 4π ⊔ ⊓ .3. M U ∆ ∆ M Hence e(M ) = χ(M ). and by δ N the Poincar´ e dual of ∆ in N.6) U means that δ∆ = τN∆ = τM .3. Denote by exp the exponential map of a Riemann metric g on M × M . Then there exists an open neighborhood U of ∆ ⊂ N∆ ⊂ T (M × M ) such that exp |U : U → M × M is an embedding. ⊔ ⊓ Let U be a neighborhood of ∆ ⊂ N∆ as in the above lemma.3.3. We get U U δ∆ ∧ δ∆ = U δ∆ = ∗ ζ0 τ N∆ = ∗ ζ0 τM = e(M ). N∆ ∼ = T M. 263 ⊔ ⊓ (7.43. Then U U U δ∆ ∧ δ∆ = N N N δ∆ ∧ δ∆ = M ×M δ M ∧ δ M = χ(M ). For any Riemann metric h on a connected sum of g-tori Σg we have 1 1 ε(h) = sh dvh = e(Σg ) in H ∗ (Σg ). and set N := exp(U). Lemma 7.45. by δ∆ e dual of ∆ in U.6) At this point we want to invoke a technical result whose proof is left to the reader as an exercise in Riemann geometry. From this lemma we immediately deduce the equality of Thom classes τ N∆ = τ M . INTERSECTION THEORY Lemma 7. δ∆ cpt ∆ N n δ∆ ∈ Hcpt(N).

the result is known as Gauss-Bonnet-Chern. . ΓX = {(x. ⊔ ⊓ .46. In other words. X (x)) ∈ Tx M . Prove that the local intersection number of ΓX with M at x0 is given by ix0 (ΓX . Let X be a vector ﬁeld over the compact oriented manifold M . ∗ M is given by dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ for some local coordinates (xi ) near x0 such that the orientation of Tx 0 n dx . A point x ∈ M is said to be a non-degenerate zero of X if X (0) = 0 and det ∂Xi ∂xj |x=x0 = 0.47. Corollary 7. . If χ(M ) = 0 then the tangent bundle T M is nontrivial. the Euler characteristic counts (with sign) the zeroes of the vector ﬁelds on M .264 CHAPTER 7. oriented. ⊔ ⊓ The equality χ(S 2n ) = 2 is particularly relevant in the vector ﬁeld problem discussed in Subsection 2.3. x ∈ M }. xk .3. .3. For example if χ(M ) = 0 this means that any vector ﬁeld on M must have a zero ! We have thus proved the following result. Using the notations of that subsection we can write v (S 2n ) = 0. Corollary 7. then χ(M ) = j i(X. Given a smooth vector ﬁeld X on M . once we choose a metric. xj ). oriented manifold M . where we regard M as a submanifold in T M via the embedding given by the zero section. We now have a new interpretation of the Euler characteristic of a compact oriented manifold M. even-dimensional Riemann manifold. x0 ). and we will have more to say about it in the next two chapters. ⊔ ⊓ This is sometimes called the local index of X at x0 . If X is a vector ﬁeld along a compact. The same is true for any compact. with only non-degenerated zeros x1 . we can explicitly describe a representative of the Euler class in terms of the Riemann curvature. Exercise 7. COHOMOLOGY The remarkable feature of the Gauss-Bonnet theorem is that.1.48 (Poincar´ e-Hopf). M ) = sign det ∂Xi ∂xj |x=x0 . In this generality. is an n-dimensional submanifold of T M . From the above exercise we deduce the following celebrated result.4. The Euler characteristic is then the intersection number χ(M ) = ΓX · M. We have thus solved “half” the vector ﬁeld problem. . and it is denoted by i(X. its “graph” in T M .

2. (b) Consider Fr : Sr → S n−1 deﬁned by Fr (x) = 1 X (x). g · x = x}. (a) prove that for all r > 0 sufﬁciently small X has no zeros on Sr = {|x| = r }. the map Ψm : G ∋ g → g · m ∈ M is surjective. and H a closed subgroup.4. G/H := g · H. Fact 2. on a smooth manifold M G × M → M (g. Let M be a homogeneous space with symmetry group G and x. 7.2. They are smooth submanifolds of the symmetry group. ⊔ ⊓ Recall that a smooth left action of a Lie group G.4. |X (x)| ⊔ ⊓ Prove that i(X. for any m ∈ M . the isotropy groups Ix of a homogeneous space are all Lie groups. Let G be a Lie group.4.4. A homogeneous space is a smooth manifold M acted transitively by a Lie group G called the symmetry group. In particular. choose g ∈ G such that y = g · x. 0) = deg Fr for all r > 0 sufﬁciently small. Proof. 7.3.1. g ∈ G .4. Then the space of left cosets.7. . For proofs we refer to [44. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. 96]. Fact 1. We devote this section to a more in depth investigation of the correlation symmetry-topology. Then note that Iy = gIx g−1 . Lemma 7.4 Symmetry and topology The symmetry properties of a manifold have a great impact on its global (topological) structure. (a) is immediate. y ∈ M . Hint: Deform X to a linear vector ﬁeld. SYMMETRY AND TOPOLOGY 265 Exercise 7. Let X be a vector ﬁeld on Rn and having a non-degenerate zero at the origin. is called transitive if. Any closed subgroup of a Lie group is also a Lie group (see Remark 1. For any point x of a homogeneous space M we deﬁne the isotropy group at x by Ix = {g ∈ G .29). To prove (b). (b) Ix ∼ = Iy .3. m) → g · m. Then (a) Ix is a closed subgroup of G.1 Symmetric spaces Deﬁnition 7.49. It is worth mentioning some fundamental results in the theory of Lie groups which will shed a new light on the considerations of this section.

G. ∀m. i) satisfying the following conditions. including a proof of the equivalence of the two descriptions. (a) (M.. (c2) σm ◦ σm = ½M . ⊔ ⊓ .266 can be given a smooth structure such that the map G × (G/H ) → G/H (g1 . a Riemann manifold (M. such that φ(g · y ) = g · φ(y ). Fact 3. The manifold G/H becomes a homogeneous space with symmetry group G. im : G → G is a homomorphism of G. and certainly it is not the minimal one. σ. We refer to [44. We will be mainly interested in a very special class of homogeneous spaces. ∀(m.4. This may not be the most elegant deﬁnition of a symmetric space. and σm (m) = m. (d3) igm = gim g−1 .4. −1 (x) = σ gσ (x) = i (g ) · x. m) → g · m ∈ M. If M is a homogeneous space with symmetry group G.e. (d2) im ◦ im = 1G . h) is a Riemann manifold. As a matter of fact. then M is equivariantly diffeomorphic to G/Ix . (e) σm gσm m m m ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. there exists a diffeomorphism φ : M → G/Ix . and x ∈ M . Our deﬁnition has one academic advantage: it lists all the properties we need to establish the topological results of this section. (c3) Dσm |Tm M = −½Tm M . (c1) ∀m ∈ M σm : M → M is an isometry. h. (d1) ∀m ∈ M . g2 H ) → (g1 g2 ) · H Cohomology is smooth. 50] for an extensive presentation of this subject. (b) G is a connected Lie group acting isometrically and transitively on M G × M ∋ (g. (c4) σgm = gσm g−1 .5. (c) σ : M × M → M is a smooth map (m1 .4. All the isotropy groups subgroups of G conjugate to H . (d) i : M × G → G. g ∈ G. x ∈ M . g) → im g is a smooth map such that the following hold. Deﬁnition 7. g) ∈ M × G. i. A symmetric space is a collection of data (M. g) is a symmetric space if and only if there exists a smooth map σ : M × M → M satisfying the conditions (c1). (m.(c2) and (c3). m2 ) → σm1 (m2 ) such that the following hold.

and g0 is U (n)-invariant. Let (M.6. via the map which associates to each complex subspace S .4. g2 ) · h = g1 hg2 . Let G be a connected Lie group and m a bi-invariant Riemann metric on G. it describes the geometric signiﬁcance of the family of involutions σm . We thus get an entire family of involutions σ : M × M → M. and isometrically on M . 2 = 2. The symmetry group is G × G. Note that RS ∈ U (n).4. Note that U (n) ⋆M = M . gg2 g−1 ). ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. We leave the reader to check that these data do indeed deﬁne a symmetric space structure on (G. We then set im (T ) = σm T σm reader check that σ and i satisfy all the required axioms.4. Show that σm γ (t) = γ (−t). ∀T ∈ SO (n + 1).4. (PS1 . Deﬁne σ : G × G → G σg h = gh−1 g−1 and i : G × (G × G) → G × G ig (g1 . In particular. PS2 ) → RS1 ⋆ PS2 .20 we described Grk (Cn ) as a submanifold of End+ (V ) – the linear space of selfadjoint n × n complex matrices.7.9. h) be a symmetric space. and let γ (t) be a geodesic of M such that γ (0) = m. This action is clearly transitive and since m is bi-invariant its is also isometric. The unitary group U (n) acts on End (Cn ) by conjugation.Symmetry and topology 267 The next exercise offers the reader a feeling of what symmetric spaces are all about.2. U (n) × End+ (Cn ) ∋ (T. The symmetry group is SO(n +1). Recall that in Example 1. .8. m). It descends to an involution of M . Thus U (n) acts transitively. and RS + The map A → RS ⋆ A is an involution of End (Cn ). ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. g2 ) = (gg1 g −1 . Exercise 7. A) −→ T ⋆ A := T AT ∗ . ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. We let the determined by the radius Om. (b) Fix m ∈ M . For each subspace S ∈ M deﬁne RS := PS − PS ⊥ = 2PS − 1. The operator RS is the orthogonal reﬂection through S ⊥ . For each m ∈ S n+1 we denote by σm the orthogonal reﬂection through the 1-dimensional space −1 . the group of orientation preserving “rotations” of Rn+1 . (a) Prove that ∇R = 0. the orthogononal projection PS : Cn → Cn onto S . The direct product G × G acts on G by −1 (g1 . Denote by ∇ the Levi-Civita connection. B ) = 2 + Riemann metric g on M . Perhaps the most popular example of symmetric space is the round sphere S n ⊂ Rn+1 . and by R the Riemann curvature tensor. Consider the complex Grassmannian M = Grk (Cn ). 1 Re tr (AB ∗ ) that restricts to a The linear space End+ (Cn ) has a natural metric g0 (A.

Choose r > 0 sufﬁciently small so that the map exp : Dr = |X |m = r .4. αj = 1. Denote by dVG (g) the normalized bi-invariant volume form on G. Set Br = exp Dr .13.12.4. The form ω is obviously closed so we only need to prove it is cohomologous to ω . gm ∈ G such that m G= j =1 Bj . ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7. Proof.11. Cohomology We leave the reader to check that the above collection of data deﬁnes a symmetric space structure on Grk (Cn ). Let M be a compact homogeneous space with compact.. For any form ω ∈ Ω∗ (M ) we deﬁne its G-average by ω= G ℓ∗ g ω dVG (g ). Then any cohomology class of M can be represented by a (not necessarily unique) invariant form. where we denoted by • • ℓ∗ g : Ω (M ) → Ω (M ) the pullback deﬁned by the left action by g: m → g · m. The form ω is an invariant form on M .268 Deﬁne i : M × U (n) → U (n). 0 ≤ αj ≤ 1. . Lemma 7. i. We can select ﬁnitely many g1 . iS T = RS T RS . the exponential map exp : LG → G X → exp(tX ) is surjective.4. Fill in the details left out in the above example. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. If ω is a closed form on M then ω is closed and cohomologous to ω . Bj := gj Br . . Proof.2 Symmetry and cohomology Deﬁnition 7. Let M be a homogeneous space with symmetry group G.e.10. Consider a bi-invariant Riemann metric m on G. Since G is connected. . Now pick a partition of unity (αj ) ⊂ C ∞ (G) subordinated to the cover (Bj ).4. A differential form ω ∈ Ω∗ (M ) is said to be (left) invariant if ℓ∗ g ω = ω ∀g ∈ G. . X ∈ LG →G is an embedding.4. j . supp αj ⊂ Bj . connected symmetry group G. ⊔ ⊓ 7. The proposition is a consequence of the following result.

. Note that ω= j Tj ω and dTj ω = Tj dω. We denote by Xg its inﬁnitesimal generator. This concludes Step 1. m) → Ψs (m) = gs (m) deﬁnes a local ﬂow on M . j Since the volume of G is normalized to 1. for all g ∈ G. ∗ Step 1.4. Then Us ω = Tj. consider φj.t : Bj → G deﬁned as the composition Bj −→ Br −→ Dr −→ Dtr −→ Btr ֒→ G. Tj = aj ½H ∗ (M ) . To verify this claim set t := es . ℓ∗ g = ½ on H (M ). It induces a morphism in cohomology which we continue to denote by Tj .t (t) ω dVG (g ) = Tj φj. −1 gj exp−1 t·− exp gj (7.t ω. . and j = 1. Each Tj is thus a cochain morphism. Step 2. .0 is cochain homotopic to Tj.1 . 1]. For any αj (g)ℓ∗ g ω dVG (g ). −∞ < s ≤ 0 and gs = exp(es exp−1 (g)) ∀g ∈ Br . .t ω = G ∗ αj (g)ℓ∗ φj. Deﬁne Tj. m deﬁne Tj : Ω∗ (M ) → Ω∗ (M ) by Tj ω := G αj = 1. Deﬁne f : I × M → M ft (m) := exp(tX ) · m = ℓexp(tX ) m.Symmetry and topology Set aj := G 269 αj dVG (g).t : Ω∗ (M ) → Ω∗ (M ) by Tj. For each g ∈ Br the map (s. we deduce that j aj = 1. Then d (Us ω ) = ds = Br ∗ αj (gj g)LXg ℓ∗ gs ℓgj ω dVG (g ) Br ∗ αj (gj g)(dM iXg + iXg dM )(ℓ∗ gs ℓgj ω ) dVG (g ). For t ∈ [0. Let X ∈ LG such that g = exp X .es ω = Br def αj (gj g)ℓ∗ gj gs ω = Br ∗ α(gj g)ℓ∗ gs ℓgj ω dVG (g ). The map f is a homotopy connecting ½M with ℓ∗ g .1) We claim that Tj. The proof of the lemma will be completed in several steps. .

h) be an. dω ˆ = (−1)k dω on M . (a) Every invariant form on M is closed. oriented symmetric space with symmetry group G.0 ω − Tj.e. In particular. and dω are both invariant and. ⊔ ⊓ The proposition we have just proved has a greater impact when M is a symmetric space. The last two inequalities imply dω = 0. Then the following are true. then the only invariant form cohomologous to zero is the trivial one. i. ∗ dω = dω . Let (M. Tj. Step 2 is completed. we deduce Tj. The lemma and hence the proposition follow from the equality ½H ∗ (M ) = j aj ½H ∗ (M ) = j Tj = G − average.1 ω = U−∞ ω − U0 ω Br ∗ αj (gj g)(diXg + iXg d)(ℓ∗ gs ℓgj ω ) dVG (g ) ds. ∀g ∈ G ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ℓ∗ ˆ = ℓ∗ ˆ.4. Denote by ∗ the Hodge ∗operator corresponding to the invariant metric h.1 ω = Tj ω . Taking into account Step 1.0 ω = Bj αj (g)dVG (g) = aj ℓ ∗ gj ω. we deduce that. ω = dα. at m0 ∈ M . arguing as above. More precisely 0 {χ(ω )} |x∈M := − Now notice that −∞ Br ∗ αj (gj g) iXg ℓ∗ gs ℓgj ω |x dVG (g ) ds. ∗ ω . Fix m0 ∈ M and set ω ˆ = σm ˆ is 0 invariant. 0 Cohomology Tj. From the above formula we immediately read a cochain homotopy χ : Ω• (M ) → Ω•−1 (M ) connecting U−∞ to U0 . Since G acts by isometries.270 Consequently. (a) Consider an invariant k-form ω . Both ω and ω ˆ are G-invariant.0 = aj · ½. We claim ω Proof.14. we The (k + 1)-forms dω ˆ = σm 0 deduce dω ˆ = dω = (−1)k+1 dω. we have ω ˆ = (−1)k ω . =− −∞ (An argument entirely similar to the one we used in the proof of the Poincar´ e lemma shows that the above improper integral is pointwise convergent). Indeed. gω g σm0 ω = (σm0 g ) ω = (gig σm0 g ) ω = σm0 ℓi(g ) ω = σm0 ω = ω Since Dσm0 |Tm0 M = −½Tm0 M . (b) If moreover M is compact. Invoking the transitivity of the G-action we conclude that ω ˆ = (−1)k ω on M. (b) Let ω be an invariant form cohomologous to zero. and we deduce that the above equality holds at any point m = g · m0 . Proposition 7. while Tj. the form η = ∗ω is .

Corollary 7. We deduce the following result. ⊔ ⊓ . where Λinv LG denotes the algebra of bi• invariant forms on G.4.11 we deduce the following consequence. • Corollary 7.15 (E. so that dη = 0. and denote by LG its Lie algebra. and (right-invariance) (LX0 ω )(X1 .12 and the above theorem we deduce the following celebrated result of ´ Cartan ([20]) Elie ´ Cartan). in computing its cohomology. Let (M. and use Stokes theorem to get M ω ∧ ∗ω = M dα∧ = ± M α ∧ dη = 0. Then the cohomology algebra H ∗ (M ) of M is isomorphic with the graded algebra Ω∗ ⊔ ⊓ inv (M ) of invariant forms on M . while H (LG ) denotes the Lie algebra cohomology introduced in Example 7. since H 1 (LG ) = 0 we deduce (see Exercise 7. X1 ]. connected Lie group G. ⊔ ⊓ ω ([X0 .12. X2 ) − ω ([X0 .11) LG = [LG . h) be a compact. ⊔ ⊓ This forces ω ≡ 0.3 The cohomology of compact Lie groups Consider a compact. X2 ∈ LG .4. it sufﬁces to restrict our considerations to the subcomplex consisting of left invariant forms. X2 ) = 0 ∀X0 .4. X1 ].Symmetry and topology 271 also invariant. Thus On the other hand. X2 ) = 0 ∀X0 ∈ LG ⇐⇒ ω ([X0 . X2 ]. We can now integrate (M is compact). X1 . Then H 2 (G) = 0.1. X2 ]. 7. oriented symmetric space with compact. X0 ) = 0.4.18. X2 ]. connected symmetry group G.16.4. LG ]. so that the last equality can be rephrased as ω (X. Corollary 7.4. X2 ) − ω ([X0 . Y ) = 0 ∀X. dω = 0 ⇐⇒ ω ([X0 . X1 ) = 0.10.4. A closed bi-invariant 2-form ω on G is uniquely deﬁned by its restriction to LG . H • (G) ∼ = H • (LG ) ∼ = Λ• inv LG . This can be identiﬁed with the exterior algebra Λ• L∗ G . Proposition 7. X1 ) + ω ([X1 . If G is a compact semisimple Lie group then H 1 (G) = 0. and satisﬁes the following conditions. In the coming subsections we will apply this result to the symmetric spaces discussed in the previous subsection: the Lie groups and the complex Grassmannians. Y ∈ LG . X1 ].1. Proof.17. According to Proposition 7. From Proposition 7. Let G be a compact semisimple Lie group. ⊔ ⊓ Using the Exercise 7.1.

bi-invariant 3-form on a Lie group G. Exercise 7. (c) Prove that the eigenspaces of A are ideals of LG .21. Z ) = κ([X. Moreover. where α denotes the Cartan form. ⊔ ⊓ 7. T ]) = ω ([X. [Z.13).4.4. Prove that a simple Lie algebra is necessarily semi-simple. Y. Y ]. Y. Z ) = ηX ([Y. (a) Prove that for any X ∈ LG there exists a unique left-invariant form ηX ∈ Ω1 (G) such that (iX ω )(Y. A Lie group is called simple if its Lie algebra is simple. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7. Exercise 7. bi-invariant 3-form on a compact. The proof of the proposition is contained in the following sequence of exercises. Y. T ∈ LG . Use this to prove Proposition 7. Compute α and SU (2) SO (3) ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ α. the Grassmannian Grk (Cn ) is a symmetric space with symmetry group U (n).19. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7.1. A Lie algebra is called simple if it has no nontrivial ideals. Z.24. Hint: Use H 1 (G) = H 2 (G) = 0. the orientability of Grk (Cn ) is a consequence of the following fact. Then ω (X.2. Z ]). Let G be a compact. simple Lie group. Exercise 3. As we have seen in the previous subsection.4. Y ]. Prove that SU (n) and SO(m) are simple.4. where κ denotes the Killing pairing.61 and the double cover SU (2) → SO(3) described in the Subsection 6. Moreover. (These groups are oriented by their Cartan forms. Z ).4.23. Exercise 7. It is a complex manifold so that it is orientable (cf.4. H 3 (G) is generated by the Cartan form α(X. Z.4. Y ) = ηX (Y ).4 Invariant forms on Grassmannians and Weyl’s integral formula We will use the results of Subsection 7.20.4.4.272 Cohomology Deﬁnition 7. Then H 3 (G) ∼ = R. Let ω be a closed.21. .2 to compute the Poincar´ e polynomial of the complex Grassmannian Grk (Cn ). Pay very much attention to the various constants. Prove that A is selfadjoint with respect to the Killing metric. T ) ∀X. (b) Denote by A the linear operator LG → LG deﬁned by κ(AX.1. Alternatively.22.4. semisimple Lie group. the correspondence X → ηX is linear.) Hint: Use the computation in the Exercise 4. Let ω be a closed. Set ℓ = n − k. Exercise 7.25.4.

These forms are completely determined by their values at a particular point in the Grassmannian.4. If M is a homogeneous space with connected isotropy groups. eiθk ) ∈ U (k) . The isotropy of S0 is the group H = U (k) × U (ℓ).2) where dVH denotes the normalized bi-invariant volume form on H . Weyl.27. h) → C g (h) = ghg −1 . . We choose this point to correspond to the subspace S0 determined by the canonical inclusion Ck ֒→ Cn . Inside H sits the maximal torus T = Tk × Tℓ .4. the above formula may look hopelessly complicated. i.10) of Subsection 3. any H -invariant element of Λ• V0∗ extends via the transitive action of U (n) to an • ∗ invariant form on Grk (Cn ). We have thus established the following result. At this point.4 we deduce Pk. . Denote by Λ• inv the space of H -invariant elements of Λ V0 . Fortunately. Proposition 7. Each h ∈ U (k) × U (ℓ) is conjugate to diagonal unitary matrix. and Tℓ = {diag (eiφ1 . h ∈ H . Conversely. Using the equality (3. ∀g.26. where Tk = diag (eiθ1 . i. There exists an isomorphism of graded R-algebras: H • (Grk (Cn )) ∼ = Λ• inv . Denote the action of H on V0 by H ∋ h → Th ∈ Aut (V0 ). The group H acts linearly on the tangent space V0 = TS0 Grk (Cn ). We can rephrase this fact in terms of the conjugation action of H on itself C : H × H → H (g. . then M is orientable. Λ• inv ⊗ C Pk. . then its restriction to V0 is an H invariant skew-symmetric. .4. multilinear map V0 × · · · × V0 → R . .4.. . ϕ(ghg−1 ) = ϕ(h).Symmetry and topology 273 Exercise 7. If ω is an U (n)-invariant form. there exists g ∈ H such that ghg −1 ∈ T.4.e.e. ⊔ ⊓ We have to describe the U (n)-invariant forms on Grk (Cn ).ℓ (t) = j tj dimC Λj inv ⊗ C = PGrk (Cn ) (t). (7. Note ﬁrst that the function H ∋ h → ϕ(h) = | det(½V0 + tTh )|2 is a class function. .ℓ (t) = H | det(½V0 + tTh )|2 dVH (h). eiφℓ ) ∈ U (ℓ)}.. ⊔ ⊓ We want to determine the Poincar´ e polynomial of the complexiﬁed Z-graded space. . it can be dramatically simpliﬁed using a truly remarkable idea of H.

. . . θ k ) = 1≤i<j ≤n (eiθ − eiθ ).274 Cohomology The class functions are constant along the orbits of this conjugation action. = 1 s kj j =1 (2π ) kj ! ϕ(θ 1 .28 (Weyl’s integration formula).2) as an integral over T. . . . . Deﬁne ∆k : Tk → C by ∆k (θ 1 . Y ) := Re tr(XY ∗ ). . i j i= √ −1. k . 1 dθ j := dθj ∧ · · · ∧ dθj j . Consider a class function ϕ on the group G = U (k1 ) × · · · × U (ks ). . s. θ s ) T j =1 |∆kj (θ j )|2 dθ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ dθ s Above. We denote by dvk the volume form induced by this metric. θ s ) T s j =1 |∆kj (θ j )|2 dθ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ dθ s . . a class function is completely determined by its restriction to the maximal torus. then m(X. . Hence. and each such orbit intersects the maximal torus T. On the unitary group U (k) we ﬁx the bi-invariant metric m = mk such that at T1 U (k) we have m(X. . k while dθ j denotes the bi-invariant volume on Tkj . Y ) = Re i. . . 1 θ j := (θj .4. . Proposition 7. Then 1 V ϕ(g)dg = G 1 s vol( T) k ! j =1 j 1 s ϕ(θ 1 . If we think of X. . In other words. . This is achieved in a very explicit manner by the next result. Y as k × k matrices. we denoted by θ j the angular coordinates on Tkj . . θj j ). . . it is reasonable to expect that we ought to be able to describe the integral in (7. and by V the volume of G. and by Vk the total volume Vk := U (k ) dvk . for every j = 1.4. V = Vk1 · · · Vks . denote by dg the volume form dg = dvk1 ∧ · · · dvks .j xij y ¯ij .

ωϕ = G 1 k! T×G/T q ∗ ωϕ ∀ω. We have a m-orthogonal splitting of the Lie algebra LG LG = LT ⊕ L⊥ G. In this concrete case.4. Ad can be given the explicit description Adg (X ) = gXg −1 . The orientation on LG/T will be determined by the condition or(LG ) = or (LT ) ∧ or (LG/T ). an orientation in one of the tangent spaces of G/T “spreads” via the action of G to an orientation of the entire manifold. The proof of Weyl’s integration formula will be carried out in three steps. . Consider the homogeneous space G/T. Step 1. Thus. LG/T instead of L⊥ T Fix x ∈ G/T. θ k ). then Lg and Lh differ by an element in the stabilizer of x ∈ G/T. G = U (k) and T = Tk . The general situation is entirely similar. Moreover. Hence. Proof of Proposition 7. In this case. and we orient LT using the form dθ = dθ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ dθ k .30. −1 −1 Note that if g1 T = g2 T. X ∈ u(k). and go directly to Subsection 7. Thus.28 To keep the main ideas as transparent as possible. see Example 3. The tangent space to G/T at 1 · T ∈ G/T can be identiﬁed with L⊥ T . . For this reason we will write . This stabilizer is isomorphic to T. . and in particular it is connected. The reader may skip this part at the ﬁrst lecture. the volume form dg is the volume form associated to metric mk . then g1 tg1 = g1 tg2 . if gx = hx = y . . We ﬁx an orientation on LG . To any class function ϕ : G → C we associate the complex valued differential form ωϕ := ϕ(g)dg.4. We denote by Ad : G → Aut(LG ) the adjoint representation of G. . if ω ∈ det Tx G/T.4. we can orient G/T by ﬁxing an orientation on LG/T . Denote the angular coordinates θ on T by θ = (θ 1 . so the map q is well deﬁned. The restriction of the metric m to T is described in these coordinates by m|T = (dθ 1 )2 + · · · + (dθ k )2 . gT ) = gtg −1 . and the smooth map q : T × G/T → G (t. we will consider only the case s = 1. Any g ∈ G deﬁnes a linear map Lg : Tx G/T → Tgx G/T.5 where this formula is used to produce an explicit description of the Poincar´ e polynomial of a complex Grassmannian. ∀g ∈ U (k).Symmetry and topology 275 The remainder of this subsection is devoted to the proof of this proposition. then Lg ω ∈ det Ty G/T and Lh ω ∈ det Ty G/T deﬁne the same orientation of Ty G/T. In other words.

. Since (τ n ) is dense in T. ⊔ ⊓ α Lemma 7.30.) 1 k g ∈ G . For the sake of clarity.4. This is a pompous rephrasing of the classical statement in linear algebra that two unitary matrices are similar if and only if they have the same spectrum. ⊔ ⊓ q (s. Let α1 . . .276 Cohomology Step 2. i. Proof. In particular. It deﬁnes a left-invariant volume form dµ on G/T.4. .29. we deduce gT g−1 ⊂ T ⇒ g ∈ N (T). ωϕ = k! G Step 3. . Lemma 7. 1 k k Set τ := (exp(iα ). We prove that there exists a positive constant Ck such that for any class function ϕ on G we have q ∗ ωϕ = Ck ϕ(θ )|∆k (θ )|2 dθ . . g ∈ N (T) . gT ) ∈ T × G/T . Observe that the volume form on T induced by the metric m is precisely dθ = θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ dθ k . G q ∗ ωϕ = deg q so it sufﬁces to compute the degree of q .31. . The Weyl group W is isomorphic to the group Sk of permutations of k symbols. Then the sequence (τ n )n∈Z is dense in Tk . . N (T) = and then form the Weyl group W := N (T)/T. (The element τ is said to be a generator of Tk . Lemma 7.. 2π are linearly independent over Q.4. this corresponds to a reordering of an orthonormal basis. . . . any permutation of the entries of a diagonal matrix can be achieved by a conjugation. gτ n g −1 = sn ∈ T. (g−1 τ g. multiplicities included. Let τ ∈ Tk ⊂ G be a generator of Tk . Proof. exp(iα )) ∈ T . g T g −1 ⊂ T . Denote by N (T) the normalizer of T in G. . gT ) = τ ⇐⇒ gsg −1 = τ ⇐⇒ gτ g −1 = s ∈ T. Hence q −1 (τ ) = and thus q −1 (τ ) has the same cardinality as the Weyl group W. αk ) ∈ Rk such that 1. Geometrically.e. The adjoint action of N (T) on T= diagonal unitary matrices simply permutes the entries of a diagonal unitary matrix. Conversely. ∀n ∈ Z. The metric m on LG/T extends to a G-invariant metric on G/T. α 2π . We use the equality T×G/T Vk Vk = vol (T) (2π )k ωϕ . . We prove that T×G/T T Ck = Step 1. This action descends to an action on the quotient W so that W ⊂ Sk . Then q −1 (τ ) ⊂ T × G/T consists of |W| = k! points. we defer the proof of this lemma to the end of this subsection.

Xjj = 0 ∀j = 1.4.4. g0 T) ∈ T × G/T. . = 1 + s g0 t− 0 Y t0 g0 + g0 Xg0 − g0 Y g0 Hence. they are exp(−i(θi − θj )) . Now observe that LG/T = L⊥ T is equal to X ∈ u(k) . can be rewritten as or. Hence. Y ∈ LG/T . since G = U (k) is connected. q ∗ dg = |∆k (θ )|2 dθ ∧ dµ. The linear operator Adg is an m-orthogonal endomorphism of LG . In particular. For every real number s consider −1 hs = q t0 exp(sX ) . Fix a point x0 = (t0 . exp(iθ k )) ∈ Tk ⊂ U (k). We want to describe d 1 |s=0 h− 0 hs ∈ T1 G = LG .32 shows that q is an orientation preserving map. ∀σ ∈ q −1 (τ ). . . 1 ≤ i = j ≤ k . any generator τ of Tk ⊂ G is a regular value of q since ∆k (σ ) = 0. Dx0 q = Adg0 Dx0 q (X ⊕ Y ) = Adg0 (Adt−1 − ½)Y + Adg0 X. More precisely. in block form. so that det Adg = ±1. .3. Fix X ∈ LT . and exp(sY ) = 1 + sY + O(s2 ). Using Lemma 7. . Proof. 0 ½LT 0 0 Adt−1 − ½LG/T 0 . .4. k ⊂ u(k) = LG . . On the other hand. Consequently det Dx0 q = det(Adt−1 − 1) = |∆k (t)|2 . . ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 7. We can identify Tx0 (T × G/T) with LT ⊕ LG/T using the isometric action of T × G on T × G/T. ds Using the Taylor expansions exp(sX ) = 1 + sX + O(s2 ). g0 exp(sY )T = g0 exp(sY )t0 exp(sX ) exp(−sY )g0 ∈ G. Given t = diag (exp(iθ 1 ).Symmetry and topology 277 Lemma 7.31 and Exercise 7. det Dx0 q = det(Adt−1 − ½LG/T ).32. we deduce 1 −1 −1 2 h− 0 hs = g0 t0 (1 + sY )t0 (1 + sX )(1 − sY )g0 + O (s ) 1 −1 −1 −1 + O(s2 ). det Adg = det Ad1 = 1. the differential Dx0 : Tx0 (T × G/T) ∼ = LT ⊕ LG/T → LT ⊕ LG/T ∼ = LG .27 we deduce deg q = |W| = k!. we can explicitly compute the eigenvalues of Adt−1 acting on LG/T . Step 1 is completed. .

so that ωϕ = dvk . and by eσ (θ ) the trigonometric monomial eσ (θ ) = eσ (θ . . k } we denoted by ǫ(σ ) its signature. where. we have to show that ∆k (θ )dθ = k!vol (T) = (2π )k k!. .30 We follow Weyl’s original approach ([97.4. that is. ⊔ ⊓ This completes the proof of Weyl’s integration formula. we deduce ωϕ = G Cohomology 1 k! dµ G/T =:Ck Tk ϕ(θ )∆k (θ )dθ. Tk Vk k ! . . . for any permutation σ of {1. . ei(k−1)θ 1 ei(k−1)θ 2 ··· ei(k−1)θ k This shows that we can write ∆k as a trigonometric polynomial ∆k (θ ) = σ∈Sk ǫ(σ )eσ (θ ). . . More precisely. The monomials eσ are orthogonal with respect to the L2 -metric on Tk . We deduce Vk = so that Ck = Thus. 98]) in a modern presentation. θ ) = 1 k k iσ(j )θ j j =1 e k iθ j j =1 e . . to ﬁnd the constant Ck . we apply the above equality in the special case ϕ = 1. Ck k! ∆k (θ )dθ . To complete Step 3. . . . . . 2. . . Proof of Lemma 7. . . . Tk ∆k (θ )dθ Tk To compute the last integral we observe that ∆k (θ ) can be expressed as a Vandermonde determinant 1 1 ··· 1 k 2 1 i i θ i θ ··· eθ e e k 2 1 ··· e2iθ e2iθ e2iθ ∆k (θ ) = . . and we deduce |∆k (θ )|2 dθ = k σ∈Sk T Tk |eσ (θ )|2 dθ = (2π )k k!.32.278 Step 2 follows immediately from Lemma 7.4. .

. Let S0 denote the canonical subspace Ck ֒→ Cn .4) for any f ∈ S. where S is a subset of X spanning a dense subspace. Exercise 7. lim Ln (f ) = L(f ) f ∈ X. 21 π α1 . . T ∈ U (k). for very large n. . 2π αk are linearly independent over Q we deduce that eζ (α) = 1 for all ζ ∈ Z . ⊔ ⊓ .4. C) denote the Banach space of continuous complex valued functions on T. The Weierstrass approximation theorem guarantees that this S spans a dense subspace..4. (7.4.4) It sufﬁces to establish (7.3) f (τ j ) = n→∞ n + 1 T j =0 If U ⊂ T is an open subset and f is a continuous. and L(f ) = j =0 T f dt. ejζ (α) = n+1 n + 1 eζ (α) − 1 j =0 1 k Since 1. . . 7. . S ∈ U (ℓ). . The tangent space of Grk (Cn ) at S0 can be identiﬁed with the linear space E of complex linear maps Ck → Cℓ . f (τ j ) ≈ n+1 T j =0 This means that f (τ j ) = 0. θ k ) = exp(iζ1 θ 1 ) · · · exp(iζk θ k ).4. ∀f ∈ X. We compute easily n 1 1 eζ (α)n+1 − 1 Ln (eζ ) = . . i.33. To prove the equality (7. . (7.5 The Poincar´ e polynomial of a complex Grassmannian After this rather long detour we can continue our search for the Poincar´ e polynomial of Grk (Cn ). ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 7. L : X → C 1 Ln (f ) = n+1 We have to prove that n→∞ n f (τ j ). n 1 f dt = 0.Symmetry and topology 279 Let X = C (T.3) consider the continuous linear functionals Ln . ℓ = n − k.4. ζk ) ∈ Zk .30 is proved. . . We will prove that n 1 lim f dt.e. Prove that the isotropy group H acts on E = {L : Ck → Cℓ } by (T. Hence n→∞ lim Ln (eζ ) = 0 = T eζ dt = L(eζ ). The isotropy group at S0 is H = U (k) × U (ℓ). ζ = (ζ1 . . S ) · L = SLT ∗ ∀L ∈ E. non-negative function supported in U (f ≡ 0) then. We let S be the subset consisting of the trigonometric monomials eζ (θ 1 . τ j ∈ U for some j .4.4.

j (εα + tej )∆k (ε)∆ℓ (e). We deﬁnitely need to analyze the integrand in the above formula. Thus we can write Jk. The normalized measure on T k is then dτ = dτ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ dτ k . .ℓ (t) := α. y ) = α.j |εα + tej |2 |∆k (ε(τ ))|2 |∆ℓ (e(θ ))|2 dτ ∧ dθ .ℓ (t. y ). .ℓ (t) = d≥0 td Qd (x)Rd (y ) .ℓ (t) = 1 k!ℓ! T k ×T ℓ Ik. e) ∈ T k × T ℓ viewed as a linear operator on E has eigenvalues {εα ej . x. and the elements of T ℓ by e := (e1 .ℓ as a sum Jk.5) We will study in great detail the formal expression Jk. x. The element (ε. . εα = e2πiτ . . 1 ≤ α ≤ k 1 ≤ j ≤ ℓ}. Set Ik.ℓ (t)dτ ∧ dθ .ℓ (t. eℓ ). ej = exp(2π iθ j ). so that Pk. If (σ. (7. σ (x).ℓ (t) = 1 k!ℓ! |1 + tεα ej |2 |∆k (ε(τ ))|2 |∆ℓ (e(θ ))|2 dτ ∧ dθ α T k ×T ℓ α. .ℓ (t. ϕ) ∈ W then Jk.ℓ (t)Ik.280 Cohomology Consider the maximal torus T k × T ℓ ⊂ H formed by the diagonal unitary matrices. ϕ(y )) = Jk. y ) by separately permuting the xcomponents and the y -components.4. εk ). Using the Weyl integration formula we deduce that the Poincar´ e polynomial of Grk (Cn ) is Pk. . and the normalized measure on T ℓ is dθ = dθ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ dθ ℓ . We will denote the elements of T k by ε := (ε1 . .j (xα + tyj ).j = 1 k!ℓ! T k ×T ℓ α. . The Weyl group W = Sk × Sℓ acts on the variables (x.

λ ˆ is the transpose of the Young diagram of λ (see Figure 7.3.1) is (5. . A partition is a compactly supported. A Young diagram is an array of boxes arranged in left justiﬁed rows (see Figure 7. . n ≥1 Traditionally. This will require a short trip in the beautiful subject of symmetric polynomials. . λj ≥ n}. Clearly P∗ ⊂ P . The weight of a partition λ is the number |λ| := λn . .5. .4). 1.3. is a bijection.4). .1) where Qd (x) and Rd (y ) are symmetric polynomials in x and respectively y . its Young diagram will have λ1 boxes on the ﬁrst row. We will describe a partition by an ordered ﬁnite collection (λ1 . ). .5. An extensive presentation of this topic is contained in the monograph [66]. . 2. 2.4: The conjugate of (6. . ⊔ ⊓ σ∈Sn . xn ) := det(xλ j )= i ǫ(σ )xλ σ(i) . To understand the nature of these polynomials we need to introduce a very useful class of symmetric polynomials. ∗ the partition (n − 1. one can visualize a partition using Young diagrams. ˆ deﬁned by Any partition λ has a conjugate λ ˆ n := #{j ≥ 0 . λn ).4.4. . } → {0. . }. The correspondence Pn ∋ λ → λ + δn ∈ P∗ n . Given a partition (λ1 ≥ · · · ≥ λn ). λn = 0}. . . 1. and by P∗ n the set of strict partitions λ of length n − 1 ≤ L(λ) ≤ n.Symmetry and topology 6 5 5 3 1 5 4 4 3 3 1 281 Figure 7. decreasing function λ : {1. The length of a partition λ is the number L(λ) := max{n . . . 0.34. Denote by Pn the set of partitions of length ≤ n. Denote by δ = δ ∈ P n n n n Remark 7. . . To any λ ∈ P∗ n we can associate a skew-symmetric polynomial i aλ (x1 . λ2 boxes on the second row etc. n − 2. where λ1 ≥ · · · ≥ λn ≥ λn+1 = 0. namely the Schur polynomials. λ2 . . . The Young diagram of λ A strict partition is a partition which is strictly decreasing on its support. .3. .4.

5: The complementary of (6. Lemma 7. .7 Note that aδn is the Vandermonde determinant n−1−i aδ (x1 . xn ) = det(xi )= i<j (xi − xj ) = ∆n (x). The true essence of the Schur polynomials is however representation theoretic. where Pk.6 is (7. 6. the partitions in Pk.35. 4.ℓ t|λ| Sλ ˆ (x)Sλ (y ). Note that each Schur polynomial Sλ is homogeneous of degree |λ|. 1) ∈ P6. Hence Sλ (x) := aλ+δ (x) aδ (x) is a well deﬁned polynomial. For a proof of Lemma 7. . . For each λ ∈ Pk. It is a symmetric polynomial since each of the quantities aλ+δ and aδ is skew-symmetric in its arguments.ℓ := λ . Jk. . k − λ1 ). If λ is such a partition then the Young diagram of the complementary of λ is (up to a 180◦ rotation) the complementary of the diagram of λ in the ℓ × k rectangle (see Figure 7.4. Chapter VI. Example 5. 3. and a reader with a little more representation theoretic background may want to consult the classical reference [65]. Geometrically.ℓ (t) = λ∈Pk.4. 4. .5). . 3. .282 Cohomology 6 4 4 2 1 0 7 6 5 3 3 1 Figure 7. . λ1 ≤ k L(λ) ≤ ℓ . For each λ ∈ Pn we have λ + δ ∈ P∗ n . Note that aλ+δ vanishes when xi = xj . so that aλ+δ is well deﬁned and nontrivial. Section I. The polynomial Sλ (x) is called the Schur polynomial corresponding to the partition λ. 2.ℓ are precisely those partitions whose Young diagrams ﬁt inside a ℓ × k rectangle. it is divisible by aδ . 1. so that the polynomial aλ+δ (x) is divisible by each of the differences (xi − xj ) and consequently. k − λℓ−1 .ℓ we denoted by λ the complementary partition λ = (k − λℓ . We have the following remarkable result. .35 we refer to [66].4. 5. 0) ∈ P7.

4.ℓ with a given weight is a very complicated combinatorial problem. We deduce immediately from (7.4. Lemma 7. including the one in Lemma 7.4. for a very exciting presentation of the Schur polynomials.Symmetry and topology 283 Section 6.4. Tk and Tℓ |aλ+δ (e)|2 dθ = ℓ!. Tℓ aλ+δ (e)aµ+δ (e)dθ = 0.5).ℓ ∋ λ → λ ∈ Pℓ.ℓ t aλ ˆ +δk (ε)aλ+δℓ (e) dτ ∧ dθ .k .ℓ (t) = λ∈Pk.6) that Pk.. On the other hand. |λ| (7. and the deﬁnition of the Schur polynomials.4.6) is a linear combination of trigonometric monomials εr 1 · · · εk · e1 · · · eℓ .6) rk s 1 sℓ 1 The integrand in (7. where the r -s and s-s are nonnegative integers. then the terms aλ ˆ+δ (ε) have no ˆ +δ (ε) and aµ monomials in common.ℓ (t) = λ∈Pℓ. µ ∈ Pk. Similarly. the number of partitions in Pk. (7.ℓ (t) = k!ℓ! T k ×T ℓ λ∈P k.35.7) The map Pk. a simple computation shows that 2 |aλ ˆ +δ (ε)| dτ = k !. and rewrite the Poincar´ e polynomial as a “fake” rational function.4. Hence Tk aλ ˆ +δ (ε)aµ ˆ+δ (ε) dτ = 0. .k (t).4.e.ℓ t2|λ| .k t2|λ| = Pℓ. 1/2 In other words. We will achieve the next best thing. if λ = µ.ℓ are distinct partitions. Using (7. Theorem V. we can describe the Poincar´ e polynomial of Grk (Cn ) as 2 1 Pk. Note that if λ. i.4. and currently there are no exact general formulæ. is a bijection so that Pk. and the various identities they satisfy. the terms 1 k!ℓ! aλ ˆ +δ (ε)aλ+δ (e) form an orthonormal system in the space of trigonometric (Fourier) polynomials endowed with the L2 inner product.35.8) Computing the Betti numbers. (7.4.

Look at the (k + 1) × ℓ rectangle Rk+1 inside the (k + 1) × (l + 1)-rectangle Rℓ +1 (see Figure 7. . On the other hand.ℓ+1 (w) = # k +1 diagrams of weight w which ﬁt inside Rℓ +1 = # diagrams which ﬁt inside Rk+1 +# diagrams which do not ﬁt inside Rk+1 .ℓ (w) the number of partitions λ ∈ Pℓ. bk+1.4.ℓ+1 (w) = bk.ℓ (t).ℓ (t) = w =1 bk. the second contribution to bk+1.k with weight |λ| = w.36. The result in the above lemma can be reformulated as Pk+1.ℓ (w − ℓ − 1). k +1 Proof.ℓ (w) is the number of Young diagrams of weight w which ﬁt inside a k × ℓ rectangle. Hence kℓ Pk.4.ℓ+1 (t) = Pk. Alternatively.6.ℓ = # diagrams which ﬁt inside Rk+1 . When we drop this line.ℓ+1 (w) + bk+1.6).284 Cohomology R l+ 1 R k+1 l+ 1 R k+1 k +1 Figure 7.ℓ (w)t2w . bk+1.8)) we also have Pk+1. we get a diagram of weight w − ℓ − 1 which ﬁts inside the k × (ℓ + 1) rectangle ⊔ ⊓ Rℓ+1 of Figure 7. Lemma 7.ℓ+1 (t). If a diagram does not ﬁt inside Rk+1 this means that its ﬁrst line consists of ℓ + 1 boxes.ℓ+1 (w − ℓ − 1). bk. Thus.ℓ+1 (t) + t2(k+1) Pk+1. (7.ℓ+1 (w) is bk.6: The rectangles Rℓ+1 and Rk+1 are “framed” inside Rℓ +1 Denote by bk.ℓ (t) + t2(ℓ+1) Pk. Because the roles of k and ℓ are symmetric (cf. Then bk+1.ℓ+1 (t) = Pk+1.

m · . n Hint: Describe Λ• inv CP explicitly.. Let m = k + ℓ + 1 and set Qd.4.m (t) = Qk.m (t) = 1 − t2k 1 − t4 1 − t2(k+1) 1 − t2m .e. (b) We borrowed the idea of using the Weyl’s integration formula from Weyl’s classical monograph [101]. 285 Now we can check easily that b1. ⊔ ⊓ (1 − t2 ) · · · (1 − t2m ) .ˇ 7.4. However. the concept of sheaf. We refer also ⊔ ⊓ to [92] for an explicit description of the invariant forms on Grassmannians. Understanding this equivalence requires the introduction of a new and very versatile concept namely. where x is a formal variable of degree 2 while (xn+1 ) denotes the ideal generated by xn+1 . 1 − t2(k+1) so that 1 − t2(n−1) 1 − t2(m−k) 1 − t2(m−k+1) · · · · .4.m(t) = = Remark 7. His method was then extended to arbitrary compact. 1 − t2 Q1. (1 − t2 ) · · · (1 − t2k )(1 − t2 ) · · · (1 − t2(m−k) ) (1 − t2(m−k+1) ) · · · (1 − t2m ) (1 − t2 ) · · · (1 − t2k ) ˇ 7. Brauer.C) (t) = Qk. The upper estimate is then used to established that these are the only ones. (a) The invariant theoretic approach in computing the cohomology of Grk (Cn ) was used successfully for the ﬁrst time by C.ℓ (1 − t2(k+1) ). The last equality can be rephrased as 1 − tm−k Qk+1.m−d (t) = PGd (m. Ehresmann[31]. We will see that these are essentially two equivalent facets of the same phenomenon.m (t) = Pd.C) (t).5.5) to produce an upper estimate for the Betti numbers (of U (n) in his case) and then produces by hand sufﬁciently many invariant forms. In turn. Our strategy is however quite different from Weyl’s. oriented symmetric spaces by H. we followed a different avenue which did not require Cartan’s maximal weight theory. This is done in the ﬁrst .ℓ+1 (1 − t2(ℓ+1 ) = Pk+1. Iwamoto [49].38.m (t) = 1 + t2 + t4 + · · · + t2(m−1) = Hence PGk (m. CECH COHOMOLOGY These two equality together yield Pk. Weyl attributes this line of attack to R.37.5 Cech cohomology In this last section we return to the problem formulated in the beginning of this chapter: what is the ˇ relationship between the Cech and the DeRham approach. Show that the cohomology algebra of CPn is isomorphic to the truncated ring of polynomials R[x]/(xn+1 ). i. Weyl uses an equality similar to (7.m−1 (w) = 1. Qk+1. Exercise 7.

g ∈ S(U ) satisfy f |Uα = g |Uα . ∀α. can be organized as a category. A presheaf of Abelian groups on X is a contravariant functor S : TX → Ab. Let X be a topological space. and fα ∈ S(Uα ) satisfy fα |Uα ∩Uβ = fβ |Uα ∩Uβ ∀Uα ∩ Uβ = ∅ ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ then there exists f ∈ S(U ) such that. The topology TX on X . the differential forms of degree k can be organized in a presheaf Ωk (•). the collection of open subsets. we set U s |U := rV (s) ∈ S(U ). All the presheaves discussed in Example 7. U ֒→ V .5. Consider the presheaf S over R deﬁned by S(U ) := continuous. ∀α. 53]. modules. vector spaces are deﬁned in an obvious fashion. The assignment U → C (U ) deﬁnes a presheaf of U are determined by the restrictions | : C (V ) → C (U ).5.5. (b) If (Uα ) is an open cover of the open set U . A presheaf S on a topological space X is said to be a sheaf if the following hold.2. i. The morphisms are the inclusions U ֒→ V . If G is an Abelian group equipped with the discrete topology. S associates to each open set an Abelian group S(U ). ⊔ ⊓ . For each open set U ⊂ X we denote by C (U ) the space of continuous functions U → R. The second part is a fast paced introduction to Cech cohomology. R-algebras on X .5.286 Cohomology ˇ part of the section. Example 7. If E is a smooth vector bundle. For a very detailed presentation of the classical aspects of subject we refer to [37]. f |Uα = fα .5.4. if U ֒ U = rU ◦ rV . More generally. a group morphism rV → V ֒→ W .3. In other words.1 Sheaves and presheaves Consider a topological space X . and to each inclusion U : S(V ) → S(U ) such that. from the point of view of derived categories we refer to the monographs [48. We let the reader verify this is not a sheaf since the condition (b) is violated. Example 7. The presheaves of rings. ⊔ Deﬁnition 7. then rW V W If s ∈ S(V ) then. for any U ֒→ V . The maps rV U If X is a smooth manifold we get another presheaf U → C ∞ (U ). If f ∈ S(U ) then we deﬁne dom f := U . The reason behind this violation is that in the deﬁnition of this presheaf we included a global condition namely the boundedness assumption. then the E -valued differential forms of degree k can be organized as a presheaf of vector spaces k U → Ωk E (U ) = Ω (E |U ). and f. (a) If (Uα ) is an open cover of the open set U . 7. For a modern presentation.5. Example 7. then the G-valued continuous func⊓ tions C (U. G) determine a presheaf called the constant G-presheaf which is denoted by GX .1..e.1 are sheaves. then f = g. A concise yet very clear presentation of these topics can be found in [46]. bounded functions f : U → R.

We equip R with the discrete topology (a) A space of germs over X (“espace e e” in the French literature) is a topological space E. ·.6. (a1) The map π is a local homeomorphism that is. u ∈ U ⊂ S.5. and S := x∈X There exists a natural projection π : S → X which maps [f ]x to x. the set Ex := π −1 (x). dom f ∋ x}.5. Let S be a presheaf of Abelian groups over a topological space X .5. U ∋x → E. by f ∼x g ⇐⇒ ∃ open U ∋ x such thatf |U = g |U . ∀u. is called the stalk at x. ∀x ∈ X. (a2) There exist continuous maps · : R × E → E. ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. Any f ∈ S(U ) deﬁnes a subset Uf = [f ]u . U runs through the open neighborhoods of X. We can deﬁne a topology in S by indicating a basis of neighborhoods. and + : (u. Set Sx . each point e ∈ E has a neighborhood U such that π |U is a homeomorphism onto the open subset π (U ) ⊂ X . Sx := {[f ]x . For each x ∈ X deﬁne an equivalence relation ∼x on S(U ). (b) A section of a space of germs π : E → X over a subset Y ⊂ X is a continuous function s : Y → E such that s(y ) ∈ Ey . ∀y ∈ Y . the stalk Ex is an R-module.ˇ 7. ∀x ∈ X . CECH COHOMOLOGY 287 Deﬁnition 7. π (u) = π (v ) such that ∀r ∈ R. and with respect to the operations +. u + v ∈ Ex .5. (The space of germs associated to a presheaf). ´ tal´ together with a continuous map π : E → X satisfying the following conditions. and it is called the germ of f at x. For every x ∈ X . The “ﬁbers” of this map are π −1 (x) = Sx – the germs at x ∈ X . and R a commutative ring with 1. Let X be a topological space. The equivalence class of f ∈ U ∋x S(U ) is denoted by [f ]x . A basis of open neighborhoods of [f ]x ∈ S is given by the collection U g . v ∈ Ex we have r · u ∈ Ex . g ∈ S(U ) [g]x = [f ]x . U ∋ x. . v ) ∈ E × E. The spaces of sections deﬁned over Y will be denoted by E(Y ).

rU ˜U ˜. restriction morphisms of S (b) Let S be a presheaf over the topological space X . π π ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 7. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 7.) ˜ over the topological space X is a collection of morphisms of Abelian groups (modules S and S ˜(U ). ⊔ ⊓ Let h : S → T be a morphism of presheaves. it is isomorphic to a product X × discrete set . It is called the space of germs associated to the presheaf S. . Consider a space of germs E → X over the topological space X . Note that each ﬁber Sx has a well deﬁned structure of Abelian group [f ]x + [g]x = [(f + g) |U ]x U ∋ x is open and U ⊂ dom f ∩ dom g.10. If S is a presheaf over the topological space X .) hU : S(U ) → S V V V denotes the restriction morphisms of S.8. ı). we have etc. The morphism ı is called the canonical inclusion of the sub-presheaf.7.5.5. Prove the above proposition. E is called the sheaf associated to the space of germs.) Since π : f (U ) → U is a homeomorphism. where T is a presheaf over X . (Check that this addition is independent of the various choices.5. each f ∈ S(U ) deﬁnes a continuous section of π over U [f ] : U ∋ u → [f ]u ∈ Su . in [57]. Exercise 7. when V ⊂ U . ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7. The correspondence U → E(U ) clearly a sheaf.. (b) A presheaf S over the topological space X is a sheaf if and only if S = S. ⊔ ⊓ If the space of germs associated to a sheaf S is a covering space. it follows that π : S → X is a space of germs. i.9. Then E = E. When the covering is trivial. A morphism h is said to be injective if each hU is injective. deﬁnes a presheaf called the kernel of the morphism h. we say that S is a sheaf of locally constant functions (valued in some discrete Abelian group). (a) Let E → X be a space of germs. then the sheaf is really the constant sheaf associated to a discrete Abelian group. The correspondence U → ker hU ⊂ S(U ).288 Cohomology We let the reader check that this collection of sets satisﬁes the axioms of a basis of neighborhoods as discussed e. one for each open set U ⊂ X . For each open subset U ⊂ X . then the sheaf S is called the sheaf associated to S.e. With this topology. we denote by E(U ) the space of continuous sections U → E. (The sheaf associated to a space of germs).11. Example 7. A sub-presheaf of S is a pair (T . It is a sub-presheaf of S. while the r V denotes the hV ◦ rU = r ˜U ◦ hU . or the sheaﬁﬁcation of S.5.5. and ı : T → S is an injective morphism. Above. (a) Let A morphism between the (pre)sheaves of Abelian groups (modules etc. such that.g.

h(π0 (x)) ⊂ π1 (x). 1) be two spaces of germs over the same topological space X . ∀x ∈ X . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. The deﬁnition of h ˆ where h(f ) is now an element of T (U ). and that it is a continuous map S Example 7. A morphism of spaces of germs is a continuous map h : E0 → E1 satisfying the following conditions. h hn+1 is said to be exact if Im hn = ker hn+1 . π1 Then h(E0 ) → X is a space of germs over X called the image of h. i. then so is the kernel of h. If f ∈ SU . −1 −1 (a2) For any x ∈ X . Exercise 7. Consider a morphism of sheaves over X . (b) Consider a sheaf S over the space X . and it is a subspace of E1 . n · · · → Sn → Sn+1 → Sn+2 → · · · . where F is a space of germs over X and : F → E is an injective morphism. Consider two sheaves S and T .8(a). It is denoted by Im h. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7.5. for every x ∈ X . ⊔ ⊓ ☞ Due to Proposition 7. (a) A sequence of sheaves and morphisms of sheaves.5.5.. ). there exists an open neighborhood Vx ⊂ U . such that g |Vx = h(f ).ˇ 7.5. ∀n. π (b) Let E → X be a space of germs.e. The sheaf associated to the space of germs Im ˆ h is a subsheaf of T called the image of h. and denoted by Im h. and x ∈ U .5.5. If both S and T are sheaves.12. (a) Let Ei → X (i = 0.13.5. The morphism h is called injective if each hx is injective.18. in the sequel we will make no distinction between sheaves and spaces of germs. A resolution of S is a long exact sequence n 0 1 Sn+1 → · · · . Show that a section g ∈ T (U ) belongs to (Im h)(U ) if an only if.5.14. h : S → T . π −1 −1 (a1) π1 ◦ h = π0 . Let h : S → T be a morphism of presheaves. the induced map hx : π0 (x) → π1 (x) is a morphism of Abelian groups (modules etc. CECH COHOMOLOGY 289 Proposition 7.17. A subspace of germs is a pair (F. i Deﬁnition 7. for some f ∈ S(Vx ). ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 7. then h ˆ ([f ]x ) = [h(f )]x .6. (a) Let h : E0 → E1 be a morphism between two spaces of germs over X . ⊔ ⊓ The proof of this proposition is left to the reader as an exercise.5. Let U ⊂ X be an open set. We let the reader check that h is independent of the ˆ→T ˆ with respect to the topologies described in various choices. Deﬁnition 7.15.5. Then h induces ˆ → T. a morphism between the associated spaces of germs h : S ⊔ ⊓ ˆ should be obvious. 0 ֒→ S ֒→ S0 → S1 → · · · → Sn → ı d d d ⊔ ⊓ . and let h : S → T be a morphism.16. Prove the above proposition.).

. we set j ∂ j σ = ∂q σ = (α0 . . Consider an open cover U = (Uα )α∈A of X .17 we deduce immediately that the sequence 1 n 0 ֒→ RM ֒→ Ω0 M → ΩM → · · · → ΩM → 0 d d d is a resolution of the constant sheaf RM . q }. and where a hat “ ˆ ” indicates a missing entry. . .2 Cech cohomology Let U → S(U ) be a presheaf of Abelian groups over a topological space X . . . σ∈Nq (U) ˇ The elements of C q (S.20. (The DeRham resolution). α ˆ j . . ¯ ˆ = the sheaf associated to the presheaf S.19. U) := Sσ . . j = 0. .5. . and we will use the symbol (α0 . (a) Prove that U → S(U ) is a presheaf.5. and we deﬁne an ordered q -simplex to be a map σ : ∆q → A with the property that σ (∆q ) is a simplex of N(U). σ ∈ Sσ . We will denote by Nq (U) the set of ordered q -simplices. q. . The set of all q -dimensional simplices is denoted by Nq (U). We deﬁne dim A to be one less the cardinality of A. Sσ := S(Uσ(∆q ) ). Their union. . . . a q -cochain c associates to each ordered q -simplex σ an element c. For each open set U deﬁne S(U ) = S0 (U )/S−1 (U ). U) are called Cech q -cochains subordinated to the cover U. Deﬁne C q (S. . ⊔ ⊓ ˇ 7. Using the Poincar´ e lemma and the Exercise 7. dim A = |A|− 1. . . Consider a short exact sequence of sheaves 0 → S−1 → S0 → S1 → 0. . αq ) ∈ U(q−1) . . (b) Prove that S1 ∼ =S Cohomology ⊔ ⊓ Example 7. αq ). such that q UA := 0 Uαi = ∅. In other words. .5. .290 Exercise 7. . αq ) to denote an ordered q -simplex σ : ∆q → A such that σ (k) = αk . . where for a ordered q -simplex σ = (α0 . and it is called the nerve of the cover. We have face operators ∂ j = ∂ j : Nq (U) → Nq−1 (U). For every nonnegative integer q we set ∆q := {0. . Nq (U) q is denoted by N(U).5. . . . . Ωk M denotes the sheaf of k -forms on M while d denotes the exterior differentiation. Let M be a smooth n-dimensional manifold. A simplex associated to U is a nonempty subset A = α0 . . αq ⊂ A. possibly of dimension < q .

This correspondence is a cocycle if. In other words we have a natural map H 1 (X ) → H 1 N(U). A 0-cochain is a correspondence which associates to each open set Uα ∈ U an element cα ∈ S(Uα ). Prove that ∂q −1 ∂q = ∂q −1 ∂q . Since d(fα − fβ ) ≡ 0 on Uαβ . ⊔ ⊓ δ δ δ δ . 291 ⊔ ⊓ We can now deﬁne an operator δ : C q−1 (S. β ) such that Uα ∩ β = ∅. δ2 = 0 so that 0 ֒→ C 0 (S. ∂ j σ |Uσ .5. then we can associate to each ˇ closed 1-form ω ∈ Ω1 (M ) a Cech 1-cocycle valued in RX as follows. Using Exercise 7. we deduce there exist constants cαβ such that fα − fβ = cαβ . U) → · · · → C q (S. and U is a good cover.5. For example. β ) such that Uαβ = ∅ an element cαβ ∈ S(Uαβ ). which assigns to each (q − 1)-cochain c. γ ) we have cβγ − cαγ + cαβ = 0. Lemma 7. CECH COHOMOLOGY j j −1 i i Exercise 7.23. First.5. Let U and S as above. this cocycle is a coboundary. ˇ The cohomology of this cochain complex is called the Cech cohomology of the cover U with coefﬁcients in the pre-sheaf S. Moreover.21 above we deduce immediately the following result. U) → C 1 (S. select for each Uα a solution fα ∈ C ∞ (Uα ) of dfα = ω.22. Observe that if S is a sheaf. Example 7.5. RX . for any ordered 2-simplex (α.ˇ 7. U) → · · · is a cochain complex. and it is easy to see that its cohomology class is independent of the initial selection of local solutions fα . It is a cocycle if. a q -cochain δc whose value on an ordered q -simplex σ is given by q δc. then the collection (cα ) determines a unique section of S. if X is a smooth manifold. Obviously this is a cocycle.21. β. for any pair (α. We will see later this is an isomorphism. we have cβ − cα = 0. U). if ω is exact.5. U) → C q (S. σ := j =0 (−1)j c. A 1-cochain associates to each pair (α. for all j > i.

. S) → C q (V. (c) If U ≺ V ≺ W. by deﬁnition. We say V is ﬁner than U. hj (σ ) |Vσ ∀c ∈ C q (U) ∀σ ∈ V(q−1) . In particular. . . .24. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 7. (a) We deﬁne ̺∗ : C q (U) → C q (V) by S(Vσ ) ∋ ̺∗ (c). S) → H (V. then ̺∗ is cochain homotopic to r∗ . . The reader should check that hj (σ ) is indeed an ordered simplex of U for any ordered simplex σ of V. if there exists a map ̺ : B → A. βq−1 ) = (̺(β0 ). ̺(σ ) ∈ Aq is the ordered q -simplex (̺(β0 ). r (βq−1 )). Consider two open covers U = (Uα )α∈A . Fix a sheaf of Abelian groups S. Now deﬁne χ := χq : C q (U) → C q−1 (V) by χq (c). any relation U ≺ V deﬁnes a unique morphism in cohomology • • ıV U : H (U. (a) Any reﬁnement map ̺ induces a cochain morphism ̺∗ : C q (U.25. σ := We will show that δ ◦ χq (c) + χq+1 ◦ δ(σ ) = ̺∗ (c) − r∗ (c) ∀c ∈ C q (U). Then the following are true. . and we write this U ≺ V. ̺(βq )). S). The map ̺ is said to be a reﬁnement map. Note that Vσ ⊂ Uhj (σ) ∀j . Proof. . .5. The fact that ̺∗ is a cochain morphism follows immediately from the obvious equality j j ̺ ◦ ∂q = ∂q ◦ ̺. then V W ıW U = ıV ◦ ıU . q −1 j =0 (−1)j c. . such that Vβ ⊂ U̺(β ) ∀β ∈ B. Consider two open covers U = (Uα )α∈A and V = (Vβ )β ∈B of the same topological space X such that U ≺ V. S). (b) We deﬁne hj : Nq−1 (V) → Nq (U) by hj (β0 . . q q (b) If r : A → B is another reﬁnement map. where.292 Cohomology Deﬁnition 7. r (βj ). . ̺(σ ) |Vσ ∀c ∈ C q (U) σ ∈ V(q)) .5. · · · . . . and V = (Vβ )β ∈B of the same topological space X . σ := c. ̺(βj ).

µq ) |Vσ j −1 k =0 = j =0 (−1)j q ˆ j . . . λj . . . . . (λ0 . µj . λj . µj +1 . µ ˆk . . . λj . . µj . . . . (λ0 . . hj (σ ) = (λ0 . . . r (σ ) = (µ0 . . . . U − open cover of X . . . . . . µq ) |Vσ = ̺∗ c. λ σ + q ℓ=j +1 (−1)ℓ+1 c. . . and set ̺(σ ) := (λ0 . S) → H (V. . . (λ0 . . (λ0 . µq ) |Vσ + j =0 (−1)j c. µj . λ σ + ℓ=j q (−1)ℓ+1 c. βq ) ∈ Nq (V).ˇ 7. . µq ). . . . U ≺ V . µq ) |V (−1)k c. . λq ). . S). . σ . σ = q q +1 293 (−1)j δc. . µq ) |Vσ + c. V W W ıU U = ½ and ıU = ıV ◦ ıU . . . . . . . . .5. . S). hj (σ ) |Vσ k (−1)k c. S) := lim H • (U. We can thus deﬁne the inductive (direct) limit H • (X. λj . . µq ) |V (−1)k c. λj −1 . σ . . . . (λ0 . S) . . Then χ ◦ δ(c). ⊔ ⊓ such that. µq ) |Vσ . . . . . µ ˆk . . and morphisms • • ıV U : H (U. . . µj . . . whenever U ≺ V ≺ W. If we change the order of summation in the ﬁrst two term we recover the term −δχc. µj . . . λq |Vσ − c. . . . . . (µ0 . . . We now have a collection of graded groups H • (U. λj . . . . . . µq ) ∈ U(q) . . . . (λ0 . . . CECH COHOMOLOGY Let σ = (β0 . so that. The last term is a telescopic sum which is equal to c. . λj . . . σ − r∗ c. . . . (λ0 . . . µj . ∂q +1 hj (σ ) |Vσ ) = j =0 q j (−1)j ( k =0 = j =0 (−1)j q k =0 ˆ j . . Part (c) is left to the reader as an exercise. . . . U . . .

S) / ∼ . Sketch of proof. For any open cover U = (Uα ).27. a 0-cycle subordinated to U is a collection of sections fα ∈ S(Uα ) such that. S−1 ) → · · · . The proposition follows by passing to direct limits. Let U be an open cover of X . S) is called the Cech cohomology of the space X with coefﬁcients in the presheaf S.294 Cohomology ˇ The group H • (X. every time Uα ∩ Uβ = ∅. U by W H • (U) ∋ f ∼ g ∈ H • (V) ⇐⇒ ∃W ≻ U. S). S0 ) → H • (X. such a collection deﬁnes a unique global section f ∈ S(X ). Note that we have canonical morphisms.5. The reader can check easily that h∗ is a cochain map so it induces a map in cohomology • • hU ∗ : H (U. S) ∼ ⊔ ⊓ = S(X ). σ = hU ( c. Let S be a sheaf over the space X . Proposition 7. S). Example 7. V : ıW U f = ıV g. p ∗ p∗ δ . Hence. Let us brieﬂy recall the deﬁnition of the direct limit.26. S0 ) σ ∈ U( q ). we have fα |Uαβ = fβ |Uαβ . Then there exists a natural long exact sequence ∗ · · · → H q (X. S−1 ) → H q (X. S1 ). Any morphism of pre-sheaves h : S0 → S1 over X induces a morphism in cohomology h∗ : H • (X.28.5. by h∗ c. be an exact sequence of sheaves over a paracompact space X . S0 ) → C q (U. S) → H • (X. Let 0 → S−1 → S0 → S1 → 0. S1 ) → H q+1 (X. According to the properties of a sheaf. σ ) ∀c ∈ C q (U. ıU : H • (U. We denote the equivalence class of f by f . S1 ) ⊓ which commutes with the reﬁnements ıV U . S0 ) → H (U. ⊔ Theorem 7. S1 ).5. S0 ) → H q (X. Then lim H • (U) = U U H • (U. Deﬁne h∗ : C q (U. One deﬁnes an equivalence relation on the disjoint union H • (U. H 0 (X.

S0 ) → H q (X. the cohomology groups H q (U. Because X is paracompact. S) → H q+1 (X. any open cover admits a locally ﬁnite reﬁnement. We obtain a long exact sequence in cohomology · · · → H q (U. We will achieve this by showing that the identity map C q (U.29. . where Sx denotes the stalk of S at x ∈ X . S) is cochain homotopic with the trivial map. we construct tα (f ). S′ ). S). Its proof can be found in [88]. S) ∼ ⊔ ⊓ = H • (X. S) are trivial for q ≥ 1.5.ˇ 7. such that χq+1 δq + δq−1 χq = ½. We thus need to produce a map χq : C q (U. Its associated sheaf is isomorphic with S1 (see Exercise 7. σ ∈ S(Uσ ) as follows. S) → C q (U. S−1 ) → H q (U. Thus. for any locally ﬁnite open cover U = (Uα )α∈A there exist morphisms hα : S → S with the following properties. Passing to direct limits we get a long exact sequence · · · → H q (X. CECH COHOMOLOGY 295 Sketch of proof. (b) α hα π = ½S . S′ over a paracompact topological space X have isomorphic associated sheaves then H • (X. Proof. Using partitions of unity we deduce that the sheaf Ωk X of smooth k -forms is ﬁne.5. for each locally ﬁnite open cover U = (Uα )α∈A . W := Uσ \ Cα . More generally.31. ⊔ ⊓ Example 7.1) Consider the morphisms hα : S → S associated to the cover U postulated by the deﬁnition of a ﬁne sheaf. (supp hα ⊂ Cα ).5. it sufﬁces to show that. Let S be a ﬁne sheaf over a paracompact space X . Then H q (X. Lemma 7. S−1 ) → H q (X. To conclude the proof of the proposition we invoke the following technical result. Let X be a smooth manifold.19). S) → C q−1 (U.30. Proposition 7. and hα (Sx ) = 0 for x ∈ Cα .5. This sum is well deﬁned since the cover U is locally ﬁnite. S0 ) → C q (U. S). (a) For any α ∈ A there exists a closed set Cα ⊂ Uα .32. S) → H q+1 (U. σ ∈ Nq (U).5. S−1 ) → C q (U. Consider the open cover of Uσ V = Uα ∩ Uσ .5. Deﬁnition 7. S−1 ) → · · · . Thus. S) → 0. For every α ∈ A. (7. A sheaf S is said to be ﬁne if. and every f ∈ C q (U. if E is a smooth vector bundle over X then the space Ωk ⊔ ⊓ E of E -valued k -forms is ﬁne. If two pre-sheaves S. S0 ) → H q (U.5. Then the correspondence U → S(U ) deﬁnes a pre-sheaf on X . for each open cover U we have a short exact sequence 0 → C q (U. X ) → · · · . For each open set U ⊂ X deﬁne S(U ) := S0 (U )/S−1 (U ). S) ∼ = 0 for q ≥ 1.

= Zm (X )/dm ∗ dm−1 (7. σ . Zm−1 ) ∗ → H 0 (X. Now. Zm−1 ) ∼ Sm−1 (X ) . Zm−1 ) → 0.2) We use the associated long exact sequence in which H k (X. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 7.1). σ ∈ S(Uσ ). we get an exact sequence H 0 (X. Then 0 1 0 → S0 (X ) → S1 (X ) → ··· d d ⊔ ⊓ d0 d1 d d is a cochain complex. according to the axioms of a sheaf.5. Proof.5.5. We get a short exact sequence of sheaves 0 → Zq → Sq → Zq+1 → 0 q ≥ 0. A ﬁne resolution is a resolution 0 → S ֒→ S0 → S1 → · · · . Zm ) → H 1 (X. denote by Zq the kernel of the sheaf morphism dq .34 (Abstract DeRham theorem). Zq+1 ) ∼ = H k (X. the section hα (f |V ) can be extended by zero to a section tα (f ). since Sq is a ﬁne sheaf. Let 0 ֒→ S → S0 → S1 → · · · be a ﬁne resolution of the sheaf S over the paracompact space X . Theorem 7. For q ≥ 1. S) ∼ = H q (Sq (X )). S). We let the reader check that χq satisﬁes (7.3) This is precisely the content of the theorem. deﬁne χq f ∈ C q−1 (U. for every f ∈ C q (U. This yields the isomorphisms H k−1 (X. We set for uniformity Z0 := S. and there exists a natural isomorphism H q (X. such that each of the sheaves Sj is ﬁne.5. σ := tα (f ). Zq ) k ≥ 2. Let S be a sheaf over a space X .26. Zm−1 ) m ≥ 1.5. The ﬁrst statement in the theorem can be safely left to the reader.5.5. Z0 ) ∼ = H 1 (X.2). ⊔ ⊓ . and we get −1 H 1 (X. We apply the computation in Example 7. S) by χq (f ). We deduce inductively that H m (X. for k ≥ 1. Sq ) = 0. α The above sum is well deﬁned since the cover U is locally ﬁnite.296 Cohomology Note that hα f |V ∩W = 0 and. Using again the long sequence associated to (7.33. (7.

ˇ 7. Such exotic situations do exist. even if the manifolds may not be diffeomorphic.36.38.5. Zq )/d∗ H 0 (U. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. CECH COHOMOLOGY Corollary 7. Using the Poincar´ e lemma we deduce Zk (Uσ ) = dΩk−1 (Uσ ). We conclude using the ﬁne resolution 1 0 → RM ֒→ Ω0 M → ΩM → · · · . and U is an open cover such that H q (UA . The above result is a special case of a theorem of Leray: if S is a sheaf on a paracompact space X . Then H • (M. Uσ ∼ = Rdim M . S) = 0. i. Then H • (U.39.. = H 1 (M. (Leray) Let M be a smooth manifold and U = (Uα )α∈A a good cover of M . The manifold M is paracompact. John Milnor has constructed a family of nondiffeomorphic manifolds all homeomorphic to the sphere S 7 . d Using the associated long exact sequence and the fact that Ωk−1 is a ﬁne sheaf. Ωq−1 ) ∼ = Zq (M )/dΩq−1 (M ) ∼ = H • (M ). Freedman were awarded Fields medals for their contributions. RM ). Donaldson and M.e. RM ) and H 2 (M ) ∼ ⊔ ⊓ ˇ Remark 7. Let Zk denote the sheaf of closed k-forms on M .5. (This is possible only for 4-dimensional vector spaces!) These three mathematicians. More recently. d 297 ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. RM ) ∼ = H • (M ). Describe explicitly the isomorphisms H 1 (M ) ∼ = H 2 (M. In a celebrated paper [70]. S. so must be the DeRham cohomology which is deﬁned in terms of a smooth structure. Proof. Z1 ) ∼ = ··· ∼ = H 1 (U. Proof. Zq−1 ) ∼ = H 0 (U. Zk ) → 0. the work of Simon Donaldson in gauge theory was used by Michael Freedman to construct a smooth manifold homeomorphic to R4 but not diffeomorphic with R4 equipped with the natural smooth structure. . Hence if two smooth manifolds are homeomorphic they must have isomorphic DeRham groups. The above corollary has a surprising implication. RM ) ∼ = H • (M ). ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 7. Let M be a smooth manifold.5.5. J.5. Ωk−1 ) → C q (U.37.35. Milnor. We thus have a short exact sequence ∗ 0 → C q (U. ∀q ≥ 1 A ∈ N(U).5. Since the Cech cohomology is obviously a topological invariant. Zk ) → C q (U. we deduce as in the proof of the abstract DeRham theorem that H q (U. RM ) ∼ = H q−1 (U.

H q (Rn . i. GM ) = H • (U. GM ). while the subsets in K are called the (open) faces) of the simplicial scheme. set of data. Thm.e. Chapter IX. the nerve of a good cover contains all the homotopy information about the manifold. ⊔ ⊓ . δv (u) = 1 0 u=v u = v. RV = v∈V R. S). ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. For any face F ⊂ K we denote by ∆F ⊂ RV the convex hull of the set δv . Thus. B = ∅ =⇒ B ∈ K. In other words. A result of Borsuk-Weil (see [14]) states that if U = (Uα )α∈A is a good cover of a compact manifold M . we have a Poincar´ lemma (see [32]. then the geometric realization of the nerve N(U) is homotopy equivalent to M . G) = 0 q ≥ 1. Denote by RV the vector space of all maps f : V → R with the property that f (v ) = 0. for any good cover U H • (M. This shows that the homotopy type is determined by a ﬁnite. The nerve of an open cover is an example of simplicial scheme. To any simplicial scheme K. The set V is called the vertex set of K. v ∈ F . Leray’s theorem comes as no suprise. A combinatorial simplicial complex. Now set |K| = ∆F . is a collection K of nonempty. Note that ∆F is a simplex of dimension |F | − 1. we should remark that any compact manifold admits ﬁnite good covers. F ∈K We will say that |K| is the geometric realization of the simplicial scheme K. 5. For a proof we refer to [37]. we can associate a topological space |K| in the following way. Since the DeRham cohomology is homotopy invariant. albeit very large.1. for all but ﬁnitely many v ’s.40. where G is an arbitrary Abelian group. While at this point. with vertex set V . What is remarkable is the explicit way in which one can extract the cohomological information from the combinatorics of the nerve. B ⊂ A.. or a simplicial scheme. We topologize RV by declaring a subset C ⊂ RV closed if the intersection of C with any ﬁnite dimensional subspace of RV is a closed subset with respect to the Euclidean topology of that ﬁnite dimensional subspace.5. ﬁnite subsets of a set V with the property that any nonempty subset B of a subset A ∈ K must also belong to the collection K. e When GM is a constant sheaf.). Note that RV has a canonical basis given by the Dirac functions δv : V → R. S) = H • (X. A ∈ K. Hence.298 Cohomology then H • (U.

in concrete applications it is convenient to work with skew-symmetric ˇ Cech cochains. The sheaf S is called ﬂabby if. αq ). (b) Suppose 0 → S0 → S1 → S2 → 0 is a short exact sequence of sheaves on X . . (α0 . . A cochain c ∈ C q (S.5. . . i. ˇ One can then deﬁne a “skew-symmetric” Cech cohomology following the same strategy. αϕ(q) ) . .41. and morphisms of sheaves fk : Sk−1 → Sk . such that the sequence below is exacft 0 → S −→ S0 −→ S1 −→ · · · . then the sequence of Abelian groups 0 → S0 (X ) → S1 (X ) → S2 (X ) → 0 is exact. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. . A sheaf of Abelian groups S on a paracompact space X is called soft if for every closed subset C ⊂ X the restriction map S(X ) → S(C ) is surjective.5. .5. . . 1. . For a proof of this fact we refer to [88].2. Let M be a smooth manifold and U = (Uα )α∈A a good cover of M . the restriction map S(X ) → S(U ) is surjective. there exists a sequence of ﬂabby sheaves over X . . then the cohomology groups H k (X.42. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 7. for any open subset U ⊂ X . .1. αq ) = ǫ(ϕ) c. .. Suppose X is a topological space and S is a sheaf of Abelian groups on X . . β ) ∈ A2 such that Uαβ = ∅ satisfying fαβ + fβγ + fγα = 0. (b) Prove that if is a ﬂabby resolution of S. CECH COHOMOLOGY 299 Example 7. k = 0. (a) Prove that S admits a ﬂabby resolution.5. .one for each pair (α.44.5. The resulting cohomology coincides with the cohomology described in this subsection. S−1 = S. . The collection is a coboundary if there exist the constants fα such that fαβ = fβ − fα . This is precisely the situation encountered in Subsection 7. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. f0 f0 f1 0 → S −→ S0 −→ S1 −→ · · · f0 f1 ⊔ ⊓ . A 1-cocycle of RM is a collection of real numbers fαβ . Often. The abstract ˇ DeRham theorem explains why the Cech approach is equivalent with the DeRham approach. k ≥ 0. and for any permutation ϕ of ∆q we have c.e. U) is skew-symmetric if for any ordered q -simplex σ = (α0 . (αϕ(0) .43. Show that if S0 is a ﬂabby sheaf.ˇ 7. S) are isomorphic to the cohomology groups of the cochain complex S0 (X ) −→ S1 (X ) −→ · · · . whenever Uαβγ = ∅. (a) Prove that any ﬂabby sheaf is also soft. Sk .

All the Lie groups we will consider will be assumed to be matrix Lie groups. . The Lie group G operates on its Lie algebra g via the adjoint action Ad : G → GL(g). ∀X ∈ g.. nor necessary. Let M be a smooth manifold. g ∈ G. Lie subgroups of a general linear group GL(n. The Lie algebra g of a matrix Lie group G is a Lie algebra of matrices in which the bracket is the usual commutator. Recall that a principal G-bundle P over M can be deﬁned by an open cover (Uα ) of M and a gluing cocycle gαβ : Uαβ → G.1 Connections in principal G-bundles In this subsection we will describe how to take into account the possible symmetries of a vector bundle when describing a connection. It is not necessary since all the results of this subsection are true for any Lie group. where Ad(g)X := gXg −1 .1 Chern-Weil theory 8. Ultimately. K) = GL(Kn ). and these groups are sufﬁcient for most applications in geometry.1. in the context of smooth manifolds there are powerful differential geometric methods which will solve a large part of this problem. We stick with this assumption since most proofs are easier to “swallow” in this context. i. any compact Lie group is isomorphic with a matrix Lie group. This is essentially a topological issue but. according to a nontrivial result (Peter-Weyl theorem). as we will see. This restriction is neither severe. 300 g → Ad(g) ∈ GL(g).e. 8. It is not severe since. only topological techniques yield the best results.Chapter 8 Characteristic classes We now have sufﬁcient background to approach a problem formulated in Chapter 2: ﬁnd a way to measure the “extent of nontriviality” of a given vector bundle.

η ] + (−1)|ω|·|φ| [ω.1. ηℓ ∈ Ωℓ (M ). g•• ) is deﬁned as the collection Fα ∈ Ω2 (Uα ) ⊗ g where 1 ⊔ ⊓ Fα = dAα + [Aα . Aα ]. such that hβα (x) = Tβ (x)gβα (x)Tα (x)−1 . Ad(P ) .1) Exercise 8. [η. φ ∈ Ω∗ (Ad(P )) the following hold. (b) The curvature of a connection A ∈ A(U.1. ∀x ∈ Uαβ .1. ∀x ∈ Uαβ . (8. deﬁne isomorphic principal bundles if and only if there exists smooth maps Tα : Uα → G. η ℓ ⊗ Y ] := (ω k ∧ η ℓ ) ⊗ [X. (x) + gβα (x)Aα (x)gβα = −( dgβα (x) )gβα We will denote by A(U.3) ⊔ ⊓ In other words. 2 Remark 8. CHERN-WEIL THEORY 301 We denote by Ad(P ) the vector bundle with standard ﬁber g associated to P via the adjoint representation. hβα : Uαβ → G.2.8. The bracket operation in the ﬁbers of Ad(P ) induces a bilinear map [·. η ]. and gluing cocycle Ad(gαβ ) : Uαβ → GL(g). Given an open cover (Uα ) of M . [ . then two gluing cocycles gβα . In other words. . ·] : Ωk Ad(P ) × Ωℓ Ad(P ) → Ωk+ℓ Ad(P ) . [ [ω. η ] = −(−1)|ω|·|η| [η. ∀α. Ω• Using Proposition 3. g•• ) the set of connections deﬁned by the open cover U and the gluing cocycle g•• : U•• → G.1. β. φ]. deﬁned by for all ωk ∈ Ωk (M ). (a) A connection on the principal bundle P deﬁned by the open cover U = (Uα )α∈A .3. ] is a super Lie algebra. satisfying the transition rules −1 −1 Aβ (x) = gαβ (x)dgαβ (x) + gαβ (x)Aα (x)gαβ (x) −1 −1 (x). (8. φ] ]. Ad(P ) is the vector bundle deﬁned by the open cover (Uα ). and X. Prove that for any ω. η.2) (8. [ω.1. Y ∈ Ω0 Ad(P ) . φ] = [ [ω. [ω k ⊗ X. Y ].1.1. and the gluing cocycle gβα : Uαβ → G is a collection Aα ∈ Ω1 (Uα ) ⊗ g. ω ]. .5 as inspiration we introduce the following fundamental concept.1.3. Deﬁnition 8.

g•• ) −→ A(W. g•• ) and (V. We are convinced that the reader can easily supply the obvious. both describing the principal bundle P → M . g•• ) → A(V. and gβα : Uαβ → G is a gluing cocycle. (8. (hαβ ) are two such cohomologous cocycles. gluing cocycle). h•• ) −1 −1 A(U. given two pairs (open cover. and coho¯ •• : W•• → G reﬁning g•• and respectively h•• . For simplicity.1.e. ϕ gij (x) = gϕ(i)ϕ(j ) (x).1. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 8. and the cocycle gij . The correspondence ϕ TVU : A(U. deﬁned by the open cover (Vi ). then it induces a connection Aϕ i = Aϕ(i) |Vi are bijections. h•• ) A(U. h•• ). in order to keep the presentation as transparent as possible. Suppose that the open cover (Vi )i∈I is ﬁner that the cover (Uα )α∈A . the collection (Fα ) deﬁnes a global Ad(P )valued 2-form. ﬁner that both U and W. Fα ] = 0. (c) (The Bianchi identity. ∀α. T ϕ We obtain a new gluing cocycle gij : Vij → G given by The correspondence T is a bijection. g•• ). (U. in our proofs we will not keep track of these isomorphisms. Finally.4. A → Aϕ This new cocycle deﬁnes a principal bundle isomorphic to the principal bundle deﬁned by the cocycle (gβα ). Suppose U = (Uα )α∈A and V = (Vi )i∈I are open covers. If (Aα ) is a connection deﬁned by the open cover (Uα ) and the cocycle (gβα ). we say that the cocycles g•• and h•• are cohomologous. g•• ). we will denote by A(P ). any of these isomorphic spaces A(U. such that the mologous gluing cocycles g ¯•• . j ∈ I.302 CHAPTER 8. We say that the connection Aϕ is the Vreﬁnement of the connection A. g ¯•• ) −→ A(W. ☞ All the constructions that we will perform in the remainder of this section are compatible with the above isomorphisms but. h induced maps ¯ •• ) ←− A(V. and we will refer to it as the curvature of the connection A. Suppose P → M is a principal G-bundle described by an open cover U = (Uα )α∈A . g•• ) ∋ (Aα ) −→ Bα := −(dTα )Tα + Tα Aα Tα ∈ A(U. h . there exists an open cover W.. and repetitious missing details. i. Suppose (gαβ ).) dFα + [Aα . ∀i. there exists a map ϕ : I → A such that Vi ⊂ Uϕ(i) . and gluing cocycle gβα : Uαβ → G. ∀i ∈ I. h•• ). (a) The set A(P ) of connections on P is an afﬁne space modelled by Ω1 ( Ad(P ) ). x ∈ Vij . g•• ) → A(U. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES given by If this happens. Then the maps Tα induce a well deﬁned correspondence T : A(U. (b) For any connection A = (Aα ) ∈ A(U. We will denote it by FA or F (A).4) is also a bijection. g•• ).

we have the equality −1 Bβ − gβα Bα gβα =− −1 uγ (dgβγ )gβγ + γ γ −1 −1 uγ gβα (dgαγ )gαγ gβα The cocycle condition implies that dgβγ = (dgβα )gαγ + gβα (dgαγ ).8. then their difference Cα = Aα − Bα satisﬁes the gluing rules −1 . (Bα )α∈A ∈ A(P ). Hence. so that −1 = (dgβγ )gγβ = (dgβα )gαβ + gβα (dgαγ )gγβ . More precisely. on the overlap Uαβ . such that supp uα ⊂ Uα . so that Using the cocycle condition again. (dgβγ )gβγ Hence − γ −1 = −(dgβα )gαβ − uγ (dgβγ )gβγ uγ gβα (dgαγ )gγβ . (a) If (Aα )α∈A . if (Aα ) ∈ A(P ). ωβ |Uαβ = gβα ωα |Uαβ gβα The collection A′ α := Aα + ωα is then a connection on P . α ∈ A. and uα = 1. we consider a family of nonnegative smooth functions uα : M → R. then it is an afﬁne space modelled by Ω1 ( Ad(P ) ). This proves that if A(P ) is nonempty. and ω ∈ Ω1 Ad(P ) . ∀α. γ −1 g −1 = g . Cβ = gβα Cα gβα so that it deﬁnes an element of Ω1 (Ad(P )).1. on the overlap Uαβ we have −1 −1 −1 Bα gαβ . γ Then. CHERN-WEIL THEORY 303 Proof. then ω is described by a collection of g-valued 1-forms ωα ∈ Ω1 (Uα ) ⊗ g. satisfying the gluing rules −1 . = gαβ dgαβ + gαβ + gβα Bα gβα Bβ = −(dgβα )gβα . so that γα Bα = − −1 uγ (dgαγ )gαγ . we deduce gαγ γβ βα −1 −1 uγ gβα (dgαγ )gαγ gβα = γ γ uγ gβα (dgαγ )gγβ . α For every α ∈ A we set Bα := γ −1 uγ gγα dgγα ∈ Ω1 (Uα ) ⊗ g. −1 −1 we deduce g −1 dg Since gγα = gαγ γα = −(dgαγ )gαγ . To prove that A(P ) = ∅ we consider a partition of unity subordinated to the cover Uα . Conversely.

6) where ∈ ∈ and A.3. The Maurer-Cartan structural equations. We have 1 Fβ = dAβ + [Aβ . Aβ ] 2 1 = d(g −1 dg + g−1 Aα g) + [g −1 dg + g−1 Aα g. so that we have d̟ =d(g −1 dg ) = (dg −1 ) ∧ dg = − (g −1 · dg · g−1 )dg = −(g −1 dg ) ∧ (g−1 dg ) 1 (8. (b) We need to check that the forms Fα satisfy the gluing rules Fβ = g −1 Fα g. g −1 Aα g] + [g−1 Aα g. g−1 Aα g]. There exists a natural operation ∧ : Ωk (Uα ) ⊗ gl(n.1). A very simple computation yields the following identity. Let gl(n. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES This shows that the collection (Bα ) deﬁnes a connection on P .1. K).1. ̟ ]. (ω k ⊗ A) ∧ (η ℓ ⊗ B ) = (ω k ∧ η ℓ ) ⊗ (A · B ).1. K) (see also Example 3.304 CHAPTER 8. The space gl(n. ̟ ] = 0. 2 . 2 (8. ̟ ] 2 1 +d(g −1 Aα g) + [̟. d(g −1 Aα g) + [̟. K) is naturally a Lie algebra with respect to the commutator of two matrices. A. K).1.2) we get 1 Fβ = d̟ + [̟. K) → Ωk+ℓ (Uα ) ⊗ gl(n. B ∈ gl(n.12).7) = − ̟ ∧ ̟ = − [̟. 2 − 1 Set ̟ := g dg . g −1 dg + g−1 Aα g]. η ] ∀ω. K) deﬁned as in (8. −1 where g = gαβ = gβα . so that its Lie algebra g lies inside gl(n. 2 We will check two things.7) ωk Ωk (Uα ). K) → Ωk+ℓ (Uα ) ⊗ gl(n.5) The Lie group lies inside GL(n. g −1 Aα g] = g −1 (dAα )g. 1 d̟ + [̟. K). Ωℓ (Uα ) uniquely deﬁned by (8. •] : Ωk (Uα ) ⊗ gl(n. ηℓ (8.1. Using (8. K). Let us ﬁrst introduce a new operation. We can think of the map gαβ as a matrix valued map. Proof of A.1. This structure induces a bracket [•. 1 ω ∧ η = [ω. K) × Ωℓ (Uα ) ⊗ gl(n. K) × Ωℓ (Uα ) ⊗ gl(n. η ∈ Ω1 (Uα ) ⊗ gl(n. 2 B. K) denote the associative algebra of K-valued n × n matrices.

3) =[Fα . . g−1 Aα g] + [̟.1.5.1.8) ⊔ ⊓ In other words.2 ) = −[̟. Observe that a gauge transformation is a section of the G-ﬁber bundle G ֒→ C (P ) ։ M. η ] + (−1)|ω| [ω. Part (b) of the proposition now follows from A.1. we let the reader check the following identity d[ω. ωα ].1. Let ωα ∈ Ωk (Uα ) ⊗ g satisfy the gluing rules −1 on Uαβ . Aα ] − [[Aα .1.1. dAα ]} = [dAα . CHERN-WEIL THEORY Proof of B.1. g−1 Aα g] + g −1 (dAα )g.5). Aα ] − [Aα . deﬁnes a global Ad(P )-valued (k + 1)-form on M which we denote by dA ω .1. where ω. for any A ∈ A(P ). We compute d(g−1 Aα g) = (dg −1 Aα ) · g + g −1 (dAα )g + g −1 Aα dg 305 = −̟ ∧ g −1 Aα g + g −1 Aα g ∧ ̟ + g−1 (dAα )g 1 1 (8. Prove that the collection dωα + [Aα .8. Thus. Suppose P → M is a principal G-bundle given by the open cover U = (Uα ) and gluing cocycle gβα : Uαβ → G. the Bianchi identity can be rewritten as dA F (A) = 0. ωβ = gβα ωα gβα = −g −1 · dg · g−1 ∧ Aα · g + g −1 (dAα )g + (g−1 Aα g) ∧ g −1 dg (8.1. (c) First. η ∈ Ω∗ (Uα ) ⊗ g. ∀x ∈ U αβ.2) d(Fα ) = {[dAα . η ] = [dω. Aα ] = [Fα . Exercise 8.6. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 8. the collection ωα deﬁnes a global k-form ω ∈ Ωk (Ad(P )). B and (8. 2 The proposition is proved. Aα ]. A gauge transformation of P is by deﬁnition. Aα ] 2 1 (8. g1 Aα g] + g−1 (dAα )g 2 2 (8. Using the above equality we get 1 (8. dη ]. a collection of smooth maps Tα : Uα → G satisfying the gluing rules Tβ (x) = gβα (x)Tα (x)gβα (x)−1 . Aα ].7 ) = − [̟.

a metric on a bundle induces an O(r ) structure. The group G(U. h•• ) are isomorphic.1. A1 ∈ A(P ) are gauge equivalent if there exists T ∈ G(P ) such that A1 = T A0 T −1 . h•• ).7. g•• ) acts on A(U. A) → T AT −1 := −(dTα )Tα + Tα Aα Tα ∈ A(P ). gluing cocycle)-pair (V. i = 1. . C The group G(P ) also acts on the vector spaces Ω• Ad(P ) and. A G-structure on E is deﬁned by the following collection of data. g•• ) according to −1 −1 G(P ) × A(P ) ∋ (T. They are easily produced from arbitrary ones via the Gramm-Schimdt orthonormalization technique. In particular. there exists an open cover (Uα ) of M . 2. such that the vector bundle E can be deﬁned by the cocycle ρ(gαβ ) : Uαβ → GL(V ). T ∈ G(P ) we have FT AT −1 = T FA T −1 . where the symmetry group G acts on itself by conjugation G × G ∋ (g. We denote by G(P ) the isomorphism class of all these groups.306 CHAPTER 8. R). so that a metric on a bundle allows one to replace an arbitrary collection of gluing data by an equivalent (cohomologous) one with transitions in O(r ). ⊔ ⊓ 8.1. then the groups G(U. and E → M a vector bundle with standard ﬁber a vector space V . ⊔ ⊓ Example 8. h) −→ Cg (h) := ghg 1 ∈ G. We denote by G(U. ρ).8. A metric on E allows us to talk about orthonormal moving frames. Let E → M be a rank r real vector bundle over a smooth manifold M . two different orthonormal local trivializations are related by a transition map valued in the orthogonal group O(r ). We denote a G-structure by the pair (P.3. The representation ρ is in this case the natural injection O(r ) ֒→ GL(r. and the principal G-bundles Pi are isomorphic. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES (see Deﬁnition 2. symmetry group G. We say that two connections A0 . In other words.1. The set of gauge transformations forms a group with respect to the operation (Sα ) · (Tα ) := (Sα Tα ).2 G-vector bundles Deﬁnition 8. (b) A principal G-bundle P over M such that E is associated to P via ρ. are said to be isomorphic. if the representations ρi are isomorphic.15) with standard ﬁber G. One can verify that if P is described the (open cover. Two G-structures (Pi . for any A ∈ A(P ). g•• ) and G(V). (a) A representation ρ : G → GL(V ). g•• ) this group. Let G be a Lie group. ρi ) on E . and a gluing cocycle gαβ : Uαβ → G. In other words.

. . Similarly. . Assume P is deﬁned by an open cover (Uα ). . vk ) = ∂k 1 Pϕ (t1 v1 + · · · + tk vk ). x) x ∈ A ⊗ V. Starting with ϕ ∈ S k (V ∗ ) we can produce a K-multilinear map ϕ = ϕA : (A ⊗ V ) × · · · × (A ⊗ V ) → A. ak ⊗ vk ) = ϕ(v1 . For example. . ρ∗ : g → End(V ) denotes the derivative of ρ at 1 ∈ G. then the collection ρ∗ (F (Aα )) coincides with the curvature F (ρ∗ (Aα )) of the connection ρ∗ (Aα ). . Assume now that A is a K-algebra with 1. . vk )a1 a2 · · · ak ∈ A. we can identify S k (V ∗ ) with the space of degree k homogeneous polynomials in n variables. . . CHERN-WEIL THEORY 307 Conversely. The curvature of such a connection is skewsymmetric which shows the inﬁnitesimal holonomy is an inﬁnitesimal orthogonal/unitary transformation of a given ﬁber. multilinear maps ϕ : V × · · · × V → K. and gluing cocycle gαβ : Uαβ → G.1. This follows immediately from the polarization formula ϕ(v1 . . a Hermitian metric on a rank k complex vector bundle deﬁnes an U (k)-structure on that bundle. ρ. . C.1.3 Invariant polynomials Let V be a vector space over K = R. . Consider the symmetric power S k (V ∗ ) ⊂ (V ∗ )⊗k . . then the collection ρ∗ (Aα ) deﬁnes a connection on the vector bundle E . . ⊔ ⊓ Let E = (P. A connection of E obtained in this manner is said to be compatible with the G-structure. k! ∂t1 · · · ∂tk If dim V = n then. uniquely determined by ϕ(a1 ⊗ v1 . .8. Note that any ϕ ∈ S k (V ∗ ) is completely determined by Pϕ (v ) = ϕ(v. . Note that if F (Aα ) is the curvature of the connection on P . a connection compatible with some metric on a vector bundle is compatible with the orthogonal/unitary structure of that bundle. . ﬁxing a basis of V . If the collection {Aα ∈ Ω1 (Uα ) ⊗ g} deﬁnes a connection on the principal bundle P . v ). an O(r ) structure on a rank r real vector bundle is tantamount to choosing a metric on that bundle. . V ) be a G-vector bundle. 8. . . which consists of symmetric. . Above. If moreover the algebra A is commutative. then ϕA is uniquely determined by the polynomial Pϕ (x) = ϕA (x.

cn (T ) = 2π i 1 − 2π i n det T. .308 CHAPTER 8. ⊔ ⊓ we do get a symmetric function. · · · ) = −P (a2 X2 . . For applications to geometry. It consists of those ϕ ∈ S k (g∗ ) such that ϕ(gX1 g−1 . CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES Remark 8. . For example. Example 8. For each T ∈ gl(n. if a1 a2 = −a2 a1 . for all X1 . 1 c1 (T ) = − tr T. . ⊔ ⊓ and ck (T ) continues to be the coefﬁcient of λk in the above polynomial. Xk ∈ g. C). C)∗ ). . Let V = gl(n. a1 X1 . Consider now a matrix Lie group G. . Xk ). ck (T ) deﬁnes an element of S k (gl(n. . then the above function is not symmetric in its variables. A) of n × n matrices with entries in A. If A is a commutative C-algebra with 1.10. . Via polarization. Let us emphasize that when A is not commutative. We denote by I k (G) the Ad-invariant elements of S k (g∗ ). gXk g−1 ) = ϕ(X1 . Then. For example. then A ⊗ gl(n.1. A will be the algebra Ω• (M ) of complex valued differential forms on a smooth manifold M . When restricted to the commutative subalgebra Ωeven (M ) = k ≥0 Ω2k (M ) ⊗ C. . The adjoint action of G on its Lie algebra g induces an action on S k (g∗ ) still denoted by Ad. C) can be identiﬁed with the space gl(n.9. (i = √ −1). ck (T ) is a degree k homogeneous polynomial in the entries of T . . a2 X2 . Set I • (G) := k ≥0 I k (G) and I •• (G) := k ≥0 I k (G).1. For each matrix T ∈ V we denote by ck (T ) the coefﬁcient of λk in the characteristic polynomial cλ (T ) := det ½− λ T 2π i = k ≥0 ck (T )λk . . A) we have det ½− λ T 2π i ∈ A[λ]. The elements of I • (G) are usually called invariant polynomials. . · · · ). . The space I •• (G) can be identiﬁed (as vector space) with the space of Ad-invariant formal power series with variables from g∗ . then P (a1 X1 .

**8.1. CHERN-WEIL THEORY
**

Example 8.1.11. Let G = GL(n, C), so that g = gl(n, C). The map gl(n, C) ∋ X → tr exp(X ), deﬁnes an element of I •• (GL(n, C)). To see this, we use the “Taylor expansion” exp(X ) =

k ≥0

309

1 k X , k!

**which yields tr exp(X ) =
**

k ≥0

1 tr X k . k!

For each k, tr X k ∈ I k (GL(n, C)) since tr (gXg −1 )k = tr gX k g−1 = tr X k . Proposition 8.1.12. Let ϕ ∈ I k (G). Then for any X, X1 , . . . , Xk ∈ g we have ϕ([X, X1 ], X2 , . . . , Xk ) + · · · + ϕ(X1 , X2 , . . . , [X, Xk ]) = 0. Proof. The proposition follows immediately from the equality d |t=0 ϕ(etX X1 e−tX , . . . , etX Xk e−tX ) = 0. dt Let us point out a useful identity. If P ∈ I k (g), U is an open subset of Rn , and Fi = ωi ⊗ Xi ∈ Ωdi (U ) ⊗ g, A = ω ⊗ X ∈ Ωd (U ) ⊗ g then P (F1 , . . . , Fi−1 , [A, Fi ], Fi+1 . . . , Fk ) = (−1)d(d1 +···di−1 ) ωω1 · · · ωk P (X1 , · · · , [X, Xi ], · · · Xk ). In particular, if F1 , . . . , Fk−1 have even degree, we deduce that for every i = 1, . . . , k we have P (F1 , . . . , Fi−1 , [A, Fi ], Fi+1 , . . . , Fk ) = ωω1 · · · ωk P (X1 , . . . , [X, Xi ], . . . , Xk ). Summing over i, and using the Ad-invariance of the polynomial P , we deduce

k i=1

⊔ ⊓

(8.1.9)

⊔ ⊓

P (F1 , . . . , Fi−1 , [A, Fi ], Fi+1 , . . . , Fk ) = 0,

(8.1.10)

∀F1 , . . . , Fk−1 ∈ Ωeven (U ) ⊗ g, Fk , A ∈ Ω• (U ) ⊗ g.

310

CHAPTER 8. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES

**8.1.4 The Chern-Weil Theory
**

Let G be a matrix Lie group with Lie algebra g, and P → M be a principal G-bundle over the smooth manifold M . Assume P is deﬁned by an open cover (Uα ), and a gluing cocycle gαβ : Uαβ → G. Pick A ∈ A(P ) deﬁned by the collection Aα ∈ Ω1 (Uα ) ⊗ g. Its curvature is then deﬁned by the collection 1 Fα = dAα + [Aα , Aα ]. 2 Given φ ∈ I k (G), we can deﬁne as in the previous section (with A = Ωeven (Uα ), V = g) Pφ (Fα ) := φ(Fα , . . . , Fα ) ∈ Ω2k (Uα ).

−1 Because φ is Ad-invariant, and Fβ = gβα Fα gβα , we deduce

Pφ (Fα ) = Pφ (Fβ ) on Uαβ , so that the locally deﬁned forms Pφ (Fα ) patch-up to a global 2k-form on M which we denote by φ(FA ). Theorem 8.1.13 (Chern-Weil). (a) The form φ(FA ) is closed, ∀A ∈ A(P ). (b) If A0 , A1 ∈ A(P ), then the forms φ(FA0 ), and φ(FA1 ) are cohomologous. In other words, the closed form φ(FA ) deﬁnes a cohomology class in H 2k (M ) which is independent of the connection A ∈ A(P ). Proof. We use the Bianchi identity dFα = −[Aα , Fα ]. The Leibniz’ rule yields dφ(Fα , . . . , Fα ) = φ(dFα , Fα , . . . , Fα ) + · · · + φ(Fα , . . . , Fα , dFα ) = −φ([Aα , Fα ], Fα , . . . , Fα ) − · · · − φ(Fα , . . . , Fα , [Aα , Fα ])

1 Ai α ∈ Ω (Uα ) ⊗ g. 0 1 t t 0 Set Cα := A1 α − Aα . For 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 we deﬁne Aα ∈ Ω (Uα ) ⊗ g by Aα := Aα + tCα . t t The collection (At α ) deﬁnes a connection A ∈ A(P ), and t → A ∈ A(P ) is an (afﬁne) path 0 1 connecting A to A . Note that ˙ t. C = (Cα ) = A t ) the curvature of At . A simple computation yields We denote by F t = (Fα t 0 Fα = Fα + t(dCα + [A0 α , Cα ]) + (8.1.9)

=

0.

(b) Let Ai ∈ A(P ) (i = 0, 1) be deﬁned by the collections

t2 [Cα , Cα ]. 2

(8.1.11)

Hence,

t t ˙α F = dCα + [A0 α , Cα ] + t[Cα , Cα ] = dCα + [Aα , Cα ].

**8.1. CHERN-WEIL THEORY
**

Consequently,

1 0 φ(Fα ) − φ(Fα )= 1 1 0 t t t t t ˙t ˙α φ(F , Fα , . . . , Fα ) + · · · + φ(Fα , . . . , Fα , Fα ) dt

311

=

0 1

t t t t φ(dCα , Fα , . . . , Fα ) + · · · + φ(Fα , . . . , Fα , dCα ) dt

+

0

t t t t t φ([At α , Cα ], Fα , . . . , Fα ) + · · · + φ(Fα , . . . , Fα , [Aα , Cα ]) dt.

**Because the algebra Ωeven (Uα ) is commutative, we deduce φ(ωσ(1) , . . . , ωσ(k) ) = φ(ω1 , . . . , ωk ), for all σ ∈ Sk and any ω1 , . . . , ωk ∈ Ωeven (Uα ) ⊗ g. Hence
**

1 0 φ(Fα ) − φ(Fα )=k 1 0 t t φ(Fα , . . . , Fα , dCα + [At α Cα ])dt.

**We claim that
**

t t t t φ( Fα , . . . , Fα , dCα + [At α , Cα ] ) = dφ( Fα , . . . , Fα , Cα ).

**Using the Bianchi identity we get
**

t t dφ( Fα , . . . , Fα , Cα ) t t t t t t = φ(Fα , · · · , Fα , dCα ) + φ(dFα , · · · , Fα , Cα ) + · · · + φ(Fα , · · · , dFα , Cα ) t t = φ( Fα , . . . , Fα , dCα ) t t t t t t t −φ( Cα , [At α , Fα ], Fα , . . . , Fα ) − · · · − φ( Cα , Fα , . . . , Fα , [Aα , Fα ] ) t t t t t t t −φ( [At α , Fα ], Fα , . . . , Fα , Cα ) − · · · − φ( Fα , . . . , Fα , [Aα , Fα ], Cα ) (8.1.10 ) t t t t t = φ( Fα , . . . , Fα , dCα + [At α , Cα ] ) = φ( dCα + [Aα , Cα ], Fα , . . . , Fα ). t t t t t = φ( Fα , . . . , Fα , dCα + [At α , Cα ] ) − φ( Fα , . . . , Fα , [Aα , Cα ] )

Hence

1 0 φ(Fα ) − φ(Fα )=d 0 1 0

1

t t ˙t kφ(A α , Fα , . . . , Fα )dt.

(8.1.12)

We set

0 Tφ (A1 α , Aα ) :=

t t ˙t kφ(A α , Fα , . . . , Fα )dt.

−1 −1 on Uαβ , we conclude from the Ad-invariance , and Fβ = gβα Fα gβα Since Cβ = gβα Cα gβα 0 1 of φ that the collection Tφ (Aα , Aα ) deﬁnes a global (2k − 1)-form on M which we denote by Tφ (A1 , A0 ), and we name it the φ-transgression from A0 to A1 . We have thus established the transgression formula (8.1.13) φ(FA1 ) − φ(FA0 ) ) = d Tφ (A1 , A0 ).

The Chern-Weil theorem is proved.

⊔ ⊓

312

CHAPTER 8. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES

Remark 8.1.14. Observe that for every Ad-invariant polynomial φ ∈ I k (g), any principal Gbundle P , any connection A ∈ A(P ), and any gauge transformation T ∈ G(P ) we have φ FA = φ FT AT −1 . We say that the Chern-Weil construction is gauge invariant. ⊔ ⊓

Example 8.1.15. Consider a matrix Lie group G with Lie algebra g, and denote by P0 the trivial principal G-bundle over G, P0 = G × G. Denote by ̟ the tautological 1-form ̟ = g−1 dg ∈ Ω1 (G) ⊗ g. Note that for every left invariant vector ﬁeld X ∈ g we have ̟ (X ) = X. Denote by d the trivial connection on P0 . Clearly d is a ﬂat connection. Moreover, the MaurerCartan equation implies that1 d + ̟ is also a ﬂat connection. Thus, for any φ ∈ I k (G) φ(Fd ) = φ(F (d+̟ ) = 0. The transgression formula implies that the form

1

τφ = Tφ (d + ̟, d) = k

0

φ(̟, Fd+t̟ , . . . , Fd+t̟ )dt ∈ Ω2k−1 (G)

**is closed. A simple computation using the Maurer-Cartan equations shows that τφ = k 2k−1
**

0 1

(t2 − 1)k−1 dt · φ(̟, [̟, ̟ ], · · · , [̟, ̟ ])

**k 22k−1 k!(k − 1)! φ(̟, [̟, ̟ ], · · · , [̟, ̟ ]) 2k−1 (2k)! 2k = (−1)k−1 2k · φ(̟, [̟, ̟ ], · · · , [̟, ̟ ]). = (−1)k−1
**

k

We thus have a natural map τ : I • (G) → H odd (G) called transgression. The elements in the range of τ are called transgressive. When G is compact and connected, then a nontrivial result due to the combined efforts of H. Hopf, C. Chevalley, H. Cartan, A. Weil and L. Koszul states that the cohomology of G is generated as an R-algebra by the transgressive elements. We refer to [21] for a beautiful survey of this subject. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 8.1.16. Let G = SU (2). The Killing form κ is a degree 2 Ad-invariant polynomial on su(2). Describe τκ ∈ Ω3 (G) and then compute τκ .

G

**Compare this result with the similar computations in Subsection 7.4.3.
**

1

⊔ ⊓

The connections d and d + ̟ are in fact gauge equivalent.

8.1. CHERN-WEIL THEORY

313

Let us now analyze the essentials of the Chern-Weil construction. Input: (a) A principal G-bundle P over a smooth manifold M , deﬁned by an open cover (Uα ) ,and gluing cocycle gαβ : Uαβ → G. (b) A connection A ∈ A(P ) deﬁned by the collection Aα ∈ Ω1 (Uα ) ⊗ g, satisfying the transition rules

−1 −1 Aβ = gαβ dgαβ + gαβ Aα gαβ on Uαβ .

(c) φ ∈ I k (G). Output: A closed form φ(F (A)) ∈ Ω2k (M ), whose cohomology class is independent of the connection A. We denote this cohomology class by φ(P ). Thus, the principal bundle P deﬁnes a map, called the Chern-Weil correspondence cw P : I • (G) → H • (M ) φ → φ(P ). One can check easily the map cw P is a morphism of R-algebras. Deﬁnition 8.1.17. Let M and N be two smooth manifolds, and F : M → N be a smooth map. If P is a principal G-bundle over N deﬁned by an open cover (Uα ), and gluing cocycle gαβ : Uαβ → G, then the pullback of P by F is the principal bundle F ∗ (P ) over M deﬁned by the open cover F −1 (Uα ), and gluing cocycle F −1 (Uαβ ) → Uαβ → G.

F gαβ

⊔ ⊓

The pullback of a connection on P is deﬁned similarly. The following result should be obvious. Proposition 8.1.18. (a) If P is a trivial G-bundle over the smooth manifold M , then φ(P ) = 0 ∈ H • (M ), for any φ ∈ I • (G).

F

(b) Let M → N be a smooth map between the smooth manifolds M and N . Then, for every principal G-bundle over N , and any φ ∈ I • (G) we have φ(F ∗ (P )) = F ∗ (φ(P )). Equivalently, this means the diagram below is commutative. I • (G)

c w F • (P )

³³Û H (N ) µ ÙF ³

cw P •

•

H • (M ) ⊔ ⊓

Denote by PG the collection of smooth principal G-bundles (over smooth manifolds). For each P ∈ PG we denote by BP the base of P . Finally, we denote by F a contravariant functor from the category of smooth manifolds (and smooth maps) to the category of Abelian groups.

314

CHAPTER 8. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES

Deﬁnition 8.1.19. An F-valued G-characteristic class is a correspondence PG ∋ P → c(P ) ∈ F(BP ), such that the following hold. (a) c(P ) = 0 if P is trivial. (b) F(F )(c(P )) = c(F ∗ (P )), for any smooth map F : M → N , and any principal G-bundle P → N. ⊔ ⊓ Hence, the Chern-Weil construction is just a method of producing G-characteristic classes valued in the DeRham cohomology. Remark 8.1.20. (a) We see that each characteristic class provides a way of measuring the nontriviality of a principal G-bundle. (b) A very legitimate question arises. Do there exist characteristic classes (in the DeRham cohomology) not obtainable via the Chern-Weil construction? The answer is negative, but the proof requires an elaborate topological technology which is beyond the reach of this course. The interested reader can ﬁnd the details in the monograph [75] which is the ultimate reference on the subject of characteristic classes. (b) There exist characteristic classes valued in contravariant functors other then the DeRham ˇ cohomology. E.g., for each Abelian group A, the Cech cohomology with coefﬁcients in the con• stant sheaf A deﬁnes a contravariant functor H (−, A), and using topological techniques, one can produce H • (−, A)-valued characteristic classes. For details we refer to [75], or the classical [93]. ⊔ ⊓

8.2 Important examples

We devote this section to the description of some of the most important examples of characteristic classes. In the process we will describe the invariants of some commonly encountered Lie groups.

**8.2.1 The invariants of the torus T n
**

The n-dimensional torus T n = U (1) × · · · × U (1) is an Abelian Lie group, so that the adjoint action on its Lie algebra tn is trivial. Hence I • (T n ) = S • ((tn )∗ ). In practice one uses a more explicit description obtained as follows. Pick angular coordinates 0 ≤ θ i ≤ 2π , 1 ≤ i ≤ n, and set 1 dθ j . xj := − 2π i n ∗ The x′ j s form a basis of (t ) , and now we can identify I • (T n ) ∼ = R[x1 , . . . , xn ].

8.2. IMPORTANT EXAMPLES

315

8.2.2 Chern classes

Let E be a rank r complex vector bundle over the smooth manifold M . We have seen that a Hermitian metric on E induces an U (r )-structure (P, ρ), where ρ is the tautological representation ρ : U (r ) ֒→ GL(r, C). Exercise 8.2.1. Prove that different Hermitian metrics on E deﬁne isomorphic U (r )-structures. ⊔ ⊓ Thus, we can identify such a bundle with the tautological principal U (r )-bundle of unitary frames. A connection on this U (r )-bundle is then equivalent with a linear connection ∇ on E compatible with a Hermitian metric •, • , i.e., ∇X λu, v = λ{ ∇X u, v + u, ∇X v }, ∀λ ∈ C, u, v ∈ C ∞ (E ), X ∈ Vect (M ). The characteristic classes of E are by deﬁnition the characteristic classes of the tautological principal U (r )-bundle. To describe these characteristic classes we need to elucidate the structure of the ring of invariants I • (U (r )). The ring I • (U (r )) consists of symmetric, r -linear maps φ : u(r ) × · · · × u(r ) → R, invariant with respect to the adjoint action u(r ) ∋ X → T XT −1 ∈ u(r ), T ∈ U (r ). It is convenient to identify such a map with its polynomial form Pφ (X ) = φ(X, . . . , X ). The Lie algebra u(r ) consists of r × r complex skew-hermitian matrices. Classical results of linear algebra show that, for any X ∈ u(r ), there exists T ∈ U (r ), such that T XT −1 is diagonal T XT −1 = i diag(λ1 , . . . , λr ). The set of diagonal matrices in u(r ) is called the Cartan algebra of u(r ), and we will denote it by Cu(r) . It is a (maximal) Abelian Lie subalgebra of u(r ). Consider the stabilizer SU (r) := and the normalizer NU (r) := T ∈ U (r ); T Cu(r) T −1 ⊂ Cu(r) , . The stabilizer SU (r) is a normal subgroup of NU (r) , so we can form the quotient WU (r) := NU (r) /SU (r) called the Weyl group of U (r ). As in Subsection 7.4.4, we see that the Weyl group is isomorphic with the symmetric group Sr because two diagonal skew-Hermitian matrices are unitarily equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues, including multiplicities. T ∈ U (r ) ; T XT −1 = X, ∀X ∈ Cu(r) , ,

316

CHAPTER 8. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES

We see that Pφ is Ad-invariant if and only if its restriction to the Cartan algebra is invariant under the action of the Weyl group. The Cartan algebra is the Lie algebra of the (maximal) torus T n consisting of diagonal unitary matrices. As in the previous subsection we introduce the variables xj := − 1 dθj . 2π i

The restriction of Pφ to Cu(r) is a polynomial in the variables x1 , . . . , xr . The Weyl group Sr permutes these variables, so that Pφ is Ad-invariant if and only if Pφ (x1 , . . . , xr ) is a symmetric polynomial in its variables. According to the fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials, the ring of these polynomials is generated (as an R-algebra) by the elementary ones c1 = c2 = . . . . . . cr = Thus I • (U (r )) = R[c1 , c2 , . . . , cr ]. In terms of matrices X ∈ u(r ) we have ck (X )tk = det

k

xj i<j xi xj . . .

j

x1 · · · xr

½−

t X 2π i

∈ I • (U (r ))[t].

The above polynomial is known as the universal rank r Chern polynomial, and its coefﬁcients are called the universal, rank r Chern classes. Returning to our rank r vector bundle E , we obtain the Chern classes of E ck (E ) := ck (F (∇)) ∈ H 2k (M ), and the Chern polynomial of E ct (E ) := det t F (∇) 2π i

½−

∈ H • (M )[t].

Above, ∇ denotes a connection compatible with a Hermitian metric •, • on E , while F (∇) denotes its curvature. Remark 8.2.2. The Chern classes produced via the Chern-Weil method capture only a part of what topologists usually refer to characteristic classes of complex bundles. To give the reader a feeling of what the Chern-Weil construction is unable to capture we will sketch a different deﬁnition of the ﬁrst Chern class of a complex line bundle. The following facts are essentially due to Kodaira and Spencer [61]; see also [40] for a nice presentation. Let L → M be a smooth complex Hermitian line bundle over the smooth manifold M . Upon choosing a good open cover (Uα ) of M we can describe L by a collection of smooth maps zαβ : Uαβ → U (1) ∼ = S 1 satisfying the cocycle condition zαβ zβγ zγα = ½ ∀α, β, γ. (8.2.1)

8.2. IMPORTANT EXAMPLES

317

If we denote by C ∞ (·, S 1 ) the sheaf of multiplicative groups of smooth S 1 -valued functions, ˇ we see that the family of complex line bundles on M can be identiﬁed with the Cech group 1 ∞ 1 H (M, C (·, S )). This group is called the smooth Picard group of M . The group multiplication is precisely the tensor product of two line bundles. We will denote it by Pic∞ (M ). If we write zαβ = exp(2π iθαβ ) (θβα = −θαβ ∈ C ∞ (Uαβ , R)) we deduce from (8.2.1) that ∀Uαβγ = ∅ θαβ + θβγ + θγα = nαβγ ∈ Z. It is not difﬁcult to see that, ∀Uαβγδ = ∅, we have nβγδ − nαγδ + nαβδ − nαβγ = 0. ˇ In other words, the collection nαβγ deﬁnes a Cech 2-cocycle of the constant sheaf Z. On a more formal level, we can capture the above cocycle starting from the exact sequence of sheaves exp(2π i·) 0 → Z ֒→ C ∞ (·, R) −→ C ∞ (·, S 1 ) → 0. The middle sheaf is a ﬁne sheaf so its cohomology vanishes in positive dimensions. The long exact sequence in cohomology then gives 0 → Pic∞ (M ) → H 2 (M, Z) → 0. The cocycle ( nαβγ ) represents precisely the class δ(L). The class δ(L), L ∈ Pic∞ (M ) is called the topological ﬁrst Chern class and is denoted by top c1 (L). This terminology is motivated by the following result of Kodaira and Spencer, [61]: The image of ctop 1 (L) in the DeRham cohomology via the natural morphism

∗ H ∗ (M, Z) → H ∗ (M, R) ∼ (M ) = HDR δ

coincides with the ﬁrst Chern class obtained via the Chern-Weil procedure. The Chern-Weil construction misses precisely the torsion elements in H 2 (M, Z). For example, if a line bundle admits a ﬂat connection then its ﬁrst Chern class is trivial. This may not be the case with the topological one, because line bundle may not be topologically trivial. ⊔ ⊓

8.2.3 Pontryagin classes

Let E be a rank r real vector bundle over the smooth manifold M . An Euclidean metric on E induces an O(r ) structure (P, ρ). The representation ρ is the tautological one ρ : O(r ) ֒→ GL(r, R). Exercise 8.2.3. Prove that two metrics on E induce isomorphic O(r )-structures. ⊔ ⊓

Hence, exactly as in the complex case, we can naturally identify the rank r -real vector bundles equipped with metric with principal O(r )-bundles. A connection on the principal bundle can be viewed as a metric compatible connection in the associated vector bundle. To describe the various characteristic classes we need to understand the ring of invariants I • (O(r )).

318

CHAPTER 8. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES

As usual, we will identify the elements of I k (O(r )) with the degree k, Ad-invariant polynomials on the Lie algebra o(r ) consisting of skew-symmetric r × r real matrices. Fix P ∈ I k (O(r )). Set m = [r/2], and denote by J the 2 × 2 matrix J := Consider the Cartan algebra Co(r) = {λ1 J ⊕ · · · ⊕ λm J ∈ o(r ) ; λj ∈ R} , r = 2m {λ1 J ⊕ · · · ⊕ λm J ⊕ 0 ∈ o(r ) ; λj ∈ R} , r = 2m + 1 0 −1 1 0 .

The Cartan algebra Co(r) is the Lie algebra of the (maximal) torus Tm = , r = 2m Rθ1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rθm ∈ O(r ) , Rθ1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Rθm ⊕ ½R ∈ O(r ) , r = 2m + 1

where for each θ ∈ [0, 2π ] we denoted by Rθ the 2 × 2 rotation Rθ := cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ .

As in Subsection 8.2.1 we introduce the variables xj = − 1 dθj . 2π

Using standard results concerning the normal Jordan form of a skew-symmetric matrix, we deduce that, for every X ∈ o(r ), there exists T ∈ O(r ) such that T XT −1 ∈ Co(r) . Consequently, any Ad-invariant polynomial on o(r ) is uniquely deﬁned by its restriction to the Cartan algebra. Following the approach in the complex case, we consider SO(r) = T ∈ O(r ); T XT −1 = X, ∀X ∈ Co(r) , , T ∈ O(r ); T Co(r) T −1 ⊂ Co(r) , .

NO(r) =

The stabilizer SO(r) is a normal subgroup in N(O(r )), so we can form the Weyl group WO(r) := NO(r) /SO(r) . Exercise 8.2.4. Prove that WO(r) is the subgroup of GL(m, R) generated by the involutions σij : (x1 , . . . , xi , . . . , xj , . . . , xm ) → (x1 , . . . , xj , . . . , xi , . . . , xm ) εj : (x1 , . . . , xj , . . . , xm ) → (x1 , . . . , −xj , . . . , xm ). ⊔ ⊓ The restriction of P ∈ I k (O(r )) to Co(r) is a degree k homogeneous polynomial in the variables x1 , . . . , xm invariant under the action of the Weyl group. Using the above exercise we deduce that P must be a symmetric polynomial P = P (x1 , . . . , xm ), separately even in each variable.

8.2. IMPORTANT EXAMPLES

319

Invoking once again the fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials we conclude that P must be a polynomial in the elementary symmetric ones p1 p2 . . . Hence I • (O(r )) = R[p1 , . . . , p⌊r/2⌋ ]. In terms of X ∈ o(r ) we have pt (X ) =

j

= = . . .

x2 j 2 x2 x i<j i j . . . .

j 2 x2 1 · · · xm

pm =

pj (X )t2j = det

½−

t X 2π

∈ I • (O(r ))[t].

The above polynomial is called the universal rank r Pontryagin polynomial, while its coefﬁcients pj (X ) are called the universal rank r Pontryagin classes. The Pontryagin classes p1 (E ), . . . , pm (E ) of our real vector bundle E are then deﬁned by the equality t F (∇) ∈ H • (M )[t], pt (E ) = pj (E )t2j = det ½ − 2π

j

where ∇ denotes a connection compatible with some (real) metric on E , while F (∇) denotes its curvature. Note that pj (E ) ∈ H 4j (M ). The polynomial pt (E ) ∈ H • (M )[t] is called the Pontryagin polynomial of E .

**8.2.4 The Euler class
**

Let E be a rank r , real oriented vector bundle. A metric on E induces an O(r )-structure, but the existence of an orientation implies the existence of a ﬁner structure, namely an SO(r )-symmetry. The groups O(r ) and SO(r ) share the same Lie algebra so(r ) = o(r ). The inclusion ı : SO(r ) ֒→ O(r ), induces a morphism of R-algebras ı∗ : I • (O(r )) → I • (SO(r )). Because so(r ) = o(r ) one deduces immediately that ı∗ is injective. Lemma 8.2.5. When r is odd then ı∗ : I • (O(r )) → I • (SO(r )) is an isomorphism. Exercise 8.2.6. Prove the above lemma. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓

The situation is different when r is even, r = 2m. To describe the ring of invariants I • (SO(2m)), we need to study in greater detail the Cartan algebra Co(2m) = λ1 J ⊕ · · · ⊕ λm J ∈ o(2m)

In terms of X = λ1 J ⊕ · · · ⊕ λm J ∈ CSO(2m) . λi . . . . . . Proposition 8. Note that WSO(2m) has index 2 as a subgroup in WO(2m) . and ε : (λ1 . . There is however a new invariant. . Sec. . . . xm ) := j xj . . where P f denotes the pfafﬁan of the skewsymmetric matrix X viewed as a linear map R2m → R2m . . . . . . Thus WSO(2m) is a normal subgroup. Proof. . . pm .2. λm ). continue to be WSO(2m) invariants. · · · . ∆. . . Proof of Step 1. Z2 . Y = ∆) where (Y 2 − Zm ) denotes the ideal generated by the polynomial Y 2 − Zm . . . . εm = ±1. and G = WO(2m) /WSO(2m) ∼ = Z2 . . The kernel of the morphism R[Z1 . . ψ . . . . λi . . Step 1. .7. . . λj . . Step 2. . . We follow the approach used by H. . . . CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES and the corresponding Weyl group action. Y → ∆ is the ideal (Y 2 − Zm ). . . The isomorphism will be established in two steps. is isomorphic to the subgroup of GL(Co(2m) ) generated by the involutions σij : (λ1 . Zm . Note that pm = ∆2 . The Pontryagin O(2m)-invariants pj (x1 . . Y ]/(Y 2 − Zm ) (Zj = pj .320 CHAPTER 8. Y ] → I • (SO(2m)) deﬁned by Zj → pj . . . . where ε1 . deﬁned as usual as the quotient WSO(2m) = NSO(2m) /SSO(2m) . when R2m is endowed with the canonical orientation. λm ) → (λ1 . Weyl in describing the invariants of the alternate group ([101]. II. The space I • (SO(2m)) is generated as an R-algebra by the polynomials p1 . (Check this!) Set as usual xi := −λi /2π . ∆(x1 . I • (SO(2m)) ∼ = R[Z1 . λm ) → (ε1 λ1 . . Zm . we can write ∆(X ) = −1 2π m P f (X ).2). and ε1 · · · εm = 1. . εm λm ). . xm ) = 1≤i1 <···<ij ≤m (xi1 · · · xij )2 . . λj . . . The Weyl group WSO(2m) . . . .

. . and moreover. . x2 . xm ) = F (−x1 . I • (O(2m)) = ker(½ − e). Let P = P (Z1 . . Step 1 follows from F = 1 1 + (F + F − ) = (P (p1 . . . e} acts on I • (SO(2m)) by (eF )(x1 . . xm ) = −(½ − e)F (x1 . and we observe that F + ∈ ker(1 − e). xm ) = eF − (x1 . . Zm )Y + B (Z1 . pm )). . . . . . pm ). i. xm ). . Applying the morphism e we get −A(p1 . . . . Since eF − = −F − . pm )∆ + B (p1 . . . . . . so that we only need to establish the opposite inclusion. . P ∈ ker ψ . pm ). . pm ) + ∆ · Q(p1 . . . . . . G can be written as G = Q(p1 . . . . . . . G ∈ I • (O(2m)). . Z2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consequently. . pm ) = 0. . IMPORTANT EXAMPLES The group G = {½. 2 2 Proof of Step 2. . Indeed. x2 . Consider P as a polynomial in Y with coefﬁcients in R[Z1 . Zm ). . pm ) = 0. pm )∆ + B (p1 . . x2 . . . pm ).8. . . so that F − = ∆ · Q(p1 . . . The remainder is linear R = A(Z1 . . we deduce (Y 2 − Zm ) ⊂ ker ψ. . xm ) Hence. . .2. . From the equality det X = P f (X )2 ∀X ∈ so(2m). and e∆ = −∆ we deduce eG = G. . . x2 . Zm . the polynomial F − := (½ − e)F is separately odd in each of its variables. . . . .e. . 321 For each F ∈ I • (SO(2m)) we deﬁne F + := (½ + e)F . . . −xm ). Divide P by the quadratic polynomial (in Y ) Y 2 − Zm . . . . . Since Y 2 − Zm . . Hence F + = P (p1 . Zm ]. . Y ) ∈ ker ψ . . On the other hand. F − vanishes when any of its variables vanishes so that F − is divisible by their product ∆ = x1 · · · xm . we deduce R ∈ ker ψ . . . . . Thus A(p1 . xm ) = −F − (x1 . .. F − (−x1 . xm ) = · · · = F (x1 . = e(½ − e)F (x1 . F − = ∆ · G.

compact. ∀n ≥ 0. . oriented.2. (2π )m (According to the Chern-Weil theorem this cohomology class is independent of the metric and the connection. Let E be a rank 2m.8. The algebraic machinery which will achieve this end is called inverse limit. Let (Σ.5 Universal classes In each of the situations discussed so far we deﬁned characteristic classes for vector bundles with a given rank. The inverse limit of a projective system (Rn . which will be established later in this chapter. real. (2π )m (b) The Euler class of E . Deﬁnition 8. As in the previous subsection we deduce that we can use a metric to naturally identify E with a principal SO(2m)-bundle and in fact. is the cohomology class e(E ) ∈ H 2m (M ) represented by the Euler form 1 e(∇) = P f (−F (∇)) ∈ Ω2m (M ). . The the Euler form ε(g) = 1 s(g)dvg 4π ⊔ ⊓ coincides with the Euler form e(∇g ) obtained via the Chern-Weil construction. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES ⊔ ⊓ Hence A ≡ B ≡ 0 so that P is divisible by Y 2 − Zm . A projective sequence of rings is a a sequence of rings {Rn }n≥0 . together with a sequence of φn ring morphisms Rn ←− Rn+1 . this principal bundle is independent of the metric. g) be a compact. real. will show that these two notions coincide! ⊔ ⊓ 8. Finally. Remark 8. oriented manifold M .2. In this subsection we show how one can coherently present these facts all at once.) such that φn (xn+1 ) = xn . The most general version of the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. (a) The universal Euler class is deﬁned by e = e(X ) = 1 P f (−X ) ∈ I m (SO(2m)). Riemann surface and denote by ∇g the LeviCivita connection.9. choose a connection ∇ compatible with some metric on E . A geometric Euler class egeom (E ) ∈ H 2m (M ) deﬁned via the Chern-Weil construction. . oriented vector bundle over the smooth manifold M . A topological Euler class etop (E ) ∈ H 2m (M ) deﬁned as the pullback of the Thom class via an arbitrary section of E . irrespective of rank.2. We begin by ﬁrst describing a special example of inverse limit.) ⊔ ⊓ Example 8.2. φn ) is the subring lim Rn ⊂ ← Rn n ≥0 consisting of the sequences (x1 . x2 .10. Let E be a rank 2m. oriented vector bundle over the smooth.322 CHAPTER 8. . We now have two apparently conﬂicting notions of Euler classes.

). F1 (X1 ) · · · Fn (Xn ). . . .2. . . .12.2) induces a projective sequence of rings R ← I •• (U (1)) ← I •• (U (2)) ← · · · . An element φ = (φ1 . . Set S∞ [[xj ]] := lim Sn . When F1 = F2 = · · · Fn = · · · = F the corresponding elements is denoted by (F )∞ . . Thus we can work with the ring I •• (U (n)) rather than I • (U (n)) as we have done so far. (b) Prove that ∀F. . . given Gn ∈ R[[x]]. (R0 = R. Prove that (R[[x]]♭ . IMPORTANT EXAMPLES 323 Example 8. ·) is an abelian group. We will discuss these two situations separately. Given a sequence Fn ∈ R[[X ]] (n ≥ 1) such that Fn (0) = 1. . ⊔ ⊓ In dealing with characteristic classes of vector bundles one naturally encounters the increasing sequences U (1) ֒→ U (2) ֒→ · · · (8. ⊔ ⊓ Similarly. .2. we can form the sequence of products (1. F1 (X1 ). .2. . the characteristic class φ(E ) is well deﬁned since udim M +1 = 0. . When G1 = G2 = · · · = Fn = · · · = F we denote the corresponding element (G)∞ . . . X2 . F1 (X1 )F2 (X2 ). Exercise 8.]] denoted by F1 (X1 )F2 (X2 ) · · · . X2 . .]].4) (8. The sequence in (8.2. The inverse limit of this projective system is denoted by R[[X1 . . .). .2. . . which deﬁnes an element in R[[X1 . for any u ∈ Ω∗ (M ). . G1 (X1 ). . . . .) Denote by φn : Rn+1 → Rn the natural morphism deﬁned by setting Xn+1 = 0. G1 (X1 ) + G2 (X2 ). (a) Let R[[x]]♭ denote the set of formal power series F ∈ R[[x]] such that F (0) = 1. .2.) ∈ I •• (U (∞)) := lim I •• (U (n)) = S∞ [[xj ]] ← ← is called universal characteristic class. X2 .3) We know that I •• (U (n)) = Sn [[xj ]]= the ring of symmetric formal power series in n variables with coefﬁcients in R. The complex case.2) (in the complex case) and (in the real case) O(1) ֒→ O(2) ֒→ · · · . G ∈ R[[x]]♭ (F · G)∞ = (F )∞ · (G)∞ . Xn ]] be the ring of formal power series in n variables with coefﬁcients in the commutative ring with unit R. (n ≥ 1) such that Fn (0) = 0. and φ ∈ I •• (U (n)).]] denoted by G1 (X1 ) + G2 (X2 ) + · · · . G1 (X1 ) + · · · ⊕ Gn (Xn ). φ2 . . . Given a rank n vector bundle E over a smooth manifold M . which deﬁnes an element in R[[X1 . (8.8.2. Let Rn = R[[X1 . we can from the sequence of sums (0.11.

·) ∋ F → (F )∞ ∈ (S∞ [[xj ]]. . . . (2k)! The coefﬁcients Bk are known as the Bernoulli numbers. . . deﬁnes an element in S∞ [[xj ]] called the universal Todd class. The product (F )∞ = x1 1 − e−x1 · x2 1 − e−x2 ··· . . Example 8. . . x2 . we can write ck = x i1 x i2 · · · x ik . where R = R[[t]] is the ring of formal power series in the variable t. . (see Exercise 8. Formally. ck .12. .324 CHAPTER 8. Then (F )∞ deﬁnes an element in R[[X1 . We denote by ck (n ≥ k) the elementary symmetric polynomial in n variables ck Then the sequence (0. Consider the function F (x) = (1 + tx) ∈ R[[x]].) deﬁnes an element in S∞ [[xj ]] denoted by ck . ck (k ) (k +1) (n) (n) = 1≤i1 <···<ik ≤n x i1 · · · x ik . We see that ct := is the universal Chern polynomial.) = (1 + tx1 )(1 + tx2 ) · · · = 1 + c1 t + c2 t2 + · · · . 0. . More precisely. We denote it by Td.13. .2. (1 + txj ) j ≥1 ⊔ ⊓ We can perform a similar operation with any F ∈ R[[x]] such that F (0) = 1. where r = rank E . . ·). . 1≤i1 <···<ik <∞ We can present the above arguments in a more concise form as follows. One sees immediately that in fact. Using the fundamental theorem of symmetric polynomials we can write Td = 1 + Td1 + Td2 + · · · . We get a semigroup morphism (R[[x]]♭ . X2 . to deﬁne φr (E ) we need to pick a connection ∇ compatible with some Hermitian metric on E . and then set φ(E ) = φr (F (∇)). we set φ(E )” = φr (E ). .]].2. (F )∞ ∈ S∞ [[xj ]] [[t]] and moreover (F )∞ (x1 .) One very important example is 1 1 1 x = 1 + x + x2 + · · · = 1 + x + F (x) = − x 1−e 2 12 2 ∞ k =1 (−1)k−1 Bk 2k x ∈ R[[x]]. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES If E is a complex vector bundle. which we call the universal k-th Chern class.

3. . xm ). x2 . if it can be represented as a sequence P = (P1 . . . . . and Pm+1 (x1 . . For example.2. 1 1 1 Td1 = c1 . Next. IMPORTANT EXAMPLES 325 where Tdn ∈ S∞ [[xj ]] is an universal symmetric. 0) = Pm (x1 . . We have two examples in mind. P2 . The cohomology class ch(E ) is called the Chern character of the bundle E . . .8. . Td3 = c1 c2 etc. x2 . By an universal“polynomial” we understand element in the inverse limit R[x1 .] = lim R[x1 . . . any function G ∈ R[[x]] such that G(0) = 0 deﬁnes an element (G)∞ = G(x1 ) + G(x2 ) + · · · ∈ S∞ [[xj ]]..12. xm . then we can express the Chern character of E as ch(E ) = tr e where ∧ is the bilinear map Ωi (End (E )) × Ωj (End (E )) → Ωi+j (End (E )) deﬁned in Example 3. Td2 = (c2 + c2 ). homogeneous “polynomial” of degree n. . . called the universal k-th power sum. If ∇ is a connection on E compatible with some Hermitian metric. 2 12 1 24 Analogously. . c2 . . x2 .). where Pm is a homogeneous polynomial of degree d in m variables. consider xm . G(x) = ex − 1 = m! m≥1 We have (ex − 1)∞ = m≥1 1 m 1 (x )∞ = sm ∈ S∞ [[xj ]] m! m ! m=1 Given a complex vector bundle E we deﬁne ch(E ) = rank E + (ex − 1)∞ (E ). F (∇) = rank (E ) + ∞ k =1 1 tr (F (∇)∧k ). . . First. k! . hence expressible as a combination of the elementary symmetric “polynomials” c1 . We get the symmetric function k sk = (xk )∞ = (G)∞ = xk 1 + x2 + · · · . ← An universal “polynomial” P is said to be homogeneous of degree d. We will denote these by sk . .]. consider G(x) = xk .

. Consider a connection ∇i on Ei compatible with some Hermitian metric hi . with respect to these bases A = diag(λ1 . where the operation is deﬁned by C ∞ (Ei ). ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ The proposition is proved. Hence from which we deduce the ﬁrst equality. Lemma 8. Then. . Then tr (exp(A ⊗ ½Cm + ½Cn ⊗ B )) = tr (exp(A)) · tr (exp(B )). λn ) and B = diag(µ1 .2. tr (A ⊗ ½Cm + ½Cn ⊗ B ) = eλi eµj = tr (eA ) · tr (eB ). . n × n (respectively m × m) complex matrix. i = 1. and moreover F (∇1 ⊕ ∇2 ) = F (∇1 ) ⊕ F (∇2 ). = F (∇1 ) ⊗ ½E2 + ½E1 ⊗ F (∇2 ). (8. Then ch(E1 ⊕ E2 ) = ch(E1 ) + ch(E2 ). 2. If si ∈ C ∞ (Ei ). Proof. Consider two complex vector bundles E1 . ∀ω k ⊗ : Ωk (E1 ) × Ωℓ (E2 ) → Ωk+ℓ (E1 ⊗ E2 ) (ω k ⊗ s1 ) ⊗ (η ℓ s2 ) = (ω k ∧ η ℓ ) ⊗ (s1 ⊗ s2 ) ∀η ℓ Ωℓ (M ).2. As for the second equality. . CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES and Proposition 8. si ∈ C ∞ (Ei ). exp(A ⊗ ½Cm + ½Cn ⊗ B ) = diag(eλi eµj ). . ∀si ∈ ∈ and ∈ We compute the curvature of ∇ using the equality F (∇) = (d∇ )2 . consider the connection ∇ on E1 ⊗ E2 uniquely deﬁned by the product rule ∇(s1 ⊗ s2 ) = (∇1 s1 ) ⊗ s2 + s1 ⊗ (∇2 s2 ). E2 over the same manifold M .5) exp(F (∇1 ⊕ ∇2 )) = exp(F (∇1 )) ⊕ exp(F (∇2 )).326 CHAPTER 8. ch(E1 ⊗ E2 ) = ch(E1 ) ∧ ch(E2 ) ∈ H • (M ). Pick an orthonormal basis (ei ) of Cn and an orthonormal basis (fj ) of Cm ) such that. we have (A ⊗ ½Cm + ½Cn ⊗ B ) = diag( λi + µj ).2. F (∇)(s1 ⊗ s2 ) = d∇ {(∇1 s1 ) ⊗ s2 + s1 ⊗ (∇2 s2 )} Ωk (M ). . µm )). . Proof. then = (F (∇1 )s1 ) ⊗ s2 − (∇1 s1 ) ⊗ (∇2 s2 ) + (∇1 s1 ) ⊗ (∇2 s2 ) + s1 ⊗ (F (∇2 )) The second equality in the proposition is a consequence the following technical lemma. . Then ∇1 ⊕ ∇2 is a connection on E1 ⊕ E2 compatible with the metric h1 ⊕ h2 . . Let A (respectively B ) be a skew-adjoint.15.14. Hence so that. with respect to the basis (ei ⊗ fj ) of Cn ⊗ Cm .

) Consider the symmetric polynomials ck = 1≤i1 ≤···ik ≤n 327 xi1 · · · xik ∈ R[x1 .3) induces a projective system I •• (O(1)) ← I •• (O(2)) ← · · · . . . r (−1)j sr−j cj = 0 ∀1 ≤ r ≤ n. (c) Deduce from the above formulae the following identities between universal symmetric polynomials. The inverse limit of this system is m 2 I • • (O(∞) = lim I •• (O(r )) = S∞ [[x2 j ]] := lim S [[xj ]]. =1+ (−1)k 2k−1 F (x) = 2 (2 k )! sinh( x/2) k ≥1 The universal characteristic class (F (x))∞ is denoted by A. . IMPORTANT EXAMPLES Exercise 8.2. . . .8. . . We have proved that I •• (O(n)) = S⌊n/2⌋ [[x2 j ]] = the ring of even. and (r ≥ 0) sr = j xr j ∈ R[x1 . (Newton’s formulæ.2. In topology. n Set f (t) := (a) Show that j =1 (1 − xj t). √ 22k−1 − 1 x/2 √ Bk xk . The real case. using metric compatible connections.16. If F ∈ R[[x]]♭ then (F (x2 ))∞ deﬁnes an element of S∞ [[x2 j ]]. and it is called the A-genus. f ′ (t) =− f (t) (b) Prove the Newton formulæ r j =1 s r tr −1 . for any real vector bundle E and any φ ∈ S∞ [[x2 j ]] there is a well deﬁned characteristic class φ(E ) which can be expressed exactly as in the complex case.2. 3 s1 = c1 . xn ]. ← ← As in the complex case. We can write A = 1 + A1 + A2 + · · · . symmetric power series in ⌊n/2⌋ variables. s3 = c1 − 3c1 c2 + 3c3 . xn ]. . In fact. s2 = c2 ⊔ ⊓ 1 − 2c2 . the most commonly encountered situations are the following. any element of this ring is called a universal characteristic class. A. The sequence (8.

3 Computing characteristic classes The theory of characteristic classes is as useful as one’s ability to compute them. . and using the G structure. L2 = (7p2 − p2 1 ) etc. and it is called the L-genus. 3 45 8. One natural question is whether there is any relationship between them. ρ). The ﬁrst few terms are 1 1 L1 = p1 . where G is a Lie group. They can be expressed in terms of the universal Pontryagin classes. Then we can perform two types of Chern-Weil constructions: using the U (r ) structure. In this section we will describe some methods of doing this.symmetry. if a rank r complex vector bundle E splits as a Whitney sum E = E1 ⊕ E2 with rank Ei = ri . We will discuss in some detail a few invariant theoretic methods and we will present one topological result more precisely the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem. In particular. even. 24 2 ·3 ·5 k ≥1 The universal class (F (x2 ))∞ is denoted by L. (2k)! p1 1 . where the Lj ’s are universal. assume that a given rank r complex vector bundle E admits a G-structure (P. homogeneous “polynomials”. differential and algebraic geometry and Lie group theory that go beyond the scope of this book. the symmetries of a vector bundle are implicitly described through topological or geometric properties. homogeneous “polynomials”. we can write L = 1 + L1 + L2 + · · · . 8. As before. symmetric. P is a principal G bundle. can be given a ﬁner structure of U (r1 ) × U (r2 ) vector bundle. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES where Ak are universal. Most concrete applications require the aplication of a combination of techniques from topology. even. and ρ : G → U (r ) is a representation of G. symmetric. A2 = 7 2 (−4p2 + 7p2 1 ) etc. we obtain two collections of characteristic classes associated to E .328 CHAPTER 8.3. which has a natural U (r ).1 Reductions In applications. For example. The ﬁrst couple of terms are A1 = − B. and as such they can be described using universal Pontryagin classes pm = 1≤j1 <···jm 2 x2 j 1 · · · xj m . More generally. then E . Consider F (x) = 1 1 x √ = 1 + x + x2 + · · · = 1 + tanh x 3 45 √ (−1)k−1 22k Bk xk .

The following result is immediate.1) .3. Let E and F be two complex vector bundles over the same smooth manifold M of ranks r and respectively s. ϕ∗ : LH → LG . We conclude this subsection with some simple. Then the Chern polynomials of E . (8. Pick a connection (Aα ) on Q. Let ϕ : H → G be a smooth morphism of (matrix) Lie groups. Denote by LG (respectively LH ) the Lie algebra of G (respectively H ). Example 8. if there exists a principal H -bundle P → M such that Q = ϕ(P ). COMPUTING CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES 329 In terms of the Whitney splitting E = E1 ⊕ E2 above. and gluing cocycle hαβ : Uαβ → H. and denote by (Fα ) its curvature. Then for every η ∈ ker ϕ∗ we have η (P ) = 0 in H ∗ (M ).3. Proof. the problem takes a more concrete form: compute the Chern classes of E in terms of the Chern classes of E1 and E2 .3. Now η (ϕ∗ (Fα )) = (ϕ∗ η )(Fα ) = 0. ⊔ ⊓ The morphism ϕ : H → G in the above deﬁnition induces a morphism of R-algebras ϕ∗ : I • (G) → I • (H ). The elements of ker ϕ∗ ⊂ I • (G) are called universal identities.3. Let P be a principal G-bundle which can be reduced to a principal H -bundle Q.3. (a) If P is a principal H -bundle over the smooth manifold M deﬁned by the open cover (Uα ).1. Our next deﬁnition formalizes the above situations. Proposition 8. and by ϕ∗ the differential of ϕ at 1 ∈ H . What is important about this result is the simple argument used to prove it. (b) A principal G-bundle Q over M is said to be ϕ-reducible. ⊔ ⊓ The above result should be seen as a guiding principle in proving identities between characteristic classes. Then the collection ϕ∗ (Aα ) deﬁnes a connection on P with curvature ϕ∗ (Fα ). F and E ⊕ F are related by the identity ct (E ⊕ F ) = ct (E ) · ct (F ). rather than a rigid result. but very important applications of the above principle. and it is denoted by ϕ(P ).2.8. then the principal G-bundle deﬁned by the gluing cocycle gαβ = ϕ ◦ hαβ : Uαβ → G is said to be the ϕ-associate of P . Deﬁnition 8.3.

Hence.n ⊕ Qk. vj .n → Grk (Cn ) is a subbundle of the trivial bundle Cn → Grk (Cn ).n = j =0 uj t .4. Equivalently. Section 6. this means ck (E ⊕ F ) = i+ j = k ci (E ) · cj (F ). 0 ≤ i ≤ k. The trivial bundle Cn is equipped with a canonical Hermitian metric.n . Let ı (ν ) denote the natural inclusion u(r ) ⊕ u(s) ֒→ u(r + s) and denote by ct ∈ I ∗ (U (ν ))[t] the Chern polynomial. deg ui = 2i.330 CHAPTER 8.3. Consider the Grassmannian Grk (Cn ) of complex k-dimensional subspaces in Cn . Chapter v3. R) is generated by the classes ui . We have t (r +s) Xr ⊕ Xs )(Xr ⊕ Xs ) = det ½r+s − ı∗ (ct 2π i = det ½r − t Xr 2π i · det ½s − t Xs 2π i = ct · ct (s). Then k ct Uk. Remark 8. One can then prove that the cohomology ring H • Grk (Cn ). pick a Hermitian metric g on E and a Hermitian metric h on F . ⊔ ⊓ .3.n = j n −k ℓ=0 vℓ t ℓ .1) now follows using the argument in the proof of Proposition 8. g ⊕ h is a Hermitian metric on E ⊕ F . Any element X in this algebra has a block decomposition XE X= Xr 0 0 Xs = Xr ⊕ Xs . We denote by Qk.3.n and by vℓ the ℓ-th Chern class of Qk. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES where the “·” denotes the ∧-multiplication in H even (M ). From the above example we deduce that ct Uk. The proof requires a more sophisticated topological machinery.2. To check this. vj . The universal complex vector bundle Uk.n = ct (Cn ) = 1. The Lie algebra of U (r ) × U (s) is the direct sum u(r ) ⊕ u(s).n the orthogonal complement of Uk.n in Cn so that we have an isomorphism Cn ∼ = Uk. skew-hermitian matrix.n . which are subject to the single relation above. For details we refer to [76]. ⊔ ⊓ (r ) (s) The equality (8. where Xr (respectively Xs ) is an r × r (respectively s × s) complex. R) ∼ = R[ui . 0 ≤ j ≤ n − k]/ ui )( i j vj ) = 1 . ct Qk.n ct Qk. E ⊕ F has an U (r + s) structure reducible to an U (r ) × U (s) structure. More formally H • Grk (Cn ). deg vj = 2j . Denote by uj the j -th Chern class of Uk.

Prove that pt (E ⊕ F ) = pt (E ) · pt (F ). This is mirrored at the Lie algebra level by an inclusion o(n) ֒→ u(n).8.5.3. Indeed. where pt denotes the Pontryagin polynomials. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES 331 Exercise 8.3.3. a real skew-symmetric matrix we have λj (X ) = λj (X ) = −λj (X ).3. ⊔ ⊓ Example 8. for X ∈ o(n) we have ı∗ (c2k+1 )(X ) = − 1 2π i 2k +1 1≤i1 <···<i2k+1 ≤n λi1 (X ) · · · λi2k+1 (X ).3. and ı∗ (c2k ) = (−1)k pk .2) ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 8.6. The natural inclusion Rn ֒→ Cn induces an embedding ı : O(n) ֒→ U (n). From the above example we deduce immediately the following consequence. ⊔ ⊓ The equality ı∗ (c2k ) = (−1)k pk is proved similarly. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 8. Since X is.7. Show that Td(E ⊕ F ) = Td(E ) · Td(F ). Let E and F be two complex vector bundles over the same manifold M .3. ı (c2k+1 )(X ) = ı (c2k+1 (X )) = 2k +1 1≤i1 <···<i2k+1 ≤n ∗ ∗ 2k +1 1≤i1 <···<i2k+1 ≤n 1 − 2π i λi1 (X ) · · · λi2k+1 (X ) = (−1)2k+1 − 1 2π i λi1 (X ) · · · λi2k+1 (X ) = −ı∗ (c2k+1 )(X ). where λj (X ) are the eigenvalues of X over C. and we claim that i∗ (c2k+1 ) = 0. Consequently. We obtain a morphism ı∗ : I • (U (n)) → I • (O(n)). Let E and F be two real vector bundles over the same smooth manifold M . Let E and F be two real vector bundles over the same manifold M . Show that L(E ⊕ F ) = L(E ) · L(F ) A(E ⊕ F ) = A(E ) · A(F ). (An orthogonal map T : Rn → Rn extends by complexiﬁcation to an unitary map TC : Cn → Cn ). .8. (8. in effect.

.3. (b) One can also regard E as a real. (a) Show that ck (E ∗ ) = (−1)k ck (E ).332 CHAPTER 8. equipped with a metric and a compatible connection ∇.9. k = 1. Prove that pit (ER ) = k (8. e. Exercise 8.10. ct (E ∗ ) = c−t (E ). i. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES Proposition 8. and if moreover F is even. cr (E ) = e(ER ). k r k := r (r − 1) · · · (r − k + 1) . (a) The natural morphisms I •• (U (r )) → I •• (O(r )) described above induce a morphism Φ∞ : I •• (U (∞)) → I •• (O(∞)). Exercise 8. . Deduce from part (a) that As we already know. If E → M is a real vector bundle and E ⊗ C is its complexiﬁcation then pk (E ) = (−1)k c2k (E ⊗ C). . Show that for every F ∈ R[[x]]♭ Φ∞ ((F )∞ ) = (F · F − )∞ ∈ I •• (O(∞)). then (F )∞ can be regarded as an element of I ∗∗ (O(∞)).3. ⊔ ⊓ and where F − (x) = F (−x). Prove that L(∇) = det1/2 i c 2π F (∇ ) c tanh 2i π F (∇ ) . . Let E → M be a complex vector bundle of rank r . .3.12. . A(∇) = det1/2 i c 4π F (∇ ) c sinh( 4i π F (∇ ) . Suppose that E → M is a rank r real vector bundle. this means pt (E ) = p−t (E ) = cit (E ⊗ C). Exercise 8. The connection ∇ induces a Hermitian connection ∇c on the complexiﬁcation Ec := E ⊗R C. In a more concentrated form. for any F ∈ R[[x]]♭ . Td(E ⊗ C) = A(E )2 . k! and det1/2 (½ + X ) := det(½ + X )1/2 . the product (F )∞ is an element of I •• (U (∞)). 2.3. (b) Let E be a real vector bundle. ⊔ ⊓ 2 We are not worried about convergence issues because the matrices for which we intend to apply the formula have nilpotent entries.11. For every square matrix X we set2 (½ + X )1/2 = ∞ k =0 ⊔ ⊓ (−1)k 1/2 Xk.3) ⊔ ⊓ (−1)k t2k pk (ER ) = ct (E ) · c−t (E ). oriented vector bundle ER .3.

oriented vector bundle over the smooth manifold M . In other words. = e(k) ⊗ e(ℓ) (Xk ⊕ Xℓ ). Then e(E ⊕ F ) = e(E ) · e(F ).8. and the orientation on L deﬁned by ξ induce an orientation on L⊥ .13. Denote by L the real line subbundle of E generated by the section ξ .3. ı∗ (e(k+ℓ) ) = e(k) ⊗ e(ℓ) . I ∗ (SO(2k)) → I ∗ (SO(2k − 1)). Consider the inclusion ı : SO(2k) × SO(2ℓ)) ֒→ SO(2k + 2ℓ). Denote by ı∗ the inclusion induced morphism Since ı∗ (e(k) ) = 0. We claim that if E admits a nowhere vanishing section ξ then e(E ) = 0. The orientation on E .3. Proposition 8. This induces a ring morphism ı∗ : I • (SO(2k + 2ℓ) → I • (SO(2k) × SO(2ℓ)). ⊔ ⊓ Example 8. T ) ∈ SO(2k) × SO(2ℓ) we may assume that Xk = λ1 J ⊕ · · · ⊕ λk J and Xℓ = µ1 J ⊕ · · · ⊕ µℓ J.3. Clearly. Let E and F be two real. L is a trivial line bundle. we deduce from the Proposition 8. and E splits as an orthogonal sum E = L ⊕ L⊥ . 333 Denote by e(ν ) the Euler class in I • (SO(2ν )). Modulo a conjugation by (S.3. oriented vector bundle of even ranks over the same manifold M . ⊔ ⊓ . COMPUTING CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES Example 8. To see this. We want to prove that Let X = Xk ⊕ Xℓ ∈ so(2k) ⊕ so(2ℓ).3.14. the SO(2k) structure of E can be reduced to an SO(1) × SO(2k − 1) ∼ = SO(2k − 1)-structure.2 that e(E ) = 0. so that L⊥ has an SO(2k − 1)-structure. λ1 · · · λk · µ1 · · · µℓ = e(k) (Xk ) · e(ℓ) (Xℓ ) ⊔ ⊓ The above example has an interesting consequence. where · denotes the ∧-multiplication in H even (M ).15. Let E be a rank 2k real. where J denotes the 2 × 2 matrix We have ı∗ (e(k+ℓ) )(X ) = − 1 2π k +ℓ J= 0 −1 1 0 . Note that I • (SO(2k) × SO(2ℓ)) ∼ = I • (SO(2k)) ⊗R I • (SO(2ℓ). ﬁx an Euclidean metric on E so that E is now endowed with an SO(2k)-structure.

3. A. • The geometric Euler class egeom (E ) = 1 (2π )r P f (−F (∇)) if rank (E ) is even . Consider the automorphism of E i : E → E u → −u ∀u ∈ E.334 CHAPTER 8. will show that these two notions of Euler class coincide.3. The next result. Since the ﬁbers of E are odd dimensional. Then etop (E ) = egeom (E ). this implies π∗ i∗ τE = −π∗ τE = π∗ (−τE ). We will distinguish two cases. compact. . • The topological Euler class ∗ etop (E ) = ζ0 τE . Indeed. Since π∗ is an isomorphism (Thom isomorphism theorem). rank (E ) is odd.4) On the other hand. we deduce that i reverses the orientation in the ﬁbers.16. Theorem 8. Hence ∗ ∗ etop (E ) = −ζ0 i τE . which generalizes the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES The result proved in the above example can be reformulated more suggestively as follows. where τE is the Thom class of E and ζ0 : M → E is the zero section. we deduce i∗ τE = −τE . Let E be a real oriented vector bundle of even rank over the smooth manifold M . 0 if rank (E ) is odd where ∇ is a connection on E compatible with some metric and 2r = rank (E ).3. ∗ ∗ ζ0 i = (iζ0 )∗ = (−ζ0 )∗ = (ζ )∗ (ζ0 = −ζ0 ). If e(E ) = 0.2 The Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem If E → M is a real oriented vector bundle over a smooth. then any section of E must vanish somewhere on M ! ⊔ ⊓ 8. (8. In particular.3. Let E → M be a real. π Proof. notice that ∗ ∗ ζ0 i = ζ0 . where π∗ denotes the integration along ﬁbers. oriented manifold M then there are two apparently conﬂicting notions of Euler class naturally associated to E .17 (Gauss-Bonnet-Chern). Corollary 8. oriented vector bundle over the compact oriented manifold M .

∗ E ) denotes the differential form where egeom (π0 ∗ egeom (π0 ∇) = 1 ∗ P f (−F (π0 ∇)).3. rank (E ) = 2k. We will k explicitly construct a closed form ω ∈ Ω2 cpt (E ) such that (i) π∗ ω = 1 ∈ Ω0 (M ).18. The strategy of proof is very simple.3.3. We will use a variation of the original argument of Chern.4). and moreover. nowhere vanishing section ∗ Υ : S (Ex ) ∋ e → e ∈ Ex ≡ (π0 (E )x )e (x ∈ M ). ∗ (E ) → S (E ) the pullback of E to Denote by π0 the natural projection S (E ) → M .8. Let ∇ denote a connection on E compatible with a metric g. Denote by S (E ) the unit sphere bundle of E . The decisive step in the proof of Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem is contained in the following lemma. ∗ ω = e(∇) = (2π )−k P f (−F (∇)). Then S (E ) is a compact manifold.3. (8. There exists Ψ = Ψ(∇) ∈ Ω2k−1 (S (E )) such that ∗ dΨ(∇) = egeom (π0 (E )) (8.15 we must have ∗ egeom (π0 (E )) = 0 ∈ H 2k (S (E )). (ii) ζ0 The Thom isomorphism theorem coupled with (i) implies that ω represents the Thom class in 2k (E ).3.3.5) and S (E )/M Ψ(∇) = −1 ∈ Ω0 (M ). The vector bundle π0 a tautological. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES The equality etop = egeom now follows from (8. (2π )k Hence there must exist ψ ∈ Ω2k−1 (S (E )) such that ∗ dψ = egeom (π0 E ). |u|g = 1}. The condition (ii) simply states the sought for equality e Hcpt top = egeom . it admits S (E ) via the map π0 . and by π0 ∗ (E ) has an SO (2k )-structure. Thus. Lemma 8. S (E ) = {u ∈ E . and dim S (E ) = dim M + 2k − 1. [22].6) . 335 B. according to Example 8.

The tautological section Proof of Lemma 8. . Thus ω is closed The above form is identically zero since π0 and the theorem is proved. Denote by r : E → R+ the norm function E ∋ e → |e|g If we set E 0 = E \ { zero section }.6) E/M E/M S (E )/M Ψ(∇) = −(ρ(1) − ρ(0)) S (E )/M Ψ(∇) = 1. Finally. ∇). ∞ 0 we deduce ω=− ρ′ (r )dr ∧ Ψ(∇) = − ρ′ (r )dr · (8. and ρ(r ) = 0 for r ≥ 3/4. then we can identify 1 E0 ∼ = (0.3. ∞) × S (E ) e → (|e|. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES The form Ψ(∇) is sometimes referred to as the global angular form of the pair (E. The differential form ω is well deﬁned since ρ′ (r ) ≡ 0 near the zero section. deﬁne ω = ω (∇) = −ρ′ (r )dr ∧ Ψ(∇) − ρ(r )π ∗ (e(∇)). ⊔ ⊓ ∗ E .336 CHAPTER 8. ∞) → R. and satisﬁes the condition (ii) since ∗ ∗ ∗ π e(∇) = e(∇). e).5 ) = ∗ e(∇) = π ∗ e(∇) on the support of ρ′ . dω = ρ′ (r )dr ∧ dΨ(∇) − ρ′ (r ) ∧ π ∗ e(∇) (8. such that ρ(r ) = −1 for r ∈ [0.3. For the clarity of the exposition we will conclude the proof of the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem assuming Lemma 8. To complete the program outlined at the beginning of the proof we need to show that ω is closed. ∗ ρ′ (r )dr ∧ {π0 e(∇) − π ∗ e(∇)}.3.3.18 We denote by ∇ the pullback of ∇ to π0 ∗ Υ : S (E ) → π0 E can be used to produce an orthogonal splitting ∗ π0 E = L ⊕ L⊥ . |e| Consider the smooth cutoff function ρ = ρ(r ) : [0. ω = −ρ(0)ζ0 ζ0 From the equality E/M ρ(r )π ∗ e(∇) = 0.18 which will be proved later on. Obviously ω has compact support on E . 1/4].

(2π )k ˆ splits as a direct sum Since the curvature of ∇ ˆ ) = 0 ⊕ F ′ (∇ ˆ ).18.8. we deduce where F ′ (∇ ˆ )) = 0. .12) that ∗ ˆ) = d π0 e(∇) = e(∇) − e(∇ −1 2π k 1 k 0 ˆ . F t )dt . F (∇ ˆ ) denotes the curvature of ∇ ˆ |L⊥ . . . . By construction. F t .3. ∇ We have an equality of differential forms ∗ π0 e(∇) = e(∇) = 1 P f (−F (∇)). so all that we need to prove is Ψ(∇) = −1 ∈ Ω0 (M ). ∗ dΨ(∇) = π0 e(∇).3. so that ∇0 = ∇ ˆ . . Ex ∗ E is naturally isomorphic with a trivial bundle Along this ﬁber π0 ∗ π0 E |Ex ∼ = (Ex × Ex → Ex ).1. F t . . Denote by ∗ ∗ P : π0 E → π0 E the orthogonal projection onto L⊥ . S (E )/M It sufﬁces to show that for each ﬁber Ex of E we have Ψ(∇) = −1. Using P . P f (∇ − ∇ We claim that the form Ψ(∇) = −1 2π k 1 k 0 ˆ . we can produce a new metric compatible connection ˆ on π ∗ E by ∇ 0 ˆ = (trivial connection on L) ⊕ P ∇P. while L⊥ is its orthogonal complement in π0 respect to the pullback metric g. . . P f (F (∇ ˆ ). and ∇1 = ∇. F t )dt P f (∇ − ∇ satisﬁes all the conditions in Lemma 8. . COMPUTING CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES 337 ∗ E with where L is the real line bundle spanned by Υ. If F t is the ˆ + t(∇ − ∇ We denote by ∇t the connection ∇ t curvature of ∇ . we deduce from the transgression formula (8.

For α = 0. ∂ ∂0 |p = f i = ∂i |p . . CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES Moreover. We will use Latin letters to denote indices running from 1 to 2k − 1. such that the basis ( ∂x |p ) is positively oriented. The splitting L ⊕ L⊥ over S (E ) restricts over S (Ex ) as the splitting R2k = ν ⊕ T S 2k−1 . while the superscript τ indicates the tangential component. On the other hand. Set ∂i := ∂x for i = 1. . . . . and Greek letters indices running from 0 to 2k − 1. ∇i ∂0 = ∂i . 0=∇ we deduce ∇i ∂j = (∇i ∂j )ν at p. ∇i ∂j = (∇i ∂j . ˆ . at p. . where the superscript ν indicates the normal component. . ˆ is then the direct sum where ν denotes the normal bundle of S 2k−1 ֒→ R2k . . i. 2 k − 1 θ 0 ··· 0 ∇i ∂j = −δji ∂0 . Fix a point p ∈ S 2k−1 . ∇∂0 = θ 1 ⊗ ∂1 + · · · + θ 2k−1 ⊗ ∂2k−1 . Hence Recalling that ∇ is the trivial connection in R2k . The connection ∇ between the trivial connection on ν . . . then we can rephrase the above equality as ∇∂j = −(θ 1 + · · · + θ 2k−1 ) ⊗ ∂0 . ∂0 )∂0 = −(∂j . . ∂ fi . the connection ∇ restricts as the trivial connection. 1. The unit sphere S (Ex ) is Ex with the trivial bundle R 2 k − 1 2 k identiﬁed with the unit sphere S ⊂ R .338 CHAPTER 8. Since at p ˆ i ∂j = (∇i ∂j )τ . Denote i i the unit outer normal vector ﬁeld by ∂0 . . . · · · . If we denote by θ i the local frame of T ∗ S 2k−1 dual to (∂i ). ∇i ∂0 )∂0 . . 2k − 1. . . 2k − 1 set f α = ∂α |p . . we Since (x1 .e. and the Levi-Civita connection on T S 2k−1 . we deduce ∇i ∂0 |p = Consequently. . By choosing an orthonormal basis 2k ∗E | of Ex we can identify π0 over R2k . . and denote by (x1 .. . The vectors f α form a positively oriented orthonormal basis of R2k . . ∇i ∂α = (∇i ∂α )ν + (∇i ∂α )τ . x2k−1 ) are normal coordinates with respect to the Levi-Civita connection ∇ ˆ ∂α = 0. ∀α so that deduce that ∇ 0 −θ 1 · · · −θ 2k−1 θ1 0 ··· 0 2 0 ··· 0 ˆ ) |p = θ A = (∇ − ∇ . x2k−1 ) a collection of normal coordinates near ∂ ∂ p. . . .

Then F 0 = 0 ⊕ R. F. F 0 . F. . In matrix format we have ˆ + tA can be computed using the equation where Ωij = θ i ∧ θ j . (1 − t2 )F 0 )dt (8. curvature of ∇ The computations in Example 4. .19 show that the second fundamental form of the embedding S 2k−1 ֒→ R2k .11) of subsection 8.3. 1.2. ∂ℓ = δiℓ δjk − δik δjℓ . for σ ∈ S1 . such that ǫ(σ ) = ǫ(φ). F 0 . Similarly. · · · . Ψ(∇) |p = = −1 2π −1 2π k k 1 F 0 = 0 ⊕ (Ωij ). we get a permutation φ = (σ0 . F ) = (−1)k +(−1)k ǫ(σ )(−θ σ1 ) ∧ θ σ2 ∧ θ σ3 ∧ · · · ∧ θ σ2k−2 ∧ θ σ2k−1 (−1)k 2k k! ǫ(σ )Aσ0 σ1 Fσ2 σ3 · · · Fσ2k−2 σ2k−1 . k 0 1 P f (A. . F ) = For i = 0. We deduce 2k k! P f (A. · · · . The curvature F t at p of ∇t = ∇ (8. Using the polarization formula and Exercise 2. F 0 ).65 in Subsection 2. we get P f (A. · · · . Set for simplicity F := F 0 . σi = 0}. σ2 .3.1. We can now proceed to evaluate Ψ(∇). . We need to evaluate the pfafﬁan in the right-hand-side of the above formula. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES 339 ˆ at p.4.7) k 0 (1 − t2 )k−1 dt P f (A.1.2. For each σ ∈ S0 we get a permutation φ : (σ1 . · · · . and we get F t = F 0 + t2 A ∧ A = 0 ⊕ (1 − t2 )F 0 . σ2k−1 ) ∈ S2k−1 .4. (1 − t2 )F 0 . Using Teorema Egregium we get R(∂i . · · · . F. deﬁne Si = {σ ∈ S2k .2. coincides with the induced Riemann metric (which is the ﬁrst fundamental form). σ∈S2k σ∈S0 σ∈S1 ǫ(σ )θ σ0 ∧ θ σ2 ∧ θ σ3 ∧ · · · ∧ θ σ2k−2 ∧ θ σ2k−1 .8. where R denotes the Riemann Denote by F 0 the curvature of ∇0 = ∇ ˆ at p. σ2 . ∂j )∂k . σ2k−1 ) ∈ S2k−1 . .

Hence CHAPTER 8. (k − 1)! 1 0 Using the Exercise 4.3. oriented Riemann Manifold of dimension 2n.18 is proved. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES 2k k! P f (A. If R denotes the Riemann curvature then χ(M ) = 1 (2π )n M P f (−R).Using the last equality in (8. The above integral can be evaluated inductively using the substitution t = cos ϕ. F ) = 2(−1)k+1 φ∈S2k−1 ǫ(φ)θ φ1 ∧ · · · · · · θ φ2k−1 where dVS 2k−1 denotes the Riemannian volume form on the unit sphere S 2k−1 . k 0 (1 − t2 )k−1 dt · 2(−1)k+1 (2k − 1)!dVS 2k−1 1 0 =− (2k)! (4π )k k! (1 − t2 )k−1 dt dVS 2k−1 . g) be a compact. 2π k .60 we get that ω 2k−1 = and consequently Ψ(∇) = −ω 2k−1 (2k)! (4π )k k! (2k)! = − 2k−1 2 k!(k − 1)! (1 − t2 )k−1 dt 1 0 S 2k−1 dVS 2k−1 = S 2k−1 (1 − t2 )k−1 dt . Corollary 8.1. ⊔ ⊓ .340 such that ǫ(σ ) = ǫ(φ). ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 8.19 (Chern). 2k − 2 Ψ(∇) = −1. We have 1 Ik = 0 (1 − t2 )k−1 dt π/2 π/2 = 0 π/2 (cos ϕ)2k−1 dϕ = (cos ϕ)2k−2 sin ϕ|0 so that + (2k − 2) (cos ϕ)2k−3 (sin ϕ)2 dϕ 0 = (2k − 1)Ik−1 − (2k − 2)Ik Ik = One now sees immediately that S 2k−1 2k − 3 Ik − 1 .7) we get Ψ(∇) |p = −1 2π k 1 = 2(−1)k+1 (2k − 1)!θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ 2k−1 = 2(−1)k+1 dVS 2k−1 .3. F. Let (M.3. · · · .

e.8.3. In that case.20. In many instances one can explicitly describe a nondegenerate section and its zero set. (a) (Adjunction formula. and let τE be a compactly supported form representing the Thom class. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES 341 The next exercises provide another description of the Euler class of a real oriented vector bundle E → M over the compact oriented manifold M in terms of the homological Poincar´ e duality. (b) Show that there exists an open neighborhood N of Z ֒→ NZ ֒→ T M such that exp : N → exp(N) e dual of Z in M is a diffeomorphism.21. i. and denote by NZ the normal bundle of the embedding Z ֒→ M . Conclude that Z is endowed with a natural orientation.44. Exercise 8. Set r = rank E . (c) Prove that the Euler class of E coincides with the Poincar´ e dual of Z .3.48). . (i) the set Z = s−1 (0) is a codimension r smooth submanifold of M . We denote by Φ# the bundle map Φ∗ E → E induced by the pullback operation. and its zero set was a ﬁnite collection of points. where N is compact and oriented. Show that Φ∗ τE := (Φ# )∗ τE ∈ Ωr (Φ∗ E ) is compactly supported. and thus one gets a description of the Euler class which is satisfactory for most topological applications. and (ii) there exists a connection ∇0 on E such that ∇0 X s = 0 along Z for any vector ﬁeld X normal to Z (along Z). the section was a nondegenerate vector ﬁeld. Consider a nondegenerate smooth section s of E .3. Show that the adjunction map a∇ : NZ → E |Z . and the other one is obtained via the adjunction map.3.. The local index of each zero measures the difference between two orientations of the normal bundle of this ﬁnite collection of points: one is the orientation obtained if one tautologically identiﬁes this normal bundle with the restriction of T M to this ﬁnite collection of points while.) Let ∇ be an arbitrary connection on E . deﬁned by X → ∇X s X ∈ C ∞ (NZ ). and represents the Thom class of Φ∗ E .3.) Deduce that the Poincar´ can be identiﬁed (via the above diffeomorphism) with the Thom class of NZ . ⊔ ⊓ In the next exercise we will also assume M is endowed with a Riemann structure. (Compare with Lemma 7. is a bundle isomorphism. ⊔ ⊓ The part (c) of the above exercise generalizes the Poincar´ e-Hopf theorem (see Corollary 7. Let Φ : N → M be a smooth map. Exercise 8.

Let P be a degree 1 homogeneous polynomial P ∈ C[z0 . and hence an element of L∗ . gN S (z ) = g(z ).23. Denote by [H ] the (2n − 2)-cycle deﬁned by the natural inclusion ı : CPn−1 ֒→ CPn . Let US = S 2 \ {north pole}. . . Let U denote the tautological line bundle over the complex projective space CPn . ⊔ ⊓ where deg g denotes the degree of the smooth map g |S 1 ⊂C∗ → S 1 .342 CHAPTER 8. The zero set of the section [P0 ] is precisely the image of [H ].21. real vector bundle.3. zn ]. zn−1 .10 c1 (U) = e(U). 0] ∈ CPn . and UN = S 2 \ {south pole} ∼ = C.3. and the reader can check easily that this is a smooth section of U∗ . .22. Consider the special case P0 = zn .3. . [z0 . . We let the reader keep track of all the orientation conventions in Exercise 8. For each map g : C∗ → U (1) ∼ = S 1 denote by Lg the line bundle over S 2 deﬁned by the gluing map gN S : UN ∩ US → U (1). Show that S2 c1 (Lg ) = deg g. . We claim that the (homological) Poincar´ e dual of c1 (τn ) is −[H ]. . . . We thus have a well deﬁned map CPn ∋ L → P |L ∈ L∗ = U∗ |L . when we view U as a rank 2 oriented. zn−1 ] → [z0 . .3. According to Exercise 8. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 8. CHARACTERISTIC CLASSES Example 8. For each complex line L ֒→ Cn+1 . and conclude that c1 (U∗ ) is indeed the Poincar´ e dual of [H ]. . which we denote by P |L . which we denote by [P ]. We will achieve this by showing that c1 (U∗ ) = −c1 (U) is the Poincar´ e dual of [H ]. . the polynomial P deﬁnes a complex linear map L → C. . The overlap UN ∩ US is diffeomorphic with the punctured plane C∗ = C \ {0}.

and make him/her appreciate the power of the technology developed in the previous chapters. but the solutions borrow ideas from many mathematical areas. Integral geometry. 9. Suppose we are given a function f : X → R. unencumbered by various technical assumptions. This chapter is intended to wet the reader’s appetite for unusual questions. In this chapter. We deﬁne its “average” over X as the “integral” f X := x∈X f (x).1 The integral geometry of real Grassmannians 9. such as representation theory and probability. is a mixed breed subject. the main trick of classical integral geometry is a very elementary one.Chapter 9 Classical Integral Geometry Ultimately. The question it addresses have purely geometric formulations.1 Co-area formulæ As Gelfand and his school pointed out. In a sense. for various reasons. mathematics is about solving problems. 343 . One should think of α and β as deﬁning two different ﬁbrations with the same total space X . Consider a “roof” α X ℄β B α β A where X → A and X → B are maps between ﬁnite sets. since the problems we will solve in this chapter were some of the catalysts for the discoveries of many of the geometric results discussed in the previous chapters.1. we will present some very beautiful applications of the techniques developed so far. and we can trace the roots of most remarkable achievements in mathematics to attempts of solving concrete problems which. were deemed very interesting by the mathematical community. namely the change of order of summation. we are going against the natural course of things. also known as geometric probability. Let us explain the bare bones version of this trick.

1) We can reformulate the above equality in a more conceptual way by introducing the functions α∗ (f ) : A → C. or summing ﬁrst over the ﬁbers of β . α∗ (f )(a) = and β∗ (f ) : B → C.1.e. and the function f is not really a function. ∞). . α(x)=a f (x).e. Ω ∈ det V. The reason such formulæ have captured the imagination of geometers comes from the fact that the two sides α∗ (f ) A and β∗ (f ) B have rather unrelated interpretations. f (x) a∈A α(x)=a = f X = b∈B β (x)=b f (x) . and we denote the corresponding space by |Λ|(V ). . vn ) of V deﬁnes linear isomorphisms |Λ|s V → R. i. Note that any basis (v1 . a density. All the integral geometric results that we will prove in this chapter will be of this form. β∗ (f )(b) = The equality (9. We denote by det V the top exterior power of V . Suppose V is a ﬁnite dimensional real vector space. A. . The geometric situation we will investigate is a bit more complicated than the above baby case. i. ∀t ∈ R∗ . λ → λ(v1 ∧ · · · ∧ vn ). because in the geometric case the sets X. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY We can compute the average f X in two different ways. We say that an s-density λ : det V → R is positive if λ(det V \ 0) ⊂ (0.1. β (x)=b = β∗ (f ) B . To produce such results we need to gain a deeper understanding of the notion of density introduced in Subsection 3. We denote by |Λ|+ s (V ) the cone of positive densities.1. It turns out that the push forward operations do make sense for densities resulting in formulas of the type f X = α∗ (f ) A . . We denote by |Λ|s (V ) the one dimensional space of s-densities.1) implies that α∗ (f ) A f (x). Note that we have a canonical identiﬁcation |Λ|0 (E ) = R. B are smooth manifolds. These formulæ generalize the classical Fubini theorem and they are often referred to as coarea formulæ for reasons which will become apparent a bit later. the maps α and β deﬁne smooth ﬁbrations. Given a real number s we deﬁne an s-density on V to be a map λ : det V → R such that λ(tΩ) = |t|s λ(Ω).4. either summing ﬁrst over the ﬁbers of α. We will refer to 1-densities simply as densities.344 CHAPTER 9.. but an object which can be integrated over X . . (9.

. |Λ|s (V ) ⊗ |Λ|t (V ) → |Λ|s+t (V ). Aut(V ) × |Λ|s (V ) ∋ (g. |Λ|s (V1 ) ∋ λ → g ∗ λ. 345 where (e1 . vn ∈ V0 . We set (µ\λ) ∧j wj := λ (∧i α(ui ) ) ∧ (∧j vj ) . ∀v1 . dim V = m. λ ∈ |Λ|s (V ). α(um ). . . . / : |Λ|s (V ) × |Λ|+ s (W ) → |Λ|s (U ). dim W = p we can associate maps \ : |Λ|+ s (U ) × |Λ|s (V ) → |Λ|s (W ). and thus we have a left action of Aut(V ) on |Λ|s (V ) Aut(V ) × |Λ|s (V ) → |Λ|s (V ). λ) → g∗ λ = (g−1 )∗ λ = | det g|−s λ. is a basis of V . . dim U = m. . en ) is the canonical basis of Rn . . h ∈ Aut(V ) we gave (gh)∗ = h∗ g∗ . To any short exact sequence of vector spaces 0 → U → V → W → 0. and a basis (ui )1≤i≤m of U such that α(u1 ). λ → λ(e1 ∧ · · · ∧ en ). × : |Λ|s (U ) × |Λ|s (W ) → |Λ|s (V ) as follows. . THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS In particular. we have a canonical identiﬁcation |Λ|s (Rn ) ∼ = R. where (g ∗ λ) (∧i vi ) = λ ∧i (gvi ) . Now choose lifts vj ∈ V of wj . For every g. If V0 = V1 = V so that g ∈ Aut(V ). If V0 and V1 are vector spaces of the same dimension n. v1 .1. . · · · . then g∗ λ = | det g|s λ. such that β (vj ) = wj . and g : V0 → V1 is a linear isomorphism then we get a linear map g ∗ : |Λ|s (V1 ) → |Λ|s (V0 ). . vp . .9. µ ∧ i ui and α β We have bilinear maps It is easily seen that the above deﬁnition is independent of the choices of v ’s and u’s. µ) → λ · µ. . • Let µ ∈ |Λ|+ s (U ). . (λ. and suppose (wj )1≤j ≤p is a basis of W .

Denote by e the canonical basis of U . The next example illustrates this. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY • Let λ ∈ |Λ|s (V ) and ν ∈ |Λ|+ s (W ). • Let µ ∈ |Λ|s (U ) and ν ∈ |Λ|s (W ). τ > 0. and × associated to a short exact sequence of vector spaces 0 → U −→ V −→ W → 0.βτ ν = (t/τ )−s µ ×α. λV on V and λW on W given by λU (e) = λV (e1 ∧ e2 ) = λW (f ) = 1. Choose lifts (vj ) of wj to V . . λ/αt . do depend on the maps α and β ! For example if we replace α by αt = tα and β by βτ = τ β . λ ∈ |Λ|s (V ). t.3. Consider the short exact sequence 0 → U = R −→ V = R2 −→ W = R → 0 given by α(s) = (4s. Prove that the above constructions are indeed independent of the various choices of bases.346 CHAPTER 9. and if µ ∈ |Λ|s (U ). Then we set (µ × ν ) (∧i α(ui )) ∧ (∧j wj ) = µ( ∧i ui )ν (∧j vj ). by (e1 . Exercise 9.2. Example 9. .βτ λ = (t/τ )s µ\α.1. · · · . y ) = 5x − 2y. Given a basis (ui )1≤i≤m of U . then µ\αt . Fix a basis (ui )1≤i≤m of U and a basis (wj )1≤j ≤p of W . ⊔ ⊓ Remark 9. λ ×αt . . ν ∈ |Λ|s (W ). Again one can check that this is independent of the various bases (ui ) and (wj ). 10s). We obtain canonical densities λU on U . vp . β (x.1.β λ. α β α β ⊔ ⊓ . extend the linearly independent set α(ui ) ⊂ V to a basis α(u1 ).β ν. of V and now deﬁne (λ/ν ) ∧i ui := λ (∧i α(ui )) ∧ (∧j vj ) .1.β ν. α(um ). . ν ∧j β (vj ) Again it is easily veriﬁed that the above deﬁnition is independent of the various choices.βτ ν = (t/τ )s λ/α. To deﬁne µ × ν : det V → R it sufﬁces to indicate its value on a single nonzero vector of the line det V . e2 ) the canonical basis of V and by f the canonical basis of W . v1 . The constructions \.1. /.

then we have a canonical identiﬁcation |Λ|s (Rn ) → R. Let us point out that if V = Rn .9. . f 2 = (1. 2). 10). Such a section is given by a collection of smooth functions λα : Uα → |Λ|s (V ) satisfying the gluing conditions −1 ∗ λβ (x) = (gβα ) λα (x) = | det gβα |−s λα (x). We choose f 2 ∈ V such that β (f 2 ) = f . where V is a ﬁxed real vector space of dimension n. and E → M is a smooth real vector bundle. 4 1 10 2 = 2. Given a short exact sequence of vector bundles 0 → E0 → E1 → E2 → 0 over M . Assume that it is given by the open cover (Uα ) and gluing cocycle gβα : Uαβ → Aut(V ). β. We have canonical isomorphisms |Λ|s π ∗ E ∼ = π ∗ |Λ|s E. We denote by C ∞ (|Λ|s E ) the space of smooth sections of |Λ|s E . 347 ⊔ ⊓ Suppose now that E → M is a real vector bundle of rank n over the smooth manifold M . and × : C ∞ (|Λ|s E0 ) × C ∞ (|Λ|s E2 ) → C ∞ (|Λ|s E1 ). An s-density λ ∈ C ∞ (|Λ|s E ) is called positive if for every x ∈ M we have λ(x) ∈ |Λ|+ s (Ex ). ∀α. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS We would like to describe the density λV /β ∗ λW on V . Set f 1 = α(e) = (4. for example. and a natural pullback map φ∗ : C ∞ (|Λ|s E ) → C ∞ (π ∗ |Λ|s E ) ∼ = C ∞ (|Λ|s π ∗ E ). we obtain maps ∞ ∞ \ : C ∞ (|Λ|+ s E0 ) × C (|Λ|s E1 ) → C (|Λ|s E2 ). Then λV /β ∗ λW (e) = λV (f 1 ∧ f 2 )/λW (f ) = det Hence λV /β ∗ λW = 2λU .1. If φ : N → M is a smooth map. then we obtain the pullback bundle π ∗ E → N . and in this case a density can be regarded as a collection of smooth functions λα : Uα → R satisfying the above gluing conditions. ∞ / : C ∞ (|Λ|s E1 ) × C ∞ (|Λ|+ s E2 ) → C (|Λ|s E0 ). x ∈ Uαβ . Then the bundle of s-densities associated to E is the real line bundle |Λ|s E given by the open cover (Uα ) and gluing cocycle | det gβα |−s : Uαβ → Aut( |Λ|s (V ) ) ∼ = R∗ .

1. n = dim M. Because of this fact. where |gα | denotes the determinant of the symmetric matrix representing the metric g in the coor⊔ ⊓ dinates (xi α ). then the collection of functions λα deﬁnes a density on M . we will use the simpler notation |Λ|M to denote |Λ|1 (M ). (9. If ω is a top dimensional form on M described locally by forms ωα = λα dxα . a choice of orientation produces a linear map Ωn (M ) → C ∞ (|Λ|(M ) ).2. |dµ| → |dµ|. The densities on a manifold serve one major purpose: they can be integrated. an s-density on M is described by a coordinate atlas Uα .4. the s-densities are traditionally described as collections n λα |dxα |s .1. Example 9.1 : C0 (|Λ|(M ) ) → R. and we conclude that the collection of functions |λα |s deﬁnes an s-density on M which we will denote by |ω |s . When s = 1. It is locally described by the collection |gα ||dxα |. 1 The functions λα satisfy the gluing conditions λβ = d− βα λα . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Observe that for every positive smooth function f : M → (0. We will denote by |Λ|s (M ) the line bundle |Λ|s (T M ). As explained in Subsection 3. As explained in Subsection 3. We denote by C0 (|Λ|(M ) ) the space of continuous densities with compact support. and smooth functions λα : Uα → R satisfying the conditions λβ = |dβα |−s λα . Then in a coordinate atlas (Uα . (xi α) . (b) Suppose M is an orientable manifold. and we will refer to its sections as (smooth) s-densities on M . In the sequel we will almost exclusively use a special case of the above construction.1.4.2) We deduce that the smooth 0-densities on M are precisely the smooth functions.4. By ﬁxing an orientation we choose an atlas (Uα . λ/(f ν ) = (f −1 )(µ/λ). this map is a bijection. where dβα = det ∂xj β ∂xi α 1≤i. (c) Any Riemann metric g on M deﬁnes a canonical density on M denoted by |dVg | and called the volume density.4. dxα := dx1 α ∧ · · · ∧ dxα . (xi α) ) so that all the determinants dβα are positive. when E is the tangent bundle of the smooth manifold M . Thus.j ≤n .348 CHAPTER 9. Consider the integration map deﬁned in Subsection 3. M M . (xi α ) ) this form is described by a collection of forms n ωα = λα dx1 α ∧ · · · ∧ dxα . ∞) we have (f µ)\λ = (f −1 (µ\λ). (a) Suppose ω ∈ Ωn (M ) is a top degree differential form on M .

|dµ|) → f |dµ|. Then φ∗ |ω | = |φ∗ ω |. yα = xi α ◦ φ. Then the jaco|dρ| bian J = | dτ | is a G-invariant smooth. The existence of this function follows from the Radon-Nicodym theorem. The classical change in variables formula now takes the form |dρ| = φ∗ |dρ|. If φ : M → N is a diffeomorphism and |dρ| = (Uα . ρα |dyα |). Suppose |dρ| and |dτ | are two G-invariant positive densities. (f. ρα |dyα |) is a density on N . A ∗ |dρ| positive density is invariant if the jacobian g|dρ | is identically equal to 1. |dτ | and we will refer to f as the jacobian of |dρ| relative to |dτ |.1.6.5. then f |dµ| is a continuous compactly supported density. we get a new density g∗ |dρ|. M Let us observe that if |dρ| and |dτ | are two positive densities. The density |dρ| is called G-invariant if g∗ |dρ| = |dρ|. compactly supported function on M . then we deﬁne the pullback of |dρ| by φ to be the density φ∗ |dρ| on M deﬁned by i φ∗ |dρ| = φ−1 (Uα ). ∀g ∈ G.1. and thus there is a well deﬁned integral M f |dµ|. and |ω | is the associated density. f (x) = lim U →{x} U |dτ | where the above limit is taken over open sets shrinking to x. Then for every g ∈ G. Proposition 9. We obtain in this fashion a natural pairing C0 (M ) × C (|Λ|M ). ω ∈ Ωm (M ). ∀g ∈ G. and |dµ| is a density. N M Example 9. ⊔ ⊓ Suppose a Lie group G acts smoothly on M . THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS 349 Note that if f is a continuous.9. Note that a density is G-invariant if and only if the associated Borel measure is G-invariant. Suppose φ : M → N is a diffeomorphism between two smooth m-dimensional manifolds. positive function on G.1. . For every x ∈ M we have U |dρ . We will use the notation f := |dρ| . and any density |dρ|. then there exists a positive function f such that |dρ| = f |dτ |.

and smooth functions (xi )1≤i≤r deﬁned in a neighborhood V of x in M such that the collection of functions (xi . DΦ . Since Φ is a submersion. y j ) deﬁnes local coordinates near x on M . and in these coordinates the map Φ is given by the projection (x. Intuitively. Along every ﬁber Mb = Φ−1 (b) we have a density |dµ|b /Φ∗ |dν | ∈ C ∞ |Λ|(Mb ) corresponding to the short exact sequence 0 → T Mb → (T M )|Mb −→ (Φ∗ T B )|Mb → 0.7. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Proof. Fix a positive density |dν | on B . ∀x ∈ M. We would like to describe a density Φ∗ |dµ| on B called the pushforward of |dµ| by Φ. Proof. Suppose |dµ| is a density on M such that Φ is proper on the support of |dµ|. There exists a smooth density Φ∗ |dµ| on B uniquely characterized by the following condition. where Vν ∈ C ∞ (B ) is given by Vν (b) := Φ−1 (b) |dµ|/Φ∗ |dν |. The kernels of the differentials of Φ form a vector subbundle T V M ֒→ T M consisting of the planes tangent to the ﬁbers of Φ. Then for every open neighborhood U of x we have U |dρ| = g (U ) |dρ|. If λ is a density associated to the vertical tangent bundle T V M .1. r := dim M − dim B . we have a short exact sequence of bundles over M . then we obtain a density λ × Φ∗ |dν | on M . Set k := dim B . U |dτ | = g (U ) |dτ | =⇒ U |dτ | = U |dρ| g (U ) |dτ | g (U ) |dρ| . g ∈ G. We will refer to it as the vertical tangent bundle. and then letting U → {x} we deduce J (x) = J (gx). y ) → y .1. Proposition 9. Φ∗ |dµ| is the unique density on B such that for any open subset U ⊂ B we have U Φ∗ |dµ| = Φ−1 (U ) |dµ|.350 CHAPTER 9. For every density |dν | on B we have Φ∗ |dµ| = Vν |dν |. DΦ 0 → T V M ֒→ T M −→ Φ∗ T B → 0. If G acts smoothly and transitively on the smooth manifold M then. Let x ∈ M and g ∈ G. To understand this density ﬁx x ∈ Mb . Observe that any (positive) density |dν | on B deﬁnes by pullback a (positive) density Φ∗ |dν | associated to the bundle Φ∗ T B → M .8 (The pushforward of a density). ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 9. ⊔ ⊓ Suppose Φ : M → B is a submersion. Then we can ﬁnd local coordinates (yj )1≤j ≤k near b ∈ B . up to a positive multiplicative constant there exists at most one invariant positive density.

and a form η ∈ Ωr (MU ) such that Ω = η ∧ π ∗ ω. y )|dx ∧ dy |. where for every u ∈ U ⊂ B we have f (u) = Mu Remark 9. Observe that if |dν ˆ| is another density.1. It depends only on |dµ|. for some ρ ∈ C ∞ (MU ).1. (9. Then along the ﬁbers y = const we have |dµ|b /Φ∗ |dν | = We set Vν (b) := Mb 351 ρM (x. and we conclude that |dµ|/f ∗ |ω | = ρ|η |. a nowhere vanishing form ω ∈ Ωk (U ). Then −1 |dµ|b /Φ∗ |dν ˆ| = w−1 |dµ|b /Φ∗ |dν |. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS In the coordinates y on B we can write |dν | = ρB (y )|dy | and |dµ| = ρM (x.3) we obtain the generalized coarea formula |dµ| = ρ|η ∧ π ∗ ω | = f (u)|ω | = ρ|η | |ω |. |dµ|/f ∗ |ω | = Mu ρ|Ω|/|f ∗ ω | = Mu ρ|η |.3) |dµ| = Φ−1 (U ) U Then we can write |dµ| = ρ|Ω|. the density Vν |dν | on B is independent on ν . ⊔ ⊓ Using partitions of unity and the classical Fubini theorem we obtain the Fubini formula for densities Φ∗ |dµ|. Very often the submersion Φ : M → B satisﬁes the following condition. Vν ˆ = w Vν so that Vν ˆ| = Vν |dν |. For every point on the base b ∈ B there exist an open neighborhood U of b in B . In particular. a nowhere vanishing form Ω ∈ Ωk+r (MU ). Φ∗ |dµ| = f |ω |. (MU := Φ−1 (U )).9. using (9. then there exists a positive smooth function w : B → R such that |dν ˆ| = w|dν |. ρB (y ) |dµ|b /Φ∗ |dν | The function Vν : B → R is smooth function. The form ω deﬁnes a density |ω | on U . ⊔ ⊓ MU MU U U Mu .9. for any open subset U ⊂ B .1. ˆ |dν In other words. We can associate to Vν the density Vν |dν | which a priori depends on ν .1. y ) |dx|.

and f : M → R is a smooth function without critical points. . . x1 . We let P± ∈ S n denote the poles given t = ±1. |∇f | (9. For every point p ∈ Mt0 we have df (p) = 0. xm such that (f. We denote by ∇f the g-gradient 1 of f . x1 .1. . so that |dVt0 | |U ∩Mt0 = |∇f | · |dVg |/f ∗ |dt| and |dVg |/f ∗ |dt| = Hence f∗ |dVg | = v (t)|dt|.352 CHAPTER 9. where ρ is a smooth function. Then along U we can write |dVg | = ρ|df ∧ dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxm |. . . We denote by |dVt | the volume density on Mt deﬁned by the induced metric gt := g|Mt . so that we have the equality |dVt0 | |U ∩Mt0 = ρ n (df ∧ dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxm ) |U ∩Mt0 = ρ|∇f | · (dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxm ) |U ∩Mt0 Now observe that along U we have ρ(df ∧ dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxm ) = ρ(f ∗ dt ∧ dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxm ). Fix t0 ∈ R. the ﬁber Mt is a compact codimension 1 submanifold of M . consider the unit sphere S n ⊂ Rn+1 . |∇f | and we obtain in this fashion the classical coarea formula |dVg | = 1 |dVt | |dt|. On M we have a volume density |dVg |. For simplicity. |∇f | (9. . xn ).4) 1 |dVt |. Suppose (M. We would like to compute the pushforward density f∗ |dVg | on R. . We denote the coordinates in Rn+1 by (t.1. xm ) are local coordinates on U . . . and v is a smooth function. . and smooth function x1 . We seek f∗ |dVg | of the form f∗ |dVg | = v (t)|dt|. The vector ﬁeld n is a unit normal vector ﬁeld along Mt0 ∩ U . . For t ∈ R.5) M R Mt To see how this works in practice. and we set n := |∇ f | ∇f . . and from the implicit function theorem we deduce that we can ﬁnd an open neighborhood U . (The classical coarea formula). v (t) = Mt 1 |dVt0 | |U ∩Mt0 .10.1. . where |dt| is the Euclidean volume density on R. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Example 9. g) is a Riemann manifold of dimension m + 1. we also assume that the level sets Mt = f −1 (t) are compact. Hence |dVg |/f ∗ |dt| = ρ|(dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxm )|.

1). We deduce cos θ = length [p. 1 |dVt | = (1 − t2 )−1/2 |∇π | |dVt | = σn−1 (1 − t2 ) n−2 2 . M = S n \ {P± }. . 1). . and π (M ) = (−1. xi ) = t.1: Slicing a sphere by hyperplanes We denote by |dVn | the volume density on S n . To ﬁnd the gradient ∇π observe that for every p ∈ S n the tangent vector ∇π (p) is the projection of the vector ∂t on the tangent space Tp S n . and by t the coordinate of p′ (see Figure 9. p′ ]. π −1 (t) π −1 (t) where σ m denotes the m-dimensional area of the unit m-dimensional sphere S m . p] and the segment [p. . THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS 353 p θ 1 t θ 1 t 0 p' Figure 9. The map π is a submersion on the complement of the poles. The last formula implies 1 σ n = 2σn 0 (1 − t2 ) n−2 2 1 |dt| = σ n−1 0 (1 − s) n−2 2 s−1/2 |ds| = σn−1 B 1 n . set p′ = π (p). where B denotes the Beta function 1 B (p. 2 2 . Hence |∇π (p)| = (1 − t2 )1/2 . p. Then θ is equal to the angle at p between the radius [0.6) . and by π : S n → R the natural projection given by (t.1. q > 0. We denote by θ the angle between ∂t and Tp S n . q ) := 0 sp−1 (1 − s)q−1 ds. because ∂t is the gradient with respect to the Euclidean metric on Rn+1 of the linear function π : Rn+1 → R. p′ ] = (1 − t2 )1/2 . xn ) → t.1. (9. x1 . We want to compute π∗ |dVn |. .9. Observe that π −1 (t) is the (n−1)-dimensional sphere of radius (1−t2 )1/2 . and consequently. π (t.

then If U .354 CHAPTER 9. we denote by Ut the graph of the map tS : L → L⊥ . The group O(V ) acts smoothly and transitively on Grk (V ) O(V ) × Grk (V ) ∋ (g. We denote by • the inner product on V . the vector space of symmetric endomorphisms of V .1. ˙ 2 ). Section 12. For every subspace U ⊂ V we denote by PU the orthogonal projection onto U . the Grassmannian of k dimensional subspaces of V . L⊥ ). B ∈ End(V ). 2 induces a metric h = hn. Consider L ∈ Grk (V ). Γ( n+1 2 ) (9. ˙ 0. The Euclidean metric (1.8) ⊔ ⊓ 9. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY It is known (see [102].7) where Γ(x) denotes Euler’s Gamma function Γ(x) = 0 ∞ e−t tx−1 dt.2. · (1 + x)p+q x Γ(p + q ) (9. deﬁned by A. via the (orthogonal) projection map U → PU .1. Then.2 Invariant measures on linear Grassmannians Suppose that V is an Euclidean real vector space of dimension n. We deduce σn = n+1 2Γ( 1 2) . and S ∈ Hom(L. Note that PgL = gPL g−1 . P ˙0 := d |t=0 PΓ .20 we have shown that. and we deduce that the action of O(V ) on Grk (V ) preserves the metric h. We would like to investigate a certain natural density on Grk (V ).41) that B (p. We are forced into considering densities rather than forms because very often the Grassmannians Grk (V ) are not orientable. B = 1 tr(AB † ). ∀A. Grk (V ) is orientable if and only if dim V is even. Denote by O(V ) the group of orthogonal transformations of V . L) → g(L) ∈ Grk (V ). More precisely. q ) = 0 ∞ Γ(p)Γ(q ) dx xp = . In Example 1. we can regard Grk (V ) as a submanifold of End+ (V ). U ˙ 0 ) = 1 tr(P h(U 0 tS 2 dt ˙ 0 denotes the tangent to the path t → Ut at t = 0.2.2. for every t ∈ R. The action of O(V ) on End+ (V ) by conjugation preserves the inner product on End+ (V ).k on Grk (V ). We would like to express this metric in the graph coordinates introduced in Example 1.1.2) on End(V ). L).20. Ut := ΓtS ∈ Grk (V.

. With respect to the ﬁxed frame ( eA (0) ). the orthogonal transformation gt is given by a matrix ( sAB (t) ). · · · .. 355 (9. With respect to these bases. . We would like to compute h Observe that we have a smooth path t → gt ∈ O(V ). B.. .α We can think of the collection (sαi ) as deﬁning local coordinates on the open subset Grk (V. L ˙ 0 ).. i. Let us choose an orthonormal basis (ei )1≤i≤k of L... ˆ (L ˙ 0.1. U ˙ 0 ) = 1 tr(SS ∗ ) + tr(S ∗ S ) = tr(SS ∗ ).α |sαi |2 . Suppose we have a smooth 1-parameter family of orthonormal frames (eA ) = (eA (t)). j. . • We will use lower case Latin letters i. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS If we write Pt := PΓtS we deduce from (1.10) In integral geometric computations we will ﬁnd convenient to relate the above coordinates to the classical language of moving frames.2.9. |t| ≪ 1. . . . the map S : L → L⊥ is described by a matrix (sαi )1≤i≤k<α≤n . n}.. L) ⊂ Grk (V ) consisting of k-planes intersecting L⊥ transversally.1. • We will use lower case Greek letters α. (9. .4) that Pt = Hence ˙ t=0 = P so that t(½L + t2 S ∗ S )−1 S ∗ (½L + t2 S ∗ S )−1 2 ∗ − 1 2 tS (½L + t S S ) t S (½L + t2 S ∗ S )−1 S ∗ 0 S∗ S 0 = S ∗ PL⊥ + SPL . β. • We will use upper case Latin letters A. C. U ˙ 0) = h(U i. Hence ˙ 0. to denote indices in the range {k + 1. This deﬁnes a smooth path t → Lt = span (ei (t) ) ∈ Grk (V ). γ. h(U 2 We can be even more concrete. where sAB = eA (0) • gt eB (0) . .9) ˙ 0.. n}. deﬁned by gt eA (0) = eA (t). k}.1.. In the sequel we make the following notational conventions. to denote indices in the range {1.. . and an orthonormal basis (eα )k<α≤n of L⊥ . and then tr(SS ∗ ) = tr(S ∗ S ) = |sαi |2 . to denote indices in the range {1.

L ˙ 0 ) = 1 tr(P h(L L0 . (9.L⊥ .L0 denotes a map L0 → L⊥ 0 etc. P ˙ 0 ) = tr(X ⊥ X ∗ ⊥ ) = ˙ 0. Suppose M is a smooth m-dimensional manifold and L : M → Grk (V ) is a smooth map. Fix a point p0 ∈ M and local coordinates (ui )1≤i≤m near p0 such that ui (p0 ) = 0. The operator X is represented by a skew-symmetric matrix with entries ˙ B. More precisely. P0 ] = Hence 0 XL⊥ . if we set X = d dt |t=0 gt .. Then −1 Pt = gt P0 gt . Let Pt denote the projection onto Lt .11) We want to interpret this in the language of moving frames.i |s ˙ αi |2 . P0 ].1.356 CHAPTER 9.L0 0 ∗ XL ⊥ . (9. we have ˙ 0 = [X. P With respect to the decomposition V = L0 + L⊥ 0 the projector P0 has the block decomposition P0 = ½L0 0 0 0 .L0 2 α.L 0 0 0 .L 0 0 0 0 XL⊥ . such that L(u) = span ( ei (u) ). an orthonormal frame (eA ) of V . i.L0 L0 .e.1.L0 XL⊥ . The map Lt can be described near p0 via a moving frame. and we let “ ˙ ” denote the differentiation along the ﬂow lines of X . θαi := eα • dei . where XL⊥ . this means that if X = (u ˙ a ) ∈ Tp0 M . then ˙i = Dp0 L(X ) = (xαi ) ∈ TL(0) Grk (V ).L0 0 ∗ −XL ⊥ .12) a . varying smoothly with (ui ). so that. ˙0 . We deduce 0 [X. xαi = eα • e eα • dei (X ). xAB = s ˙ AB = eA • e which has the block form X= XL0 . The above computations show that the differential of L at p0 is described by the (n − k) × k matrix of 1-forms on M Dp0 L = (θαi ). CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Observe that g0 = ½V .

where n = dim V . π ] that it forms with the x-axis. and every k + 1 ≤ α ≤ 1. Set n := dim V . is an orthonormal frame of L. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS 357 If M happens to be an open subset of Grk (V ). We will denote this invariant density by |dγn. the equalities (9. and |dγ2. Then θ21 = e2 • de1 = dθ . cos θ ). • For every L ∈ O the collection ei (L) • For every L ∈ O the collection eA (L) 1≤A≤n 1≤i≤k is an orthonormal frame of V . and we will refer to it as the kinematic density on Grk (V ). If O is a sufﬁciently small open subset of Grk (V ) then we can ﬁnd smooth maps eA : O → V. The metric h = hn. where the ﬁrst vector e1 (θ ) gives the direction of the line. ⊔ ⊓ . Since the action of the group O(V ) is transitive. sin θ ). we denote by Lθ the corresponding line. A = 1.k is O(V )-invariant so that the associated Riemannian volume deﬁnes an invariant density.i θαi .1 | = |dθ |. This space is diffeomorphic to the real projective line RP1 .1. θαi = eα • dei = −deα • ei . with the following properties.10) and (9.13) In other words.11.1. Example 9. which in turn. For such an angle θ . e2 (θ ) = (− sin θ. we have a 1-form θαi ∈ Ω1 (O).1. More precisely. A line L in R2 is uniquely determined by the angle θ ∈ [0. the collection (θαi ) is an orthonormal frame of the cotangent bundle T ∗ Grk (V ).k | = θαi := α. (9. then we can use the forms θαi to describe the metric h.i α. we deduce that any other invariant density is equivalent to a constant multiple of this metric density.9. and the associated volume density is described by |dγn.1. · · · . n. For every 1 ≤ i ≤ k. To understand the above construction it is helpful to consider the special case of the Grassmannian Gr1 (R2 ) of lines through the origin in R2 .11) show that h= α. the metric h is described along O by the symmetric tensor h= α.i θαi ⊗ θαi .k |. As explained above.k |.i θαi ⊗ θαi . The line Lθ is also represented by the the orthonormal frame e1 (θ ) = (cos θ. it is diffeomorphic to a circle. We would like to give a local description of |dγn. Lθ = span ( e1 (θ ) ).1.

Set Cn := Step 2.k := Grk (V ) |dγn. where Γ(x) is the Gamma function. We show that Cn . = σ n−1 = nω n .k |.k is carried out in three steps. To compute the volume of the Grassmannians we need to use yet another description of the Grassmannians. Then the stabilizer of L0 with respect to the action of O(V ) on Grk (V ) is the subgroup O(L0 ) × O(L⊥ 0 ) and thus we can identify Grk (V ) with the homogeneous space of left cosets O(V )/O(L0 ) × O(L⊥ 0 ). Fix L0 ∈ Grk (V ). 2 . Ck Cn − k O (Rn ) |dγn |.e.358 CHAPTER 9. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY We would like to compute the volumes of the Grassmannians Grk (V ). B = 1 tr(AB ∗ ).1 )Cn . Step 1. so that k π n = 2k k! Γ(1/2)n . we would like to compute Cn. Note ﬁrst that the group O(V ) acts transitively on Grk (V ). and by σ n−1 the (n − 1)-dimensional “surface area” of the unit sphere S n−1 .1 = σ n−1 = . as homogeneous spaces. The group O(V ) is a submanifold of End(V ) consisting of endomorphisms S satisfying SS ∗ = S ∗ S = ½V . dim V = n with respect to the kinematic density |dγn. Step 1. i.k = Step 3. We equip End(V ) with the inner product A. We equip the orthogonal groups O(Rn ) with a canonical invariant density |dγn | called the kinematic density on O(n).k |. 2 2 and then compute Cn inductively using the recurrence relation from Step 2 Cn+1 = (C1 Cn. We show that Cn. and ω n = Γ(1 + n/2) 2k +1 π k k ! 2 n = 2k + 1 (2k + 1)! 4 π2 2 . and the initial condition C2 = vol ( O(2) ) = 2σ 1 . n ωn 0 1 1 2 2 π 3 4π 3 Denote by ω n the volume of the unit ball B n ⊂ Rn . The computation of Cn. 1 nω n Cn.. We list below the values of ω n for small n.

Two skew-symmetric endomorphisms X. γY (t) = S0 exp(tY ). then we deduce ˙ (0) = f (0) • f ˙ (0). This deﬁnes a diffeomorphism from a neighborhood of 0 in End− (V ) to a neighborhood of S0 in O(V ). then we obtain the angular forms θAB := f A • df B . and Then X ˙ Y ˙)= h(X. O(V ) with O(n). For any S0 ∈ O(V ) we have a map expS0 : End− (V ) → O(V ). 1 1 1 ∗ ∗ tr (S0 X )(S0 Y )∗ = tr S0 XY ∗ S0 S0 XY ∗ = tr S0 2 2 2 = 1 tr XY ∗ 2 If we choose an orthonormal basis (eA ) of V so that X and Y are given by the skew symmetric matrices (xAB ). . Y ˙ Y (0) ∈ TS0 O(V ) ⊂ End(V ).9. ˙ = S0 X . We can identify V with Rn . Y ∈ End− (V ) deﬁne paths γX . xAB = eA • f B A B More generally. and L0 with the subspace Rk ⊕ 0n−k ⊂ Rn . We set ˙ := γ ˙ := γ X ˙ X (0) ∈ TS0 O(V ) ⊂ End(V ). originating at S0 . The above metric metric has the description h= A>B θAB ⊗ θAB . If we set f A (t) := exp(tX )eA . γX (t) = S0 exp(tX ). then we deduce ˙ Y ˙)= h(X. A>B Step 2.1. Denote by End− (V ) the subspace of End(V ) consisting of skew-symmetric operators. Y ˙ = S0 Y . (yAB ). End− (V ) −→ S0 · exp(X ). We would like to give a more concrete description of this metric. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS 359 This metric induces an invariant metric h on O(V ). Fix an orthonormal frame (eA ) of V such that L0 = span (ei . f A (S ) := S eA . 1 ≤ i ≤ k). The associated volume density is |dγn | = θAB . γY : R → O(V ). A>B xAB yAB . if we deﬁne f A : O(V ) → V.

k . p(T ) = T (L0 ). Let us prove the above facts. express s as a k × k matrix s = (si j ). To such a frame we associate the orthogonal matrix φ(L) ∈ O(n) which maps the ﬁxed frame eA to the frame φB . 1 ≤ i ≤ k). Once we have this we deduce from the Fubini formula (9. such that L = span (φi (L). • Given (s. (n − k) × (n − k) matrix (tα β . and t as a ) .3) that Cn = Ck Cn−k Cn. More explicitly. Then we have a smooth map Ψ : O(k) × O(n − k) × U → p−1 (U ).360 CHAPTER 9. t. Deﬁne p : O(n) → Grk (Rn ).1. It is a given by a matrix with entries φ(L)AB = eA • φB . we have p(T ) = span (T ei )1≤i≤k . For every sufﬁciently small open subset U ⊂ Grk (V ) we can ﬁnd a smooth section φ : U → O(n) of the map p : O(n) → Grk (Rn ). The section can be identiﬁed with a smooth family of orthonormal frames (φA (L).k |. L ∈ U )1≤A≤n of Rn . deﬁned as follows. We will prove that we have a principal ﬁbration O(k) × O(n − k) Ý Û O(n) Ùpn Grk (R ) and that p∗ |dγn | = Ck Cn−k |dγn. L) ∈ O(k) × O(n − k) × U . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY An orthogonal n × n matrix T is uniquely determined by the orthonormal frame (T eA ) via the equalities TAB = eA • T eB .

1 ≤ A ≤ n.1.k |.1. t0 t1 ). we have (φB ) ∗ (s0 . k + 1 ≤ α ≤ n.15). t0 ) ∗ (s1 . This means that Ψ is equivariant with respect to the right actions of O(k) × O(n − k) on O(k) × O(n − k) × U and O(n).k | along the ﬁber p−1 (L0 ). .1. L) = β ⊥ tβ α φβ (L) ∈ L .14) f α = f α (t.9. |dγn | = Grk (Rn ) p∗ |dγn | = c Grk (Rn ) |dγn. t. t1 ∈ O(n − k).15) • Now deﬁne Ψ = Ψ(s. Observe that.1. Then L = LT = span (f i )1≤i≤k . s1 ∈ O(k).14) and (9. ∀A. via the equalities f i = f i (s. t). L) to be the orthogonal transformation of Rn which maps the frame (eA ) to the frame (f B ). α while the matrices (si j ) and (tβ ) are obtained via (9. 1 ≤ i ≤ k. Hence Cn = O (n) In particular. and thus there exists a constant c such that p∗ |dγn | = c|dγn. t. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS • Deﬁne the orthonormal frame of Rn ( f A ) := (φB ) ∗ (s. f A = ΨeA .1. t0 . We set f A = f A (T ) := T eA . t1 ) = (φB ) ∗ (s0 s1 .k . i. L) = j 361 sj i φj (L) ∈ L. this shows that p deﬁnes a principal O(k) × O(n − k)-bundle. (9. sβ = φα (LT ) • f β .e. More precisely. ∀s0 . we have α si j = φi (LT ) • f j . L) ∈ O(k) × O(n − k) × L deﬁned as follows. We have a commutative diagram O(k) × O(n − k) × U π Ψ U ⊂ Grk (Rn ) ³ ¶ ³³³p³ Û p−1(U ) This constant is given by the integral of the density |dγn |/p∗ |dγn. Observe now that p∗ |dγn | is an invariant density on Grk (Rn ).k | = cCn. The map Ψ is a homeomorphism with inverse O(n) ∋ T → Ψ−1 (T ) = (s. (9.

n −1 k =1 1 σ n −1 nω n area (S n−1 ) = = . Ck Cn − k n −1 the open hemisphere Step 3. Fix an orthonormal basis {eA } of V . |v | = 1. . We now ﬁnd ourselves in the situation described in Remark 9. which implies inductively that Cn = σ n − 1 · · · σ 2 C2 = 2 In particular. v • e1 > 0 . This map is a diffeomorphism. The set of lines that do not interNote that Gr1 (V ) = n −1 sect S + is a smooth hypersurface of Gr1 (V ) diffeomorphic to RPn−2 and thus has kinematic n −1 .1 |.362 CHAPTER 9. and denote by S + n −1 = v ∈ V .1 | = Gr∗ 1 (V ) |dγn. Hence Cn. and thus we deduce Cn. then |dγn | = | We write this as i>j A>B θAB |. We measure zero.i θij ∧ α>β θαβ ∧ The form α. whose associated density is |dγn.i . ℓ → ℓ ∩ S + . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Recall that if we deﬁne f A : O(n) → Rn by f A (T ) := T eA . and θAB := f A • df B . We deduce c= p−1 (L0 ) i>j θij ∧ θαβ α>β = O (k ) |dγk | O (n−k ) |dγn−k | = Ck Cn − k .i is the pullback of a nowhere vanishing form deﬁned in a neighborhood of L0 in Grk (Rn ).k |.k = Cn .1 = Hence Cn+1 = Cn C1 Cn+1.9. S+ ∼ RPn−1 is the Grassmannian of lines in V . we deduce the following result.1. θα.1 | = −1 Sn + (ψ −1 )∗ |dγn. Now observe that ψ is in fact an isometry. 2 2 2 σk = n −1 j =0 σj . and we have Cn.1 = Gr1 (V ) |dγn.i θα. α. We denote by Gr1 (V )∗ the open subset consisting of lines intersecting S + thus have a map n −1 n −1 ψ : Gr∗ 1 (V ) → S + .1 = σ n Cn .

1. and we denote by U⊥ → Grk (V ) the orthogonal complement of U in V . We would like to describe a natural structure of smooth manifold on Graﬀ k (V ).1.1 | = |dθ |.1.k | the unique invariant density on Grk (V ). ω1 as predicted by Proposition 9.k |dγnk |. 2n (9.16) n ωn .k = = Grk (Rn ) 363 |dγn. we set nω n 1 σ n −1 = .1.9. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS Proposition 9. Using the computation in Example 9. The trivial vector bundle V is equipped with a natural metric.k → Grk (V ). For every 1 ≤ k < n we have Cn. ⊔ ⊓ Following [59].1 |. We have 2 ω2 = 2 2 = C2. 1 ω1 so that |dν2. Example 9.17) We have |dνn. which implies that C2.13.3 Afﬁne Grassmannians We denote by Graﬀ k (V ) the set of k-dimensional afﬁne subspaces of V .1.k | = n j =1 ω j k i=1 ω i n −1 j =0 σ j k −1 n −k −1 σj i=0 σ i · j =0 n −k j =1 n k · ωj .1. ⊔ ⊓ 9.k | = n k (9.1 = 0 π |dθ | = 2 ω2 2. dim V = n such that Grk (V ) |dνn. 0 ≤ θ < π.1. k ω k ω n −k n .1 | = |dγ2.1. It is naturally a subbundle of the trivial vector bundle V = V × Grk (V ) → Grk (V ) whose ﬁber over L ∈ Grk (V ) is the vector subspace L.1 . . [n]! := [n] := 2 ω n −1 2ω n−1 n [n]! := = k ([k]!)([n − k]!) n [k] = k =1 ω n n! .11 we deduce |dγ2. We have the tautological vector bundle U = Un.12.k | = Cn.12. k Denote by |dνn.

. We set c(S ) := S ∩ [S ]⊥ . PL c = 0 .k | associated to the bundle π ∗ T Grk (V ) → Graﬀ k (V ). We obtain in this fashion a density |dVL⊥ | associated to the vertical subbundle ker Dπ ⊂ T U⊥ . we identify Graﬀ k (V ) with a vector subbundle of the trivial bundle V × Grk (V ) described by U⊥ = (c. and denote by O its preimage in Graﬀ k (V ) via the projection π . [S ] = S − S = s1 − s2 . Thus. L). Let us provide a local description for this density.k | on Graﬀ k (V ) given by |dγn.k | = |dVL⊥ | × π ∗ |dγn. we obtain a density |γn.k |. As such. s1 . The points of U⊥ are pairs (c. We equip Graﬀ k (V ) with the structure of smooth manifold which makes A a diffeomorphism. The projection π : U⊥ → Grk (V ) is a submersion. where L ∈ Grk (V ). L) ∈ V × Grk (V ).364 CHAPTER 9. and c is a vector in L⊥ . where PL denotes the orthogonal projection onto L. The ﬁber of this submersion over L ∈ Grk (V ) is canonically identiﬁed with the vector subspace L⊥ ⊂ V . and we say that c(S ) is the center of the afﬁne plane S . it is equipped with a volume density |dVL⊥ |.k |. This map is a bijection with inverse Graﬀ k (V ) ∋ S → (S ∩ [S ]⊥ . r : O → V with the following properties. We have a natural map A : U⊥ → Graﬀ k (V ) given by (c. L) −→ c + L. [S ]). Using the short exact sequence of vector bundles over Graﬀ k (V ). 0 → ker Dπ −→ T Graﬀ k (V ) −→ π ∗ T Grk (V ) → 0. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY The ﬁber of U⊥ over L ∈ Grk (V ) is canonically identiﬁed with the orthogonal complement L⊥ of L in V . where [S ] ∈ Grk (V ) denotes the afﬁne subspace through the origin parallel to S . and thus we obtain a density π ∗ |dγn. The base Grk (V ) of the submersion π : Graﬀ k (V ) → Grk (V ) is equipped with a density |dγn. s2 ∈ S . Fix a small open subset O ⊂ Grk (V ). Then we can ﬁnd smooth maps eA : O → V.

Suppose f : Graﬀ k (V ) → R is a compactly supported |dγ ˆn. THE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY OF REAL GRASSMANNIANS • For every S ∈ O. ( eα • r )eα .1. ⊔ ⊓ Graﬀ k (V ) Grk (V ) L⊥ where |dVL⊥ | denotes the Euclidean volume density on L⊥ . |dνn. i. Any afﬁne isometry T : V → V is described by a unique pair (t. The group Iso(V ) acts in an obvious fashion on Graﬀ k (V ).1. Following the tradition we introduce the (locally deﬁned) 1-forms θα := eα • dr. (eA (S ) ) is an orthonormal frame of V . ∀v ∈ V.. The Fubini formula for densities (9. and [L] = span ei ([L]) .9. the subgroup of the group of afﬁne transformations generated by translations. Then f (S )|dγn.k |.1.k |-integrable function.3) implies the following result. If instead of the density |dγn. (9.k (L)|.k | on Graﬀ k (V ) which is a constant multiple of |dγn. • For every S ∈ O we have We rewrite the last equality as S = S (r.18) .k | is Iso(V ) invariant. we obtain a density |dνn. S ) ∈ V × O(V ) so that T (v ) = Sv + t.14.k | = n k Cn.1.i .k (S )| = f (p + L)|dVL⊥ (p)| |dγn. ei ). Observe that the center of this afﬁne plane is the projection of r onto [S ]⊥ c(S ) = α 365 S = r (S ) + [S ]. θαi := eα • dei . Theorem 9. ⊥ For ﬁxed L ∈ Grk (V ) the density on the ﬁber U⊥ L = L is given by |dVL⊥ | = θα .k |dγnk |. and by the rotations about a ﬁxed point.k | on Grk (V ) we use the density |dνn.e. Denote by Iso(V ) the group of afﬁne isometries of V . and a simple computation shows that the associated volume density |dγn. The volume density on Graﬀ k (V ) is described along O by |dγn.k | = θα α ∧ θαi α.k |.

Note that the tangent plane is uniquely determined by the unit normal. to denote indices in the range 1 ≤ i. i. To minimize the notational burden we will use the following conventions. if M is curved. .2 Gauss-Bonnet again?!? The Grassmannians enter into the study of the geometry of a submanifold via a fundamental observation going back to Gauss. as p varies along M .2. j. ⊔ ⊓ 9. where the variation of the unit normal along the surface detects the Riemann curvature of the surface. • We will use lower case Greek letters α. . 9.1. the faster will the tangent plane move inside this Grassmannian”. for every ρ ∈ R and θ ∈ [0.1 |(L) = ∞ −∞ 0 π Graﬀ 1 (R2 ) ∞ (Graﬀ (R2 ) ). to denote indices in the range m < α. . the Grassmannian Graﬀ 1 (R2 ) is diffeomorphic to the interior of the M¨ obius band.1. . it is very productive to understand how a tangent plane Tp M varies. and in fact. In Example 4.366 CHAPTER 9.15. m = dim M . “the more curved is M . . ≤ n. ≤ m = dim M. ..ρ )|dθ | |dρ|.e. . β.2. this tangent plane changes its location in the Grassmannian Grm (Rn ). To understand the shape of a submanifold M ֒→ Rn . and the signed distance ρ ∈ (−∞. • We will use lower case Latin letters i. then the tangent plane Tp M does not vary as p moves around M . More precisely. and set m := dim M . the Grassmannians of afﬁne lines in R2 . j. which.20 we have seen this heuristic principle at work in the case of a hypersurface in R3 . . Observe that if M is ﬂat. is named the Gauss map of the submanifold M . ∀f ∈ Ccpt 1 f (Lθ.14 can now be rewritten f (L) |dγ2. it is an open subset of an afﬁne subspace. . . for obvious reasons.ρ the line is given in Euclidean coordinates by the equation x sin θ − y cos θ = ρ As a manifold. ∞) from the origin. The Fubini formula in Theorem 9. Such a line L is determined by two quantities: the angle θ ∈ [0. β.1 The shape operator and the second fundamental form of a submanifold in Rn Suppose M is a smooth submanifold M of Rn . . The goal of this section is to analyze in great detail the map M ∋ p → Tp M ∈ Grm (Rn ). Let us unravel the above deﬁnition in the special case Graﬀ 1 (R2 ). However. π ) we denote by Lθ. . . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Example 9. π ) is makes with the x-axis.

This implies that A ∇M ej = Φi j ei = the tangential component of Φj eA = D ej . C to denote indices in the range 1 ≤ A. and a normal part X ν . a section X of (T Rn )|M decomposes into a tangential part X τ . Y ∈ Vect (M ). Fix a a point p0 ∈ M . 367 The Euclidean metric of Rn induces a metric g on M . and thus. Let us recall this construction using notations more appropriate for the applications in this chapter. an open neighborhood U of p0 in Rn .4 we explained how to determine the Levi-Civita connection ∇M of g using Cartan’s moving frame method. ∀X.e. ΦA B := ΘB |M .. DX = . We denote by (θ A ) the dual coframe of (eA ). C ≤ n. Denote by D the Levi-Civita connection of the Euclidean metric on Rn . • We will use Einstein’s summation convention. X ν = θ α (X )eα .2. B. B.2. Every vector ﬁeld on n R can be regarded as an n-uple of functions 1 X . X= .4. τ ∇M X Y = (D X Y ) . we deduce that (Φi j ) are the 1-forms associated to the LeviM Civita connection ∇ by the local orthonormal frame (ei |M ). A φA := θ A |M . They satisfy Cartan’s equations B A A B dθ A = −ΘA B ∧ θ . . . GAUSS-BONNET AGAIN?!? • We will use the capital Latin letters A. If X is a section of T Rn M then X τ = θ i (X )ei . . . θ A (eB ) = eA • eB = δAB .2. i. = dX. Correspondingly. D eB = ΘB eA . We denote by ΘA B the 1-forms associated to D by the frame (eA ). as explained Subsection 4. Xn Then dX 1 . In Subsection 4. and a local orthonormal frame (eA ) of T Rn along U such that the collection (ei |M ) is a local orthonormal frame of T M along U ∩ M . If we write then. ΘB = −ΘA . dX n The restriction to M of the tangent bundle T Rn admits an orthogonal decomposition (T Rn )|M = T M ⊕ (T M )⊥ .9.

(9.12). We denote the shape operator by S M . . the shape operator measures how fast the tanget plane changes its location as a point in a Grassmannian. The differential of the Gauss map at x ∈ U ∩ M is a linear map D G : Tx M → TG(x) Grm (Rm ) = Hom(Tx M. (Tx M )⊥ ) is given by S M (ei )ej = (D ei ej )ν = Φα ij eα . em (x) span Tx M . j. Proposition 9.1. so that eα • D ej = Φj .1. Note that M SM (ei . A i ΦA j = Φij ∧ φ .2. that is the differential of the Gauss map.2. and we would like to relate it to the structural coefﬁcients A ΦB .2.i = eα • D ej . in the neighborhood U of p0 . ⊔ ⊓ In Subsection 4. this differential described by the (n − m) × m matrix of 1-forms eα • dej . α. We have thus obtained the following result. ∀i. ej ) = φα (D ei ej )eα = Φα ij eα = S (ei )ej .2. Y ) → (D X Y )ν . . As explained in (9. Intuitively. The shape operator of M . More precisely the operator S M (ei ) ∈ Hom(Tx M.1) The equality (4.2. Deﬁne ΦA ij := ei so that 0 ΦA j ∈ Ω (M ∩ U ).1. . The shape operator of the submanifold M ֒→ Rn is.2.4 we have deﬁned the second fundamental form of the submanifold M to be the C ∞ (M )-bilinear and symmetric map SM : Vect (M ) × Vect (M ) → C ∞ (T M )⊥ .i α On the other hand. j. (X. (9. D ej = ΦA j eA . the differential of the Gauss map. . is locally described by the matrix of 1-forms (Φα i )1≤i≤m<α<n .2) Theorema Egregium states that the Riemann curvature tensor of M is completely determined by the second fundamental form. We recall this result below. (Tx M )⊥ ). CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY G = GM : M → Grm (Rn ). by deﬁnition.368 Consider the Gauss map CHAPTER 9. As explained in Subsection 9. α. α. x → Tx M. ∀i. ej ). .10) can be rewritten as ej • (Dei eα ) = −(D ei ej ) • eα = −eα • SM (ei . the “moving plane” x → Tx M can be represented by the orthonormal frame (eA ) which has the property that the ﬁrst m vectors e1 (x).

X4 )X2 ) = SM (X3 . . where • denotes the inner product in Rn . It follows from the Alexander duality theorem with Z/2 coefﬁcients that a compact hypersurface of a vector space is the boundary of a compact domain. Suppose M is a compact. and in particular. and a double cover π : S m → Grm (Rm+1 ). n(x) ⊥ Tx M. and we orient the unit sphere S m ⊂ Rm+1 so that the orientation of Tf0 S m is given by the ordered frame (f1 .2. . The results in the previous subsection have very surprising consequences. local orthonormal frame e1 . we have an oriented Gauss map GM : M → S m . . We denote by g the induced metric on M and by SM the second fundamental form of the embedding M ֒→ Rn . . In this case we can identify the second fundamental form with a genuine symmetric bilinear form SM ∈ C ∞ T ∗ M ⊗2 . fm ) of Rm+1 . . em } is an oriented. SM (X. . . X1 ) • SM (X4 .2. . . If we ﬁx an orientation on M . X2 ) − SM (X3 . then the ordered set {n(x). . On the other hand. The Gauss map GM : M → Grm (Rm+1 ) of the embedding M ֒→ Rm+1 can be given the description. |n(x)| = 1. S m ∋ u → u so that the diagram below is commutative M ⊥ . ³³ Û Sm µ Ùπ ³ G G Grm (Rm+1 ) We ﬁx an oriented orthonormal frame (f0 . R(X3 . e1 (x). If we choose an oriented. X2 ) • SM (X4 . GAUSS-BONNET AGAIN?!? 369 Theorem 9.2 The Gauss-Bonnet theorem for hypersurfaces of an Euclidean space. i. . Suppose M is a submanifold of Rn . . Y ) = n • (D X Y ). X4 ∈ Vect (M ) we have g(X1 . then we obtain a normal vector ﬁeld n : M → Rm+1 . orientable1 hypersurface of Rm+1 . Then for any X1 . In the remainder of this subsection we will assume that m is even. .. f1 . .2.e. an orientable submanifold of codimension 1. . . . ∀x ∈ M. . m = 2h. local orthonormal frame of Rm+1 . ⊔ ⊓ 9. . fm ). Denote by R the Riemann curvature of M with the induced metric. X1 ).2. x → n(x). em of T M . 1 The orientability assumption is superﬂuous. M ∋ x → n(x) ⊥ := the vector subspace orthogonal to n(x). it is orientable. . .9.

Sjk Sjℓ (9. . Denote by g the induced metric on M . k = ℓ.2.3) 1 dAm = 1. eℓ )ej . and denote by θ = (θ 1 . First. ℓ-columns. Observe that dVM = θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ m . . and in this case the matrix Sik Siℓ Sjk Sjℓ is the 2 × 2 submatrix of S = (Sij )1≤i. . . S ej = Sij θ i . em ) of T M deﬁned on some open set U ⊂ M . R(ek .4) in a more convenient form. .2. R(ek ∧ eℓ ) = i<j Rijkℓ θ i ∧ θ j . σ 2h = (2h + 1)ω 2r+1 =⇒ Hence Sm σ 2h 22h π h h! = .j ≤m lieing at the intersection of the i. regard S as a linear map S : Tx M → T ∗ M. We set Sij := SM (ei . Recall that σm denotes the “area” of S m . . where dVM denotes the metric volume form on M and P (RM ) is a universal polynomial of degree m 2 in the curvature R of M . .370 CHAPTER 9. Theorem 9. σm so that 1 σm M G∗ M dAm = deg GM . Next.2. j -rows with the k. θ m ) the dual coframe. . We would like to prove that the integrand G∗ M dAm has the form G∗ M dAm = P (RM )dVM . we regard the curvature Rijkℓ at a point x ∈ M as a linear map ∗ Λ2 Tx M → Λ2 Tx M. Fix a positively oriented orthonormal frame e = (e1 . . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Denote by dAm ∈ Ωm (S m ) the “area” form on the unit m-dimensional sphere S m . 2 (2h)! (9.2 implies that Rijkℓ = Sik Sjℓ − Siℓ Sjk = Sik Siℓ . ej ) • n. Then S induces linear maps Λp S : Λk Tx M → Λp T ∗ M.4) Observe that Rijkℓ = 0 =⇒ i = j. and by R the curvature of g.2. We can rephrase the equality (9. Rijkℓ := g ei .

. 2. can be regarded as a 2-form with coefﬁcients in the bundle of skew-symmetric endomorphisms of T M . . .2. .2. like the curvature of any metric connection.4) can now be rephrased as R = Λ2 S.5) We want to prove that det S can be described in terms of Λ2 S . 2h (9. and ǫ(ϕ) = ±1 denotes the signature of a permutation. To see this observe that (Λ2h S )(e1 ∧ e2 ∧ · · · e2h−1 ∧ e2h ) = (Λ2 S )(e1 ∧ e2 ) ∧ · · · ∧ (Λ2 S )(e2h−1 ∧ e2h ) h h i<j = s=1 Rij. Observe that #S′ m = 2h 2h − 2 2 · ··· 2 2 2 = (2h)! . . m}.2. . The Riemann curvature.ℓ Rijkℓ θ k ∧ θ ℓ = Λ2 S (ei ∧ ej ) ∈ Ω2 (U ).4 that the pfafﬁan of Θ is the differential form P f (Θ) := (−1)h 2h h! ǫ(ϕ)Θϕ(1)ϕ(2) ∧ · · · ∧ Θϕ(2h−1)ϕ(2h) ∈ Ω2h (U ). where S′ m denotes the set of permutations ϕ of {1. Observe that P f (Θ) = (−1)h h! ǫ(ϕ)Θϕ(1)ϕ(2) ∧ · · · ∧ Θϕ(2h−1)ϕ(2h) .2. Recall from Subsection 8. ϕ∈S′ m . . ϕ(2h − 1) < ϕ(2h). ∀1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ip ≤ m. The equality (9. .2s dVM . ϕ∈Sm where Sm denotes the group of permutations of {1.j ≤m Rijkℓ θ k ∧ θ ℓ = 1 2 k. . .2s−1. GAUSS-BONNET AGAIN?!? deﬁned by S (ei1 ∧ · · · ∧ eip ) = (S ei1 ) ∧ · · · ∧ (S eip ).2. . Along U we have the equality m 1 m (G∗ M dAM ) |U = Λ S (e1 ∧ · · · ∧ em ) = (det S )θ ∧ · · · ∧ θ = (det S )dVM . Θij = k<ℓ 1≤i.6) We would like to give an alternate description of det S using the concept of pfafﬁan. It is locally described by a m × m skew-symmetric matrix Θ = Θg := Θij whose entries are 2-forms on U .2s θ ∧ θ i j = ϕ∈S′ m ǫ(ϕ) s=1 Rϕ(2s−1)ϕ(2s). .9. 371 (9.2s−1. m = 2h} such that ϕ(1) < ϕ(2). 2.

372 CHAPTER 9. and g denotes the induced metric.ϕ)∈S′ m × Sm j =1 Rϕ(2j −1)ϕ(2j )σ(2j −1)σ(2j ) dVM .3) h! P f (−Θ) = P f (−Θ) ′ ′ 2 σ2h #Sm #Sm 2 h π h h! (9.2. #S′ m 2h G∗ M dAM = (Λ S )(e1 ∧ e2 ∧ · · · ∧ e2h−1 ∧ e2h ) = h! P f (−Θ). #S′ m so that G∗ M 2 dAM σ 2h = 2 h! (2h)! (9. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY ′ We can simplify this some more if we introduce the set S′′ m consisting of permutations ϕ ∈ Sm such that ϕ(1) < ϕ(3) < · · · < ϕ(2h − 1). GM dAm = e(∇M ) = σm (2π )h and 2 deg GM = 1 (2π )h e(∇M ) = χ(M ). oriented hypersurface. Theorem 9.6) = 1 P f (−Θ) (2π )h The last form is the Euler form e(∇M ) associated to the Levi-Civita connection ∇M . = ǫ(ϕ)Λm S (eϕ(1) ∧ eϕ(2) ∧ · · · ∧ eϕ(2h−1) ∧ eϕ(2h) ) ǫ(ϕ)Θϕ(1)ϕ(2) ∧ · · · ∧ Θϕ(2h−1)ϕ(2h) h = 1 (#S′ m) 1 #S′ m ϕ∈S′ m = Hence ǫ(σϕ) ′ (σ.3. M .ϕ)∈S′ m × Sm j =1 Rϕ(2j −1)ϕ(2j )σ(2j −1)σ(2j ) dVM = h! P f (−Θ). Observe that ′′ #S′ ⇒ #S′′ m = (#Sm )h! = m = S′ (2h)! M = h = 1 · 3 · · · (2h − 1) =: γ (2h). 1 h! h ǫ(σϕ) ′ (σ.2. If M 2h ⊂ R2h+1 is a compact. then 1 2 ∗ P f (−Θg ). 1 #S′ m (Λ2h S )(e1 ∧ e2 ∧ · · · ∧ e2h−1 ∧ e2h ) ϕ∈S′ m ϕ∈S′′ m ǫ(ϕ)Θϕ(1)ϕ(2) ∧ · · · ∧ Θϕ(2h−1)ϕ(2h) . h! 2 h! Then P f (Θ) = (−1)h We have P f (−Θ) = On the other hand.2. Using the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem we obtain the following result.

2. However. there are many repetitions due to the symmetries of the Riemann tensor = Rijkℓ = Rkℓij = −Rijℓk . 2. . 4.7a) = ϕ∈S′′ 2h ǫ(ϕ)Θϕ(1)ϕ(2) ∧ · · · ∧ Θϕ(2h−1)ϕ(2h) . . 4. 2h} such that ϕ(2j − 1) < ϕ(2j ).ϕ)∈S′ 2h ×Sm j =1 Rϕ(2j −1)ϕ(2j )σ(2j −1)σ(2j ) dVM (9.9. . .2. positively oriented orthonormal frame of T M . 3. because θ i ∧ θ j = 0.2. . 4. ǫ = −1 −→ −Θ1312 Θ2434 1. 2. 2. then P f (−Θg ) = 1 h! h 373 ǫ(σϕ) ′ (σ. 3. ⊔ ⊓ Example 9. when i = j . ∀1 ≤ j ≤ h. 3. . ′ S′′ m denotes the set of permutations ϕ ∈ Sm such that ϕ(1) < ϕ(3) < · · · < ϕ(2h − 1). if (e1 . We have (R12ij θ i ∧ θ j ) ∧ (R34kℓ θ k ∧ θ ℓ ) = R1212 R3434 + R1213 R3442 + R1214 R3423 +R1223 R3414 + R1242 R3413 + R1234 R3412 dVM . (9. . ǫ = 1 −→ Θ1212 Θ3434 . Thus the total number of terms in the above expression is 36. . and Θij = k<ℓ Rijkℓ θ k ∧ θ ℓ .2.4.7b) where S′ 2h denotes the set of permutations ϕ of {1. 1. ǫ = 1 −→ Θ1412 Θ2334 We deduce 1 1 (R12ij θ i ∧ θ j ) ∧ (R34kℓ θ k ∧ θ ℓ ) − (R13ij θ i ∧ θ j ) ∧ (R24kℓ θ k ∧ θ ℓ ) 4 4 1 + (R14ij θ i ∧ θ j ) ∧ (R23kℓ θ k ∧ θ ℓ ) 4 Each of the three exterior products above in involves only six nontrivial terms. GAUSS-BONNET AGAIN?!? Moreover. then S′′ 4 consists of 3 permutations 1. etc. P f (−Θg ) = Θ12 ∧ Θ34 − Θ13 ∧ Θ24 + Θ14 ∧ Θ23 . e2h ) is a local. (a) If dim M = 2 then P f (−Θg ) = R1212 dVM = (the Gaussian curvature of M ) × dVM (b) If dim M = 4.

¯. ∂D If m is even then the Gauss-Bonnet theorem for the hypersurface ∂D implies 1 σm 1 G∗ D dAm = χ(∂D ). We denote by dAm the area form on the unit sphere S m so that deg GD = 1 σm G∗ D dAm . . Then the eigenvalues of SM at x are called the principal curvatures at x and are denoted by κ1 (x). Y ∈ Vect (∂D ). . Therefore in the remainder of this section we assume m is odd. Y ) = n • (D X Y ) = −X • (D Y n). . so that 1 G∗ dAm = χ(D ). CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY (c) We can choose the positively oriented local orthonormal frame (e1 . ∀X. Let SD denote the second fundamental form of the hypersurface SD (X. ρ ∈ C ∞ (M ). Then P f (−Θ) = ρdVM .2. m ∈ 2Z. ⊔ ⊓ 9. em ) so that it diagonalizes SM at a given point x ∈ M . . We denote by n the outer normal vector ﬁeld along the boundary. We deduce 1 ∗ 1 det(−SD )dV∂D . on ∂D. X • n > 0. 2 ∂D Using the Poincar´ e duality for the oriented manifold with boundary D we deduce χ(∂D ) = 2χ(D ). σm ∂D D We want to prove that the above equality holds even when m is odd. GD dAm = σm σm where dV∂D denotes the volume form on ∂D . . . . κm (x). . It deﬁnes an oriented Gauss map GD : ∂D → S m . A smooth vector ﬁeld on D ¯ → Rm+1 X :D is called admissible if along the boundary it points towards the exterior of D . ∀x ∈ M. We ﬁrst describe the integrand G∗ D dAm . .374 CHAPTER 9. where ρ(x) = (2h − 1)!! m k =1 κi (x).3 Gauss-Bonnet theorem for domains in an Euclidean space Suppose D is a relatively compact open subset of an Euclidean space Rm+1 with smooth boundary ∂D .

|(1 − t)n + tX Hence ¯ deg GD = deg X. σm dΩ = 0 =⇒ deg GD = Ω= ∂D p∈ZX ∂Bε (p) Ω. pν }.p : Tp Rm+1 → Tp Rm+1 . ǫ(p) = sign det AX.p . . σm 1 ¯∗ X d(dAm ) = 0 on Dε . For any ε > 0 sufﬁciently small the closed balls of radius ε centered at the points in ZX are disjoint. X ¯ = 1 X. . Suppose X is a nondegenerate admissible vector ﬁeld. . This means that X has a ﬁnite number of stationary points. X ¯ (p) := X 1 X (p). Set Dε = D \ Bε (p). ∀p ∈ ∂D. the linear map AX. and we obtain a map ¯ :D ¯ ε → S m−1 .. deﬁne Let us observe that the map X Yt : ∂D → S m .2. Deﬁne ǫX : ZX → {±1}.9. p∈ZX 1 ¯ ¯ | ((1 − t)n + tX |(1 − t)n + tX The vector ﬁeld X does not vanish on Dε . Tp Rm+1 ∋ v → (D v X )(p) is invertible. and all of them are nondegenerate. . |X (p)| 375 ¯ is homotopic to the map GD . i. ZX = {p1 . . for t ∈ [0. X |X | Set Ω := Observe that dΩ = Stokes’ theorem then implies that Ω= ∂Dε Dε 1 ¯∗ X dAm . X (pi ) = 0. 1]. GAUSS-BONNET AGAIN?!? For an admissible vector ﬁeld X we deﬁne ¯ : ∂D → S m . Indeed. for any p ∈ ZX . Yt (p) = Observe that this map is well deﬁned since ¯ |2 = t2 + (1 − t)2 + 2t(1 − t)(n • X ¯ ) > 0. for any admissible vector ﬁeld X .e.

Hence ǫX (q ) = 2 q ∈ZX p∈ZX ǫX (q ) (9.48) implies that ˆ ǫX ˆ (q ) = χ(D ). because m is odd. This is the smooth manifold D obtained by gluing D along ∂D to a copy of itself equipped with the opposite orientation. Moreover ZX = ZX ∪ ϕ(ZX ). the general Poincar´ e-Hopf theorem (see Corollary 7.2. v → ∇v X is an isomorphism. where the nondegeneracy of X is deﬁned in terms of an ˆ . along ∂D ⊂ D ˆ we have a ϕ-invariant decomposition D T D|∂D = T ∂D ⊕ L. q ∈ZX ˆ Using the Mayer-Vietoris theorem we deduce χ(D ) = 2χ(D ) − χ(∂D ). then q is arbitrary connection on T D X nondegenerate if the map AX.8) p∈ZX for any nondegenerate admissible vector ﬁeld X . ˆ → The manifold without boundary D is equipped with an orientation reversing involution ϕ : D ˆ whose ﬁxed point set is ∂D . then we ˆ by setting obtain a vector ﬁeld X on D X := X −ϕ∗ (X ) on D on −D.2. if ∇ is a connection on T D ˆ . If X is a vector ﬁeld on D which is equal to n along ∂D . D = D ∪∂D (−D ). On the other hand. the map ǫX : ZX → {±1} satisﬁes ǫX (p) = ǫX (ϕ(p)). and we denote by ǫX ˆ (q ) the sign of its determinant. To give an interpretation of the right-hand side of the above equality. (9. and q ∈ Z ˆ .8 ) = 2 deg GD .q : Tq D → Tq D. If X is nondegenerate. and. If we let ε → 0 we deduce deg GD = ǫX (p). CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY where the spheres ∂Bε (p) are oriented as boundaries of the balls Bε (p). The normal vector ﬁeld n deﬁnes a basis of L. consider the double of D . then so is X . . In particular.3. This map is independent of the connection ∇. More precisely.376 CHAPTER 9. where L is a real line bundle along which the differential of ϕ acts as −½L .

We will introduce these quantities trough the back door. Surprisingly. ⊔ ⊓ ∂D 9. Unavoidably. but we refer to [23. Hawaiian rings. and by SD the second fundamental form of ∂D . We have thus proved the following result. and averaging the Euler characteristics of such slices.3. and we describe several probabilistic interpretations of them known under the common name of Crofton formulæ. The Crofton Formulæ state that these curvature measures can be computed by slicing the submanifold with afﬁne subspaces of various codimensions. we devote this section to a brief introduction to this topic. 9. we will have to omit many interesting details and contributions. Theorem 9. the so called curvature measures. For every set X we will denote by P(X ) the collection of all subsets of X . ∂D ∋ p → n(p) = unit outer normal. 28.3 Curvature measures In this section we introduce the main characters of classical integral geometry. Suppose D is a relatively compact open subset of Rm+1 with smooth boundary ∂D . CURVATURE MEASURES Since ∂D is odd dimensional and oriented we deduce that χ(∂D ) = 0. which describes the volume of a tube of small radius r around a compact submanifold of an Euclidean space as a polynomial in r whose coefﬁcients are these geometric measures.5 (Gauss-Bonnet for domains). and therefore 2χ(D ) = χ(D ) = 2 p∈ZX 377 ǫX (q ) = 2 deg GD . 29] for more systematic presentations. but since this is not yet the case. Then 1 σm det(−SD )dV∂D = deg GD = χ(D ).1 Tame geometry The category of tame spaces and tame maps is sufﬁciently large to include all the compact triangulable spaces. We believe that the subject of tame geometry is one mathematical gem which should be familiar to a larger geometric audience. ∀X. or nasty functions such as sin(1/t). these coefﬁcients depend only on the Riemann curvature of the induced metric on the submanifold. via the beautiful tube formula of Weyl. Y ∈ Vect (∂D ).2. yet sufﬁciently restrictive to rule out pathological situations such as Cantor sets. we chose to describe these facts in the slightly more restrictive context of tame geometry. To keep the geometric ideas as transparent as possible. We denote by GD the oriented Gauss map GD : ∂D → S m .9. and the analytical machinery to a minimum.3. Y ) = n • (D X Y ). SD (X. .

. B are S-deﬁnable then a function f : A → B is called S-deﬁnable if its graph Γf := (a. We say that a set is S-deﬁnable if it belongs to one of the Sn ’s. (Semialgebraic sets). The model theoretic deﬁnition allows for ordered ﬁelds. E2 .378 CHAPTER 9. then T (A) ∈ Sn . where Pa (x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · an−1 xn−1 + xn . b = f (a) This is a highly condensed and special version of the traditional deﬁnition of structure. then A × B ∈ Sm+n . ⊔ ⊓ Suppose S is a structure. Denote by Sn alg the collection of semialgebraic subsets of Rn . 2 .3. When n = 3. universal. Sn is closed under boolean operations. ∃x ∈ R. ∪. the subsets described by ﬁnitely many polynomial equations. and B ∈ Sn .. ∩ and complement. The Tarski-Seidenberg theorem implies that the projection of Zn on the subspace with coordinates (ai ) is a semialgebraic set Rn := a = (a0 . when n = 2. . Sn contains all the real algebraic subsets of Rn . If A ∈ Sm . .. a0 . This can come in handy even if one is interested only in the ﬁeld R. we know that there cannot exist any algebraic formulæ describing the roots of a degree n polynomial. i. . In other words.e. Consider the real algebraic set Zn := (x. . For example. The Tarski-Seidenberg theorem (see [15]) states that Salg is a structure. the subsets S ⊂ Rn which are ﬁnite unions S = S1 ∪ · · · ∪ Sν . P3 . an−1 ) ∈ Rn . an−1 ) ∈ Rn+1 . . P2 . E1 . the polynomial Pa has a real root if and only if the coefﬁcients a satisfy at least one system of polynomial inequalities from a ﬁnite. i. To appreciate the strength of this theorem we want to discuss one of its many consequences. collection of systems of polynomial inequalities.1.e. P1 . the resolvent set R2 is described by the well known inequality 2 a1 − 4a0 ≥ 0. Sn contains all the closed afﬁne half-spaces of Rn . Sn ⊂ P(Rn ). . For n ≥ 5. and T : Rm → Rn is an afﬁne map. other than R. If A. If A ∈ Sm . with the following properties. Pa (x) = 0 . yet we can ﬁnd algebraic inequalities which can decide if such a polynomial has at least one real root. we can obtain a similar conclusion using Cardano’s formulæ. Example 9. b) ∈ A × B . such as extensions of R by “inﬁnitesimals”. a0 + a1 x + · · · an−1 xn−1 + xn = 0 . . where each Sj is described by ﬁnitely many polynomial inequalities. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY An R-structure2 is a collection S = {Sn }n≥1 .

Λm P = 0. which is a vector subspace of dimension k.3.3. then any formula obtained from them by applying the above logical transformations will describe a deﬁnable set. ∨. ¬. describing a deﬁnable set C ⊂ A × B . If A ⊂ Rm . Similarly. x ≥ 0}.9. P 2 = P. ∨. then the projection A × B → A is the restriction to A × B of the linear projection Rm × Rn → Rm and P3 implies that the image of C is also deﬁnable. b) describes the image of the subset C ⊂ A × B via the canonical projection A × B → A. we associate its range. and quantiﬁers ∃. Λk P = 0. For example. ¬ correspond to the boolean operations. To see this. where Λj P denotes the endomorphism of Λj Rn induced by the linear map P ∈ End(Rn ). . CURVATURE MEASURES 379 is S-deﬁnable. f g Note that any polynomial with real coefﬁcients is a deﬁnable function. the afﬁne Grassmannian Graﬀ k (Rn ) is a semialgebraic set because its is described by Graﬀ k (Rn ) = (x. describe the same set. Then the formula a ∈ A. ∀m > k . x ∈ R. A. ∃b ∈ B : φ(a. ∃y ∈ R : x = y 2 }. (c) Observe that Salg is contained in any structure S. ∞). c) ∈ Γg . ∪. ∃b ∈ B : (a. . P ) ∈ Rn × Grk (Rn ). B ⊂ Rn . suppose we are given a formula φ(a. [0. . A formula3 is a property deﬁning a certain set. For example. |(x1 . and taking the complement. Observe that any Grassmannian Grk (Rn ) is a semialgebraic subset of the Euclidean space End+ (R) of symmetric operators Rn → Rn because it is deﬁned by the system of algebraic (in)equalities Grk (Rn ) = P ∈ End+ (Rn ). b) ∈ Γf . The reason these sets are called deﬁnable has to do with mathematical logic. 3 We are deliberately vague on the meaning of formula. (b) The image and the preimage of a deﬁnable set via a deﬁnable function is a deﬁnable set. observe that the operators ∧. The existential quantiﬁer corresponds to taking a projection. the Euclidean norm n | • | : R → R. b) ∈ A × B . ∩. xn )| = n x2 i i=1 1/2 is S-deﬁnable. we can obtain new formulas. . using the logical operations ∧. . In particular. ∀. (a. Given a collection of formulas. c) ∈ A × C . to the orthogonal projection P of rank k. If we start with a collection of formulas. In the above description. P x = 0 . (a) The composition of two deﬁnable functions A → B → C is a deﬁnable function because Γg◦f = (a.2. each describing an Sdeﬁnable set. B deﬁnable. b). Example 9. (b. Observe that the universal quantiﬁer can be replaced with the operator ¬∃¬. the two different looking formulas x ∈ R.

∃a ∈ A : |x − a| < ε . ∀ε > 0. (a) The collection of real semialgebraic sets Salg is a tame structure. b). which is the smallest structure containing S and the sets in An . An R-structure S is called tame. We say that S(A) is obtained from S by adjoining the collection A. and we deduce that cl(A) is also S-deﬁnable. or o-minimal (order minimal) if it satisﬁes the property T. we can replace the universal quantiﬁer to rewrite the formula as a transform of atomic formulas via the basic logical operations. ⊔ ⊓ Example 9. ¬ ∃ε¬ (ε > 0) ⇒ ∃a(a ∈ A) ∧ (x ∈ Rn ) ∧ (|x − a| < ε) . (ε > 0).3. Arguing in a similar fashion we deduce that the interior of an S-deﬁnable set is an S-deﬁnable set. . Deﬁnition 9. The logical connector ⇒ can be replaced by ∨¬. ⊔ ⊓ Given an R-structure S. (e) Suppose A ⊂ Rn is S-deﬁnable. (a ∈ A).4. (b)(Gabrielov-Hironaka-Hardt) A restricted real analytic function is a function f : Rn → R with ˜ deﬁned in an open neighborhood U of the the property that there exists a real analytic function f n cube Cn := [−1. we can form a new structure S(A). (x ∈ Rn ). CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY In the above description. and the set described by this formula consists of those x for which that formula is a true statement. P ) we associate the afﬁne plane x + Range (P ).3. In the above formula we see one free variable x. An ⊂ P(Rn ). afﬁne simplicial complex K ⊂ Rn is S-deﬁnable because it is a ﬁnite union of afﬁne images of ﬁnite intersections of half-spaces. Let us examine the correspondence between the operations on formulas and operations on sets on this example. Then its closure cl(A) is described by the formula x ∈ Rn . The above formula is made of the “atomic” formulæ.380 CHAPTER 9. Finally. and a collection A = (An )n≥1 . (|x − a| < ε). We rewrite this formula as ∀ε (ε > 0) ⇒ ∃a(a ∈ A) ∧ (x ∈ Rn ) ∧ (|x − a| < ε) . to the pair (x. −∞ ≤ a < b ≤ ∞. Any set A ∈ S1 is a ﬁnite union of open intervals (a. 1] such that f (x) = ˜(x) x ∈ Cn f 0 x ∈ R n \ Cn . and singletons {r }.3. (d) Any compact. which all describe deﬁnable sets.

van den Dries. f (x)). F1 . . . there exists a compact simplicial complex K . .3. We will list below some of the nice properties of the sets and function deﬁnable in a tame structure S.) Suppose X is a tame set and f : X → Rn is a tame bounded function. .) Suppose A is an S-deﬁnable set. (c)(Wilkie. . . (d)(Khovanski-Speissegger) There exists a tame structure S′ with the following properties (d1 ) San ⊂ S′ . . • (Curve selection. real analytic submanifolds of Rn belong to gSan . such that each Si is a C p -manifold. and f : A → R is a deﬁnable function. • (Dimension of the boundary. then there exists an S-deﬁnable C k -map γ : (0. i = 1.1) F (x) = x0 f (t)dt. Marker) The structure obtained by adjoining to San the graph of the exponential function R → R. The structure San is tame. Sk }. Then A can be partitioned into ﬁnitely many S deﬁnable sets S1 . is a tame structure. is called the pfafﬁan closure4 of San . but it sufﬁces for many geometric applications. and we will denote it by San .) If A is an S-deﬁnable set. p is a positive integer. ∂xi then f is S′ -deﬁnable. San -deﬁnable. • (Closed graph theorem.3.) If A is an S-deﬁnable set. connected and S′ -deﬁnable. Their proofs can be found in [23. CURVATURE MEASURES 381 we denote by San the structure obtained from Salg by adjoining the graphs of all the restricted real analytic functions. 1) → A such that x = limt→0 γ (t). • (Triangulability. . It is perhaps instructive to give an example of function which is not deﬁnable in any tame structure. b) → R is C 1 . is also San -deﬁnable. Then f is continuous if and only if its graph is closed in X × Rn . Sk . ⊔ ⊓ The deﬁnable sets and functions of a tame structure have rather remarkable tame behavior which prohibits many pathologies. . b) → R x (9.9. . . . For example. The dimension of A is then deﬁned as max dim Si . and any ﬁnite collection of deﬁnable subsets {S1 . all the compact. 91]. (d2 ) If U ⊂ Rn is open. b) then the antiderivative F : (a. . t → et . . b). Fn : U × R → R are S′ -deﬁnable and C 1 . the function x → sin x is not deﬁnable in a tame structure because the intersection of its graph with the horizontal axis is the countable set π Z which violates the o-minimality condition T. ∀x ∈ R.) For every compact deﬁnable set A. The smallest structure satisfying the above two properties. • (Piecewise smoothness of tame functions and sets. For example. and each of the restrictions f |Si is a C p -function. Observe that if f : (a. Macintyre. then dim(cl(A) \ A) < dim A. . k > 0 an integer. Φ:K→A . . and x ∈ cl(A) \ A. n. and x0 ∈ (a. and f : U → R is a C 1 function satisfying ∂f = Fi (x. 28]. x ∈ (a. and a deﬁnable homeomorphism 4 Our deﬁnition of pfafﬁan closure is more restrictive than the original one in [58. .

. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 9. and we denote by ΛS the projection of S on Λ. We set Sλ := a ∈ A. then the function Λ ∋ λ → dim Sλ ∈ R is deﬁnable. its range must be a ﬁnite subset of Z. .) We say that a tame map Φ : X → S is deﬁnably trivial if there exists a deﬁnable set F . and p is a positive integer.382 CHAPTER 9. • (Deﬁnability of Euler characteristic. ∀λ ∈ ΛS . and a deﬁnable homeomorphism τ : X → F × S such that the diagram below is commutative X Φ τ ℄ S Û S×F πS . λ ∈ Λ. λ) ∈ S . • (Deﬁnable selection. A subset A of some Euclidean space Rn is called tame if it is deﬁnable within a tame structure S.) If (Sλ )λ∈Λ is a deﬁnable family of deﬁnable sets.) Suppose (Sλ )λ∈Λ is a deﬁnable family of compact tame sets.) If A and B are two compact deﬁnable sets. In particular. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY such that all the sets Φ−1 (Si ) are unions of relative interiors of faces of K . 1]. Then a deﬁnable family of subsets of A parameterized by Λ is a subset S ⊂ A × Λ. (a) Prove that ϕ is differentiable on the complement of a ﬁnite subset of [0. ⊂ Z is ﬁnite. •(Scissor equivalence. Λ are S-deﬁnable.6. then there exists a deﬁnable bijection ϕ : A → B if and only if A and B have the same dimensions and the same Euler characteristics. Suppose S is a tame structure and Suppose ϕ : [0. . (a.) Suppose A.3. Then there exists a deﬁnable function s : ΛS → S such that s(λ) ∈ Sλ . ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 9. If Ψ : X → Y is a deﬁnable map.5.3.) • (Deﬁnable triviality of tame maps. Then the map Λ ∋ λ → χ(Sλ ) = the Euler characteristic of Sλ ∈ Z is deﬁnable. and each of them is deﬁnable. the set χ(Sλ ). . • (Deﬁnability of dimension. In particular. 1] → R2 is an S-deﬁnable map. Yk such that each the restrictions Ψ : Ψ−1 (Yk ) → Yk is deﬁnably trivial. (The map ϕ need not be continuous. • Any deﬁnable set has ﬁnitely many connected components. then there exists a partition of Y into deﬁnable C p -manifolds Y1 . .

We denote by O(V ) the group of orthogonal transformations of the Euclidean space V . E1 ) the spaces of morphisms of O(V )-modules. ρ). while ρ is a group morphism ρ : O(V ) → Aut(E ). v ∈ V. ρi ). It induces a structure of O(V )-module on V ∗ = Hom(V. and each of them has ﬁnite length. 1. . − : V ∗ × V → R. R). We obtain an action on (V ∗ )⊗n . 383 ⊔ ⊓ 9. 1] × R2 . is a linear map A : E0 → E1 such that for every g ∈ O(V ) the diagram below is commutative E0 ρ0 (g ) A E0 Ù Û E1 Ù ρ (g) Û E1 1 A We will denote by HomO(V ) (E0 .3. where ρ† (g)λ. λ ∈ V ∗ = Hom(V. Equivalently. Suppose V is a ﬁnite dimensional Euclidean space with metric (−. ρ† (g) = ρ(g −1 )† . 1] has ﬁnitely many components. ϕ(t) ). We denote by −. ∀v ∈ V. t ∈ [0. ∀g ∈ O(V ). − the canonical pairing −. τ (g)v = gv. A morphism of O(V )-modules (Ei . CURVATURE MEASURES (b) Prove that the set (t.2 Invariants of the orthogonal group In the proof of the tube formula we will need to use H. Recall that an O(V )-module is a pair (E.9. (ρ† )⊗n : O(V ) → Aut (V ∗ )⊗n . i = 0. g → ρ(g). ϕ is differentiable at t and m = ϕ′ (t) is S-deﬁnable. where ρ(h)† denotes the transpose of ρ(h).Weyl’s characterization of polynomials invariant under the orthogonal group. v = λ(v ). (c) Prove that the curve C = (t. −). λ. ∀λ ∈ V ∗ . where E is a ﬁnite dimensional real vector space. R) given by ρ† : O(V ) → Aut(V ∗ ). g → ρ† (g). m) ∈ [0. v ∈ V. v = λ. The vector space V has a tautological structure of O(V )-module given by τ : O(V ) → Aut(V ). g → ρ† (g)⊗n .3. g −1 v .

. . n Hermann Weyl has produced in his classic monograph [101] an explicit description of (V ∗ )⊗ O (V ) . This isomorphism induces an isomorphism of O(V )-modules D : (V. v → v† . v ∈ V. n ω ∈ (V ∗ )⊗ O (V ) ⇐⇒ ρ† (g ) ⊗n ω = ω. Let us observe that if we denote by Sr the group of permutations of {1. u = (v . . V ⊗s ). then for every ϕ ∈ Sr we obtain a morphism of O(V )-modules Tφ ∈ HomO(V ) (V ⊗r . s we have isomorphisms of G-modules (V ∗ )⊗(r+s) ∼ = (V ∗ ⊗r) ⊗ V ⊗s ∼ = Hom(V ⊗r . r }. ρ† ). Tϕ (v1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ vr ) = vϕ(1) ⊗ · · · ⊗ vϕ(r) . (V ∗ )⊗(r+s) O (V ) ∼ = Hom(V ⊗r . Weyl’s First Main Theorem of Invariant Theory states that HomO(V ) (V ⊗r . ρ) → (V ∗ . V ⊗s ) O (V ) = HomO(V ) (V ⊗r . V ⊗s ) = 0 ⇐⇒ r = s. . V ⊗r ). We conclude that for ever nonnegative integers r.384 CHAPTER 9. without proof. cϕ ∈ R. We follow the elegant and more modern presentation in Appendix I of [6] to which we refer for proofs. V ⊗s ) In particular. We can translate this result in terms of invariant multi-linear forms. V ⊗r ) = R[Sr ] := ϕ∈Sr cϕ Tϕ . Thus n (V ∗ )⊗ O (V ) = 0 ⇐⇒ n = 2r. n n n so that (V ∗ )⊗ O (V ) can be identiﬁed with the subspace of O (V )-invariant multilinear maps V → R. Observe that (V ∗ )⊗n can be identiﬁed with the vector space of multi-linear maps ω : V n = V × · · · × V → R. . u). We would like to present here. . ∀g ∈ O(V ). Observe ﬁrst that the metric duality deﬁnes a natural isomorphism of vector spaces D : V → V ∗. r ∈ Z≥0 . ∀u. this beautiful result of Weyl since it will play an important role in the future. and that HomO(V ) (V ⊗r . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY n We denote by (V ∗ )⊗ O (V ) the subspace consisting of invariant tensors. deﬁned by v † .

. . . . CURVATURE MEASURES 2r and (V ∗ )⊗ O (V ) is spanned by the multilinear forms 385 Pϕ : V 2r → R. . . . . . . v j ). d1 1 dn Polf (u1 1 . This form determines a multilinear form Polf : V d1 × · · · × V dn → R obtained by polarization in each variables separately. v n ) → f (v 1 . v n ). . . . . . . deﬁned by Pϕ (u1 . . . . . . . Suppose we have a map f : V × · · · × V → R. . . v n . n Theorem 9. . . (ϕ ∈ Sr ). . . v n ) := (v i . . . v n ) = Polf (v 1 . qij (v 1 . . .7 (Weyl). For every 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ n we deﬁne qij : V × · · · × V → R. t1d1 . . . tn1 . The above result has an immediate consequence. . v n ). v ϕ(r) . . . v n )1≤i≤j ≤n ). . Note that every function f : V × ··· × V → R n which is polynomial in each of the variables is a linear combination of functions which is polynomial and homogeneous in each of the variables. .3. . . . v n . . . . ⊔ ⊓ . t12 . . (v 1 . . . . n. v n ) = P ( qij (v 1 .3. . If f : V × · · · × V → R is a polynomial map then f is O(V )-invariant if and only if there exists a polynomial P in the n+1 variables qij such that 2 f (v1 . tndn ) = f j =1 tij uj 1. .9. j =1 Observe that f (v 1 . . . . v n ) = the coefﬁcient of the monomial t11 t12 · · · t1d1 · · · tn1 · · · tndn in the polynomial d1 Pf (t11 . . . ∀i = 1. ur . v ϕ(1) · · · ur . . . . . v 1 . . . . . v r ) = u1 . . . d1 dn and f is O(V )-invariant if and only if Polf is O(V ) invariant. . dn tnj uj n . v 1 . . . . . . . u1 . n which is a homogeneous polynomial of degree di in the variable v i . . . .

Q(T ) = ij 2 ˜ (T ) = Tij . ⊔ ⊓ Here is brieﬂy how to ﬁnd a basis of the space of degree k invariant polynomials P : V ⊗h → R . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Example 9. F∼ . hk} is an equivalence relation ∼ with the property that each equivalence class consists of two elements. so there are dm such functions.. . .j Ti. For any matching ∼ deﬁne P∼ (T ) = µ∈F∼ = (2m)! . . .. 2.j is the trace tr(T ) = i. ϕ) is the same as the matching associated to (Ihk \ A. Fix an orthonormal basis { e1 . can be identiﬁed with the set of functions µ : Ihk / ∼→ {1. ed } of V ... · · · . 2(m!) Tµ(1).8.ih ei1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ eih .. i The space of degree 2 invariants is spanned by the polynomials (tr(T ))2 .ih . . A tensor T ∈ V ⊗h decomposes as T = 1≤i1 .. d}. Equivalently. . hk = 2m.j Tij Tji . .µ(h) · · · Tµ(hk−h+1). and then a bijection ϕ : A → Ihk \ A. . A matching on the set Ihk := {1.3. such polynomials exist if and only if hk is even. First of all. Q i. . we deduce that the number of matchings is 2m 1 (m!) · 2 m Denote by F∼ the set of functions µ : Ihk → {1. A degree k polynomial P : V ⊗h → R is then a polynomial in the dh variables Ti1 .. ϕ−1 ). . The polynomial P is called a degree n orthogonal invariant of tensors T ∈ V ⊗k if it is invariant as an element of (V ∗ )⊗kn . d} such that i ∼ j =⇒ µ(i) = µ(j ). .µ(hk) . (a) Consider the space E = V ⊗k .ih ≤d Ti1 . . Weyl’s theorem implies that the only degree 1 invariant of a tensor T = Tij ei ⊗ ej ∈ V ⊗2 i. Thus to produce a matching we need to choose a subset A ⊂ Ihk of cardinality m = hk 2 .j ei ⊗ ej = Tii . We will construct a bijection between a basis of invariant polynomials and certain combinatorial structures called matchings.. Observing that the matching associated to (A.. For example.386 CHAPTER 9. Observe that a degree n homogeneous polynomial P on E can by identiﬁed with an element in the symmetric tensor product Symd (E ∗ ) ⊂ (V ∗ )⊗2kn ... ..

r ) its volume. where ω c r c is the volume of a ball of dimension c and radius r . M ) ≤ r . such that. ⊔ ⊓ P∼ . p). up to some universal multiplicative constants. and we will call it the normal bundle of M ֒→ Rn . we have • V (M. We want to prove that there exists a polynomial PM (r ) = pc r c + · · · + pn r n . the space of degree 1 invariant polynomials in tensors of order 4 has dimension 4! 2 2(2!) = 6. intrinsic geometric invariants of M . p ∈ Rn . ⊂ T Rn .3. r ) = PM (r ). Nr (M ) := N(M ) ∩ Dr (Rn ). For example. for all sufﬁciently small r . • pc = ω c · vol (M ). Each polynomial in a basis constructed as above is a sum of d terms. We set c := codim M = n − m. but we will not assume that it is orientable.3 The tube formula and curvature measures Suppose that M is an m-dimensional submanifold of Rn . v ∈ Tp Rn . CURVATURE MEASURES The collection 387 is a basis of the space of degree k invariant polynomials V ⊗h → R. and we denote by V (M.9. We deﬁne Dr (Rn ) := {(v. while Nr (M ) is a bundle of c-dimensional disks over M . by certain integral. r ) is V (M. r ) ≈ vol (M ) · ω c r c . For r > 0 we deﬁne the tube of radius r around M to be the closed set Tr (M ) := x ∈ M . In this section we will assume that M is compact and without boundary. • all the coefﬁcients of PM are described. dist (x. .3. Note that a ﬁrst approximation for V (M. We see that things are getting “hairy” pretty fast. Let N(M ) denote the orthogonal complement of T M in (T Rn )|M . |v | ≤ r and we set The manifold with boundary Dr (Rn ) is a bundle of n-dimensional disks over Rn . ∼ is a matching of Ihk 9.

Deﬁne and t ∈ Dr Tr (U ) := EM ( Nr (U ) ) ⊂ Rn . and set ˜ C ΘA ΘA B . ei ) with dual coframe (φA ) deﬁned by φi = π ∗ θ i . α |tα |2 ≤ r . CB = e .2) We want to give a more explicit description of the density π∗ E∗ M |dVn |. (9.3. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY The exponential map E : T Rn → Rn restricts to an exponential map EM : N(M ) → Rn . If we denote by |dVn | the Euclidean volume density on Rn we deduce V (M. φα = dtα .1. We will continue to use the indexing conventions we have used in Subsection 9. De (9. If π : Nr (M ) → M denotes the canonical projection. Fix a local orthonormal frame (eA ) of (T Rn )|M deﬁned in a neighborhood U ⊂ M of a point p0 ∈ M such that for all 1 ≤ i ≤ m vector ﬁeld ei is tangent to U . A. x) ∈ Nr (M ). 1 Consider the 1-forms ΘA B ∈ Ω Tr (U ) associated to the Levi-Civita connection D by the frame (˜ eA ) on Tr (U ).388 CHAPTER 9. and we can use x ∈ M and thus we can identify Dr r c as local coordinates on π −1 (U ). . then we deduce from Fubini’s theorem that V (M. e ˜A . . tn ) ∈ Rc . r0 ). x) → (tα eα (x). there exists r0 = r0 (M ) > 0 such that. Note that we have a diffeomorphism c Dr × U −→ Nr (U ) := Nr (M )|U . We deﬁne c Dr := t = (tα ) = (tm+1 . the exponential map EM induces a diffeomorphism EM : Nr (M ) → Tr (M ). (t. r ) = vol Tr (M ) = Tr (M ) |dVn | = Nr (M ) E∗ M |dVn |. and We have thus extended in a special way the local frame (eA ) of (T Rn )|U to a local frame of (T Rn )|Tr (U ) so that ˜A = 0. ∀α. . c × U with the open subset π −1 (U ) ⊂ N (M ). Observe that because M is compact.3. ∀i. r ) = M π∗ E ∗ M |dVn |. for every r ∈ (0. We denote by (θ A ) the coframe of Tr (U ) dual to e c Over Dr × U we have a local frame (∂tα .2. .3) ˜α e ˜A : Tr (U ) → Rn by e ˜A (x + tα eα ) = eA (x).

3) we deduce A i ΘA ⇒ ΘA αB = 0. EM θ = dt . x) |dt ∧ dφ|.3. ∀α = B = ΘiB θ .| E∗ M dVn = | det(½ − S (t. On Nr (M )|U we use (t. . Deﬁne the m × m symmetric matrix S := S (t. α i ∗ β β tα Φ α ij φ .3. .9. dφ = dφ1 ∧ · · · ∧ dφm . We have A E∗ Mθ = i (eA • D ei EM )φi + α (eA • ∂tα EM )dtα = i eA • (ei + tα Dei eα )φi + i α δAα dtα = δAi φi + tα ΦA iα φ + δAα dt . The equalities (9. .4) Finally set ∗ A 1 A ∗ A ∞ ΦA B = π (ΘB |M ) ∈ Ω (Nr (U )).3. x) = x + tα eα . x) |dt| × π |dVM |.4) imply A i ΦA B = ΦiB φ . 1≤i. CURVATURE MEASURES so that D eC eB = ΘA CB eA .3. ij so that j j E∗ Mθ = φ − i (t • Φij )φi . Using (9. . α Hence j j j α j i E∗ M θ = φ + t Φiα φ = φ − We ﬁnd it convenient to set +1 c Φij = (Φm . we deduce ∗ E∗ M |dVn | = det(½ − S (t. x) | |dt ∧ dφ| = det(½ − S (t. x) = t • Φij (x) Note that the volume density on Rn is |dVn | = |θ m+1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ n ∧ θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ m .3. 389 (9. x) as coordinates and we have EM (tα eα (x).5) dt = dtm+1 ∧ · · · ∧ dtn . ΦiB := π (ΘiB |U ) ∈ C (Nr (U ) ).j ≤m (9. Recalling that | ∧i dθ i |M | is the metric volume density |dVM | on M . Φn ij ) : U → R . .

j ≤m . . t) = the sum of all the ν × ν minors of U (t) symmetric with respect to the diagonal. We deduce that (−1)ν Pν ( uij • t ) = tr Λν U (uij . m π∗ E ∗ M |dVn | = ν =0 (−1)ν c+ν r P ν Φij (x) |dVM (x)|. . Because these quantities are homogeneous of degree 2 in the variables uij we deduce P ν = 0 if ν is odd. h ∈ Z≥0 . Theorem 9. Then c −1 E∗ |dρ| × |dω | × |dVM |.k. em+c ) we form the linear operator U (t) = U (uij . P ν uij is an O(c)-invariant.390 CHAPTER 9. . x) = m ν =0 (−1)ν ρν Pν Φij (x) • ω . 1 ≤ i. where Pν denotes a homogeneous polynomial of degree ν in the m2 variables uij ∈ Rc . . m} of cardinality #I = ν . and by µI its average. Note that µI is an O(c)-invariant polynomial in the variables {uij }i. . . We conclude.7 on invariants of the orthogonal group O(c) implies that P ν must be a polynomial in the quantities qi. Above. t) : Rm → Rm given by the m × m matrix ( uij • t )1≤i.3. For every ω ∈ Rc we denote by µI ( uij • ω ) the corresponding minor of U (ω ).j ∈I . µI (uij ) := S c −1 µI ( uij • ω )dω. homogeneous polynomial of degree ν in the variables uij ∈ Rc . . 1 ≤ i.7) We would like to determine the invariant polynomials P ν uij . These minors are parametrized by the subsets I ⊂ {1. ω := t. For simplicity we write |dVM | instead of π ∗ |dVM |. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY where |dt| denotes the volume density on Rc . j ≤ m.6) Observe that det(½ − ρS (ω. c+ν (9. Now set 1 ρ := |t|.3. j ≤ m. For every t ∈ Rc = span (em+1 . . We set P ν Φij (x) := S c −1 Pν Φij (x) • ω |dω |. . x) ρ (9. Assume therefore ν = 2h. M |dVn | = det(½ − ρS (ω.ℓ := uik • ujℓ . ρ and denote by |dω | the area density on the unit sphere in Rc .j.3.

• µI is a homogeneous polynomial of degree h in the variables qi.c depending only on m.ℓ.ν. CURVATURE MEASURES Let and denote by SI the group of permutations of I .ℓ1 .j.σ.σ. 2.σ2j = j =1 uϕ2j−1 σ2j−1 • uϕ2j σ2j .9.ϕ2j . . The skew-symmetry of µI with respect to the permutations of rows and columns now implies that µI must be a multiple of QI . 2h} and we choose 1 0 uij = . Lemma 9.9. ν and c such that µ ¯I = ξQI . . We regard µI as a function on the vector space of (2h) × (2h) matrices U with entries in Rc U = [uij ]i. .3.k2 . .ϕ . . . m}. . For ϕ ∈ SI we set ϕj := ϕ(ij ). . . We deduce that µI is a linear combination of monomials of the form qk1 .j ∈I . 0 . ∈ Rc . . where {k1 . . I = {1 ≤ i1 < i2 < · · · < i2h ≤ m} ⊂ {1. ℓ2h } are permutations of I . There exists a constant ξ = ξm. ϕ) the signature of the permutation σ ◦ ϕ−1 . • µI changes sign if we switch two rows (or columns).ℓ2h−1 . ϕ ∈ SI we denote by ǫ(σ. .ϕ = j =1 qϕ2j−1 . We can assume I = {1. ϕ)QI. ∀uij ∈ Rc QI (uij ) so it sufﬁces to compute the numerator and denominator of the above fraction for some special values of uij . 2h. . • µI is separately linear in each of the variables uij . .ϕ the invariant polynomial h h QI.σ∈SI ǫ(σ. . . k2h } and {ℓ1 . .σ2j−1 .3. .ν. .c = µI (uij ) . . We observe that µI satisﬁes the following determinant like properties. 391 For any σ. ⊔ ⊓ The constant ξ satisﬁes ξm.k. and by Qσ. .ℓ2 · · · qk2h−1 k2h . QI := ϕ. .ℓ2h . ∀j = 1. Proof.

3.. . . t) = t= t1 t2 . µI (uij • t) = |t1 |ν .c = and P ν (uij ) = ξm. . we have h S c −1 QI.ν.3. For any even. . We deduce ξm. S c −1 where h = h1 + · · · + hc . S c −1 At this point we invoke the following result whose proof is deferred to the end of this subsection. . |ω 1 |2h |dω |. τh ) ∈ G = S2 × · · · × S2 h .2h. t1 . . . . . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY we deduce Hence U (uij .c = 1 (2h)! |ω 1 |2h |dω |. (9. (9. Lemma 9.8) t1 0 · · · 0 t1 · · · . . which is nonzero if and only if σ = ϕ.ϕ = j =1 uϕ2j−1 σ2j−1 • uϕ2j σ2j . tc 1 ∈ Rc . 2hc we have |ω 1 |2h1 · · · |ω c |2hc |dω | = +1 2hc +1 2Γ( 2h1 2 ) · · · Γ( 2 ) h Γ( c+2 2 ) .2h.3. .3.10.9) QI (uij ). if we set CHAPTER 9. . nonnegative integers 2h1 .10) We denote by S2 the group of permutations of a linearly ordered set with two elements.c # I =ν +1 )Γ(1/2)c−1 2Γ( 2h2 h (2h)!Γ( c+2 2 ) . . Hence ξm.392 Then. We observe that every element τ = (τ1 . . . ω = t |t| 0 0 . . 0 0 ··· µI (uij ) = On the other hand. . . . (9.σ. We conclude that for this particular choice of uij we have QI = (2h)!.

r ) = vol (Tr (M )) = Let us observe that the constant ⌊m/2⌋ h=0 ω c+2h r c+2h 2h ξm. ϕ)QI.σ. ϕτ )QI.c (c + 2h)ω c+2h is independent of the codimension c.σ2j − qϕ2j . ϕ2h−1 < ϕ2h .2h. .ϕ2j . .ϕ = ϕ∈SI h ϕ∈S′ I .2h.3.9. It depends only on h.σ2j−1 .3.τ ∈G ǫ(στ.c 2h ξm. 2h ξm.11) Using (9.ϕ2j−1 . (9. we have +1 )Γ(1/2)c−1 2Γ( 2h2 2h ξm.ϕ = σ.3. ϕ) j =1 Rϕ2j−1 ϕ2j σ2j−1 σ2j = σ∈S′ I .τ ∈G ǫ(σ.3. ϕ3 < ϕ4 . CURVATURE MEASURES 393 deﬁnes a permutation of I by regarding τ1 as a permutation of {i1 . . ϕ) j =1 Rϕ2j−1 ϕ2j σ2j−1 σ2j Using the skew-symmetry Rijkℓ = −Rijℓk we deduce h ǫ(σ. ϕ) j =1 h Rϕ2j−1 ϕ2j σ2j−1 σ2j = 2h σ.2h.σ.σ2j h = ϕ∈S′ I ǫ(σ. Indeed. i2 }.c (c + 2h)ω c+2h M Qh (R)|dVM |. The space Sk /G of left cosets of this group can be identiﬁed with the subset S′ I ⊂ SI consisting of bijections ϕ : I → I satisfying the conditions ϕ1 < ϕ2 .σ2j−1 .2h. We deduce that if uij = Sij (x). then for every σ ∈ SI we have ǫ(σ.2h. ϕ) j =1 qϕ2j−1 . Thus G is naturally a subgroup of SI .σ.c 2h = = h (c + 2h)ω c+2h σ c+2h−1 σ c+2h−1 (2h)!Γ( c+2 2 ) .ϕ∈SI σ∈SI ϕ∈S′ I h ǫ(σ.7) we deduce that V (M. ϕ) j =1 Rϕ2j−1 ϕ2j σ2j−1 σ2j =:QI (R) We conclude that P ν (ψij ) = 2h ξm.ϕ∈S′ I ǫ(σ. i4 } etc. ϕ)QI.c #I =2h QI (R).2) and (9. .ϕτ = ϕ∈S′ I ǫ(σ. τ2 as a permutation of {i3 .

so that µ0 (M.3. ⊔ ⊓ Example 9.3. g) = M e(M. . (a) If h = 0 then µm (M ) = vol (M ).12) (c) Suppose now that M is a hypersurface. . Consider the second fundamental form S = (Sij )1≤i.11 (Tube formula). and oriented. c = n − m. Theorem 9.2. em ) of T M we can express the polynomial Qh (R) as Qh (R) := #I =2h QI (R). Then for all r > 0 sufﬁciently small we have V (M.ϕ∈S′ I ǫ(σ. . (9. Sij = (D ei ej ) • em+1 . where for every I = {i1 < i2 < · · · < i2h } ⊂ {1. m} we deﬁne h QI (R) = σ. . Denote by R the Riemann curvature of the induced metric on M . r ) = vol (Tr (M )) = ⌊m/2⌋ h=0 ω c+2h r c+2h µm−2h (M ). (b) Assume now that m is even. By choosing a local. ϕ) j =1 Rϕ(i2j−1 )ϕ(i2j )σ(i2j−1 )σ(i2j ) . . g). orthonormal frame (e1 . µm−2h (M ) = 1 (2π )h h! M where Qh is a polynomial of degree h in the curvature. 1+2 h Γ(1/2) (2h)! π (2h)! (2π )h h! We have thus obtained the following celebrated result of Hermann Weyl. compact submanifold of Rn . Then c + 2h = m + c = n and µ0 (M ) = 1 (2π )h 1 Qh (R)dVM . h! M Comparing the deﬁnition of Qh (R) with (9. dim M = m. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY 2h Γ(h + 1/2) γ (2h) 1 = h = . Suppose M is a closed. .7a) we deduce that the top dimensional form 1 1 Qh (R)dVM ∈ Ω2h (M ) (2π )h h! is precisely the Euler form associated with the orientation of M and the induced metric. Qh (R)|dVM |. . [100]. . m = 2h.394 = CHAPTER 9.12.j ≤m . .3.

g) is precisely the Hilbert-Einstein functional we discussed in Subsection 4. and we have E∗ M dVRm+1 = det(½ − tS )dt ∧ dVM = m m ν =0 (−1)ν tν cν (κ)dt ∧ dVM ⌊m/2⌋ h=0 π∗ E ∗ M dVRm+1 so that ⌊m/2⌋ h=0 r −r = ν =0 t dt cν (κ)dVM = 2 ν r 2h+1 c2h (κ)dVM 2h + 1 ω 1+2h r 1+2h µm−2h (M ) = V (M. CURVATURE MEASURES 395 where we recall that em+1 is in fact the oriented unit normal vector ﬁeld along M . Hence.3. em ) diagonalizes the second fundamental form so that Sij = κi δij . We see that the map g → µm−2 (M. M If M = S m ֒→ Rm+1 is the unit sphere then κi = 1 and we deduce that µm−2h (S m ) = 2 σm m .j . the oriented Gauss map of the unit sphere S m is the identity. the shape operator of S m ֒→ Rm+1 is the identity operator From Theorema Egregium we deduce that all the sectional curvatures of S n are equal to one. where sround denotes the scalar curvature of the round metric on the unit sphere. κm are the principal curvatures at the point x0 . .2. To ﬁnd constm we compute µm−2 (M ) when M = S m .2. r ) = 2 ⌊m/2⌋ h=0 r 2h+1 2h + 1 c2h (κ)dVM . σ 2h 2h (9. Fix a point x0 ∈ M and assume that at this point the frame (e1 . .5. µm−2 (M.13) we deduce 2σ m m σ 2 2h = constm M sround |dVS m |. Observe that the Grassmannian of oriented codimension one subspaces of Rm+1 can be identiﬁed with the unit sphere S m . In this case c = 1. Using (9. .3.3. . g) = constm M where s denotes the scalar curvature of the induced metric g.2. M We conclude that µm−2h (M ) = 2 σ 2h c2h (κ)dVM . σ 2h = (2h + 1)ω 1+2h . depending only on m. The eigenvalues κ1 . . In particular. and constm is an universal constant. . 2 i. .1) we deduce m sround = Rijij = 1=2 . We denote by cν (κ) the elementary symmetric polynomial of degree ν in the variables κi . Deﬁnition 4.13) (d) Using the deﬁnition of the scalar curvature we deduce that for any m-dimensional submanifold M m ֒→ Rn we have sg |dVg |. Using the equalities (4.22.9.j i. .

If (M. the relative signature ǫ(σ. (a) Let us observe that for any Riemann manifold M . m − w = 2h. independent of the choice of local frames used in their deﬁnition. We can prove this by more elementary means by observing that. g) = σ2 2π 2π M sg |dVg |. for any ﬁnite set I . ϕ) of two permutations ϕ. σ=ϕ∈S′ I = σ∈S′ I Rσ1 σ2 σ1 σ2 Rσ3 σ4 σ3 σ4 + The ﬁrst sum has only three different monomials. The fastest way to argue this is by invoking Nash embedding theorem which implies that any compact manifold is can be isometrically embedded in an Euclidean space. g) as a quantity measured in meter w . oriented. If m − w is odd we set µw (M ) = 0.3.ϕ∈S′ I ǫ(σ. g) = 1 (2π )h h! M Qh (R)|dVM |. the proof of the tube formula then implies that these densities are indeed well deﬁned. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 9. orientable or not. Riemann manifold. ϕ)Rσ1 σ2 ϕ1 ϕ2 Rσ3 σ4 ϕ3 ϕ4 . If m − w is an even. and w is nonnegative integer. We set |dµw | := 1 Qh (R)|dVM |. g). m = dim M . (2π )h h! ⊔ ⊓ and we will refer to it as the (weight w) curvature density. (b) The weight of the curvature density has a very intuitive meaning. then we set µw (M. Remark 9. (e) The polynomial Q2 still has a “reasonable form” Q2 (R) = #I =4 QI Then #S′ I = 6 and QI = σ.3. we should think of µw (M. We will say that µw (M.13. The ′ second sum has 6 2 different monomials (corresponding to subsets of cardinality 2 of SI ) and each of them appears twice. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY 1 1 2 = =⇒ µm−2 (M.e. i. but it is independent of this choice. g) is the weight w curvature measure of (M. the quantities |dµw | are indeed well deﬁned. compact. each of them appearing twice is them sum. Namely. ⊔ ⊓ . For submanifolds of Rn .14.396 Hence constm = CHAPTER 9. σ : I → I is deﬁned by choosing a linear ordering on I . nonnegative integer. g) is a closed. ϕ)Rσ1 σ2 ϕ1 ϕ2 Rσ3 σ4 ϕ3 ϕ4 ǫ(σ.

hc ) = (u = ρ2 ) = 1 2 S c −1 S c −1 and recalling that h = h1 + |ω 1 |2h1 · · · |ω c |2hc dω ∞ 0 e−ρ ρ2h+c−1 dρ 2 |ω 1 |2h1 · · · |ω c |2hc dω S c −1 e−u u c+2h −1 2 du ⊔ ⊓ 1 c + 2h = Γ 2 2 |ω 1 |2h1 · · · |ω c |2hc dω . M ) = r } = ∂ Tr (M ). The closed set Mr is a compact hypersurface of Rn . we deduce that I (h1 . . . ω = · · · + hc . . For every sufﬁciently small positive real number r we set Mr := {x ∈ Rn . using spherical coordinates.10. . . 2 1 t. . gr ) = k ≥0 ω c+2k (r + ε)c+2k − (r − ε)c+2k µn−c−2k (M. . . set c = n − m. |t| ∞ 0 On the other hand. We do not assume that M is orientable. ε) = V (M. r + ε) − V (M. Observe that for r and ε sufﬁciently small we have Tε (Mr ) = Tr+ε (M ) − Tr−ε (M ) so that.4 Tube formula =⇒ Gauss-Bonnet formula for arbitrary submanifolds Suppose M m ⊂ Rn is a closed. . r − ε). dist (x. 2 so that ∞ −∞ I (h1 . V (Mr . As usual.3. hc ) = We have e−|t| = e−|t+1| · · · e−|t c 2 2 c |2 397 Rc e−|t| |t1 |2h1 · · · |tc |2hc |dt|. Consider the integral I (h1 . ρ = |t|. . g).3.9. . . which implies that h ≥0 ω 1+2h ε1+2h µn−1−2h (Mr .3. compact submanifold of Rn . . hc ) = j =1 e−s s2hj ds = 2c j =1 0 2 c ∞ e−s s2hj ds 2 (u = s2 ) = c j =1 0 ∞ c e −u hj −1/2 t du = j =1 Γ 2hj + 1 . 9. and we denote by gr the induced metric. and we denote by g the induced metric on M . CURVATURE MEASURES Proof of Lemma 9.

n − p ≡ 1 mod 2. gr ) = 2 w =0 n − w ω n −w p −w r µw (M. Mr = Sr n −1 µp (Sr )=2 n ωn p n p r = 2ω p r . g) = χ(Mr ). even though the manifold M may not be orientable. (9. g). If in the formula (9. g). The Gauss-Bonnet theorem for oriented hypersurfaces implies χ(Mr ) = µ0 (Mr .15) If in the formula (9.14) we let p = 0 we deduce µ0 (Mr .3.15 (Gauss-Bonnet). g). n − p ω n −p (9.398 We deduce µn−1−2h (Mr . p ω n −p p (9. Proof. Then µ0 (M.3.17) 2 Theorem 9. In particular.3. then the Poincar´ e duality for the oriented n-dimensional manifold with boundary Tr (M ) implies χ(Mr ) = χ( ∂ Tr (M ) ) = 2χ( Tr (M ) ) = 2χ(M ). and we conclude that the (n − 1)-dimensional sphere of radius r .3. ∀0 < r ≪ 1. compact submanifold of an Euclidean space Rn . The last equality agrees with our previous computation (9. (9.14) In the above equality it is understood that µw (M ) = 0 if m − w is odd.16) where n p is deﬁned by (9. we deduce that if the codimension of M is odd then r →0 lim µp (Mr . gr ) 1 µ0 (M.3. g) = χ(M ).3. Suppose M is a closed. then both χ(M ) and µ0 (M ) are equal to zero and the identity is trivial. 1 + 2h = n − p. g). w := n − c − 2k = m − 2k.14) we assume that the manifold M is a point. ∀0 ≤ p ≤ m = dim M. If m = dim M is odd. then we deduce that Mr is n−1 . if codim M is odd. 1 + 2h We make a change in variables.3. gr ) = 2µp (M. If the dimension n of the ambient space is odd. Then c + 2k = n − w. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY ω c+2k k ≥0 c + 2k c−1+2k−2h r µn−c−2k (M. gr ) = 2µ0 (M. so that . Assume therefore that m is even. so that we can rewrite the above formula as m µp (Mr . gr ) = 2 ω 1+2h CHAPTER 9. Denote by g the induced metric.13). Observe that the tube Tr (M ) is naturally oriented.1.3.16). ∀0 < r ≪ 1. c + 2k − 1 − 2h = p − w. We set p := n − 1 − 2h.

with smooth boundary ∂D . ∀0 < r ≪ 1. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 9. (b) By invoking the Nash embedding theorem.17.e. The next deﬁnition formalizes this observation. CURVATURE MEASURES and the theorem follows from (9. For every closed compact. z j trj (B ) = det(½V + zB ). If n is even. For any relatively compact open subset D of an Euclidean space V . X. relatively compact subset with smooth boundary M := ∂D . Deﬁnition 9. We denote by n the unit outer normal vector ﬁeld along M := ∂D . we deﬁne the co-oriented second fundamental form of D to be the symmetric bilinear map SD : Vect (∂D ) × Vect (∂D ) → C ∞ (∂D ). we deduce that the tube formula implies the GaussBonnet formula for any compact Riemann manifold. ⊔ ⊓ Suppose D ⊂ Rm+1 is an open.. smooth submanifold M of an Euclidean space V such that dim V − dim M is odd we have χ(M ) = 2χ( ∂ Tr (M ) ). SD (X. and the second fundamental form will be a scalar valued form. ⊔ ⊓ 9.17). 399 where we observe that the metric induced by the embedding M ֒→ Rn+1 coincides with the metric induced by the original embedding M ֒→ Rn . j ≥0 Equivalently. ⊔ ⊓ Let us record for later use the following corollary of the above proof.3. Corollary 9.16. and by S = SD the cooriented second fundamental form of D .3.3. Y ∈ Vect (∂D ). Y ) = (D X Y ) • n. orientable or not. i.3. where n : ∂D → V denotes the outer unit normal vector ﬁeld along ∂D . then the normal bundle admits a canonical trivialization.3. trj B = tr Λj B : Λj V → Λj V . we apply the above argument to the embedding M ֒→ Rn ֒→ Rn+1 . . For every symmetric bilinear form B on an Euclidean space V we deﬁne trj (B ) the j -th elementary symmetric polynomial in the eigenvalues of B .18.3.5 Curvature measures of domains in an Euclidean space The second fundamental form of a submanifold is in fact a bilinear form with values in the normal bundle. (a) We want emphasize again that in the above theorem we did not require that M be orientable which is the traditional assumption in the Gauss-Bonnet theorem.9. If the submanifold happens to be the boundary of a domain.

orthonormal frame of Rn . p) = p + X. p ∈ M. p) −→ EM (X.400 CHAPTER 9. . µm+1 (D ) := vol (D ) so that using the equality σ j = (j + 1)ω j we deduce the tube formula for domains. t ∈ [0. . positively oriented local orthonormal frame (e1 . m+1 vol Tr (D ) = k =0 ω m+1−k r m+1−k µk (D ). the pullback of E∗ M dVRm+1 to ∆r has the description E∗ M dVRm+1 = det m ½ − tSM dt ∧ dθ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θm We deduce ∆r = j =1 trj (−SM )tj dt ∧ dθ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ m . the collection (n(p).5 shows that. j ≥0 E∗ M dVRm+1 = 1 σj r j +1 j+1 M trj (−SM )dVM . Fix p0 ∈ M and a local. (9. For r > 0 we denote by ∆r ⊂ (T Rm+1 )|M the closed set (X. For sufﬁciently small r the map EM deﬁnes a diffeomorphism EM : ∆r → Tr (D ) \ D. As in the previous section. . .2. e1 (p). for every p ∈ U . θ n . Deﬁne µm−j (D ) := and M trj (−SM )dVM . We obtain a dual coframe θ . D ) ≤ r . . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY We deﬁne the tube of radius r around D to be Tr (D ) := x ∈ Rm+1 . ∆r := (tn(p). 0 ≤ j ≤ m. . .18) Theorem 9. em (p)) is a positively oriented. p ∈ M. . we have µ0 (D ) = χ(D ). . r ] . p). so that vol (Tr (D ) ) = vol (D ) + ∆r E∗ M dVRm+1 . θ 1 . em ) of T M deﬁned in a neighborhood U of p0 in M . . dist (x. . just as in the case of submanifolds. We denote by EM the exponential map EM : (T Rm+1 )|M → Rm+1 .3. . . X ∈ Tp Rm+1 . such that.

r so that ω m+1 (r + ε)m+1 = k ≥0 +1 ω m+1−k εm+1−k µk (Dm ).19) j ≥0 k ≥0 We deduce that µm+1−j (Dr ) = ωk k ≥j We set n := m + 1 and we make the change in variables p := n − j. r We conclude +1 µk (Dm )= r Suppose X ֒→ Rm+1 is a closed. Suppose D is a relatively compact domain with smooth boundary of an Euclidean space V .3.3.20) In particular.19. We denote by Dm r +1 +1 ) = Dm Tε (Dm r +ε . ∀0 ≤ p ≤ dim X. we have r →0 lim µp Tr (X ) = µp (X ). Then for every sufﬁciently small r > 0.21) . k k −j r µm+1−k (X ) j ω m+1 m + 1 k m+1 k r = ωk r . the tube Dr := Tr (X ) is a compact domain with smooth boundary and Tε (Dr ) = Tr+ε (X ). p−w n − w p −w r µw (X ) n−p (9. and we obtain the following generalization of the tube formula µp Tr (X ) = = w 1 ω n −p w ω n −w ω p −w n − w p −w r µw (X ). (9. The tube formula for X implies that ω j εj µm+1−j (Dr ) = 1 ωj ω k r + ε)k µm+1−k (X ). compact smooth submanifold. w := n − k.9.3. and SD denotes the co-oriented second fundamental form of ∂D . Then. Then k − j = p − w. ⊔ ⊓ +1 the ball of radius r in Rm+1 . CURVATURE MEASURES 401 Deﬁnition 9.3. ω m+1−k k k (9. Then the curvature densities of D are the densities |dµj | on ∂D deﬁned by 1 |dµj | := trn−j (−SD )|dV∂D |. dim V = n.3. σ n −j where |dV∂D | denotes the volume density on ∂D induced by the Euclidean metric on V .

we set V = Rn . depending only on m.17) to obtain a new volume density |dνc | with total volume n |dνc | = .1. We will prove that there exists a constant ξm.3. If the function f is |dν |-integrable.3. We will show that the constant ξ is equal to the above equality in the special case D = Dm+1 .3. S ) ∈ V × Graﬀ c .3. and by Graﬀ c the afﬁne Grassmannian of codimension c afﬁne subspaces of Rn . Observe that we have a diffeomorphism I → V × Grc . Let 1 ≤ p ≤ n − c. Step 1. m = n − 1 = dim M . We will rely on a basic trick in integral geometry. and consider the function f : Graﬀ c → R. We will carry out the proof in several steps. p +c p Graﬀ c Step 2. For simplicity. v ∈ S ⊂ V × Graﬀ c . [S ] = S − S .c. Recall that on Grc we have a natural metric with volume density |dγc | and total volume Vc := n −1 j =0 σ j m−1−c c −1 σj j =0 i=0 σ i · .6 Crofton Formulæ for domains of an Euclidean space Suppose D is an open. We rescale this volume density as in (9. We introduce the incidence relation I= (v. (9. and p such that ξn. [S ]) ∈ V × Grc .402 CHAPTER 9. by explicitly computing both sides of Step 1.1.p . Proof. .pµp+c(D ) = µp (L ∩ D )|dνc (L)|. c. Theorem 9. then p+c µp+c (D ) = p Graﬀ c µp (L ∩ D )|dνc (L)|.22) c Grc As explained in Subsection 9. f (L) = µp (L ∩ D ). relatively compact subset of the Euclidean space Rn with smooth boundary M = ∂D . S ) −→ (v. I ∋ (v. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY 9.20 (Crofton Formula). by Grc the Grassmannian of linear subspaces of Rn of codimension c. these two densities produce two invariant densities |dγc | and |dνc | on Graﬀ c which differ by a multiplicative constant.c. For every S ∈ Graﬀ c we denote by [S ] ∈ Grc the parallel translate of S containing the origin. We denote by g the induced metric on M .

As explained in Subsection 9. Again we have a diagram I(M ) ℓ ³³ r µ Graﬀ c M The map r need not be a submersion.9.1. The vertical bundle of the ﬁbration r : I∗ (M ) → Graﬀ c (M ) is equipped with a natural density given along a ﬁber L ∩ M by the curvature density |dµk | of the domain DL .23) The ﬁber of r over L ∈ Graﬀ c is the slice ML := L ∩ M which is the boundary of the domain DL := (L ∩ D ) ⊂ L. using the pullback r |dγc | we obtain a density ∗ |dλ| := |dµL p | × r |dγc | on I∗ (M ) satisfying. V and we set Since dim I = dim V + dim Grc = n + c(n − c) we deduce dim I(M ) = n + c(n − c) − codim M = n + c(n − c).3. The set Graﬀ c (M ) is an open subset of Graﬀ c . and we obtain a double ﬁbration I(M )∗ ℓ r ¯ Graﬀ c (M ) M (9. CURVATURE MEASURES with inverse V × Grc (V ) ∋ (v. Denote by Graﬀ c (M ) the set of codimension c afﬁne planes which intersect M transversally.1. v + L) ∈ I. v ∈ S ∩ M .3. Sard’s theorem shows that r fails to be a surjection on a rather thin set. and Sard’s theorem implies that its complement has measure zero. |dλ| = |dµL p | |dγc (L)| = µp (L ∩ D )|dγc (L)|. We obtain a double ﬁbration ℓ 403 I ³³ r µ Graﬀ c I(M ) := ℓ−1 (M ) = (v. Fortunately. We set I(M )∗ := r −1 Graﬀ c (M ) . S ) ∈ V × Graﬀ c . The set I(M )∗ is an open subset of I(M ). L) −→ (v. I∗ (M ) Graﬀ (M ) c L∩M Graﬀ c . We will ∗ denote this density by |dµL k |.

. m}. where x runs in a small neighborhood of x0 ∈ M . • α. . B. eh (S ). . . .404 CHAPTER 9. . L0 ) in I∗ (M ) by a family (x. C denote indices running in the set {0. . . . We denote by SD . . . Then we can parametrize a small open neighborhood of (x0 . eh (S ). . . e1 (S ). . . . S runs in a small neighborhood U0 of [L0 ] in Grc so that the following hold for every S . em (S )} is an orthonormal frame of Rn . L0 ) ∈ I∗ (M ). The points in I(M ) are pairs (x. . . if we set k = dim L − p = m − c − p. eh+1 (S ). eh } is a basis of Tx0 M ∩ S . . e1 (S ). • i.3. We require that e0 is the outer normal. . . eh+1 (S ). L). and L is an afﬁne plane of dimension h + 1. . • The collection {e0 (S ). . j. . Set h := (m − c). . 1. and by |dVL∩M | the metric volume density on L ∩ M . . eh+1 (S ). . the co-oriented second fundamental form of D . Suppose (x0 . β. A neighborhood of (x0 . . . σk In the sequel we will use the following conventions. • The above condition imply that e0 is a normal vector to the boundary of the domain D ∩ L ⊂ L. e1 (S ). L0 ) in I is parametrized by the family r. • The collection span {e1 . e0 (S ). h}. eh (S ). where x ∈ M . . . . . . . k denote indices running in the set {0. m}. where the curvature density is described in Deﬁnition 9. . e0 (S ). where r runs in a neighborhood of x0 in the ambient space V . and set θAB := eA • (D eB ). . We denote by (θ A ) the dual coframe of (eA ). . . . • A. . . e1 . by SL the co-oriented second fundamental form of DL ⊂ L. γ denote indices running in the set {h + 1. • The collection {e0 . . we deduce |dµL p| = 1 trk (−SL )|dVL∩M |. Then. eh } is a basis of S . em (S )). . em (S ) .13. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY To complete Step 1 in our strategy it sufﬁces to prove that there exists a constant ξ . depending only on m and c such that ℓ∗ |dλ| = ξ |dµc |. .

. r = x0 . . .3.3. . . . . .. Xm ).3. Then at the point x0 ∈ M we have |(n • e0 )| · |dVM | = |θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ m |. . We set eA := eA (S ). We deduce |dVM |(f 1 . Xm ∈ Tx0 M we have |(n • e0 )| · |dVM |(X1 . . f m )2 = det(½ − A). . for any X1 . It sufﬁces to verify this for one basis X1 . i. . α. . f m )2 = det(f A • f B )1≤A. . Suppose x0 + S intersects M transversally at x0 . . . Then |dVM |(f 1 . .9. nα := n • eα . . .. . the afﬁne subspace x0 + S intersects M transversally at x0 . . ∀1 ≤ i. CURVATURE MEASURES Then. em . the volume density of the natural metric on Grc is |dγc | = Then |dγc | = and |dλ| = |dµL p | × |dγc | = α 405 θαi .e.24) 1 det(−SL∩M )|dVL∩M | × σk α The ﬁber of ℓ : I(M ) → M over x0 is described by Gx0 := (r. Denote by n a smooth unit normal vector ﬁeld deﬁned in a neighborhood of x0 in M . . . Proof. n(x) ⊥ Tx M. |n(x)| = 1. .e. These projections form a basis since S intersects Tx0 M transversally. . Observe that f i = ei . . Xm ) = |θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ m |(X1 . . (9. . We set G∗ x0 (M ) can be identiﬁed with the space of linear subspaces S of codimension c such that Tx0 M + S = V . f α = eα − (eα • n)n. Lemma 9. f m of e1 . i. . . f i • f α = 0. j ≤ 2h < α f α • f β = δαβ − nα nβ . ∗ G∗ x0 := Gx0 ∩ I (M ). Xm of Tx0 M which we can choose to consists of the orthogonal projections f 1 . .B ≤m We observe that f i • f j = δij . θ α × |dγc |. eA (S )) ∈ I(M )..21. i.e.i D r • eα × |dγc | = α θ α × |dγc |. . . ∀1 ≤ i ≤ h.

where A denotes the c × c symmetric matrix with entries nα nβ . ej ).B ≤m |. ej ) = e0 • (D ei ej ).406 CHAPTER 9. Suppose L ∈ Graﬀ c intersects M transversally. ej ) = (n • e0 )SD (ei . c u= . . j ≤ 2h. β ≤ m = h + c. On the other hand. . D ei ej decomposes into two components. |θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ m |(f 1 . . . n h +c α D ei ej = SL (ei . . Hence h 2 2 2 n2 α = |n| − |n • e0 | = 1 − |n • e0 | . Let us now observe that the vector (D ei ej ) is parallel with the plane L because the vectors ei and ej lie in this plane. ej )e0 + k =1 k Sij ek . one component parallel to e0 . SL (ei . and another component. j ≤ h < α. and the corresponding eigenvalue λ is obtained from the equality λu = |u|2 u =⇒ λ = |u|2 = We conclude that det(½ − A) = |n • e0 |2 =⇒ |dVM |(f 1 . This matrix has a c − 1 dimensional kernel corresponding to vectors orthogonal to u. . ∀1 ≤ i. then we deduce that A = uu† . . f m ) = | det(eA • f B )1≤A. (Deei ej )τ . f m ) = |n • e0 |. We have again ei • f j = δij . ∈R . ∀1 ≤ i. . . ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 9. . Thus. so that |θ 1 ∧ · · · ∧ θ m |(f 1 . .3. We have SL (ei . The lemma is now proved. h + 1 ≤ α. . If n is a unit vector perpendicular to Tx0 M . . f m ) = |n • e0 |2 . and x0 ∈ L ∩ M . Proof. eα • f β = δαβ − nα nβ . that is. then SL = (n • e0 )SD |Tx0 ∩[L] . If we denote by u the vector nh+1 . . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY which we also regard as a c × 1 matrix. The vector u itself is an eigenvector of A.22 (Euler-Meusnier). tangent to L ∩ M . ei • f α = 0.

Tx0 M )|k+1 trk (−SD |Tx0 M ∩[L] ) |dγc |([L]).c. for every 0 ≤ k ≤ m − c. CURVATURE MEASURES Taking the inner product with n we deduce SD (ei . B ) := Grc H f (S ) trk (B |H ∩S )|dγc |(S ) = ξm. depending only on m.3. In a neighborhood of (x0 . σk c c ∗ The map G∗ x0 ∋ (x0 . Lemma 9. such that Ik (f.23. We now have the following result.9. Deﬁne c Grc H := S ∈ Gr . Then. dim V = m + 1. there exists a constant ξ = ξm. σk If we denote by θ ([L]. and B : H × H → R a symmetric bilinear map. .c.21) = 1 |n • e0 |k+1 trk (−SD |Tx M ∩[L] ) |dVM | × |dγc |.3. L) ∈ I∗ (M ).k trk (B ) Grc f |dγc |(S ). Suppose that V is an Euclidean space.k . L) −→ [L] ∈ Gr identiﬁes Gx0 with an open subset of Gr whose complement has measure zero. L) = = (use Lemma 9. H ⊂ V is a hyperplane through the origin. Tx0 M ) the angle between [L] and the hyperplane Tx0 M we deduce |dλ|/|dVM | = 1 · | cos θ ([L]. ej )(e0 • n). ej ) = (D ei ej ) • n = SL (ei . S intersects H trasversally . L0 ) ∈ I∗ (M ) we have |dλ|(x.3. Denote by O(H ) the subgroup of orthogonal transformations of V which map H to itself and suppose that f : Grc → R is an O(H )-invariant function. σk 1 trk (−SL )|dVL∩M | × σk α m A=1 407 ⊔ ⊓ θ α × |dγc | θ A × |dγc | 1 |n • e0 |k trk (−SD |Tx M ∩[L] ) σk This proves that along the ﬁber G∗ x0 we have |dλ|/|dVM | = 1 |n • e0 |k+1 trk (−SD |Tx0 M ∩[L] ) |dγc |([L]). for any (x0 . From the above lemma we deduce trk (−SL |x0 ) = |n • e0 |k trk (−SD |Tx0 M ∩[L] ). c and k.

. . Then trk (B ) = and we conclude that m k and trk (B |H ∩S ) = m−c k m−c . ξµp+c (D ) = Graﬀ c (M ) . . Hence Ik (f. rescaling |dγc | to |dνc |. We can therefore express it as a polynomial Ik (f. Thus. H )|k+1 σk ℓ∗ |dλ| = I∗ (M ) |dλ| Graﬀ c (M ) = Graﬀ c (M ) r∗ |dλ| = µp (L ∩ D )|dγc |(L). we deduce that there exists a constant ξ depending only on m and c such that µp (L ∩ D )|dνc |(L). Thus. Observe that. . Now choose B to be the bilinear form corresponding to the inner product on H . dim ker B > m − k =⇒ Qf = 0. For such forms we have Ik (f. B ) = 0. k m . . for ﬁxed f . . . at least m − k + 1 of the m eigenvalues of B vanish. To do this. . . ∀S ∈ Grc H. On the other hand. trk (B ) = ξf trk (B ) + Qf tr1 (B ). B = −SD . . . B ) = Pf tr1 (B ). B ) is an O(H )-invariant homogeneous polynomial of degree k in the entries of B . so that trk (B ) = 0. . we apply the above formula to a symmetric bilinear form B such that dim ker B > m − k. Let us prove that Qf ≡ 0. The restriction of B to S ∩ H has m − c eigenvalues. trk−1 (B ) .408 CHAPTER 9. the map B → Ik (f. f (S ) = to conclude that ℓ∗ |dλ| = ξ trk (−SD )|dVM | = ξ |dµp+c | so that ξµp+c (D ) = M 1 | cos θ (S. for almost all S ∈ Grc H we have dim S ∩ ker B > m − c − k. and from the above inequality we deduce that at least m − c − k of them are trivial. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Proof. B ) = Q tr1 (B ). trk−1 (B ) . k Grc f |dγc |(S ) = ξf ⊔ ⊓ Now apply the above lemma in the special case H = Tx0 M. ∀B.

p := µp (Dm+1−c ) = ω p Using Theorem 9.3.3.c. and it is a disk of dimension (m + 1 − c) = dim L and radius (1 − r 2 )1/2 if r < 1.p Ic.6) = c p σ c −1 B .1. We conclude that (1 − r 2 )p/2 r < 1 µp (L ∩ Dm+1 ) = µp (Dm+1−c ) × 0 p > 1.22 ) Gr c x∈[L]⊥ . We set µm. To determine the constant ξ in the above equality we apply it in the special case D = Dm+1 . Using (9.p .9.c. p+c ω m+1−c−p p + c Now observe that for L ∈ Graﬀ c we set r = r (L) = dist (L.p = m+1 ω m+1−c m + 1 − c Ic.1.p Hence ξ ω m+1 m+1 ω m+1−c−p p + c Grc |dνc (S )| = µm. ω m+1−c−p p c 1 0 Rc (1 − |x|2 )p/2 dVRc = σ c−1 s =r 2 r c−1 (1 − r 2 )p/2 dr = σ c −1 2 1 s 0 c −2 2 (1 − s)p/2 ds c )Γ(1 + p σ c−1 Γ( 2 2) p c 2 Γ(1 + 2 + 2 ) (9.14 we deduce µp (L ∩ Dm+1 )|dνc |(L) m+1−c ω m+1−c m + 1 − c .1.p Grc [ L] ⊥ µp Dm+1 ∩ (x + [L]) |dV[L]⊥ |(x) |dνc |([L]) (1 − |x|2 )p/2 |dV[L]⊥ |(x) |dνc |([L]) =:Ic.p (9.c. c = Using spherical coordinates on Rc we deduce Ic. = ω m+1−c−p p p Graﬀ c = = µm. c ) Γ(1 + 2 + p ωp 2 m+1−c p Hence ξ ω m+1 m+1 p+c = ω m+1−c ω p+c m + 1 ωp c . Then L ∩ Dm+1 is empty if r > 1.p m+1 .3.19) we deduce ξµp+c (Dm+1 ) = ξ ω p+c m+1 ω m+1 m+1 =ξ .8 ) (9. CURVATURE MEASURES 409 Step 2.7 ) = = Γ(1/2)c Γ(1 + p ω p +c 2) = .p Ic. 0). | x | <1 = µm.c.1. +1 2 2 2 (9.

.24. M = ∂D ∈ Sn . the quantity µ of the ambient space Rn ⊃ S . . then the function Graﬀ c ∋ L → χ(L ∩ D ) = µ0 (L ∩ D ) is bounded and has compact support. and so is the map π : I → Graﬀ c . If the bounded domain D ⊂ Rn with smooth boundary is tame. (x. ⊔ ⊓ µ Graﬀ p (Rn ) The proof of Proposition 9. From the deﬁnability of Euler characteristic we deduce that the map Graﬀ c ∋ L → χ(L ∩ M ) ∈ Z is deﬁnable. and for every integer 0 ≤ p ≤ n we deﬁne ˆ p (S ) := χ(L ∩ D ) |dν |(L). it is integrable and µc (D ) = Graﬀ c χ(L ∩ D ) |dν |(L). ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 9. ˆ p (S ) depends on the dimension The above deﬁnition has a “problem”: a priori. Since the Grassmannian Graﬀ c is semialgebraic.3. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY ω m+1 ω p+c m + 1 ωpωc c m+1 c m+1 m+1−c p +c p m+1−c . Proof.25. p ⊔ ⊓ = ω p +c p + c ω p ωc p We now describe a simple situation when the function Graﬀ c ∋ L → µ0 (L ∩ M ) is integrable. an afﬁne plane which is too far from the origin cannot intersect M . The ﬁber of π over L is the intersection L ∩ M . the incidence set I = ((x. In particular.24 shows that the integral in the above deﬁnition is well deﬁned and ﬁnite. a ﬁnite set. Its range is a deﬁnable subset of Z. Hence. L) ∈ M × Graﬀ c . i. To see that it has compact support it sufﬁces to observe that since M is compact. L) → L. We know that there exists a tame structure S such that D ∈ Sn .410 = We deduce ξ= ω p +c ω p ωc CHAPTER 9. Proposition 9. This proposition also shows that ˆ p (D ) = µp (D ) µ if D ⊂ Rn is a tame domain with smooth boundary. p = p+c . x ∈ L is also S-deﬁnable. we deduce that Graﬀ c is also S-deﬁnable.3. For any compact tame subset S ⊂ Rn .3.e. The next exercise asks the reader to prove that this is not the case. In particular.

In particular. Then the function Λ ∋ λ −→ fp (λ) := µ Proof. deﬁnable subset of Graﬀ p . L) |dν |(L). Denote by Graﬀ c D the set of afﬁne planes of codimension c which intersect ∂D transversally. we deduce that the function F is deﬁnable. Let N > n and suppose i : Rn → RN is an afﬁne. µ (d) Suppose T ⊂ Rn is a triangle. and has compact support. µ (c) Suppose S1 . Hence. S-deﬁnable set. Suppose K ⊂ Rn is a compact. The boundedness is obvious. this also shows that F is measurable and bounded. and p+c µp+c (D ) = c Graﬀ c D µp (L ∩ D ) |dν (L)| = Graﬀ c ˆ p (L ∩ D )|dν |(L). ∀p ≥ 0.3.3. The above result has the following immediate corollary. Compute ˆ p (T ). ˆ p (S ) is independent of the dimension of the ambient space. ˆ p (Aλ ) ∈ R is bounded and Borel measurable. µ ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 9. 0 ≤ p ≤ n the function Graﬀ c D ∋ L → µp (L ∩ D ) is bounded.27. Deﬁne F : Λ × Graﬀ p (K ) → Z. In particular. Now observe that F (λ. (a.26. it is integrable. so that µ (b) Prove that for every real number λ we have ˆ p (λS ) = |λ|p µ ˆ p (S ). ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 9. i. (a) Prove that Graﬀ p (Rn ) χ(L ∩ S ) |dν |(L) = Graﬀ p (RN ) χ(U ∩ i(S ) ) |dν |(U ). Λ is an arbitrary S-deﬁnable set. (λ. S2 ⊂ Rn are two compact S-deﬁnable sets. measurable.. Fix tame structure S.e.3.L is deﬁnable. and suppose S ⊂ Rn is a compact. λ) ∈ A .9. Denote by Graﬀ p (K ) the set of afﬁne planes of codimension p in Rn which intersect K . isometric embedding. This is a compact. L) → χ(Aλ ∩ L) ∈ Z. Since the family Aλ ∩ L λ. the convex hull of three non collinear points. For every λ ∈ Λ we set Aλ := a ∈ K . fp (λ) = Graﬀ p (K ) The measurability follows from the classical Fubini theorem. S-deﬁnable set. Suppose the bounded domain D ⊂ Rn is tame and has smooth boundary. Then for any integer. CURVATURE MEASURES 411 Exercise 9. Prove that ˆ p (S1 ∪ S2 ) = µ ˆ p (S1 ) + µ ˆ 2 (S2 ) − µ ˆ p (S1 ∩ S2 ).3. its range must be a ﬁnite (!?!) subset of Z. Fix a tame structure S. and A ⊂ K × Λ is a closed S-deﬁnable subset of K × Λ.28. µ .

3. around M . From (9. We want to prove the following result. ˆ p (L ∩ D ) is bounded and measurable. For every x ∈ Rn set d(x) := dist (x. M ). r →0 Graﬀ c (M ) µ0 (L ∩ M )|dν |(L) = Graﬀ c µ0 (L ∩ M )|dν (L)|. Theorem 9. and Theorem 9. Moreover ˆ p (L ∩ D ). The tube Dr is a tame domain with smooth boundary. R) we deﬁne fr : Graﬀ c → R. Denote by Graﬀ c (M ) the subset of Graﬀ c consisting of afﬁne planes which intersect M transversally. by Proposition 9. the function L → µ function has compact support because the planes too far from the origin cannot intersect D . For r ∈ [0. We continue to denote by Graﬀ c the Grassmannian of afﬁne planes in Rn of codimension c. compact. S-deﬁnable submanifold of dimension m of the Euclidean space Rn .412 CHAPTER 9. For every r < R consider the tube of radius r . . The set Graﬀ c D is a tame open and dense subset of Graﬀ so that its complement has measure zero.3.27. Part 1. This while. Fix R > 0 such that for any x such that d(x) ≤ R there exists a unique point x ¯ ∈ M such that |x − x ¯| = d(x). For uniformity. Then µc (M ) = that is. ∀L ∈ Graﬀ c µp (L ∩ D ) = µ D. and we assume that M is a closed. We can assume that k = codim M < 1.3. ⊔ ⊓ 9. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY c Proof. lim χ(L ∩ Dr )|dν |(L) = Graﬀ c χ(L ∩ M ).3. and set Mr = ∂ Tr (M ).7 Crofton formulæ for submanifolds of an Euclidean space In this last subsection we ﬁx a tame structure S.). Dr := Tr (M ).15) we deduce µc (M ) = lim µc (Dr ). we set D0 = M . smooth. µ Proof.29 (Crofton Formula. ˆ c (M ) = µc (M ).3.20 implies µc (Dr ) = Thus it sufﬁces to show that r →0 Graﬀ c Graﬀ c χ(L ∩ Dr )|dν |(L). fr (L) = χ(L ∩ Dr ).

3.9. L ∈ Graﬀ c (Ms ). Yr := Graﬀ ∗ \Xr .30. We now let r → 0. ∀L ∈ Graﬀ c .29. 413 Proof. For 0 < r < R we have µc (Dr ) = = X∗ r Graﬀ c fr (L)|dνc |(L) = Grc ∗ fr (L)|dνc |(L) fr (L)|dνc | fr (L)|dνc | + Y∗ r fr (L)|dνc | = 2 X∗ r f0 (L)|dνc | + Y∗ r Hence µc (Mr ) − X∗ r f0 (L)|dνc | ≤ Y∗ r |fr (L)||dνc | ≤ C vol (Y∗ r ). ⊔ ⊓ Observe that Graﬀ c (M ) is an open subset of Graﬀ c with negligible complement. For every r > 0 we set Xr = L ∈ Graﬀ c (M ). L ∩ DR = ∅ . r>0 Set c The region Graﬀ c ∗ (M ) is a relatively compact subset of Graﬀ . This follows from Proposition 9. L intersects Mr transversally .3. R). and since vol (Y∗ r ) → 0 we conclude that µc (M ) = lim µc (Dr ) = lim r →0 r →0 X∗ r f0 (L)|dνc | = Graﬀ c f0 (L)|dνc |. . Let Graﬀ c (Mr ) := L ⊂ Graﬀ c .3. Lemma 9. CURVATURE MEASURES Lemma 9. r1 ) ⊂ Graﬀ c (M.3. ∀s ∈ (0. χ(L ∩ Ds ) = χ(L ∩ M ). The sets Xr are measurable in Graﬀ c and Xr = Graﬀ c (M ). ∀r1 ≥ r0 . To proceed further we need the following technical result. whose proof will presented at the end of this subsection. ⊔ ⊓ This concludes the proof of Theorem 9.31. Graﬀ c ∗ := L ∈ Graﬀ c . Deﬁne c ∗ c ∗ X∗ r := Xr ∩ Graﬀ ∗ . r0 ). There exists C > 0 such that |fr (L)| ≤ C. and thus it has ﬁnite measure. r ∈ [0. r ] Observe that Graﬀ c (M.3.27.

2. Denote by δ the pullback to N 0 of the distance function x → d(x) = dist (x. 0) 0 n The collection (Ny y ∈L0 ∩M forms a vector subbundle N → L0 ∩ M of (T R )|L0 ∩M . 0 of the Hessian of d at y is positive deﬁnite. For every r > 0 we set Ny r y M Ny(r) y 0 L0 Dr Figure 9.31. M ). 0 (r ) := N 0 ∩ D . We will prove that for any given L0 ∈ Graﬀ c (M ) there exists and ρ = ρ(L0 ) such that L0 ∈ Xρ . The measurability follows from the fact that Xr is described using countably many boolean operations on measurable sets. 0 the orthogonal complement in L of T (L ∩ M ).414 CHAPTER 9.2: Slicing the tube Dr around the submanifold M by a plane L0 . Because L intersects M transversally We think of Ny 0 we have 0 dim Ny = dim Ny = k = codim M.3. δL0 = d ◦ EL0 ∩M : N 0 → R. For every y ∈ L0 ∩ M . For x in M we denote by Nx the ﬁber of N over x. Hence. see Figure 9. We denote by Ny 0 y 0 0 Ny = L0 ∩ Ty (L0 ∩ M ) ⊥ . CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Proof of Lemma 9. δ(x) ≤ ρ → L0 ∩ Dρ . 0 as an afﬁne subspace of Rn containing y . Let y ∈ L0 ∩ M . The exponential map on T Rn restricts to a map EL0 ∩M : N 0 → L0 . Consider the normal bundle N := (T M )⊥ → M. the restriction to Ny there exists ρ = ρ(L0 ) > 0 such that the map EL0 ∩M : x ∈ N 0 .

Denote by Graﬀ m−2 (M ) = Graﬀ (M ) the set of codimension (m − 2) afﬁne planes in Rn −2 which intersect M along a nonempty subset. Then the function L → nC (L) belongs to L∞ (Gr1 (R2 ). has compact support and length (C ) = Gr1 (R2 ) nC (L)|dν2. |dν |2.32. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 9. ρ].3. orientable submanifold of the Euclidean space Rn .3. compact tame curve. We deduce that we have a natural projection π : L0 ∩ Dρ → L0 ∩ M. ∀r ∈ (0.3. For every L ∈ Graﬀ m (M ). and denote by h the induced metric on M . ∀r ∈ (0.9. Thus. Suppose M is a tame.33. so that χ(L0 ∩ Dρ ) = χ(L0 ∩ M ). which is continuous and deﬁnes a locally trivial ﬁbration with ﬁbers Ny 0 (ρ) is homeomorphic to a disk of dimension k . The downward gradient ﬂow of the restriction to L0 ∩ Dρ of the distance function d(x) produces diffeomorphisms of manifolds with boundary L0 ∩ Dρ ∼ = L0 ∩ Dr . the ∗ .1 |(L).29 offers a strange interpretation to the Hilbert-Einstein functional. Hence χ(L0 ∩ Dr ) = χ(L0 ∩ Dρ ) = χ(L0 ∩ M ). Then µm−2 (M. closed. we deduce that L0 is transversal to the level sets { d(x) = r } = Mr .1 ). Theorem 9. ∀r ∈ (0. For every line L ∈ Gr1 (R2 ) = Gr1 (R2 ) we set nC (L) := #(L ∩ C ).3. and by Graﬀ m (M ) ⊂ Graﬀ m−2 (M ) the sub∗ −2 set consisting of those planes intersecting M transversally. This proves L0 ∈ Xρ . Since the restriction to L0 ∩ Dρ of the distance function d(x) has no critical points other than the minima y ∈ L0 ∩ M . CURVATURE MEASURES is a diffeomorphism. Let m = dim M . ρ). 2π s(h)dVM (h). 415 0 (ρ). the ﬁber Ny L0 ∩ Dρ is homeomorphic to a tube in L0 around L0 ∩ M ⊂ L0 . ρ]. For every y ∈ L0 ∩ M . h) = where EM (h) is the Hilbert-Einstein functional EM (h) = M 1 EM (h). ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 9. Suppose C ⊂ R2 is a smooth. compact.

Using Crofton’s formula in Proposition 9. Part 2. R ) = 1. We set c(R) = Graﬀ m−2 (R) |dν (L)|.34 (Crofton Formula.24 and the simple observation that m−2 χ(L ∩ Dn (R). c(R) 2πc(R) Theorem 9. and we can regard the n ωm−2 Rm−2 . smooth.28 implies p+c µp+c (Dr ) = c Thus it sufﬁces to show that r →0 Graﬀ c Graﬀ c r →0 µp (L ∩ Dr )|dν |(L) = Graﬀ c ˆ p (L ∩ Dr )|dν |(L).3. µ Proof. µ .29. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY intersection L ∩ M is a. c(M ) := Graﬀ m−2 (M ) |dν (L)|. By Sard’s −2 theorem the complement of Graﬀ m (M ) in Graﬀ m−2 (M ) has zero measure. Denote by Graﬀ c (M ) the subset of Graﬀ c consisting of afﬁne planes which intersect M transversally. possible disconnected. and Corollary 9. for every 0 ≤ p ≤ m − c we have p+c µp+c (M ) = p Graﬀ c (M ) µp (L ∩ M )|dν |(L) = Graﬀ c ˆ p (L ∩ M )|dν (L)|. The set Dr is a tame domain with smooth boundary.3. Then. We continue to use the same notations we used in the proof of Theorem 9. R→∞ m−2 m−2 ⊔ ⊓ 1 1 µm−2 (M ) = EM (h). ∀L ∈ Graﬀ we deduce that c(R) = µm−2 (Dn R) = Observe now that correspondence 1 c(R) |dν (L)| is a probability measure on Graﬀ m−2 (R).15) we deduce µp+c (M ) = lim µp+c (Dr ).).3. ∀R > R0 .3.3. µ lim ˆ p (L ∩ Dr )|dν (L)| = µ Graﬀ c ˆ p (L ∩ M )|dν (L)|. From (9. orientable Riemann surface. there exists R0 > 0 such that Graﬀ m−2 (M ) ⊂ Graﬀ m−2 (R). Note that since M is compact.416 CHAPTER 9. ∗ For every R > 0 we denote by Graﬀ m−2 (R) the set of codimension (m − 2) planes in Rn which intersect the disk Dn R of radius R and centered at 0. m−2 Graﬀ m−2 (R) ∋ L −→ χ(L ∩ M ) ∈ Z as a random variable ξR whose expectation is ξR := We deduce EM (h) = 2π n n ωm−2 Rm−2 ξR = 2π ωm−2 lim Rm−2 ξR .

∀L ∈ Graﬀ c . R) such that.3. compact tame manifold we deduce from Theorem 9. Hence lim χ(U ∩ Sr ) = χ(U ∩ S0 ). we deduce from the dominated convergence theorem that lim ˆ p (L ∩ Dr )|dν (L)| = µ = ˆ p (L ∩ M )|dν (L)| µ ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ r ց0 Graﬀ c Graﬀ c Graﬀ c (M ) µp (L ∩ M )|dν (L)|. R). r ) → χ(U ∩ Sr ) ∈ Z is deﬁnable. CURVATURE MEASURES For r ∈ [0. r ց0 417 (9. .3. gr : Graﬀ c → R.3.3. Arguing exactly as in the proof of Lemma 9.25) and Lemma 9.35. there exists ρ ∈ (0.3. We have to prove that r ց0 ˆ p (Sr ) = µ ˆ p (S0 ). R) we deﬁne ˆ p (L ∩ Dr ). ρ). for all L ∈ Graﬀ c (M ). and thus bounded. R) ∋ (U. lim µ Denote by Graﬀ p (S0 ) the set of codimension p afﬁne planes in Rn which intersect S0 transversally. ∀U ∈ Graﬀ p (S0 ).3. χ(U ∩ S0 )|dν p (U )| = µ Using the fact that S0 is a smooth. r ∈ [0.31 we deduce that.3. r ց0 If we let r go to zero in (9.3. for every U ∈ Graﬀ p (S0 ). Lemma 9.27 we deduce that ∃C > 0 : |gr (L)| ≤ C. The set Graﬀ p (S0 ) is an open subset of Graﬀ p .26).3.35. Proof. for every r ∈ (0. µ Using (9. ˆ (Sr ) = gr (L) = µ Graﬀ p χ(U ∩ Sr )|dν p (U )| = Graﬀ (S0 ) p χ(U ∩ Sr )|dν p (U )|.29 that ˆ p (S0 ) = µp (S0 ) = g0 (L). and its complement has measure zero. Then. (9.9. the set U ∩ Sr is homotopy equivalent to U ∩ S0 .25) lim gr (L) = g0 (L). we deduce from the dominated convergence theorem that r ց0 lim gr (L) = Graﬀ p ˆ p (S0 ). gr (L) = µ From Proposition 9.3.27 we deduce that the function Graﬀ p ×[0. Let L ∈ Graﬀ c (M ) and set Sr := L ∩ Dr .26) From Proposition 9.3.

3.S. Sect. we can ask what is the value of the integral χ(M ∩ BR (x) )|dx|. given a compact. We have chosen to work in this more restrictive context for two reasons. For example. by intersecting it with a large family of simpler shapes. for a more in depth look at this subject. (a) The tameness assumption in the Crofton formulaæ is not really needed. spheres of a given radius. Second.i µi (M )Rn−i . (b) The subject of integral geometry owes a great deal to the remarkable work of S. . and instead of pursuing further this line of thought. but the kinematic formula extends beyond the range of applicability of the tube formula.418 CHAPTER 9. It was observed by Chern that the Crofton formulæ that we have proved in this section are only special cases of the so called kinematic formulæ which explain how to recover information about a submanifold of a homogeneous space such as Rn . m-dimensional submanifold M ⊂ Rn .i are universal constants. and they are true in much more general situations. A detailed presentation of these ideas will send us too far. i=0 where cm. To see the origin of this similarity note that BR (x) ∩ M = ∅ ⇐⇒ x ∈ TR (M ). and push our understanding of this subject to remarkable heights. yet very much alive monograph ⊔ ⊓ of L.n. and a radius R.n. In the Euclidean space. we recommend to the reader to open the classical. CLASSICAL INTEGRAL GEOMETRY Remark 9. these other simpler shapes could be afﬁne planes.10. balls of a given radius. First. Chern who was the ﬁrst to have reformulated the main problems from a modern point of view. The above equality is strikingly similar to the tube formula. independent of M . we believe that geometers should become more familiar with tame context in which the geometric intuition is not distracted by analytical caveats. One of the kinematic formulæ states that n Rn χ(M ∩ BR (x) ) = cm. If R is sufﬁciently small. Santal´ o [85]. Rn where BR (x) denotes the ball BR (x) = { y ∈ Rn . see [33].3. |y − x| ≤ R }. 2.36.2. the above formula does indeed specialize to the tube formula. the tameness assumption eliminates the need for sophisticated analytical arguments.

∆u := − ∂i 2 u. 10. as a smooth function 419 . ∂i := ∂x i functions. ∆ : C ∞ (RN ) → C ∞ (RN ). This is a scalar operator in the sense that it acts on scalar valued where. and one has look into the microstructure of the problem. it is best that we begin with the simplest of the situations. Many concrete geometric problems lead to studying such objects with speciﬁc properties. using the Chern-Weil theory of characteristic classes. Next in line is the exterior derivative d : Ωk (RN ) → Ωk+1 (RN ).d. To understand the forthcoming formalism. A degree k form ω on RN can be viewed as a collection of N k smooth functions or equivalently. the elliptic ones play a crucial role in modern geometry. For example. The Laplacian deﬁned as above is sometimes called the geometers’ Laplacian. This chapter is an introduction to this vast and dynamic subject which has numerous penetrating applications in geometry and topology. Among them. i ∂ . This is a vectorial operator in the sense it acts on vector valued functions. for brevity) on a smooth manifold M . M = RN .1 Partial differential operators: algebraic aspects 10.Chapter 10 Elliptic Equations on Manifolds Almost all the objects in differential geometry are deﬁned by expressions involving partial derivatives. Note that our deﬁnition of the Laplacian differs from the usual one by a sign. topological considerations alone are not sufﬁcient. The curvature of a connection is the most eloquent example. Very often. This situation can be dealt with topologically. and more speciﬁcally. Perhaps the best known partial differential operator is the Laplacian. as usual. we inquired whether on a given vector bundle there exist ﬂat connections.1.o.1 Basic notions We ﬁrst need to introduce the concept of partial differential operator (p. one is led to the study of partial differential equations. This is where analysis comes in.

and f ∈ C ∞ (M ). F ) the space of K-linear operators C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (F ). F ). ad(f )T := T ◦ f − f ◦ T = [T. [T. F ) := m≥0 P DO(m) (E. We set P DO(E. we have T (f u) − f (T u) = 0 or.420 N CHAPTER 10. They are modules over the ring of smooth functions C ∞ (M ).1. Thus d can be viewed as an operator N N d : C ∞ RN . F ) → Op (E.1) Each f ∈ C ∞ (M ) deﬁnes a map ad(f ) : Op (E. F ).1. F ) = {T ∈ Op (E. C-vector bundles E . ad(f )T = 0 ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M )} =: ker ad . F ). ∀T ∈ Op(E. F ). F ). ∀fi ∈ C ∞ (M ) . ⊔ ⊓ . It is convenient to think of C ∞ (RN . R( k ) → C ∞ RN . (10. The elements of P DO (m) are called partial differential operators of order ≤ m. F ). Remark 10. Rν ) as the space of smooth sections of the trivial bundle Rν over RN . f ]u = T (f u) − f (T u) = 0. Note that we could have deﬁned P DO(m) inductively as P DO (m) = {T ∈ Op . f denotes the C ∞ (M )-module multiplication by f . Given T ∈ P DO0 . The partial differential operators are elements of Op which interact in a special way with the above C ∞ (M )-module structures. f ] ∈ P DO (m−1) . in terms of commutators.1. F over a smooth manifold M we denote by Op(E. First deﬁne P DO 0 (E. This point of view is especially useful in induction proofs. The spaces of smooth sections C ∞ (E ) and C ∞ (F ) are more than just K-vector spaces.1) as P DO 0 (E. F ) := ker adm+1 = T ∈ Op(E. For any smooth K = R. T ∈ ker ad(f0 ) ad(f1 ) · · · ad(fm ). F ) := Hom(E. u ∈ C ∞ (E ). The space Op(E.1. We can rephrase the equality (10. ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M )}. E ) is an associative K-algebra. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS ω : RN → R( k ) . Deﬁne P DO(m) (E. [T. f ]. R(k+1) . by Above.

By induction. we have Lu = L(u · 1) = [L. G be smooth K-vector bundles over the same manifold M . We argue by induction over m + n.10. Let L ∈ P DO (m+1) . Kq ).1. and consequently (see Exercise 3. R). If P ∈ P DO (m) (F. in order to analyze the action of a p.1. For m + n = 0 the result is obvious.3. one can work in local coordinates.1. for any f. In other words.4. f ∈ C ∞ (RN ). In general. Let E.o. i. the map f → σ (f ) is a derivation of C ∞ (RN ). f ]. supp Lu ⊂ supp u. u] · 1 + u · L(1) = X · u + µ · u. f ] = [P. boils down to understanding the action of a p. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ .2. ∀f ∈ C ∞ (RN ). Denote by R the trivial line bundle over RN . ∀f ∈ C ∞ (M ). f ](gu) + f ([L. The sections of R are precisely the real functions on RN . f ]u = σ (f ) · u. f g]u = [L.d. Then. For m = 0 the result is obvious. understanding the structure of an arbitrary p. We argue by induction over m.. F ) is a local operator. Let µ := L(1) ∈ C ∞ (RN ). ⊔ ⊓ The above lemma shows that. Thus. This concludes the proof of the lemma. the operators in the right-hand-side have orders ≤ m + n − 1. For every f ∈ C ∞ (M ) we have L(f u) = [L. in P DO(m) (Kp . Proof.9) there exists a smooth vector ﬁeld X on RN such that σ (f ) = X · f. for some smooth function σ (f ) ∈ C ∞ (RN ). f ] ∈ P DO(m) we deduce by induction supp L(f u) ⊂ supp u ∪ supp f. then [P ◦ Q. Any L ∈ P DO (m) (E.d. for all u ∈ C ∞ (RN ). g]u) = σ (f )g · u + f σ (g) · u. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS: ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS 421 Example 10. Proposition 10. ∀u ∈ C ∞ (E ). F.1.e. We want to analyze P DO(1) = P DO(1) (R. On the other hand. Since [L. and Kq are trivial K-vector bundles over RN .o. if f ∈ C ∞ (M ). Then [L. Hence σ (f g) = σ (f )g + f σ (g). f ] ◦ Q + P ◦ [Q. This is done in the exercises at the end of this subsection. where Kp .o. Let L ∈ P DO(1) .d. F ) then P ◦ Q ∈ P DO(m+n) (E. Proof. For any open set O such that O ⊃ supp u we can ﬁnd f ≡ 1 on supp u and f ≡ 0 outside O so that f u ≡ u). u.. G) and Q ∈ P DO (n) (E.1. and u ∈ C ∞ (E ). f ]u + f Lu. Lemma 10. g ∈ C ∞ (RN ) σ (f g)u = [L. The proposition is proved. G).

Prove the above lemma. g] = ad(g) · (ad(f )P ).o.d.1. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS |α|≤m aα (x)∂ α : C ∞ (RN ) → C ∞ (RN ). . For each x0 ∈ M consider the ideals of C ∞ (M ) mx0 = Jx0 = f ∈ C ∞ (M ).1. gi ∈ C ∞ (M ) (i = 1. f (x0 ) = 0. . · · · ∂N α = (α1 . g].1. Lemma 10.1. According to the computation in Example 10. ⊔ ⊓ From the above lemma we deduce that if P ∈ P DO(m) then. m. ⊔ ⊓ j f ∈ C ∞ (M ). of order ≤ m.o.422 Corollary 10. . g] + [P. . hj ∈ mx0 . multiple compositions of such operators are again p. Proof. . ad(f ) · (ad(g)P ) = [[P. According to the above proposition. Exercise 10.e. f ] = [[P. ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 10. i Proof. f ].1..d. αN α1 αi .2. .9. |α| = is a p. Let P ∈ P DO (m) (E.8. . ∗ dfi (x0 ) = dgi (x0 ) ∈ Tx M. F ). f (x0 ) = 0 . The operator L= CHAPTER 10. . F ).o. the bundle morphism ad(f1 ) ad(f2 ) · · · ad(fm )P does not change if we permute the f ’s.1. . . ⊔ ⊓ .’s. . at a point x0 ∈ M . [f. Then for any P ∈ P DO (E. F → M be two smooth vector bundles over the smooth manifold M . i. each partial derivative ∂i is a 1st order p. 0 Then {ad(f1 ) ad(f2 ) · · · ad(fm )P } |x0 = {ad(g1 ) ad(g2 ) · · · ad(gm )P } |x0 . . fm ∈ C ∞ (M ). fi . ∀i = 1. f ]. for any f1 .6. Let E.d. any function f which vanishes at x0 together with its derivatives can be written as f= gj hj gj . df (x0 ) = 0. and any f. m) such that.5. . . g] = [[P. Then Jx0 = m2 x0 . αN ) ∈ ZN ≥0 . Proposition 10.7. . ∂ α = ∂1 . g ∈ C ∞ (M ) ad(f ) · (ad(g)P ) = ad(g) · (ad(f )P ). . In the proof we will use the following technical result which we leave to the reader as an exercise.

2). .1. ξ ). . gi ∈ C ∞ (M ) such that dfi (x0 ) = dgi (x0 ) ∀i = 1. . we see that this map is uniquely determined by the polynomial σ (P )(ξ ) := σm (P )(ξ ) = σ (P )(ξ. If we denote by π : T ∗ M → M the natural projection then. . . . Hence. m). Let φ = f1 − g1 . αj ]βj } |x0 + j {αj [Q. m). Note that φ ∈ Jx0 so.1. depends only on the quantities ξi := dfi (x0 ) ∈ Tx i x0 0 the above expression unambiguously induces a linear map σ (P )(ξ1 . and fi ∈ C ∞ (M ) (i = 1. . . according to the above lemma. . we can write φ= j (10. . PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS: ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS Proof. that is symmetric in the variables ξi . x0 ∈ M .2) αj βj . Using the polarization trick of Chapter 8. . We have to show that {ad(φ)Q} |x0 = 0. βj ]} |x0 = 0. We will show that { ad(f1 ) ad(f2 ) · · · ad(fm )P } |x0 = { ad(g1 ) ad(f2 ) · · · ad(fm )P } |x0 . ⊔ ⊓ This proves the equality (10. The proposition we have just proved has an interesting consequence. We have {ad(φ)Q} |x0 = j ad(αj βj )Q |x0 = j {[Q. and hence the proposition. F ). ξm )(P ) : Ex0 → Fx0 . . . . 423 Since ad(const) = 0. Along the ﬁbers of T ∗ M the map ξ → σm (P )(ξ ) looks like a degree m homogeneous “polynomial” with coefﬁcients in Hom (Ex0 . βj ∈ mx0 . Given P ∈ P DO(m) (E. m where π ∗ E and π ∗ F denote the pullbacks of E and F to T ∗ M via π . . . for any ξ ∈ T ∗ M (i = 1. for each P ∈ P DO (m) (E. and set Q := ad(f2 ) · · · ad(fm )P ∈ P DO(1) . the linear map { 1 ad(f1 ) · · · ad(fm )P } |x0 : Ex0 → Fx0 m! ∗ M .10.1. Fx0 ). . . . F ). we may assume (eventually altering the f ’s and the g’s by additive constants) that fi (x0 ) = gi (x0 ) ∀i. we have a well deﬁned map σm (P )(·) ∈ Hom (π ∗ E. Let P ∈ P DO (m) and fi . αj . π ∗ F ). m. . . Iterating we get the desired conclusion.

d. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 10. ⊔ ⊓ .d. The operator P ∈ P DOm (E.d.o. Show that any L ∈ P DO (m) (Kp . The following exercises provide a complete explicit description of the p. F ).17.14.-s on RN are those indicated in Corollary 10. Exercise 10. Show that σm (P )(ξ ) = |α|≤m aα (x)ξ α = |α|≤m αN α1 aα (x)ξ1 .16. the map any ξ ∈ Tx σm (P )(ξ ) : Ex → Fx is a linear isomorphism.d.5 L= |α|≤m ⊔ ⊓ aα (x)∂ α .10. Hom (Kp .11.5. Show the operator C ∞ (M ) ∋ f −→ [L.424 CHAPTER 10. where Aα ∈ C ∞ (RN .o.1. A p. P ∈ P DO (m) is said to have order m if σm (P ) ≡ 0.o. and ∗ M \ {0}. Let Kp and Kq denote the trivial K-vector bundles over RN of rank p and respectively q . on RN described in Corollary 10. F ) and Q ∈ P DO(n) (F. Exercise 10.d.1.d.1. for any x ∈ M . and conclude that the only scalar p.1.12. Let C : C ∞ (RN ) → C ∞ (RN ) be a p. of order ≤ m − 1.13. Its principal symbol has the form σm (L)(ξ ) = aα (x)ξ α . G). Consider the scalar p. Then σm+n (Q ◦ P ) = σn (Q) ◦ σm (P ). F ) and u ∈ C ∞ (E ). f ]u ∈ C ∞ (F ) belongs to P DO(m) (RM . In this case σm (P ) is called the (principal) symbol of P . ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS Proposition 10. |α|≤m Show that L − |α|=m aα (x)∂ α is a p.’s of order m will be denoted by P DOm . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. F ) is said to be elliptic if.15. Hint: Use the previous exercise to reduce the problem to the case p = 1.o. · · · ξN ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. of order m.1. Let P ∈ P DO(m) (E.1. Kq )) for any α .1. The set of p. Kq ) has the form L= |α|≤m Aα (x)∂ α .1.d.1.o.o.’s on RN . Let L ∈ P DO (m) (E.1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 10.o. Prove the above proposition.

1.o. and a connection ∇ on E . Then i ∂i 2 .d.e. For any u ∈ C ∞ (E ) (ad(f )∇)u = ∇(f u) − f (∇u) = df ⊗ u. ad(f )2 (∆) = ad(f )(∆f ) · −2 i fxi · ad(f ) (∂i ) = −2 i (fxi )2 · = −2|df |2 · . In the sequel. If we set ξ = df . (The exterior derivative.d. ∆ = − Let f ∈ C ∞ (RN ). In particular. we deduce σ1 (d) = e(ξ ) = the left exterior multiplication by ξ .18.1. and f ∈ C ∞ (M ). ∆ : C ∞ (RN ) → C ∞ (RN ). Then .o. ∂i = i ∂ . PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS: ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS 425 10.1. we deduce σ2 (∆)(ξ ) = −|ξ |2 · . we will use the notation “ f · ” to denote the operation of multiplication by the smooth scalar function f . Its symbol can be read from ad(f )∇. i. This is the second order p.o.20.19. (Covariant derivatives). ∇ : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ). we included in this subsection a couple of classical examples which hopefully will ease this process. The exterior derivative d : Ω• (M ) → Ω•+1 (M ) ad(f )d ω = d(f ω ) − f dω = df ∧ ω.d. More speciﬁcally.’s that we have been extensively using in this book. ∂xi ad(f )(∆) = − =− ad(f ) (∂i )2 = − i {ad(f )(∂i ) ◦ ∂i + ∂i ◦ ad(f )(∂i )} i i {fxi · ∂i + ∂i (fxi ·)} = − i {fxi · ∂i + fxi xi · +fxi · ∂i } = (∆f ) · −2 Hence fxi · ∂i .2 Examples At a ﬁrst glance.o. the symbol is the tensor multiplication by ξ . If we set ξ := df in the above equality.) Let M be a smooth manifold. f ∈ C ∞ (M ). ⊔ ⊓ is a ﬁrst order p. To help the reader get a friendlier feeling towards them. (The Euclidean Laplacian)..1. To compute its symbol. ⊔ ⊓ Example 10. By setting ξ = df we deduce σ1 (∇)(ξ ) = ξ ⊗. ⊔ ⊓ Example 10. this shows that the Laplacian ∆ is an elliptic operator. consider ω ∈ Ωk (M ). we will compute the principal symbols of some p.1.. Example 10. the notions introduced so far may look too difﬁcult to “swallow”. Consider a vector bundle E → M over the smooth manifold M .d.10. We can view ∇ as a p.

. We call it Laplacian since σ (d + d∗ )2 (ξ ) = while Exercise 2.k = nk + n + 1 is the exponent introduced in Subsection 4.5) ⊔ ⊓ Example 10. (10. I = (1. g). Putting together (10. . . then ∗e(ξ )(∗ω ) = ∗(ξ 1 ∧ ξ k+1 ∧ · · · ∧ ξ n ) = (−1)(n−k)(k−1) ξ 2 ∧ · · · ∧ ξ k = −(−1)νn..o. k ). . As in Chapter 4. ξ 1 = ξ .1. For simplicity we assume |ξ | = Fix ξ ∈ Tx x ∗ M .d. and moreover σ1 (δ) = ∗σ1 (d)∗ = ∗e(ξ ) ∗ . . e.4) where νn. Include ξ in an oriented orthonormal basis (ξ 1 . i ) denotes as usual an ordered Consider a monomial ω = dξ I ∈ Λk Tx 1 k multi-index.3) If 1 ∈ I . (10. . and denote by |ξ ∗ | = 1. (10.2.1. then σ1 (ξ 1 )ω = 0. ∗ M . This description can be further simpliﬁed. Consider an oriented. . n-dimensional Riemann manifold (M. σ (d + d∗ )(ξ ) = σ (d)(ξ ) + σ (d∗ )(ξ ) = e(ξ ) − i(ξ ∗ ).o. ∗ M . Hence d + d∗ is a ﬁrst order p.1. .4) we deduce σ1 (δ)(ξ ) = −(−1)νn. The Hodge-DeRham operator is Let (M.g. Note that if 1 ∈ I . . and denote by ξ ∗ ∈ T M its metric dual. where I = (i .k i(ξ ∗ )ω.1.1.3) and (10. d + d∗ : Ω• (M ) → Ω• (M ).426 CHAPTER 10. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS Example 10. .5 while i(ξ ∗ ) denotes the interior derivative along ξ ∗ . and moreover. where ∗ is the Hodge ∗-operator ∗ : Ω• (M ) → Ωn−• (M ).22.k i(ξ ∗ ).55 shows e(ξ ) − i(ξ ∗ ) 2 σ (d + d∗ )(ξ ) 2 = e(ξ ) − i(ξ ∗ ) 2 . .1. The Hodge Laplacian is the operator (d + d∗ )2 . where d∗ = (−1)νn.d. g) be as in the above example. .1...k δ.21. ξ n ) of Tx ξi the dual basis of Tx M . ⊔ ⊓ Notice that d + d∗ is elliptic since the square of its symbol is invertible. (The Hodge-DeRham operator). .1. we can produce an operator δ = ∗d∗ : Ω• (M ) → Ω•−1 (M ). = − e(ξ )i(ξ ∗ ) + i(ξ ∗ )e(ξ ) = −|ξ |2 g ·. The operator δ is a ﬁrst order p.

Let P ∈ P DO(E1 . A second order p. Q2 be two formal adjoints of P .25. ∀u ∈ C0 1 2 0 P u.1.23.1. 2. g). We denote by dVg = ∗1 the volume form on ∞ (E ) denotes the space of smooth. i = 1. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS: ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS 427 is called a generalized Laplacian if σ2 (L)(ξ ) = −|ξ |2 g. ∞ (E ). E1 ).1.10.o.3 Formal adjoints For simplicity. Let E1 . we have Proof. · i on Ei .d. (a) Let L0 ∈ P DO (E0 . E1 ) is said to be a ∞ (E ).1. Fix a Riemann metric g on M and Hermitian metrics ·. (b) If L ∈ P DO(m) (E0 . L : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ) ⊔ ⊓ ☞ Observe that all the generalized Laplacians are elliptic operators. · i . E2 ) admit formal adjoints L∗ i ∈ P DO (Ei+1 . If now v ∈ C ∞ (E ) is not necessarily compactly This implies (Q1 − Q2 )v = 0 ∀v ∈ C0 2 2 ∞ (M ). whose existence is not yet guaranteed. E2 ). 2. Then. Qv 1 dVg . j = 0. choosing a partition of unity (α) ⊂ C0 Q = Q1 − Q2 that Qv = αQ(αv ) = 0. Let Q1 . ∞ (E ) we have Proof. and ∀v ∈ C ∞ (E ) we have formal adjoint of P if. (a) For any ui ∈ C0 i L1 L0 u0 . all the vector bundles in this subsection will be assumed complex. Ei ) (i = 0. and metrics ·. C0 i sections of Ei . (Q1 − Q2 )v 1 dVg = 0 ∀u ∈ C0 (E1 ). compactly supported M deﬁned by the metric g. · j on Ej . E1 ) and L1 ∈ P DO (E1 . Deﬁnition 10. 1). ∀v ∈ C0 2 ∞ u. ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 10. Let E → M be a smooth vector bundle over the Riemann manifold (M. E0 ). we conclude using the locality of supported then.1. L∗ 1 u0 1 dVg = M ∗ u0 . 1.1. ⊔ ⊓ The formal adjoint of a p. is denoted by P ∗ . P ∈ P DO (E1 . then L∗ ∈ P DO (m) (E1 .d.26. M ∞ (E ).24. and ∗ (L1 L0 )∗ = L∗ 0 L1 . Proposition 10. 10. Finally. E2 ). Deﬁnition 10. L∗ 0 L1 u2 0 dVg . u2 2 dVg = M M L0 u0 . with respect to a metric g on the base. v 2 dVg = M M u. It is worth emphasizing that P ∗ depends on the choices of g and ·.o. Then L1 L0 admits a formal adjoint. . Any P ∈ P DO (E1 . E2 → M be vector bundles over a smooth oriented manifold. The operator Q ∈ P DO (E2 . unless otherwise indicated. E2 ) admits at most one formal adjoint.

⊔ ⊓ Proposition 10. The general case can be reduced to this via partitions of unity and we leave the reader to check it for him/her-self. The above computation yields the following result. The above notion depends clearly on the various metrics Example 10. i = 1. According to the exercises at the end of Subsection 10. on an oriented Riemann manifold (M. E1 ) admits a formal adjoint.d. 2. It is convenient to consider the slightly more general situation. Let E be a Hermitian vector bundle over the oriented Riemann manifold (M. Mq×p (C)).1. the formal adjoint of Aα is the conjugate transpose A∗ α = Aα . Corollary 10. g).30. Using the integration by parts formula of Subsection 4. we deduce that the Hodge-DeRham operator d + d∗ : Ω• (M ) → Ω• (M ). Let (Ei . we can assume that the metrics on Ei are the Euclidean ones. any L ∈ P DO(m) (E1 .1. where the ∗ in the right-hand-side denotes the conjugate transpose of a linear map.1. d∗ is the formal adjoint of d. Clearly. g). t . A p. g) is formally selfadjoint with respect with the metrics induced by g in the various intervening bundles. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS (ad(f )L)∗ = (L ◦ f − f ◦ L)∗ = −[L∗ . · i ). E2 ) admits at least (and hence exactly) one formal adjoint L∗ . However. L ∈ P DO (E.1. we do not assume that the Riemann metric over RN is the Euclidean one. Let E1 = Cp and E2 = Cq . be two arbitrary Hermitian vector bundle over the oriented Riemann manifold (M. Sketch of proof We prove this result only in the case when E1 and E2 are trivial vector bundles over RN .1.27. then σm (P ∗ ) = (−1)m σm (P )∗ .428 (b) Let f ∈ C ∞ (M ). E ) is said to be formally selfadjoint if L = L∗ . In fact.28. By choosing orthonormal moving frames.29. where Aα ∈ C ∞ (RN . Deﬁnition 10.o. f ] = − ad(f )L∗ .1. Thus ad(f0 ) ad(f1 ) · · · ad(fm )L∗ = (−1)m+1 (ad(f0 )ad(f1 ) · · · ad(fm )L)∗ = 0. To prove the proposition it sufﬁces to show that each of the operators ∂i ∈ P DO1 (E1 . If P ∈ P DO (m) admits a formal adjoint. Then any L ∈ P DO (E1 . E2 ) has the form L= |α|≤m ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Aα (x)∂ α . Then CHAPTER 10.1.5. ·.

6) = BR BR ∞ (RN .31. BR Since f ≡ 0 on a neighborhood of ∂BR .10. ∇X v . v d∗ α dVg . −div g (X )v dVg .1. v ∈ C0 R centered at the origin contains the supports of both u and v .e.. v div g (X )dVg = BR BR u. α = gij X i dxj . β )g = β (X ) ∀β ∈ Ω1 (RN ). C). Choose R ≫ 0 such that the Euclidean ball B of radius R Proof.1. α)g dVg − RN u.6) can be rewritten ∇X u. ∇X v dVg .e. we get (df.. v dVg − BR ∇X u. v ∈ C0 the Riemann metric g. Cp ). Let u.5) we deduce BR X · u. i. and denote by ∇X the ﬁrst order p. (see Subsection 4. where div g (X ) denotes the divergence of X with respect to the metric g. α)g dVg = BR ∂BR (df ∧ ∗g α) |∂BR + f d∗ αdVg . v = ∇X u. i. (10.1. v + u. we deduce RN ∇X u.1. (α.1.1. 429 Then ∇X = −∇X − div g (X ). RN The integration by parts formula of Subsection 4. Equivalently. and denote by α ∈ Ω1 (RN ) the 1-form dual to X with respect to Set f := u. . ∇X v dVg u. Since d∗ α = − div g (X ). The equality (10. ∞ (RN . α)g dvg = BR BR u. From the equality X · u. v dVg u. Let X = X i ∂i ∈ Vect (RN ). v dVg = X · u.d. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS: ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS Lemma 10. v dVg = = BR BR BR df (X )dVg − (df.5 yields (df. v dVg = − u. ∞ ∇X u = X i ∂i u u ∈ C0 (Cp ).o. the scalar deﬁned by the equality LX (dVg ) = div g (X ) · dVg . ∇X v dVg .

∇∗ = k ∇k ∗ ◦ C k = k −∇k − div g (∂xk ) ◦ C k (10.. m.o. ∂i ( |g|X i ). ∇ : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ). Let E be a rank r smooth vector bundle over the oriented Riemann manifold (M. .e. · denote a Hermitian metric on E . As we have mentioned in the proof of the previous proposition.. i. a local orthonormal frame (eα ) such that. The metrics g and ·. .1.1.32. . xm ) a collection of g-normal coordinates on a neighborhood U of x0 . . ∇∗ X = −∇X − div g (X ) = −∇X − The lemma and consequently the proposition is proved. we deduce as in the proof of Lemma 10. The connection ∇ deﬁnes a ﬁrst order p. . k . . v dVg = u. (−∇X − div g (X ))v dVg . Since ∇ is a metric connection.e. .8) =− k (∇k + ∂xk log( |g|) ◦ C k . ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS Putting together all of the above we get ∇X u. Let ·. Hence. we get ∇∗ |x0 = − ∇k ◦ C k . since at x0 we have ∂xk g = 0. g). Next.31 that ∇k ∗ = −∇k − div g (∂xk ). The adjoint of the operator dxk ⊗ : C ∞ (E |U ) → C ∞ (T ∗ U ⊗ E |U ). We set ∇i := ∇∂xi . We want to describe the formal adjoint of ∇ with respect to these choices of metrics. In particular. dim M = m.1. is the interior derivative (contraction) along the vector ﬁeld g-dual to the 1-form dxk . (10. we pick a local synchronous frame of E near x0 .7) ⊔ ⊓ Example 10. .e. 1 |g| i RN RN i.d. We ﬁx x0 ∈ M . we have ∇i eα = 0 ∀i = 1. · induce a metric on T ∗ M ⊗ E . this is an entirely local issue. at x0 . and consider a connection ∇ on E compatible with this metric. (dxk ⊗)∗ = C k := g jk · i∂xj ). i.. and we denote by (x1 .1.430 CHAPTER 10.

1.10. there exists a unique metric connection ∇ on E and R = R(L) ∈ End (E ) such that L = ∇∗ ∇ + R.34. (a) Show that gkℓ Γi kℓ = − 1 ∂xk ( |g| |g|g ik ).j gkj ∇k + ∂xk gkj + gkj ∂xk log gkj ∇k ∇j + 1 ∂xk |g| |g| ◦ ∇j k.1. ∆ = ∇∗ ∇. The symbol of ∆ can be read easily from the last equality.d. and suppose that L ∈ P DO 2 (E ) is a generalized Laplacian. (b) Show that T ∗ M ⊗E E ∆∇ = − tr2 ∇ ).8) we deduce that over U (chosen as above) we have j k ∆=− ∇k + ∂xk log |g| ◦ C ◦ dx ⊗ ∇j k j =− k ∇k + ∂xk log |g| ◦ g kj · ∇j =− =− k.1. σ2 (∆)(ξ ) = −g jk ξj ξk = −|ξ |2 g. ⊔ ⊓ where Γi kℓ denote the Christoffel symbols of the Levi-Civita connection associated to the metric g.j |g|gkj · ∇j . g (∇ where ∇T M ⊗E is the connection on T ∗ M ⊗ E obtained by tensoring the Levi-Civita connection on T ∗ M and the connection ∇E on E . ij tr2 g (Sij ⊗ u) = g Sij u. 431 To justify the attribute Laplacian we will show that ∆ is indeed a generalized Laplacian. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS: ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS The covariant Laplacian is the second order p.33. The endomorphism R is known as the Weitzenb¨ ock remainder of the Laplacian L. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 10. ∆ = ∆∇ : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ). More precisely. Exercise 10. In the following exercise we use the notations in the previous example.o. Then. while ∞ ∗ ⊗2 tr2 ⊗ E ) → C ∞ (E ) g : C (T M ∗ denotes the double contraction by g. Using (10.1. Let E and M as above. . Hence ∆ is indeed a generalized Laplacian.

v ) = 0. Suppose L is a ﬁrst order p. Linear algebra alone is not sufﬁcient. v g(X. Prove the above proposition. v ) = u. Set g0 = g |∂M . v dv (g) = M ∂M BL (u. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS Exercise 10. where in denotes the contraction by n. for all u ∈ C ∞ (E ). (b) If L1 ∈ P DO (F. with respect to some connection. 2 ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. This is where functional analysis comes in. such that Lu. and any x0 ∈ ∂M . (e) Denote by ν the section of T ∗ M |∂M g-dual to n. (c) BL∗ (v. v )(x0 ) depends only on the jets of u.432 CHAPTER 10. The presentation assumes the reader is familiar with some basic principles of functional analysis. (d) Suppose ∇ is a Hermitian connection on E . (a) If L is a zeroth order operator.1. F ). then BL = 0. v at x0 of order at most k − 1. the quantity BL (u.1. h ∈ C ∞ (M ). u) = −BL (u. Hint Try ∇ deﬁned by ∇f grad(h) u = f {(∆g h)u − (ad(h)L)u} f.d. As a reference for these facts we recommend the excellent monograph [18]. Then BL (u. v F . L∗ 1 v ). . E0 = E |∂M and F0 = F |∂M . v ) = Ju. In this section we introduce a whole range of functional spaces which are extremely useful for most geometric applications. Let E. Consider a compact Riemannian manifold (M.. v ).36. (General Green formula). if all the partial derivatives of u up to order (k − 1). ⊔ ⊓ 10.35. G). v ∈ C ∞ (F ). then BL (u. v ) + BL2 (u. B∇ (u. The Green formula states that there exists a sesquilinear map BL : C ∞ (E ) × C ∞ (F ) → C ∞ (∂M ). or the very comprehensive [30. v ) = BL1 (L2 u.2 Functional framework The partial differential operators are linear operators in inﬁnite dimensional spaces. and set J := σL (ν ). g) with boundary ∂M . and this feature requires special care in dealing with them. Prove the following. L∗ v dv (g). n). and X ∈ Vect (M ). F → M be Hermitian vector bundles over M and suppose L ∈ PDOk (E. then BL1 L2 (u. and L2 ∈ P DO (E. vanish along the boundary. in v E. v ) = u. Then B∇X (u. (f) Using (a)-(e) show that.o. F ). Denote by n the unit outer normal along ∂M . In other words. 104]. u ∈ C ∞ (E ). v )dv (g0 ) + M u.

∀α ∈ C0 1 N function αf is Lebesgue integrable.2.o. Consider a scalar p.2. Let f.p (D ) we set 1/p f k. for any multi-index α satisfying |α| ≤ k. ⊔ ⊓ The deﬁnition of weak derivative can be generalized to higher order derivatives as follows. The Sobolev space Lk. The proof of this lemma is left to the reader. ∀ϕ ∈ C0 ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Lemma 10. Lebesgue measurable functions f : RN → K such that. We denote by L1 loc (D ) the space of locally integrable real ∞ (RN ). Then we say that Lf = g weakly if gϕdx = D D ∞ f L∗ ϕdx ∀ϕ ∈ C0 (D ).2. Exercise 10.5. Prove that H is not weakly differentiable.p.2.p . If ∂k fi = gi ∈ Lloc weakly. Let H ∈ L1 loc (R) denote the Heaviside function.2. Prove that Lf = g classically ⇐⇒ Lf = g weakly.d. Let k ∈ Z+ . H (t) ≡ 1. the functions on D . ∞].4. ∂ α f ∈ Lp (D ).e. and 1 ≤ k ≤ N .∞ = |α|≤k 0. Exercise 10.1 Sobolev spaces in RN Let D denote an open subset of RN .p := f k.10. and p ∈ [1.2. if D gϕdx = − D ∞ (D ).2. f p k. H (t) ≡ 0 for t < 0.3. Let f ∈ C ∞ (D ). ess sup |∂ α f |. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 10. αf ∈ L (R ). Prove that the classical partial derivative ∂k f is also its weak k-th derivative. Let f1 .D if p < ∞. ⊔ ⊓ When k = 0 we write f instead of f .2.7.1. Let f ∈ L1 loc (D ). and moreover. f ∂k ϕdx.. g ∈ C ∞ (D ). Above.2. L : C ∞ (D ) → C ∞ (D ). and 1 ≤ k ≤ N . while if p = ∞ = |α|≤k D |∂ α f |p dx . FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK 433 10. Any f ∈ L1 loc (D ) admits at most one weak partial derivative. A function g ∈ Lloc (D ) is said to be the weak k-th partial derivative of f . 1 Deﬁnition 10. the mixed partial derivative ∂ α f exists weakly. L∗ denotes the formal adjoint of L with respect to the Euclidean metric on RN . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10.2. i. for t ≥ 0. For every f ∈ Lk. and we write this g = ∂k f weakly. ☞ Not all locally integrable functions admit weak derivatives. f2 ∈ L1 loc (D ). ⊔ ⊓ 1 Exercise 10.p (D ) consists of all the functions f ∈ Lp (D ) such that. and f. g ∈ L1 loc (D ). then ∂k (f1 + f2 ) = g1 + g2 weakly.6.

ϕf ∈ L (D ) ∀ϕ ∈ C0 (D ) . ∞ (RN ) is dense in Lk. and thus. The proof of this theorem relies on a collection of basic techniques frequently used in the study of partial differential equations. α > 0.8. = lim(−1)|α| n RN fn · ∂ α ϕ dx = (−1)|α| RN . ∞]. t ∈ R. throughout this chapter all the extracted subsequences will be denoted by the same symbols as the sequences they originate from. We claim that ∂ α f = gα weakly. where 1/q = 1 − 1/p.p ) is a Banach space. Set Lk. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10.p ∞ f ∈ L1 loc (D ) . In particular.p f (t) ∈ L1 ⊔ ⊓ loc (R).. Theorem 10. we will use the well established fact that Lp is complete. Let f (t) = |t|α .p (RN ). Proof. Let k ∈ Z+ and 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞.p (RN ) is reﬂexive. Using the Exercise 10. we deduce that Lk.p = 0. ν i=1 1/p ν 1/p ν 1/p |xi + yi | p ≤ i=1 |xi | p + i=1 |yi | p . Let (fn ) ⊂ Lk. ✍ To simplify the notations.2.434 CHAPTER 10. (b) If 1 ≤ p < ∞ the subspace C0 (c) If 1 < p < ∞ the Sobolev space Lk. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS Deﬁnition 10. · k.p (RN ) be a Cauchy sequence.p is complete. ∀|α| ≤ k.p loc (D ) := k.2. we conclude RN gα · ϕ dx = lim n RN ∂ α fn · ϕ dx f · ∂ α ϕ dx. fn → f in Lp . for each multi-index |α| ≤ k.5.9. Then (a) (Lk. for any ϕ ∈ C0 RN Lp ∂ α fn ϕdx = (−1)|α| RN fn ∂ α ϕ. and ϕ ∈ Lq (RN ).n→∞ lim fm − fn k. i.p is a norm.2.e.p is a vector space. From the classical Minkowski inequality.10. We will consider only the case p < ∞.p (RN ).2. ∂ α fn → gα . we deduce that · k. we have . Show that for every p > 1 such that α > 1 − 1 p. Let k ∈ Z+ and p ∈ [1. the sequence (∂ α fn ) is Cauchy in Lp (RN ). Set f = limn fn . ∞ (RN ) we have Indeed. To prove that Lk. Since ∂ α fn → gα . This is why we choose to cover the proof of this theorem in some detail. leaving the p = ∞ situation to the reader. m.

Given f. (Young’s Inequality).10. q ≤ ∞. 1 r = p + q − 1. Part (a) is left to the reader as an exercise in the differentiability of integrals with parameters. and To establish part (b). g ∈ L1 (RN ).2. Using the inequality (10.1) we deduce ρδ ∗ f − f 1 p ≤ 2 f −g p + ρδ ∗ g − g p . f ∗ g ∈ Lr (RN ). (10. RN Note that supp ρδ ⊂ |x| < δ and RN ρδ dx = 1. ∞ (RN ) is dense we will use molliﬁers. we deﬁne (f ∗ g)(x) := RN f (x − y )g(y )dy.e. FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK 435 Part (a) is proved. for each δ > 0. 1 ≤ p. y → f (x − y )g(y ) ∈ L1 . Next. (10. Lp Proof. We have ρδ ∗ f − f p ≤ ρδ ∗ (f − g) p + ρδ ∗ g − g p + g−f p. f − g p ≤ ε/3. Exercise 10.11. for almost all x. Their deﬁnition uses the operation of To prove that C0 convolution. .. (a) For any f ∈ L1 loc (R ) the convolution ρδ ∗ f is a smooth function! (b) If f ∈ Lp (RN ) (1 ≤ p < ∞) then ρδ ∗ f → f as δ → 0. and g ∈ Lq (RN ). 1 N Lemma 10. ρ dx = 1.1) ⊔ ⊓ ∞ (RN ). and f ∗g r ≤ f p · g q. If f ∈ Lp (RN ). and ρδ (x) := δ−N ρ(x/δ).2.2) This explains the term molliﬁer: ρδ smoothes out the asperities. i. The next result describes the main use of this construction. we will use the fact that C0 ∞ N choose g ∈ C0 (R ) such that.2. Fix ε > 0.2. we deﬁne supp ρ ⊂ |x| < 1 .12. then 1 1 f ∗ g is well deﬁned. such that To deﬁne the molliﬁers one usually starts with a function ρ ∈ C0 ρ ≥ 0.2. We let the reader check that f ∗ g is well deﬁned. The sequence (ρδ ) is called a mollifying sequence. ∞ (RN ) is dense in Lp (RN ).2.

supp(ρδ ∗ g − g) ⊂ K ∀δ ∈ (0. N Lemma 10. We conclude that 1/p ρδ ∗ g − g If now we pick δ such that p ≤ K δp (sup |dg |)p dx = vol (K )1/p δ sup |dg |. if L= aα ∂ α |α|≤m is a p.2. especially versatile in as far as the study of partial differential equations is concerned. vol (K )1/p δ sup |dg | ≤ ε/3. More generally. Then ∂k (ρδ ∗ f ) = ρδ ∗ g . Let f. We will write Lx to emphasize that L acts via derivatives with respect to the variables x = (x1 . p ≤ ε. Note that ρδ ∗ g (x) = Hence |ρδ ∗ g (x) − g(x)| ≤ Since there exists a compact set K ⊂ RN such that.o with constant coefﬁcients aα ∈ R. . RN ρ(z )|g(x − δz ) − g(x)|dz ≤ δ sup |dg |. . we conclude from (10. x ∈ supp g . supp ρδ ∗ g ⊂ x + z .d. xN ).2) that ρδ ∗ f − f The lemma is proved. Note that L(ρδ ∗ f ) = Since (Lx ρδ (x − y ))f (y )dy. then L(ρδ ∗ f ) = ρδ ∗ g classically .2.13. and Lf = g weakly. . ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS We need to estimate ρδ ∗ g − g p . 1). (10. ∂xi ∂y . g ∈ L1 loc (R ) such that ∂k f = g weakly.436 CHAPTER 10.2. RN RN ρ(z )g(x − δz ) dz and g(x) = ρ(z )g(x)dz. . ⊔ ⊓ The next auxiliary result describes another useful feature of the molliﬁcation technique.3) RN ∂ ∂ ρδ (x − y ) = − i ρδ (x − y ). It sufﬁces to prove only the second part. Proof. z ∈ supp ρδ .

. In particular. ηR (x) ≡ 0 for |x| ≥ R + 1.2.p (RN ).o. Clearly |(∂i ηR )f | ≤ 2|f (x)|. The general situation can be proved by induction. It shows that if L is a p. and |dηR (x)| ≤ 2 ∀x. we deduce from (10. Remark 10. Similarly and |ηR ∂i f | ≤ |∂i f |.p RN (∂i ηR )ϕ + ηR · ∂i ϕdx = RN ∂i (ηR ϕ)f = − RN ηR ϕ∂i f dx. with constant coefﬁcients. ∞ (RN ). This conﬁrms our claim.10. so that ηR f ∈ L1.15. Note that ∂i ηR ≡ 0 for |x| ≤ R and |x| ≥ R + 1.14.p (RN ). This fact has a fundamental importance in establishing regularity results for elliptic operators. which implies ηR ∂i f → ∂i f in Lp . Then ηR · f ∈ Lk. we have Let ϕ ∈ C0 R 0 Lk.2. so that by the dominated convergence theorem we conclude (∂i ηR ) · f → 0 as R → ∞. Clearly (∂i ηR )f + ηR ∂i f ∈ Lp (RN ).e. ηR ∂i f → ∂i f a.p (RN ). ∞ (RN ) such that f → f in Lk.3) that L(ρδ ∗ f ) = RN 437 (L∗ y ρδ (x − y ))f (y )dy = RN ρδ (x − y )Ly f (y ) dy ⊔ ⊓ = RN ρδ (x − y )g(y )dy = ρδ ∗ g. we return to the proof of Theorem 10. we deduce (∂i ηR )f → 0 a. ∀R ≥ 0. Let f ∈ Lk. Truncation. Since η ϕ ∈ C ∞ (RN ). We consider only the case k = 1. The essentials of this technique are contained in the following result. ρδ ∗]f = L(ρδ ∗ f ) − ρδ ∗ (Lf ) = 0.e.10.2. ⊔ ⊓ After this rather long detour. The lemma is proved. We ﬁrst prove that ∂i (ηR f ) exists weakly and as expected ∂i (ηR · f ) = (∂i ηR ) · f + ηR · ∂i f. ∞ (RN ) Lemma 10. The above lemma is a commutativity result.p using two basic techniques: truncation We will construct fn ∈ C0 n and molliﬁcation (or smoothing). ⊔ ⊓ Lp . Proof.2.p (RN ). FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK and ∂i ∗ = −∂i . Let f ∈ Lk. Consider for each R > 0 a smooth function ηR ∈ C0 such that η (x) ≡ 1 for |x| ≤ R.2. and moreover ηR · f −→ f as R → ∞.d. then [L.

2. We will use the fact that Lp is reﬂexive for p in this range.p (D ) such that Intuitively. The closure of C ∞ (D ) in Lk. f → (∂ α f )|α|≤k . reﬂexive if 1 < p < ∞.2. the space of compactly supported Lk. if ∂ α fn → fα .p (RN ). T : Lk. Let f ∈ Lk.p as δ ց 0. arguing as in the proof of completeness. Note that each ρδ ∗ f is a smooth function.p (RN ). we need to show that Lk.10. . Molliﬁcation. Lk. then. v k = RN (b) If D ⊂ RN is open. Note ﬁrst that Lk.p (RN ) can be viewed as a closed subspace of the direct product Lp (RN ).p ( D ) consists of the functions u ∈ L 0 ∂j u = 0 on ∂D. |α|≤k ∂ α u · ∂ α vdx dx.16. According to Lemma 10. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS According to the above lemma.p (D ).p (D ) is a Banach space. one-to-one.12. 1.p (D ) is denoted by Lk.2. . The larger space C ∞ (D ) ∩ Lk. The desired conclusion now follows using Lemma 10.p is reﬂexive if 1 < p < ∞. we have ∂ α (ρδ ∗ f ) = ρδ ∗ (∂ α f ) ∀|α| ≤ k.2 (RN ) are in fact Hilbert spaces. The above statement should be taken with a grain of salt since at this point it is not clear how one can deﬁne u |∂D when u is deﬁned only almost everywhere. it sufﬁces to show that any such function can be arbitrarily well approximated in the Lk. |α|≤k via the map. .2. and has closed range. k − 1. we deduce that fα = ∂ α f0 weakly. The inner product is given by u.2. . To conclude the proof of Theorem 10. C0 0 0 k.p (RN ) → |α|≤k Lp (RN ).p(D ). Lp which is continuous. where f0 = lim fn . (a) For p = 2 the spaces Lk.13. Hence (fα ) = T f0 .p -functions is dense in Lk. supported in { |x| ≤ R + δ }. compactly supported functions. provided that the boundary of D is ⊔ ⊓ sufﬁciently regular. The sequence ρδ ∗ f converges to f in the norm of Lk. and assume ess supp f ⊂ {|x| ≤ R}. is no longer dense in Lk. then Lk. ∀j = 0. However ∞ (D ). We refer again to [3] for details. Indeed. We now conclude that Lk. ∂ν j where ∂/∂ν denotes the normal derivative along the boundary. . Hence. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 10. Theorem 10. We refer to [3] for a way around this issue.p (D ) is dense in Lk.10 is proved.p -norm by smooth.438 CHAPTER 10.p (D ).p (RN ) is reﬂexive as a closed subspace of a reﬂexive space.

Remark 10.18.e.2. . on {f ≥ 0} a. . p) can be explained by using the notion of conformal weight.2 Embedding theorems: integrability properties The embedding theorems describe various inclusions between the Sobolev spaces Lk.p as ε → 0. The origin of the quantities σN (k. for all h ∈ RN . Show that |f | ∈ L1.17. and φ ∈ C ∞ (R). . and they have conformal weight −1. 10. A function u : RN → R can be thought of as a dimensionless physical quantity. Let f ∈ L1. . The integral of a quantity of conformal weight w is a quantity of conformal weight w + N . Its partial derivatives ∂i u are physical quantities measured in meter −1 = variation per unit of distance.p (RN ).2. (b) There exists a constant C > 0 such that. on {f < 0} ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Lp ≤ C |h|. For example. Deﬁne the “strength” of the Sobolev space Lk. such that |dφ| ≤ const. N. the quantity RN |∂ α u|p dx . Loosely speaking.2. Exercise 10.e. and φ(f ) ∈ Lp . More generally. p) := σN (k.20.2. ∀i = 1.p (RN ). for all ϕ ∈ C ∞ (RN ).p (RN ).2. (a) u ∈ L1. FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK Exercise 10. we have ∆h u where ∆h u(x) = u(x + h) − u(x). where p′ = p/(p − 1).p (RN ).10.19. the more regular are the functions in that space. the bigger the strength. p) = k − N/p.p(RN ) as the quantity σ (k. and ∂i |f | = ∂i f −∂i f a. and ∂i φ(f ) = φ′ (f ) · ∂i f. The “strength” is a measure of the size of a Sobolev size. Its conformal weight is 0.p (RN ). (c) There exists C > 0 such that. The quantities |∂ α |p have conformal weight −p|α|.p (RN ). ⊔ ⊓ Hint: Show that fε := (ε2 + f 2 )1/2 converges to f in L1. a mixed partial ∂ α u has conformal weight −|α|.2. The volume form dx is assigned conformal weight N : the volume is measured in meter N . Let f ∈ L1. Exercise 10. we have u RN 439 ∂ϕ ≤C ϕ ∂xi L p′ . and thus it consists of “fewer” functions. Then φ(f ) ∈ L1. Prove that the following statements are equivalent.

. Proof.e. but ingenious lemma. the conformal weight is captured by the behavior under the rescalings x = λy . We will show that ∃C > 0 : u N/(N −1) ≤ C |du| 1 ∞ ∀ u ∈ C0 (RN ). p) = σN (m. If we replace the Euclidean metric g on Rn with the metric gλ = λ2 g. Equivalently.21 (Sobolev). . Theorem 10.440 CHAPTER 10. We follow the approach of [81] which relies on the following elementary.p (RN ).2.p (RN ) ֒→ Lm. and q = N/(N − 1). q ) > 0 such that f m. and 1 ≤ i ≤ N deﬁne ξi = (x1 .2.q |∂ α u|p dx 1/p ⊔ ⊓ ≤C f k. and moreover. Geometrically. N f 1 ≤ fi i=1 N −1 .p ∀f ∈ Lk. dx1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxN = λN dy 1 ∧ · · · ∧ dy N . m.22 (Gagliardo-Nirenberg). . . p). q ) < 0 and k > m then. there exists C = C (N. Prove Lemma 10. . In particular the quantity |α|=k has conformal weight (N − kp)/p = −σN (k. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. and the natural inclusion is continuous. Lk. . . . . . dVgλ = λn dVg . xN ) ∈ R N − 1 . p. then. |du|gλ = λ−1 |du|g . Then f (x) = f1 (ξ1 )f2 (ξ2 ) · · · fN (ξN ) ∈ L1 (RN ).2. which means m = 0. If σN (k.. ∀u ∈ C ∞ (RN ).2. . x ˆ i . We ﬁrst prove the theorem in the case k = 1. Lemma 10.p (RN ). k. . . λ > 0.23. p = 1.22. Let N ≥ 2 and f1 . . For each x ∈ RN . then ∂xi = λ−1 ∂yi . fN ∈ LN −1 (RN −1 ). ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS has conformal weight N − p|α|. i. if we introduce the new linear variables y i related to the canonical Euclidean variables xi by xi = λy i .

u N/(N −1) ≤ gi (ξi ) 1 1 =( 1 ∂i u 1 . then using the H¨ older inequality we get |u|r−1 ∂i u ≤ u Consequently. This result then extends by density to any u ∈ L1.2. .2. Using the classical arithmetic-geometric means inequality. N N 1 |du| 1. . u r rN/(N −1) ≤r u r −1 q (r −1) ∂i u 1 p . We have |u(x1 . . Since we conclude from Lemma 10. Now let 1 < p < ∞ such that σN (1. where p∗ = Np . so that fi (ξi ) = gi (ξi )1/(N −1) ∈ LN −1 (RN −1 ). .10. We have thus proved that L1. i.e. . . If q = p/(p − 1) is the conjugate exponent of p. def Note that gi ∈ L1 (RN −1 ). xN )|dt = gi (ξi ). Set v = |v |r −1 v . xi−1 .22 that u(x) ∈ LN/(N −1) (RN ). .1 (RN ) embeds continuously in LN/(N −1) (RN ). xi+1 .1 (RN ). . N −p ∞ (RN ). p < N . we conclude u ≤ 1 N N N/(N −1) ∂i u 1 1 ≤ const. . N 1/N r −1 q (r −1) ∂i u p . . We have to show that ∗ L1. t. .p (RN ) embeds continuously in Lp (RN ). . FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK 441 where |du|2 = |∂1 u|2 + · · · + |∂N u|2 . and N 1/N N 1/N |u(x)|N/(N −1) ≤ f1 (ξ1 ) · · · fN (ξN ). p) = 1 − N/p < 0. xN )| ≤ x1 −∞ |∂i u(x1 . where r > 1 will be speciﬁed later. The inequality Let u ∈ C0 N 1/N v implies N/(N −1) ≤ ∂i v 1 1 N 1/N u r rN/(N −1) ≤r 1 |u| r −1 ∂i u 1 . ..

th+BR vol(BR+1 )1−1/p ≤ C |h| u . This shows L1. p) = σN (m. We discuss only the case k = 1.2. p) > σN (m.p. ∀u ∈ L1. This gives r = p∗ and we get N 1/N N −1 . 1] be deﬁned by 1−α 1 =α+ .2. so that the condition σN (1. q ) ∈ Z+ × [1. q. IX]. p) |du| p. Let (k. 1 τh u − u = |h| L1 (BR ) 1 0 BR |τh u(x) − u(x)| ≤ |h| |du(y )|p dy 1/p 0 BR |du(x + th)|dx dt 1.5) |τh u(x) − u(x)| ≤ |h| Hence 0 |du(x + th)|dt. N such that ∀|h| ≤ 1. The proof will be carried out in several steps.2. p) < 0 imposes 1 ≤ p < N .RN .24 (Rellich-Kondrachov). Step 1.4) τh u − u q. Then any bounded sequence (un ) ⊂ Lk. We let the reader ﬁll in the details. x ∈ RN . The general case Lk. p∗ = N p/(N − p) and a radius R > 0. p).p (RN ) supported in a ball BR (0). p. Chap.p (RN ) .q (RN ). For every h ∈ Rn we deﬁne the translation operator τh : Lq (RN ) → Lq (Rn ). (m. depending only on R. Proof.q if σN (k. q ) < 0 k > m follows easily by induction over k. ∀f ∈ Lq (RN ).p ֒→ Lp if 1 ≤ p < N . ∞) such that k > m and 0 > σN (k.p (Rn ) : Indeed. τh f (x) = f (x + h).442 CHAPTER 10.BR ≤ C |h|α u L1. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS Now choose r such that rN/(N − 1) = q (r − 1). Theorem 10. (10.p ֒→ Lm. p∗ ). N u ∗ p∗ ≤r ∂i u 1 p ≤ C (N. q ). R > 0 has a subsequence strongly convergent in Lm. if u is a smooth function then 1 ⊔ ⊓ (10. Let α ∈ (0. Fix q ∈ [1. q p∗ Then there exists a positive constant C . We follow the elegant presentation in [18.

RN .2. ∀u ∈ U.6) |τ−y u(x) − u(x)|ρδ (y )dy Using the convexity of the function s → sq . s ≥ 0 and the fact that ρδ (y )dy is a probability measure we deduce q Bδ |τ−y u(x) − u(x)|ρδ (y )dy |ρδ ∗ u(x) − u(x)|q ≤ ≤ Bδ |τ−y u(x) − u(x)|q ρδ (y )dy we deduce Bδ |τ−y u(x) − u(x)|q ρδ (y )dy. so that ρδ ∗ un − un q. |x2 | ≤ R + 1. for every ε > 0 there exists 0 < δ = δ(ε) < 1. |uδ (x1 ) − uδ (x2 )| ≤ C |x1 − x2 | ∀u ∈ U.p. Conclusion Suppose U ⊂ L1. ∀|x1 |. we set Uδ = {uδ := ρδ ∗ u. Step 3.2.p (Rn ) is a bounded of functions with supports contained in BR . ∀δ ≤ δ(ε).2.p -norm. such that |ρδ u(x)| < C ∀u ∈ U.2. Let U ⊂ L1. We now choose δ(ε) such that Cδ(ε)α sup u u∈U 1.p. We need to prove that for any ε > 0 we can ﬁnd a ﬁnite cover of U with Lq (BR )-balls of radius ε.BR ≤ ε. . Finally. We have |ρδ ∗ u(x) − u(x)| ≤ Bδ q.5) ≤ C u 1.Rn δ α .10. To achieve this we invoke the Arz´ ela-Ascoli theorem and we will show that for any δ > 0 there exists C = C (δ) > 0.BR ≤ Bδ τ−y un − un q q.p (RN ) be a bounded subset a such that ess supp u ⊂ {|x| ≤ R} ∀u ∈ U We will prove that. Step 2. (10. using (10. q. and we show that Uδ is precompact in C 0 (BR+1 ). N ).p.Rn < ε.4) and H¨ older’s inequality we deduce τh u − u Lq (BR ) 443 ≤ τh u − u α L1 (BR ) τh u − u 1−α Lp∗ (BR ) ≤ C |h|α u 1. FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK where C = C (R. ∀|x| ≤ R + 1.5) for smooth functions. The general case is obtained by passing to the limit in the L1.BR ρδ (y )dy 1/q (10. u ∈ U}. To prove this. This proves the inequality (10.2. p. such that ρδ ∗ u − u Let u ∈ U.

p have a built-in regularity: each can be modiﬁed on a negligible set to become continuous.α(D ). BR+1 |u(y )|dy ≤ C (δ) · |x1 − x2 | · u Now let δ ≤ δ(ε/2).p by the Sobolev embedding theorem). p)δ−N u ≤ C (δ) u Similarly. y ∈ S }. Let α ∈ (0. x∈D := u ∞ + [u]α < ∞ . More generally. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS ρ |y −x|≤δ x−y δ p∗ |u(y )|dy ≤ δ−N · vol (Bδ )(p ∗ −1)/p∗ Bδ (x) |u(y )|dy ≤ C (N. However. we denoted by osc (u.D := sup |u(x)|. ∂ β u ∈ C 0. S ) := sup {|u(x) − u(y )| .3 Embedding theorems: differentiability properties A priori.2.6) we see that we can cover U with ﬁnitely many Lq (BR+1 )-balls of radius ε.p . Using (10. the functions in the Sobolev spaces Lk. S ) the oscillation of u on S . |ρδ ∗ u (x)| ≤ δ−N CHAPTER 10. ∂β u |β |≤k The space C k. |uδ (x1 ) − uδ (x2 )| ≤ ≤ C (δ) · |x1 − x2 | BR+1 1.α(D ) := u ∈ C m (D ).2. . ⊔ ⊓ 10. namely the spaces of H¨ older continuous functions. Set u and deﬁne C 0. if the strength σN (k. where δ(ε/2) is deﬁned by (10. deﬁne C k. and even differentiable. p) is sufﬁciently large. ∀|β | ≤ k. . 1).α.α(D ) is a Banach space with respect to the norm.D . To formulate our next results we must introduce another important family of Banach spaces. Then the family Uδ is relatively compact in C 0 (Br+1 ) and thus it can be covered by ﬁnitely many Lq (BR+1 ) balls of radius ε/2.2.α (D ) := u:D→R.6). osc (u. The compactness theorem is proved.z ∈D R−α osc (u. for every integer k ≥ 0. where for any set S ⊂ D . i.. and are deﬁned only almost everywhere.D + | β | =k [∂ β u]α.444 Indeed. BR (z ) ∩ D ) < ∞. x.α := ∞.p are only measurable.D ∞. u 0. |ρδ (x1 − y ) − ρδ (x2 − y )| · |u(y )|dy 1. then the functions of Lk.e. A function u : D ⊂ RN → R is said to be α-H¨ older continuous if [u]α := sup 0<R<1. u k.

2. α) := k + α. ∞] and (k. and dω denotes the Euclidean “area” form on the unit round sphere.7) In the above inequality σ N −1 denotes the “area” of the unit (N − 1)-dimensional round sphere S N −1 ⊂ R N . We deduce vol (BR )|u(x) − u| ≤ = = (2R)N N ∞ 0 ∞ 0 ∞ 0 2R dr S N −1 dω 0 |∂r u(x + rω )|ρN −1 dρ dr S N −1 |∂r (x + rω )|dωdr 1 |∂r u(x + rω )|dω r N −1 BR (2R)N N r N −1 dr S N −1 (z = x + rω ) = (2R)N N BR |∂r u(z )| (2R)N ≤ |x − z |N −1 N |du(z )| dy. u(x) − u(y ) = − | x −y | 0 Integrating the above equality with respect to y we get.2. α) ∈ Z+ × (0.α(RN ). 1) such that m > k and σN (m. Consider (m. ∂r If we set |∂r u(x + rω )| = 0 for |x + rω | > R. FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK Deﬁne the strength of the H¨ older space C k. vol (BR )(u(x) − u) = − dy BR ∂ x−y u(x + rω )dr (ω = − ). Lemma 10. p) = σ (k.p (RN ) embeds continuously in C k. We consider only the case k = 1. and (necessarily) m = 0. where ρ = |x − y |. then vol (BR )|u(x) − u| ≤ dy |x−y |≤2R 0 ∞ |∂r u(x + rω )|dr.2. Proof. then dy = ρN −1 dρdω .2.10. If we use polar coordinates (ρ.25 (Morrey). |x − y |N −1 (10. |x − z |N −1 ⊔ ⊓ We want to make two simple observations. ω ) centered at x. Proof. BR BR |du(y )| dy. p) ∈ Z+ × [1.1 (BR ) and set u := Then |u(x) − u| ≤ 1 vol (BR ) 2N σ N −1 u(x)dx. Then Lm. ∂r |x − y | | x −y | 0 ∂ u(x + rω )dr.α as the quantity σ (k. The proof relies on the following elementary observation.26. . 445 Theorem 10. Let u ∈ C ∞ (BR ) ∩ L1. α) > 0.

so that its conjugate exponent q satisﬁes q= p N < . |x − y |N −1 (10. the function y → |x − y |−(N −1) lies in Lq (B (x)). and B (x) 1 dy ≤ C (N. Oscillation estimates. |u(x) − ux0 . We will show there exists C > 0 such that. q ). In the sequel for any R > 0. L∞ -estimates.2. Using the H¨ older inequality in (10. we deduce that p > N . We will show there exists C > 0 such that for all u ∈ L1. and any x0 ∈ RN we set ux0 .7) we deduce |u(x)| ≤ |ux | + CN |du(y )| dy ≤ C |x − y |N −1 u p + B (x) B (x) |du(y )| dy . N − q (N − 1) = 1 − q p . centered at any other point. Using (10. For each x ∈ RN . ν= N 1 = α. Indeed.2.7) can be extended by density to any u ∈ L1. ∀u ∈ L1.8) Since σN (1.p .1 (BR ).1 . we can replace the round ball BR centered at origin by any other ball.R | ≤ C (q = p p −1 ) BR (x0 ) where C (N.446 CHAPTER 10. p−1 N −1 In particular.7) we deduce that. In the above lemma.2. p) > 0. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS 1.2. and set ux := ux. denote by B (x) the unit ball centered at x.p (RN ) ∩ C 1 (RN ) u ∞ ≤C u 1.p . and q . The inequality (10. q ) is a universal constant depending only on N . |x − y |q(N −1) Step 2.R := 1 vol (BR (x0 )) u(y )dy. and any x ∈ BR (x0 ).p (RN ) ∩ C 1 (RN ) [u]α ≤ C u 1. for any ball BR (x0 ). BR (x0 ) 2.8) we conclude |u(x)| ≤ C u 1. |du(y )| |x − y |N −1 (H¨ older) ≤ C |du| where p · BR (x0 ) 1 dy |x − y |q(N −1) 1/q ≤ C |du| pR ν . from the inequality (10. We will complete the proof of Morrey’s theorem in three steps.p ∀x.2. Step 1.

p (RN ) we can ﬁnd (un ) ∈ C0 un → u in L1.28. osc (u. and moreover [u]α ≤ C2 . Conclusion. on average.α norm on any bounded open subset of RN . ν )-energy estimate then although |du| may not be bounded. Given u ∈ L1. N −1 Br (x) |x − y | and then use the inequality (10. Thus |u(x) − u(0)| ≈ C | x| 0 tα−1 dt ≈ C |x|α . The last results we want to discuss are the interpolation inequalities. Then a simple application of the Arzela-Ascoli theorem shows that any bounded sequence in Lk. and consequently. The Morrey embedding theorem can be complemented by a compactness result. ν )-energy estimate.α(RN ) which agrees almost everywhere with u. where 0 ≤ ν < q and q > 1. They play an important part in applications. but we chose not to include their long but elementary proofs since they do not use any concept we will need later.27. ∞] and (m. Hint: Prove that |du(y )| ≤ Cr α . ν and C1 .2.e.2.10.p (RN ) admits a subsequence which converges in the C m.R | ≤ CRα ∀x ∈ BR (x0 ). ∞ (RN ) such that Step 3:. these estimates actually show that the sequence (un ) converges in the C 0. α) k > m. 0 < r < 2.2. α = 1 − ν/q .1 (RN ) satisfy a (q. it “explodes” no worse that r α−1 as r → 0. If u satisﬁes the (q.α -norm to a function v ∈ C 0. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 10. 1) such that σN (k. . p) > σ (m. In fact. α) ∈ Z+ × (0. ∃C > 0 : 1 rN Br (x) |du(y )|q dy ≤ C1 r −ν ∀x ∈ RN . Let u ∈ L1. Let (k. 447 The estimates established at Step 1 and 2 are preserved as n → ∞. Show that (up to a change on a negligible set) the function u is α-H¨ older continuous. where the constant C2 depends only on N. BR (x0 )) ≤ CRα .p and almost everywhere. p) ∈ Z+ × [1. The interested reader may consult [3] or [12] for details. q. The result in the above exercise has a suggestive interpretation. i. Step 2 is completed.2. ⊔ ⊓ The energy estimate is a very useful tool in the study of nonlinear elliptic equations.7). FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK Hence |u(x) − ux0 . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10.

α. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS Theorem 10.α(RN ). Deﬁnition 10. a K-vector bundle π : E → M endowed with a metric h = •.RN + Cε−j (m−j ) ηR u p.α. ess supx |ψ (x)| if p = ∞ 1/p ⊔ ⊓ . An Lp -section of E is a Borel measurable map ψ : M → E .Br . 10. and for all u ∈ C k. (a) π ◦ ψ (x) = x. ∞). ηR ≡ 0 if |x| ≥ R + 1.RN ≤ Cε ηR u m.4 Functional spaces on manifolds The Sobolev and the H¨ older spaces can be deﬁned over manifolds as well. 1).E = M |ψ (x)|p dvg (x) if p < ∞ . ε > 0 and for all u ∈ Lm. The metric g = (•. ⊔ ⊓ The results in this. ⊔ ⊓ The space of Lp -sections of E (modulo equality almost everywhere) is denoted by Lp (E ).. (ii) A volume form dVg = ∗1. •) deﬁnes two important objects. where H is a ﬁnite dimensional complex Hermitian space.30.RN ≤ Cε ηR u k. ∞]. R. namely to functions f : RN → H . p) ∈ Z+ × [1. cutoff function ∞ (RN ) such that ηR ∈ C0 ηR ≡ 1 if |x| ≤ R. and (k. (i) The Levi-Civita connection ∇g .2. k. and a connection ∇ = ∇E compatible with h.α. ε > 0. (a) For every 0 < r ≤ R + 1. K) the space of K-valued p-integrable functions on (M. ψ −1 (U ) is Borel measurable for any open subset U ⊂ E ) such that the following hold.p (RN ).e. Fix (m. there exists C = C (r. For each R > 0 choose a smooth. Lp (E ) is a Banach space with respect to the norm ψ p.p.2. α) such that. • . and |dηR (x)| ≤ 2 ∀x ∈ RN .2. there exists C = C (r.2.Br . we have ηR u j. (b) For every 0 < r ≤ R + 1.448 CHAPTER 10. R. We denote by Lp (M.p. α) ∈ Z+ × (0.31. p) such that. In particular.RN + Cε−j (m−j ) ηR u 0.29 (Interpolation inequalities). dVg ) (modulo the equivalence relation of equality almost everywhere). (b) The function x → |ψ (x)|p h is integrable with respect to the measure deﬁned by dVg . and the previous section extend verbatim to slightly more general situations. m. for almost all x ∈ M except possibly a negligible set. Let p ∈ [1. g). we have ηR u j. Proposition 10. i. for every 0 ≤ j < m. To deﬁne these spaces we need three things: an oriented Riemann manifold (M. We let the reader check the following fact. dVg deﬁnes a Borel measure on M . for every 0 ≤ j < k.

φ dVg ≤ ψ p. pk ∈ [1. .E · φ q. (b) Deﬁne as the space of sections u ∈ Lp (E ) such that.e. . . .p. We set p u m. and ∀ψj ∈ Lpj (Ej ). M ψ. FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK 449 Note that if p. ∀j = 1. φ(x)| ≤ |ψ (x)| · |φ(x)| a. . (a) Let u ∈ L1 loc (E ) and v ∈ Lloc (T M weakly if where we used the symbol ∇ to generically denote the connections in the tensor products T ∗ M ⊗j ⊗E induced by ∇g and ∇E The metrics g and h induce metrics in each of the tensor bundles T ∗ M ⊗m ⊗ E . such that 1 − 1/p0 = 1/p1 + · · · + 1/pk .2. . K).. Exercise 10. . . k) be vector bundles with metrics and consider a multilinear bundle map Ξ : E1 × · · · × Ek → KM .e. ⊔ ⊓ For each m = 1.E This follows immediately from the Cauchy inequality |h(ψ (x). i.p := u m. . . ∞]. deﬁne ∇m as the composition ∇m : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ) ∇E ∇T −→ ∗ M ⊗E · · · → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗m ⊗ E ). . .10.2. m. (∇m )∗ φ dVg ∀u ∈ C0 (T ∗ M ⊗m ⊗ E ). . 1/p + 1/q = 1. we can deﬁne the spaces Lp (T ∗ M ⊗m ⊗ E ). j = 1. . .E = j =1 ∇j u p . then the metric h : E × E → KM deﬁnes a continuous pairing •. ∇ ∗ ⊗m ⊗ E ).33. ψk ) dVg ≤ Ξ p0 · ψ1 p1 · · · ψk pk . . ⊔ ⊓ . . on M. . ∗ ∗ ). . and the usual H¨ older inequality. such that ∇j u = vj weakly. . ∞] are conjugate. v.p L (E ) ∞ u. k M Ξ(ψ1 . Let Ei → M (i = 1. there exist p ∗ ⊗ j vj ∈ L (T M ⊗ E ). 2.2. We say that ∇m u = v 1 Deﬁnition 10. q ∈ [1.32. . . . Ξ ∈ Lp0 (E1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Ek ∗ ⊗ · · · ⊗ E ∗ . • : Lp (E ) × Lq (E ) → L1 (M. If We regard Ξ as a section of E1 k then for every p1 . . φ dVg = M m. and in particular.

y : Ey → Ex the ∇E -parallel transport along γx.y . Let (E. and m ∈ Z+ .x ξ |y .p. The trivial line bundle E = RM is naturally equipped with the trivial metric and connection. Br (x)). C k. is a Banach space which is reﬂexive if 1 < p < ∞. Then. we can talk about the oscillation of a function u : M → K. and S ⊂ M has the diameter < ρ0 . The H¨ older spaces can be deﬁned on manifolds as well. Set ρ0 := min{1. ⊔ ⊓ The proof of this result is left to the reader as an exercise.2.y starting at x. we deﬁne osc (u. we deﬁne [u]α.RN introduced in the previous sections. The Sobolev space Lm. x. On the other hand. g) is a Riemann manifold. y ) ≤ ρ0 . If u : M → E is a section of E . S ) := sup |u(x) − u(y )|. k k. then g canonically deﬁnes a metric space structure on M .p (E ).E + [∇m u]α. and η ∈ Ey we set |ξ − η | := |ξ − Tx. Finally set For any k ≥ 0. Proposition 10. If x.y η |x = |η − Ty.p (E ) introduced above depends on several choices: the metrics on M and E and the connection on E . Then. h.α(E ) := u ∈ C k (E ).p(RN ). (Lk.p (RM ) coincides as a set with the Sobolev space Lk. Lp (RM ) = Lp (M. ∇) as before. If (M. 1/2 |α|=m The space Lm. ρM }. Let (M.2. Example 10.34. 0 < r < ρ0 . x ∈ M . · k.T ∗ M ⊗m ⊗E . we have Dmu = |α|=m dx⊗α ⊗ ∂ α u. Denote by D the Levi-Civita connection. and ending at y .α . deﬁning the oscillation of a section of some bundle over M requires a little more work. We assume that the injectivity radius ρM of M is positive. R). We denote by Tx.E := sup r −α osc (u. y ∈ M are two points such that distg (x. For each ξ ∈ Ex . for every u ∈ C ∞ (M ). (see Chapter 4) and in particular. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON MANIFOLDS ☞ A word of warning.α. The norm ⊔ ⊓ • m.p.E u and we set := j =0 ∇j u ∞. where for every multi-index α we denoted by dx⊗α the monomial The length of D m u(x) is dxα1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ dxαN . y ∈ S .p. When M is non-compact this dependence is very dramatic and has to be seriously taken into consideration. then they can be joined by a unique minimal geodesic γx.RM is equivalent with the norm • m. u <∞ .450 CHAPTER 10.E ) |∂ α u(x)|2 . g) be the space RN endowed with the Euclidean metric.35. k.

The method can be brieﬂy characterized by two key phrases: partition of unity and interpolation inequalities. ∇1 ) as sets of sections. ∇) = Lm. N -dimensional. pi ) ∈ Z+ × [1. then C ∞ (E ) is dense in Lk.p0 (E ) ֒→ Lk1 . g) be a compact. and a priori estimates. g. We discuss two notions that play a pivotal role in the study of elliptic partial differential equations. If moreover. More precisely. i. h1 . Let (M. α) ∈ Z+ × (0. Riemann suggested that one should look for the minima of the energy functional u −→ E (u) := S2 1 (|du|2 + u2 ) − f u dVg .α(E ) do not depend on the metrics g. If moreover m − N/p > k + α.p1 -norm. and the H¨ older spaces C k. ∞) (i = 0.p1 (E ) is compact.2.p0 (E ) embeds continuously in Lk1 . any bounded sequence of Lk0 . (10. g1 . then Lm.1) where ∆ denotes the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the round sphere.p (E ). (b) If 1 ≤ p < ∞. p) ∈ Z+ × [1.p(E ).p (E ) embeds continuously in C k. p1 ). and ∇1 is another connection on E compatible with some metric h1 then Lm.p (E.10. we will introduce the notion of weak solution.3. ∆ = d∗ d.p0 (E ) admits a subsequence convergent in the Lk1 . and compatible connection ∇. (c) If (ki . then Lk0 . then the embedding is also compact. if g1 is a different metric on M .p1 (E ). We will see them at work in the next section. Suppose we want to solve the partial differential equation ∆u + u = f ∈ L2 (S 2 . h and on the connection ∇. k0 > k1 and k0 − N/p0 > k1 − N/p1 . Then the following are true. then the embedding Lk0 . More precisely. Consider the following simple example. (a) The Sobolev space Lm. 2 . h.α(E ). 1) and m − N/p ≥ k + α.3. p0 ) = k0 − N/p0 ≥ k1 − N/p1 = σN (k1 . ∞).e. A similar statement is true for the H¨ older spaces. ⊔ ⊓ We developed all the tools needed to prove this theorem. ELLIPTIC PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS: ANALYTIC ASPECTS 451 Theorem 10.p (E. and E a vector bundle over M equipped with a metric h. and the identity map between these two spaces is a Banach space is continuous. R). oriented Riemann manifold. (d) If (m.36. (k. 10.3 Elliptic partial differential operators: analytic aspects This section represents the analytical heart of this chapter.. 1) are such that k0 ≥ k1 and σN (k0 . and we leave this task to the reader.

it may not be C 2 . one asks when this extended notion of solution coincides with the classical one.2) be at least C 2 . This avenue was abandoned until the dawns of the twentieth century. ∆u0 + u0 = f.2). ∀u.3. Denote by •.e. Naturally. so that everything boils down to a question of regularity. There are a few grey areas in this approach.3.1 Elliptic estimates in RN Let E = Cr denote the trivial vector bundle over RN . Riemann’s idea was ﬁrst rehabilitated in Weyl’s famous treatise [99] on Riemann surfaces. It took the effort of many talented people to materialize Hilbert’s program formulated as his 19th and 20th problem in the famous list of 27 problems he presented at the Paris conference at the beginning of the 20th century. . and any R > 0 deﬁne L k. For any k ∈ Z+ .p . and by ∂ . We refer the reader to [1] for more details.. i.R = |α|≤m. and if it does. This section takes up the issues raised in the above simple example. it sufﬁces that u of (10. The norm of Lk.3. when Hilbert reintroduced them into the spotlight.p (E ) (deﬁned using the Euclidean volume) will be denoted by • k. The suitable notion of solution is precisely described in (10. 10.3. so that the integration by parts is illegal etc.|β |≤k +m−|α| BR (0) β sup ∂x (Aα (x)) .2) Integrating by parts we get (d∗ du0 + u0 − f ) · v dVg = 0 ∀v. • the natural Hermitian metric on E . S2 so that necessarily. His important new point of view was that the approach suggested by Riemann does indeed produce a solution of (10. Consider an elliptic operator of order m L= |α|≤m α Aα (x)∂x : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ). (10. In this subsection we will establish the following fundamental result. E (u0 ) ≤ E (u). The key fact which will allow us to legitimize Riemann’s argument is the ellipticity of the partial differential operator involved in this equation. the trivial connection. then 0= d |t=0 E (u0 + tv ) = dt Elliptic equations on manifolds S2 (du0 .1) “provided if need be that the notion of solution be suitable extended ”.3. u0 may not exist. Clearly.452 If u0 is a minimum of E . dv )g + u0 · v − f · v dVg ∀v. and Weierstrass was quick to point them out: what is the domain of E . and emphasized the need to deal with these issues.

k. R) (b) Let (k.3) k +1.3. The proof consists of two conceptually distinct parts. N. such that (a1 ) S N −1 ΩdvS N −1 = 0. we have u k +m. ∞). (a) Let (k. α) ∈ Z+ × (0. independent of x ∈ RN .1 (Interior elliptic estimates). ∞ (E | there exists C = C ( L k+1.p ≤C Lu k. (a) There exist Ω ∈ C ∞ (S N −1 . We assume L has the form L= |α|=m α Aα ∂x . Throughout the proof we will use the same letter C to denote various constants C = C ( L k+1.R . k. and R > 0. R) > 0 Step 1. 1). ∀u ∈ C0 BR (0) ). and deﬁne m(ξ ) : RN \ {0} → C by m(ξ ) = m ξ |ξ | .3. there exists C = C ( L ∞ (E | such that. α. Let m : S N −1 → C be a smooth function. ∀u ∈ C0 BR (0) ). the limit (a2 ) For any u ∈ C0 (T u)(x) = lim εց0 |y |≥ε Ω(y ) u(x − y )dy |y |N . We will prove the conclusions of the theorem hold in this special case. we have u k +m. p. k. We will rely on a very deep analytical result whose proof goes beyond the scope of this book.4) Proof. and R > 0.3.α >0 ≤C Lu k. R) > 0 such that. p) ∈ Z+ × (1. We set L := Aα .3. the general result is deduced from the special case using perturbation techniques in which the interpolation inequalities play an important role. Then. Theorem 10. C) denote by f ˆ(ξ ) := f 1 (2π )N/2 RN exp(−ix · ξ )dx.R .2 (Calderon-Zygmund).R .α . In the ﬁrst part we establish the result under the supplementary assumption that L has constant coefﬁcients.p + u p . C). N. and c ∈ C. where Aα are r × r complex matrices .α + u 0. In the second part. Then the following hold. ˆ(ξ ) its Fourier transform For each f ∈ L1 (RN . (10. ∞ (RN ). Then. N. Constant coefﬁcients case.Analytic aspects 453 Theorem 10. p. (10.

Deﬁne u ˆ(ξ ) := (ˆ u1 (ξ ). Assuming L has the above special form we will prove (10. > ⊔ ⊓ For a proof of part (a) and (b) we refer to [94].454 exists for almost every x ∈ RN . of this inequality can be found in [12]. If we set v = Lu.α . the operator σ (L)(ξ ) = A(ξ ) = |α|=m Aα ξ α : Cr → Cr is invertible for any ξ = 0.5. Let us now return to our problem. so that M (ξ ) = ξ β B (ξ ) is homogeneous of degree 0. Thus. then for any multi-index β such that |β | = m. u ˆr (ξ )). we can ﬁnd functions mij (ξ ) ∈ C ∞ (Rn \ {0}). and any R > 0.3. . In any case a proof. Part II.BR . . where B (ξ ) = A(ξ )−1 . and moreover cu(x) + T u(x) = 1 (2π )N/2 RN Elliptic equations on manifolds exp(ix · ξ )m(ξ )ˆ u(ξ )dξ. Chap II §4.α. m Tu p > 0 such that. ∞ (E | Let u ∈ C0 BR ).α 0 such that .5) we deduce ˆ ∂ β u(ξ ) = ξ β B (ξ )v ( ξ ) ∀ξ = 0.∀u ∈ C0 (BR ) [T u]α ≤ C u 0. Aα ξ α ∂ β u(ξ ) = (−i)m ξ β v (10. R) (c)(Korn-Lichtenstein).4. 0. . there exists C = C (α. Part (c) is “elementary” and we suggest the reader to try and prove it. ur (x)). Note that B (ξ ) is homogeneous of degree −m.3).3. . . and such that ∂ β ui (ξ ) = j mij (ξ )ˆ v j (ξ ). of smooth functions compactly supported in BR . ≤C u p ∞ ∀ u ∈ C0 (RN ). . .5) |α|=m Note that since L is elliptic. we have L∂ β u = ∂ β Lu = ∂ β v. We discuss ﬁrst the case k = 0. m 0.4) is entirely similar and is left to the reader. We Fourier transform the above equality. From (10. and we get (−i)m ˆ( ξ ). For every 0 < α < 1. The proof of (10. because L has constant coefﬁcients. ∞) (b) For every 1 < p < ∞ there exists C = C (p. which are homogeneous of degree 0.3. The function u can be viewed as a collection u(x) = (u1 (x). .3. .

≤ C ( ην Lu + r −(m−1) u . ≤ C (r uν p.Br (xν ) .ν (x)∂ α uν − Aβ (x)∂ β uν + vν .Br (xν ) ≤ Cr −(m−1) u p. ην = 1. Set uν := ην u. consider ην ∈ C0 r ν R and ην ≥ 0.3) when L has this special form.d. then If u ∈ C0 R ∂ ην ≤ Cr v = Lu = L ν β −|β | ∀|β | ≤ m. m.R ).p.ν (x)| ≤ Cr on Br (xν ). Hence uν We need to estimate vν p.Br (xν ) ). and ∞ (B (x )).Br (xν ) ).3.Br (xν ) ≤ C ( uν p. and Lν := |α|=m Aα (xν )∂ α . ην ]u. ην ]u Hence vν p.3.p.2 (a) and (b) we deduce ∂β u p 455 ≤C v p = C Lu p . Cover BR by ﬁnitely many balls Br (xν ). where C = C ( L uν m. m−1.Br (xν ) p.Analytic aspects Using Theorem 10.Br (xν ) + vν p.Br (xν ) + vν p.Br (xν ) ).ν (x)∂ α u 1.Br (xν ) + uν p.3) we deduce uν m.p. |β |<m def |α|=m where εα. The general case. This proves (10. ν ∞ (B ). We rewrite the equality vν = Luν as Lν uν = (Lν − L)uν + vν = εα. p. Let r > 0 sufﬁciently small (to be speciﬁed later).Br (xν ) m−1.Br (xν ) + u m−1. such that each point in B is covered by at most 10N of these balls.Br (xν ) + |α|=m εα. Since |εα.Br (xν ) We can now specify r > 0 such that Cr < 1/2 in the above inequality.p. ην ] = ad(ην )L is a p. so that [L. Step 2.3. in which [L.Br (xν ) ). We use the equality vν = L(ην u) = ην Lu + [L. = ν ην u L(ην u).o. Using (10.p. of order m − 1. Suppose now that L is an arbitrary elliptic operator of order m.p ≤ C ( uν p.Br (xν ) we deduce + vν p.ν (x) = Aα (xν ) − Aα (x).

σm+k ([L.d.BR ≤ε u p. To establish this inequality for arbitrary k we argue by induction. p. ∂ β ]) = [σm (L).1 is proved.p. ∂ β ] is a p.Br (xν ) Elliptic equations on manifolds ≤ C ( Lu p. The ⊓ H¨ older case is entirely similar.BR + u m+k −1. It is left to the reader as an exercise. The inequality (10.3.o. We still need to deal with the term u m−1. Using (10.BR + r −(m−1) u m−1. We sum over ν .BR + ε−(m−1) u p.R + Cε−(m−1) u p.BR + u k. .456 so that uν m.p.BR p. The crucial observation is that [L.p. If we pick η ∈ C0 (B2R ) such that η ≡ 1 on BR . of order ≤ m + k − 1.BR ≤ C ( ∂β v k. using the interpolation inequalities as before.BR ).p.3.BR .3) is completely proved. + u can be estimated from above by m+k.p ≤ CRN (r −N Lu 1. Note that r depends only on R.BR + r −(m+N −1) u m−1. ≤ C ( Lu +ε u m.p. L u m.1.p. σk (∂ β )] = 0. p.BR ). Theorem 10.BR ≤ C ( Lu + u m−1.p.BR . If u ∈ C0 BR ). Consider a multi-index ∞ (E | |β | = k. Indeed. ∂ β ]u. ∞ ∞ (E | View u as a section of C0 B2R ).BR k.BR + [L.BR so that p.p.3) with k = 0.3.BR ≤ uν ν m.BR in the above inequality.3.BR ) ≤ C( v The term u m+k −1. If now we choose ε > 0 sufﬁciently small we deduce the case k = 0 of the inequality (10.p.3.BR ε u +C u p. we deduce ∂β u m. where C is as in the statement of Theorem 10.BR m.BR + ∂β u p.p. and taking into account that the number of spheres Br (xν ) is O((R/r )N ) we deduce u m.p.BR ).p. It is precisely at this point that the interpolation inequalities enter crucially. we deduce from the interpolation inequalities that there exists C > 0 such that u Hence u m.3). ∂ β ]u p.p.p.BR ). ∂ β ]u = ∂ β v + [L.p.p.p. and Lu = v then L(∂ β u) = ∂ β Lu + [L.R .BR ).BR m−1. ⊔ Using the truncation technique and the interpolation inequalities we deduce the following consequence.

R .1. Prove the above corollary.α if there exists α ∈ (0. ∀u ∈ C ∞ (E ) u k+m.p loc (R ). 1) such that.3. 1 < p < ∞. ⊔ ⊓ Note the following obvious inclusion {Lp − weak solutions } ⊃ {Lp − strong solutions }. ⊔ ⊓ Proof. α.Br ≤C Lu k. p.3.6) u. Then.BR + u p. and (10.e. L∗ φ dx = RN RN ∞ v. elliptic) combination of mixed partial derivatives can be deﬁned weakly.4. v : RN → Cr be measurable functions. v ∈ Lp loc (R ) and Aα (x)∂ α u (x) = v (x) (10.3. L k+1. r ) > 0 such that.3. 2 We prove only two special special cases of the theorem. there exists C = C (k. (a) The function u is a classical solution of the partial differential equation Lu = |β |≤m 0. For each δ > 0 we denote by Tδ the operator of convolution with ρδ .p. Remark 10. v ∈ Cloc (RN ).BR .α. then any mixed partial derivative (up to a certain order) can be weakly deﬁned as well.BR + u 0.3. φ dx. u ∈ Cloc (RN ).α.p. Let u. Loosely speaking the above theorem says that if a “clever” (i.6) if u ∈ Lm. p N N (b) The function u is said to be an Lp -strong solution of (10.) N (c) The function u is said to be an Lp -weak solution if u. v ∈ Lloc (R ). 1).α.p of order m. and ﬁx 0 < r < R. Let p ∈ (1. The essential ingredient in the proof is the technique of molliﬁcation. Let L as in Theorem 10. and (10.2 Elliptic regularity In this subsection we continue to use the notations of the previous subsection. 2 I would like to thank my friend Weimin Chen for pointing out a subtle error in the original proof. ∞) and suppose that L : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ) is an elliptic operator p m. R.Analytic aspects 457 Corollary 10.3.3. (The partial derivatives of u should be understood in generalized sense. 10.Br ≤ C Lu k. Deﬁnition 10.3.5. Namely we assume that L has either constant coefﬁcients or it is a ﬁrst order operator. with smooth coefﬁcients. The principal result of this subsection states that when L is elliptic the above inclusion is an equality.3.6) holds everywhere. . ∀φ ∈ C0 (E ). and u k +m.7. N. for every k ∈ Z+ .6.6) hold almost everywhere. If u ∈ Lp loc and Lu ∈ Lloc then u ∈ Lloc (E ).3.BR .α m. and α ∈ (0. Theorem 10.3.3. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10.

∀ u ∈ C0 (10.3. Tδ ]u(x) = a(x)∂xi = + 1 δN +1 ∂yi ρ 1 δN +1 x−y δ Rn Rn p.7) for ﬁrst order operators of the form a(x)∂i + b(x).BR+δ ≤C u p.BR+1 . L∗ ]φ BR+1 = BR+1 u. Tδ ] = [S1 . Tδ ] = 0. φ dV = BR+1 BR+1 Tδ u. Tδ ]u(x) = RN p. Then [Mb .BR+δ ≤C u m−1.3. N. ∞ ∀ u ∈ C0 (BR+1 ).3. |x − y | < δ. We deduce that if L is a ﬁrst order operator or L has constant coefﬁcients there exists a constant C > 0 depending only on R. ∞ (BR+1 ).p. Tδ ]S2 + S1 [S2 .8) p ∞ Suppose that u ∈ Lp loc and v = Lu ∈ Lloc . N. L∗ ]u q. Tδ L∗ φ dV = BR+1 u. L∗ φ dV u. Tδ ]u Using the equality [S1 S2 .BR+1 . L such that [Tδ .7) holds for the operators S1 and S2 of positive orders then it also holds for their product S1 S2 .BR+δ ≤C u q.458 Elliptic equations on manifolds Fix a radius R > 0 and a partial differential operator S of order m > 0. Then for any φ ∈ C0 (BR+1 ) we have LTδ u. p. y ∈ BR+1 .3.3. The inequality (10. Clearly (10. L∗ Tδ φ dV + . ∞ → C ∞ the operator of multiplication of by the smooth bundle morphism Denote by Mb : C0 0 b(x).7) follows by observing that |a(x) − a(y )| = O(δ) when x. Tδ ] Next observe that [a∂i .7) ρδ (x − y )( b(x) − b(y ) )u(y )dy. (10. ∞ ∀ u ∈ C0 (BR+1 ). q. Thus. and the smoothness of b implies that there exists a constant C > 0 independent of δ > 0 such that [Mb .7) is trivially satisﬁed for operators S with constant coefﬁcients because in this case [S.3. Tδ ] we deduce that if (10. We ﬁrst prove that there exists a constant C > 0 depending only on R. it sufﬁces to verify (10. [Tδ .BR+1 . ρδ (x − y )u(u)dy − ∂xi ρ x−y δ Rn ρδ (x − y )a(y )∂yi u(y )dy a(x)u(y )dy ρδ (x − y )∂yi a(y )u(y )dy a(x)u(y )dy + RN RN (∂xi ρ(x − y ) = −∂yi ρ(x − y )) = 1 δN +1 |x−y |<δ ∂yi ρ x−y δ a(x) − a(y ) u(y )dy + |x−y |<δ ρδ (x − y )∂yi a(y )u(y )dy. S such that [S.

On the other hand. Moreover we have the weak equality ∂i v = ∂i Lu = L∂i u + [∂i . k +m.p p k..p (BR ) is reﬂexive we deduce that a subsequence Tδn u converges weakly as δn → 0 to a section u0 ∈ Lm. The elliptic regularity implies that ∂i u ∈ Lloc .BR ). . q. the general idea is easy to describe. and v ∈ Lloc (E ).p.p then u ∈ Lloc (E ). This is achieved. From the elliptic estimates we deduce that the familiy Tδ u it is bounded in Lm.BR+1 q. .BR+1 q. If Lu = v weakly then T v = T Lu = u + Sℓ u. This implies that LTδ u is bounded in Lp (BR+1 ). i.3. the Calderon-Zygmund inequality. one can construct a parametrix for any el∞ (RN ) → C ∞ (RN ) which serves liptic operator L on RN T . This is an integral operator T : C0 as a sort of inverse for L. from the Rellich-Kondrachov compactness theorem we deduce that Tδn u converges in the Lp -norm to u0 .BR+1 + v p. N.BR+1 for some constant C depending only on R. ∞)such that 1 p + = 1.p (BR ).3. and thus it sufﬁces to prove that T v ∈ Lm. L]u. L∗ ]φ .p u ∈ Lloc .p ⊔ ⊓ loc . L. This means that they map locally integrable functions (and more generally.Analytic aspects = BR+1 459 v.p k +m. 1 < p < ∞.BR+1 . k +m+1.3.p by Theorem 10. Set p v = Lu. while the convolution with the function |x|2−N is the parametrix of the (geometers’) Laplacian on RN . We want to prove that u ∈ Lloc and Lu ∈ Lloc implies that u ∈ Lloc . .BR+1 q. However. This implies that u0 = u so that u ∈ Lm. [Tδ .8. If u ∈ Lp loc (E ) is weak L -solution of Lu = v . k +m. r. For details we refer to ⊔ ⊓ [95].3. and the special case of Theorem 10. u where as usual C = C ( L m+k.p Proof. For the inductive step assume that u ∈ Lp implies that loc and Lu ∈ Lloc k −1+m. Using the theory of pseudo-differential operators. φdV BR+1 p. Let q ∈ (1. Thus T v − u is a smooth function. Since the space Lm.p. the operators Sr = LT − ½ and Sℓ = T L − ½ are smoothing operators. again using the theory of pseudo-differential operators.9. Remark 10.6. R. and for every 0 < r < R we have ≤ C( u p.3. Tδ φ dV + BR+1 1 q u. .8) and H¨ older inequality we deduce ≤ v Tδ φ +C u φ φ LTδ u.Br ≤ C( v k. k.R .6 when L is a constant coefﬁcients operator. The proof of the general case of the regularity theorem requires considerable more analytic work than we are willing to include in a geometry book.p loc . Using (10. To prove that u ∈ Lloc (E ) we argue by induction on k.BR+1 q. distributions) to smooth functions. The convolution with ρδ is a prime example of smoothing operator.p p Corollary 10.e. ).BR + u p.p (BR ) as δ → 0. The case k = 0 is settled k −1.

α. Then k +m. ∞ ∂i v. Hence u ∈ Lloc m.p equality is in Lloc since the inductive assumption implies that u ∈ Lloc . ∀φ ∈ C0 . α).o. .p inductive assumption again we deduce that ∂i u ∈ Lloc . where C = C (L.o.F + u p. and the previous subsection are local.α(E ). ⊔ ⊓ The results in this.p Lun → Lu strongly in Lloc (E ). φ M F dvg = M u.α. If u ∈ Lp loc (E ) is an L -weak solution of Lu = v .Br ≤ C ( un 0.10 (Weyl Lemma). The desired estimate is obtained by letting n → ∞ in the above inequality.p un → u strongly in Lloc (E ).BR + Lun k. L]∗ φ . then u ∈ C m+k.E ≤ C ( u 0. 1 < p < ∞. the section ∂i u is a Lp -weak solution the equation L(∂i u) = ∂i v − [∂i .p Proof.e. p).p.e.p. Denote by L ∈ P DOm (E. where C = C (L. Elliptic equations on manifolds To put it differently.F ). and un m+k.3. F → M be two metric vector bundles with compatible connections. oriented Riemann manifold and E. and v is smooth. (a) Let u ∈ Lp (E ) and v ∈ Lk.3. ∀i. Then u ∈ Lk+m. g) be a compact. L∗ φ E dVg ∞ ∀ φ ∈ C0 (F ).11.p (F ). i. (b) If u ∈ C m.p. ⊔ ⊓ p Corollary 10. of order ≤ m which means that the right hand side of the above k −1.p k −1+m.α(F ) (0 < α < 1) are such that Lu = v . then u must be smooth. u ∈ Lloc . k. (L∂ +i )∗ φ + u. on manifolds. such that v. and u k +mp.α. L]u.p.p (E ). L] is a p. Observe that [∂i . Invoking the k −1+m. Theorem 10.460 i. and u k+m.E + v k.E ≤ C( v k... [∂i . k.α embedding theorem we deduce that u ∈ Cloc ∀m ≥ 0.p k +m. φ = u.d. Since v is smooth we deduce v ∈ Lk.E ).BR ). They take a particularly nice form for operators on compact manifolds. Using Morrey loc ∀k ∈ Z+ .α (E ) and v ∈ C k. and so extend to the more general case of p.p ∀k. ∞ (E ) such that To prove the elliptic estimate pick a sequence un ∈ C0 k +m. Let (M. F ) an elliptic operator of order m. k +m.d.

and denote by ∆M the scalar Laplacian. Consider a metric vector bundle E → M equipped with a compatible connection ∇. Show that. and ∇i . ∇0 . and the coefﬁcients of L such that. The regularity results and the a priori estimates we have established so far represent only the minimal information one needs to become an user of the elliptic theory.Analytic aspects 461 Remark 10.3.2 (M ). we have ∆M (|u|2 ) = 2 ∆E u.2 (E ).E1 ) + u Lp (U. for almost all x ∈ M . not necessarily. (Local estimates). the function x → |u(x)| is in L1.12. E0 . U. and moreover |d |u(x)| | ≤ |∇u(x)|. ℓ ∈ Z≥0 .e. u(x) E weakly . Regrettably. there exists a positive constat C depending only on K. 1 are Hermitian connection on Ei . E1 → M are two smooth hermitian vector bundles on M .14. (Kato’s inequalities). and boundary value problems. 10. Conclude that ∀φ ∈ C ∞ (M ) such that φ ≥ 0. (b) Set ∆E = ∇∗ ∇.3.2 (E ). ⊔ ⊓ where the above Sobolev norms are deﬁned in terms of the connections ∇i . we have mentioned nothing about two important topics: equations with non-smooth coefﬁcients.p (U. Exercise 10. u M E φ dVg . we have M (d|u|.E0 ) ≤C Lu Lℓ. In the process we will have the occasion to introduce the reader to some tricks frequently used in the study of nonlinear elliptic equations. Suppose (M.3. for all u ∈ L2.E0 ) . ∀u ∈ C ∞ (E0 ). Riemann manifolds of dimension m. We will consider a slightly more general situation than the one required by the uniformization theorem. |u(x)|∆M (|u(x)|) ≤ ∆E u(x).. i = 0. we have u Lℓ+ν. The boundary value problems for ﬁrst order elliptic operators require a more ⊔ ⊓ delicate treatment. and any p ∈ (1. g) denote a compact oriented Riemann manifold without boundary. (a) Show that for every u ∈ L1. We refer to [16] for a very nice presentation of this subject. . Prove that for any compact subset K ⊂ M . g) is a connected. Let (M.3. Suppose that L : C ∞ (E0 ) → C ∞ (E1 ) is an elliptic operator of order ν with smooth coefﬁcients. oriented. u E − 2|∇u|2 .13. ∇1 . i. For generalized Laplacians these topics are discussed in great detail in [36] and [79].p (K. ℓ.3 An application: prescribing the curvature of surfaces In this subsection we will illustrate the power of the results we proved so far by showing how they can be successfully used to prove an important part of the celebrated uniformization theorem. d(φ|u|) )g dVg ≤ ∆E u. p. ∞). any relatively compact open neighborhood U of K . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10.

g) be a compact. We assume for simplicity that volg (M ) = M dVg = 1. C3 ).2 (M ).3. so that the average of any integrable function ϕ is deﬁned by ϕ= M ϕ(x)dVg (x). Set F (u) = 0 u (10. s= M s(x)dVg . (C1 ) The function f is smooth and strictly increasing. Proof of Step 1. I (u) = 1 |du(x)|2 + F (u(x)) − g(x)u(x) dVg (x). Theorem 10. Consider the energy functional I : L1. oriented Riemann manifold of dimension N .9) f (t)dt. Step 2. ∆u + f (u) = s(x). We assume (C3 ) lim|t|→∞ (F (t) − st) = ∞. such that f (t) ≥ at + b ∀t ∈ R. and s ∈ C ∞ (M ) satisfy the following conditions. Denote by ∆ = d∗ d : C ∞ (M ) → C ∞ (M ) the scalar Laplacian. connected. Let f and s(x) satisfy the conditions (C1 ). Regularity.2 (M ) → R. A weak solution of (10. 2 M . We show that a weak solution is in fact a classical solution.9) is a function u ∈ L1. The proof of this theorem will be carried out in two steps. We will use the direct method of the calculus of variations outlined at the beginning of the current section. where s denotes the average of s. Step 1.3. We will study the following partial differential equation. Then there exists a unique u ∈ C ∞ (M ) such that ∆u (x) + f (u(x)) = s(x) ∀x ∈ M. Proof. and M {(du.2 (M ) such that f (u(x)) ∈ L2 (M ). ∀φ ∈ L1. (C2 ) There exist a > 0 and b ∈ R.462 Elliptic equations on manifolds Let (M. Existence of a weak solution. where f : R → R.3. (C2 ).15. dφ) + f (u)φ}dVg = M s(x)φ(x)dVg (x).

M . Assume u is a minimizer of I . Thus. on {u < v } 0 a. h′ φ (0) = M so that a minimizer of I is a weak solution provided that we deal with the integrability issue raised at the beginning of this discussion. dφ) + f (u)φ − s(x)φ(x)}dVg = 0.16. M d(u − v ).2. v ∈ L1.10) ∀φ ∈ L1. d(u − v )− = |d(u − v )− |2 .e.e. 0) = 1 {(u − v ) − |u − v |}.10) we deduce − Clearly d(u − v ).3. Leaving this issue aside for a moment.e. Let (u − v )− = min{u − v. and since h is nondecreasing. strictly increasing function and u.3. dφ) + h(u)φ}dVg ≥ M {dv. h(v ) ∈ L2 (M ).19 we have (u − v )− ∈ L1. so that h′ φ (0) = 0 ∀φ. Proof.2 (M ) such that φ ≥ 0 a. M {(du. and d(u − v )− = d(u − v ) a. d(u − v )− + h(u) − h(v ) u−v − dVg ≥ 0. I (u) ≤ I (v ).2 (M ). since there is no guarantee that F (u) ∈ L1 (M ) for all u ∈ L1.e. (h(u) − h(v ))(u − v )− ≥ 0. on {u ≥ v } Using φ = −(u − v ) in (10. (ii) ∆u + h(u) ≥ ∆v + h(v ) weakly i..2 (M ). ∀v ∈ L1.Analytic aspects 463 This functional is not quite well deﬁned. We will circumvent the trouble with the possible non-integrability of F (u) by using a famous trick in elliptic partial differential equations called the maximum principle.2 (M ) such that (i) h(u). Hence t = 0 is a minimum of hφ (t) = I (u + tφ). Let h : R → R be a continuous.3. i.e.3. Anyway. A simple computation shows that {(du.2 (M ). dφ) + h(v )φ}dVg (10.e. Lemma 10. we can perform a formal computation a ` la Riemann.2 (M ) I (u) ≤ I (u + tφ) ∀t ∈ R. 2 According to the Exercise 10. for all φ ∈ L1. the lesson we learn from this formal computation is that minimizers of I are strong candidates for solutions of (10. . Then u ≥ v a. on M .9).

we deduce M h(u)dVg ≥ h(v )dVg ! M Hence c cannot be negative. If c < 0. On the other hand.9).3. Show the conclusion of Lemma 10. so that Since M is connected. M Elliptic equations on manifolds |d(u − v )− |2 dVg ≤ − M ( h(u) − h(v ) )(u − v )− dVg ≤ 0.9) has at most one weak solution. so that by the maximum principle u ≥ (≤) v .9).e. M then u(x) ≤ C a. Let u be a weak solution of (10. To proceed further we need the following a priori estimate.10). If C is a positive constant such that f (C ) ≥ sup s(x). Consider a strictly increasing C 2 -function f R such that ˜(u) = f (u) for u ≤ C0 .3. using φ ≡ 1 in (10. ⊔ ⊓ ˜: R → Fix C0 > 0 such that f (C0 ) ≥ sup s(x).464 Hence. but u and v satisfy the supplementary condition u ≥ v. Assume h in the above lemma is only non-decreasing. Note ﬁrst that if u and v are two weak solutions of this equation. f . ⊔ ⊓ We now return to the equation (10. Lemma 10.3. Proof.17. on M .3. then (u − v ) ≡ (u − v )− ≡ c. The maximum principle is proved.3. h(v )dVg . so that u = v + c < v . This shows the equation (10. The equality f (C ) ≥ sup s(x) implies ∆C + f (C ) ≥ s(x) = ∆u + f (u) weakly so the conclusion follows from the maximum principle. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. this means (u − v )− ≡ c ≤ 0.3. so that (u − v )− ≡ 0 which is another way of saying u ≥ v .3.18.16 continues to hold. Since h is strictly increasing we conclude h(u) dVg < M M |d(u − v )− | ≡ 0. then ∆u + f (u) ≥ (≤) ∆v + h(v ) weakly.

We will use the direct method of the calculus of variations on a new functional 1 ˜ (u(x)) − s(x)u(x) dVg (x). The next result will conclude the proof of Step 1. f ˜ The advantage we gain by using this new functional is clear. weakly lower semi-continuous.20.11) shows F 1 2 ˜ (u) ∈ L (M ).11) (10. Hence a (generalized) subsequence (xν ) of xn converges weakly to some x0 ∈ J c .3. Proof.3..18 that u ≤ C0 . ν Hence x0 is a minimizer of J .3. weakly closed and bounded in X .12). 465 The conditions (C1 ) and (C2 ) imply that there exist A. coercive functional. we should try to ﬁnd a weak solution of (10. so that F minimizer is a consequence of the following fundamental principle of the calculus of variations. n Since X is reﬂexive. i. i. Let X be a reﬂexive Banach space and J : X → R a convex.3. the sublevel sets J c = {x . |f Lemma 10.. weakly closed and bounded in the norm of X .19. The existence of a has at most quadratic growth.e. Proposition 10. where f coincides with f ⊔ ⊓ The above lemma shows that instead of looking for a weak solution of (10. we deduce that J c is weakly compact. Note that inf J (x) = inf J (x) c X J Consider xn ∈ Jc such that lim J (xn ) = inf J.3. Then J admits a minimizer.9).e. for all u ∈ L (M ). ⊔ ⊓ .3. and J c is convex. If u is a weak solution of ˜(u) = s(x) ∆u + f then u is also a weak solution of (10. B > 0 such that (10. there exists x0 ∈ X such that J (x0 ) ≤ J (x) ∀x ∈ X. J (x) ≤ c} are respectively convex.3. We deduce as in the proof of Lemma 10. The proposition is proved.3. f ˜(u)| ≤ A|u| + B. Using the lower semi-continuity of J we deduce J (x0 ) ≤ lim inf J (xν ) = inf J. The inequality (10. which is precisely the range ˜.Analytic aspects ˜(u) is linear for u ≥ C0 + 1. ˜(u) = |du(x)|2 + F I M 2 where ˜ (u) := F 0 u ˜(t)dt.9).3.12) Proof.

We refer to [24] for a presentation of the direct method of the calculus of variations were the lower semi-continuity issue is studied in great detail.21. The Hahn-Banach separation principle can now be invoked ˜ is convex and to conclude these level sets are also weakly closed.3. I L1.2 -norm). F If un → u strongly in L1. F are both convex and strongly closed. lim n M αun + βdVg = M αu + βdVg .2 (M ) we deduce using the Fatou lemma that M ˜ (u) − αu − β }dVg ≤ lim inf {F n→∞ M ˜ (un ) − αun − β }dVg . We need to show the functional u→ ˜ (u)dVg F M is also weakly lower semi-continuous. Remark 10. Thus.22. We have thus established that I weakly lower semi-continuous. and the convexity conditions are very closely related.466 Elliptic equations on manifolds ˜ is convex. We see that the lower semi-continuity. weakly lower semi-continuous and coercive (with respect to the Lemma 10. which shows that M ˜ (u)dVg ≤ lim inf F n ˜ (un )dVg .3. The convexity is clear since F functionals 1 s(x)u(x)dVg (x) |du|2 dVg and u → − u→ 2 M M are clearly weakly lower semi-continuous.2 (M ) ∋ u → ˜ (u)dVg F M is strongly lower semi-continuous. ⊔ ⊓ . F This means that the functional L1. {F On the other hand. M ˜ (u)dVg ≤ c . The ˜ is convex on account that f Proof. In some sense they are almost equivalent. ˜ is convex. β ∈ R such that Since F ˜ (u) − αu − β ≥ 0. ˜ is strictly increasing. the sublevel sets u. we can ﬁnd α > 0.

(dv. Since L1.2 u⊥ ε ⇀ v.2 (M ).3. This choice of notation is motivated by the fact that u⊥ is perpendicular (with respect to the L2 (M )-inner product) to the kernel of the Laplacian ∆ which is the 1-dimensional space spanned by the constant functions.2 (M ) is 1. |u⊥ ε | dVg = 1. since |v |2 dVg = lim ε 2 |u⊥ ε | dVg = 1. We ﬁrst need to introduce some more terminology. (Rellich-Kondrachov) so that. Note the average of u⊥ is 0.2 (M ). We conclude (dv. For any u ∈ L2 (M ) we denoted by u its average. There exists C > 0 such that |du|2 dVg ≥ C |u⊥ |2 dVg . c= M v (x)dVg (s) = lim ε M u⊥ ε dVg = 0. and M M The above two conditions imply that the family reﬂexive. We argue by contradiction. strongly in L . In particular. Now set u⊥ (x) = u(x) − u. 2 duε = du⊥ ε → 0. M M Proof.Analytic aspects 467 The coercivity will require a little more work. .2 (M ). on a subsequence (u⊥ ε) is bounded in L1.2 (M ). This implies v = 0. Assume that for any ε > 0 there exists uε ∈ L1. such that 2 |duε |2 dVg ≤ ε. Since M is connected. M M On the other hand. M so that dv ≡ 0. The Poincar´ e inequality is proved. The inclusion L1. Moreover. on a subsequence 2 u⊥ ε → v strongly in L (M ). dv ) dVg = 0. Lemma 10. ∀u ∈ L1. dφ) dVg = 0 ∀φ ∈ L1.2 (M ) ֒→ L2 (M ) is compact. dφ) dVg = lim M ε M (duε .23 (Poincar´ e inequality). we deduce that. we deduce v ≡ c = const. ⊔ ⊓ This contradicts the fact that v = 0. weakly in L (M ). The key ingredient will be a Poincar´ e inequality.

This forces u⊥ 2 to be bounded. In view of the Poincar´ e inequality.21 is proved.14).3. Let κ > 0. which blends the elliptic regularity theory. to gradually improve the regularity of the weak solution. The inequality (10.468 Elliptic equations on manifolds ˜(u). ˜ is coerWe conclude that P ( u⊥ 2 ) must be bounded. Then u(x) is a weak L2 solution of ∆u = h(x) on M. we have a Jensen-type inequality Since volg (M ) = 1. Let u be the weak solution of (10. F Using condition (C3 ) we deduce that |u| must be bounded. ⊔ ⊓ Step 2.3. F ˜ is convex.14) we deduce ˜ (u) − s · u ≤ κ − m. We will use a technique called bootstrapping. (10.3.3.3. and u ∈ L1. so that we should concentrate only on u and du⊥ 2 . and let m = inf P (t).3. +F (10. and F ˜ F M udVg ≤ ˜ (u)dVg . Thus I cive. the boundedness of |du⊥ |2 dVg M implies the boundedness of u⊥ 2. M |u⊥ |2 dVg . and Lemma 10. and the Sobolev embedding theorems. From the inequality (10.14) . The regularity of the minimizer. M |du⊥ |dVg are bounded.M . 2 M The Poincar´ e and Cauchy inequalities imply C u⊥ 2 2 − s⊥ 2 · u⊥ 2 + M ˜ (u)dVg − s · u ≤ κ.12).13) Since M |du|2 dVg = M M M it sufﬁces to show that the quantities u.3.13) can be rewritten as 1 ⊥2 ˜ |du | + F (u) − s⊥ u⊥ dVg − s · u ≤ c. Feed this information back in (10. F M so that C u⊥ 2 2 Set P (t) := Ct2 − s⊥ 2 t. − s⊥ 2 · u⊥ 2 ˜ (u) − s · u ≤ κ. |du(x)|2 + F 2 |du⊥ |2 dVg and |u|2 = |u|2 + |u⊥ |2 dVg .2 (M ) such that We can now establish the coercivity of I M 1 ˜ (u(x)) − s(x)u(x) dVg (x) ≤ κ.

Feed this back in h(x).Analytic aspects 469 ˜(u(x)) − s(x). Let (M. We deduce that (i) either u ∈ Lq (M ) if −N/q ≤ 2 − N/2 ≤ 0 (dim M = N ).3. Then the following two conditions are equivalent. g) be a compact. and convenient to work with f . which implies h(x) ∈ Lq1 (M ). Deﬁnition 10. We will use it to prove a special case of the celebrated uniformization theorem. From the theorem we have just proved we deduce immediately the following consequence.3.3. Let (M. (ii) or u is H¨ older continuous if 2 − N/2 > 0. g) be an oriented Riemann manifold of dimension N and f ∈ C ∞ (M ). for some q1 > 2.q (M ). Let M be a smooth manifold. Using Sobolev (or f Morrey) embedding theorem we can considerably improve the integrability of u.q (M ).26. Note that since the growth of f ˜ is at most linear. Assume volg (M ) = 1. (a) s = M s(x)dVg > 0 (b) For every λ > 0 there exists a unique u = uλ ∈ C ∞ (M ) such that ∆u + λeu = s(x). Invoking elliptic regularity again we deduce that u ∈ L4.q1 and Sobolev inequality implies that u ∈ Lq2 (M ) for some q2 > q1 . (b) ⇒ (a) follows by multiplying (10. Using again elliptic regularity we deduce u ∈ L2.24. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. (a) ⇒ (b) follows from Theorem 10. this shows u(x) ∈ Lq1 (M ). The proof of Theorem 10.15. oriented Riemann manifold and s(x) ∈ C ∞ (M ). for any q > 1. for all q > 1. it has a very nice geometrical application. In any case. If s(x) is the scalar curvature of g and s ˜ is the scalar curvature of g ˜ show that s ˜(x) = e−f {s(x) + (N − 1)∆g f − (N − 1)(N − 2) |df (x)|2 g} 4 where ∆g denotes the scalar Laplacian of the metric g while | · |g denotes the length measured in the metric g. The elliptic regularity theory implies that u ∈ L2. (At this point it is ˜ which was only C 2 ).q (M ) . After a ﬁnite number of steps we conclude that h(x) ∈ Lq (M ). ⊔ ⊓ .3.2 (M ). such that g2 = ef g1 . This implies h(x) ∈ L2.25. connected. Elliptic regularity implies u ∈ L2. rather than with f regularity theory improves the regularity of u two orders at a time.15 is complete. Denote by g ˜ the conformal metric g ˜ = ef g. Two Riemann metrics g1 and g2 are said to be conformal if there exists f ∈ C ∞ (M ). Corollary 10.3. we have where h(x) = −f ˜(u(x)) ∈ L2 (M ).15) Proof.3.for all q > 1. and then integrating by parts so that s ¯= λ M eu(x) dVg (x) > 0. In view of Morrey embedding ⊔ ⊓ theorem the conclusion is clear: u ∈ C ∞ (M ).3. ⊔ ⊓ Although the above corollary may look like a purely academic result.15) with v (x) ≡ 1. for all q > 1. (10.

⊔ ⊓ On a manifold of dimension 2 the scalar curvature coincides up to a positive factor with the sectional curvature. Given a compact oriented Riemann manifold (M. g) is a compact oriented Riemann manifold.26 we deduce that u should satisfy −1 = e−u {s(x) + ∆u}. Using Exercise 10. The universal cover of a compact.e. The uniformization theorem implies that the compact oriented surfaces of negative Euler characteristic admit metrics of constant negative sectional curvature. i. The case dim M = 2 is completely solved in [56].3. [63]. [8. It is very similar to the angular coordinate θ on the circle S 1 . This is a uniformizing parameter on the circle. is the Yamabe problem: “If (M. For a very beautiful account of its proof we recommend the excellent survey of J. which was only relatively recently solved.27. A long standing problem in differential geometry. Schoen [86].Parker. Lee and T.3. does there exist a metric conformal to g whose scalar curvature is constant?” In dimension 2 this problem is related to the uniformization problem of complex analysis.24. This problem is known as the Kazdan-Warner problem. We look for g ˜ of the form g ˜ = eu g. Let (Σ.3. 9] and R. Now. The uniformization theorem is proved. ⊔ ⊓ Theorem 10.3. The “inverse” of the covering projection π : C → Σ is classically called a uniformizing parameter. The higher dimensional situation dim M > 2 is far more complicated.3. oriented surface Σ of negative Euler characteristic is diffeomorphic to C.470 Elliptic equations on manifolds Remark 10. The Gauss-Bonnet theorem implies that s = 4πχ(Σ) < 0 so that the existence of u is guaranteed by Corollary 10. ⊔ ⊓ . Corollary 10. ∆u + eu = −s(x). Proof. where s(x) is the scalar curvature of the metric g.28 (Uniformization Theorem).29. Aubin.3. both topologically and analytically. If χ(Σ) < 0 (or equivalently if its genus is ≥ 2) then there exists a unique metric g ˜ conformal to g such that s(˜ g) ≡ −1. The solution of the Yamabe problem in its complete generality is due to the combined efforts of T. which is an “inverse” of the universal covering map R ∋ θ → eiθ ∈ S 1 . using the Cartan-Hadamard theorem we deduce the following topological consequence.30. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 10. g) decide whether a smooth function s(x) on M is the scalar curvature of some metric on M conformal to g. oriented Riemann manifold of dimension 2. g) be a compact. One can formulate a more general question than the Yamabe problem. Assume volg (Σ) = 1.

U0 (x)) ≥ f (x. Assume that the equation ∆g u = f (x.e.2 (M ) ∩ L∞ (M ) such that U0 (x) ≥ u0 (x).3. ⊔ ⊓ 10. into a less painful task.e. Exercise 10. weakly in L1.16) admits a pair of comparable sub/super-solutions.31.4 Elliptic operators on compact manifolds The elliptic operators on compact manifolds behave in many respects as ﬁnite dimensional operators.2 (M ) inductively as the unique solution of the equation ∆un (x) + cun (x) = cun−1 (x) + f (x. even if the monotonicity assumption on f is dropped. (c) Prove that the above conclusions continue to hold. U0 ∈ L1. ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS 471 In the following exercises (M. coupled with the Rellich-Kondratchov compactness theorem. on M.4. The main reason why these operators are so “friendly” is the existence of a priori estimates. g) denotes a compact.2 (M ). Fix c > 0. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. u) (10. u0 (x)) ≥ ∆g u0 .. (a) Show that u0 (x) ≤ u1 (x) ≤ u2 (x) ≤ · · · ≤ un (x) ≤ · · · ≤ U0 (x) ∀x ∈ M. un−1 (x)).3.16) satisfying u0 ≤ u ≤ U0 . oriented Riemann manifold without boundary. Fix c > 0.3. It is the goal of this last section to present the reader some fundamental analytic facts which will transform the manipulation with such p.32.3. i. and deﬁne (un )n≥1 ⊂ L2. there exist functions u0 . (b) Show that un converges uniformly on M to a solution u ∈ C ∞ (M ) of (10.d. u) is increasing. Show that for every f ∈ L2 (M ) the equation ∆u + cu = f has an unique solution u ∈ L2. . and ∆g U0 ≥ f (x. These estimates.o. are the keys which will open many doors.10. Consider a smooth function f : M × R → R such that for every x ∈ M the function u → f (x.2 (M ). a.

F ). (b) Let T : D (T ) ⊂ X → Y be a closed. ∀ λ ∈ C. x = y ∗ . g) be a compact. and the Lk. The operator T is said to be densely deﬁned if its domain D (T ) is dense in X . and L ∈ P DO k = P DO k (E. z 1 . T x ∀x ∈ D (T ). y ).472 Elliptic equations on manifolds 10. oriented Riemann manifold. Y be two Hilbert spaces over K = R. ⊔ ⊓ If only the ﬁrst condition is satisﬁed the operator T is called symmetric. not necessarily continuous. λz2 = λ . is a closed subspace in X × Y . Let (M. is a closed. it follows that (i) x ∈ D (T ). ΓT := (x. z1 . and T : D (T ) ⊂ X → Y be a linear operator. Also note that if T : D (T ) ⊂ X → Y is a closed. The operator T is said to be closed if its graph. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 10. then T is bounded (closed graph theorem). ∀x ∈ D (T ) . i. An exhaustive presentation of this subject can be found in [55]. We refer to [18] Ch.4. Deﬁnition 10. | T x. and (ii) y = T x.d. y ∈ D (T ) and • D (T ) = y ∈ X . (a) In more concrete terms. T y for all x. then ker T is a closed subspace of X . densely deﬁned operator T : D (T ) ⊂ X → X is said to be selfadjoint if T = T ∗ .1 The Fredholm theory Throughout this section we assume that the reader is familiar with some fundamental facts about unbounded linear operators. T x) ∈ D (T ) × Y ⊂ X × Y . deﬁned on the linear subspace D (T ) ⊂ X . where ·. (d) The closed.o.2.e. · : Z × Z → K denotes the inner product3 in a Hilbert space Z . 3 When K = C. C. • T x. densely deﬁned operator T : D (T ) ⊂ X → X is selfadjoint if the following two conditions hold. We will denote the various L2 norms by · . (b) If T : X → Y is a closed operator. x∗ ) ∈ Y × X . E. (c) A closed.. densely deﬁned operator. T xn ) → (x. a k-th order elliptic p.2 -norms by · k .4. (a) Let X . · is conjugate linear in the second variable.II for a very concise presentation of these notions. y | ≤ C |x|. densely deﬁned linear operator. (c) One can show that the adjoint of any closed. such that (xn .1. z 2 . the operator T : D (T ) ⊂ X → Y is closed if. The djoint of T is the operator T ∗ : D (T ∗ ) ⊂ Y → X deﬁned by its graph ΓT ∗ = {(y ∗ . we use the convention that the inner product ·. F two metric vector bundles with compatible connections. z 2 ∈ Z . ¯ z 1 . ∃C > 0. for any sequence (xn ) ⊂ D (T ). y = x. densely deﬁned operator. x∗ . densely deﬁned operator.4.

v is a solution of the elliptic equation L∗ v = φ.2 (E ).2 (F ). consider a sequence (un ) ⊂ Lk. n → ∞. In other words. (a) Since C ∞ (E ) ⊂ D (La ) = Lk.4.3.2 (E ). then v ∈ Lk. ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS Deﬁnition 10.2 (F ).4. φ dVg ∀u ∈ Lk.2 (M ). ∀u ∈ Lk. we deduce that La is densely deﬁned.10. (b) From the equality Lu.2 (E ). ⊔ ⊓ Following the above result we will not make any notational distinction between an elliptic operator (on a compact manifold) and its analytical realization. given by u → Lu for all u ∈ Lk. v dVg = M M u. v ∈ Lk. L2 -weak .2 (E ). (b) If L∗ : C ∞ (F ) → C ∞ (E ) is the formal adjoint of L then (L∗ )a = (La )∗ . Hence (un ) is a Cauchy sequence in Lk. so that un → u in Lk.2 (E ). and Lun → v strongly in L2 (F ).2 (F ). the above inequality shows that the functional u→ Lu.2 (E ) is dense in L2 (E ) . (a) The analytical realization La of L is a closed.2 (E ). Indeed.4. The proposition is proved. The analytical realization of L is the linear operator La : D (La ) ⊂ L2 (E ) → L2 (E ). densely deﬁned linear operator. v dVg M extends to a continuous linear functional on L2 (E ). To prove that D (La )∗ ⊃ D (L∗ )a = Lk. Hence. Proof.4. we deduce and (La )∗ = (L∗ )a on Lk. D (La ) = Lk.2 (F ).2 (F ) we need to show that if v ∈ L2 (F ) is such that ∃C > 0 with the property that M Lu. there exists φ ∈ L2 (E ) such that (L∗ )∗ u.2 (E ) such that un → u strongly in L2 (E ). From the elliptic estimates we deduce un − um k ≤C Lun − Lum + un − um → 0 as m.2 (E ). D (La )∗ ⊂ D (L∗ )a = Lk. v dVg = M M u. ∀u ∈ Lk. It is now clear that v = Lu. Using elliptic regularity theory we deduce v ∈ Lk. 473 ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 10. L∗ v dVg . To prove that La is also closed. v dVg ≤ C u .

later considerably generalized by F. The operator T is said to be semi-Fredholm if the following hold.4. The above terminology has its origin in the work of Ivar Fredholm at the twentieth century.4.4. To prove that the range R (T ) is closed. C and suppose that T : D (T ) ⊂ X → Y is a closed. Proof. since M is compact. Chap. the integer ind T := dimK ker T − dimK ker T ∗ is called the Fredholm index of T .2 (a) ker L is closed in L2 (E ). The lemma is proved. a special case of which we have seen at work in Subsection 9.6. states that if K : H → H is a compact operator from a Hilbert space to itself.7. VI). the space Lk.474 Elliptic equations on manifolds Deﬁnition 10. then ½H + K is a Fredholm operator of index 0. Proof. we will rely on the following very useful inequality. In the proof we will rely on the classical result of F. Riesz. Riesz which states that a Banach space is ﬁnite dimensional if and only if its bounded subsets are precompact (see [18]. according to Weyl’s lemma ker L ⊂ C ∞ (E ). (a) Let X and Y be two Hilbert spaces over K = R.3.4.4. Lemma 10.4.2 (E ).5. ⊔ ⊓ Consider again the elliptic operator L of Proposition 10. In this case.4. The Fredholm property is a consequence of the following compactness result. On the other hand. densely deﬁned linear operator. (b) The operator T is called Fredholm if both T and T ∗ are semi-Fredholm. Next. His result. This follows immediately from Lemma 10.3.8 since un + Lun = un is bounded.8. .4. notice that ker L is a Banach space with respect to the L2 -norm since according to Remark 10. Note ﬁrst that. Any sequence (un )n≥0 ⊂ Lk.2 (E ) embeds compactly in L2 (E ). We will show that any sequence (un ) ⊂ ker L which is also bounded in the L2 -norm contains a subsequence convergent in L2 . Theorem 10.2 (E ) such that contains a subsequence strongly convergent in L2 (E ). The operator La : D (La ) ⊂ L2 (E ) → L2 (F ) is Fredholm. ⊔ ⊓ We will ﬁrst show that dim ker L < ∞. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 10. Using elliptic estimates we deduce that un k un + Lun n ≥0 is bounded ≤ C ( Lun + un ) ≤ const. (i) dim ker T < ∞ and (ii) The range R (T ) of T is closed. Hence (un ) is also bounded in Lk.

and in particular. ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS Lemma 10. Any k-th order elliptic operator L : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (F ) over the compact manifold M deﬁnes natural orthogonal decompositions of L2 (E ) and L2 (F ). for all u ∈ Lk. La is semiFredholm. Proof. Hence (un ) is a Cauchy sequence in Lk. un + Lun is bounded. Using the closed range theorem of functional analysis we deduce the following important consequence. There exists C > 0 such that u ≤ C Lu . Lun ) → (u. φ dVg = 0 ∀φ ∈ ker L. i. and R (L) is closed. Assume that for any n > 0 there exists un ∈ X such that un = 1 and Lun ≤ 1/n. Clearly Lu = v . we deduce (La )∗ is also ⊔ ⊓ semi-Fredholm. Note that u = 1. Since L is closed. Since (La )∗ = (L∗ )a . Hence u ∈ ker L ∩ X = {0}. When we couple this inequality with the elliptic estimates we get un − um k ≤ C ( Lun − Lum + un − um ) ≤ C vn − vm → 0 as m. We have so far proved that ker L is ﬁnite dimensional. so that v ∈ R (L). n → ∞. We want to show v ∈ R (L). It is not difﬁcult to see that in fact u ∈ X .8 we deduce that a subsequence of (un ) is convergent in L2 (E ) to some u.2 (E ) which are L2 -orthogonal to ker L. Thus. L2 (E ) = ker L ⊕ R (L∗ ) and L2 (F ) = ker L∗ ⊕ R (L).4.e. we deduce u ∈ D (L) and Lu = 0.e.9 (Poincar´ e inequality).. Lun → 0.2 (E ) so that un → u in Lk. ⊔ ⊓ We can now conclude the proof of Theorem 10.4. M 475 u.7.4. Using Lemma 10. This contradicts the condition u = 1. Consider a sequence (vn ) ⊂ R (L) such that vn → v in L2 (F ). Corollary 10. i.2 (E ). Using the Poincar´ e inequality we deduce un − um ≤ C vn − vm . and L∗ is also an elliptic operator. ⊔ ⊓ .4. Lun ) ⊂ ΓL = the graph of L. We get a sequence (un .7. This completes the proof of Theorem 10.10 (Abstract Hodge decomposition).4. For each vn we can ﬁnd a unique un ∈ X = (ker L)⊥ such that Lun = vn . We will argue by contradiction. such that (un .2 (E ) the subspace consisting of sections L2 -orthogonal to ker L. 0). Denote by X ⊂ Lk.10.4.

L2 ). let ψ ∈ C ∞ (E ) such that L∗ Lψ = 0. but it carries a natural topology which we now proceed to describe. the results to the effect that ker L∗ = 0. L1 u − L2 u . u k = 1. Over a compact manifold ker L = ker L∗ L and ker L∗ = ker LL∗ .4. It is not a vector space. d) is indeed a metric space. ψ dVg = 0. Unfortunately. L2 ∈ Ellk (E.. L2 ). Theorem 10. By using the attribute space when referring to Ellk we implicitly suggested that it carries some structure. Clearly ker L ⊂ ker L∗ L. It is only a cone in the linear space P DO (m) . Conversely. in the remaining part of this subsection we will try to unveil some of the natural beauty of elliptic operators. L2 ) = sup Deﬁne ∗ d(L1 . A nonexistence hypothesis implies an existence result! This partially explains the importance of the vanishing results in geometry. Then Lψ 2 = M LψLψ dVg = M L∗ Lψ. this would require a lot more extra work to include it here. Proof. We will show that the index of an elliptic operator has many of the attributes of a topological invariant. If ker L∗ = 0 then for every v ∈ L2 (F ) the partial differential equation Lu = v admits at least one weak L2 -solution u ∈ L2 (E ). We let the reader check that (Ellk . it is not even a convex set. L → ind (L) . We set δ(L1 . A continuous family of elliptic operators (Lλ )λ∈Λ . is continuous. However. F ). .11. With an existence result in our hands presumably we are more capable of producing geometric objects. ⊔ ⊓ The Fredholm property of an elliptic operator has very deep topological ramiﬁcations culminating with one of the most beautiful results in mathematics: the Atiyah-Singer index theorems.4. is then a continuous map Λ ∋ λ → Lλ ∈ Ellk . F ) → Z. Denote by Ellk (E. i. L2 ) = max δ(L1 . We stick to the notations used so far. F ) the space of elliptic operators C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (F ) of order k.476 Elliptic equations on manifolds Corollary 10. ⊔ ⊓ The last corollary is really unusual.12. Roughly speaking. It states the equation Lu = v has a solution provided the dual equation L∗ v = 0 has no nontrivial solution. The index map ind : Ellk (E. it is not an afﬁne space. . In the next chapter we will describe one powerful technique of producing vanishing theorems based on the so called Weitzenb¨ ock identities. Let L1 . Corollary 10. this means that the coefﬁcients of Lλ . and their derivatives up to order k depend continuously upon λ.13.4. where Λ is a topological space.e. δ(L∗ 1 .

If Li : D (Li ) ⊂ X → Y (i = 0. F ). Step 2. ⊔ ⊓ ⊔ ⊓ We strongly recommend the reader who feels less comfortable with basic arguments of functional analysis to try to provide the no-surprise proof of the above result. if L is sufﬁciently close to L0 . L) ≤ r . Step 1. (10. The operator L0 is called the center of the regularization. PL0 u). For any Fredholm operator L : D (L) ⊂ X → Y denote by ıL : ker L → X (respectively by PL : X → ker L) the natural inclusion ker L ֒→ X (respectively the orthogonal projection X → ker L). with bounded inverse. We will conclude that if d(L. It is a very good “routine booster”. then ind (L) = ind (L0 ). we have ind (L) = ind (L0 ). ∀L ∈ Ellk (E. Y be two Hilbert spaces. the operator RL0 (L1 ) is given by the block decomposition RL0 (L1 ) = L1 ıL∗ 0 PL0 0 . and a sequence (Ln ) ⊂ Ellk (E.4. since the remaining case is entirely similar.10. and RL∗ (L∗ ) are 0 injective. where r > 0 is determined at Step 1. when L0 = L1 = L.4. Assume that there exists a sequence (un . F ) satisfying d(L0 . Proof of Theorem 10. for any L satisfying d(L0 . We will call RL0 (L1 ) is the regularization of L1 at L0 .13 Let L0 ∈ Ellk (E. 1) are two Fredholm operators deﬁne ∗ RL0 (L1 ) : D (L1 ) ⊕ ker L∗ 0 ⊂ X ⊕ ker L0 → Y ⊕ ker L0 by RL0 (L1 )(u. We will ﬁnd r > 0 such that.1) . We will achieve this in two steps. the regularization of L at L0 is invertible. (a) RL0 (L1 ) is a Fredholm operator. 0 In other words. φn ) ⊂ Lk. Exercise 10. (c) RL0 is invertible (with bounded inverse). ∗ ∗ (b) R∗ L0 (L1 ) = RL0 (L1 ). We argue by contradiction. L0 ) < r .15. Since RL0 (L) is Fredholm.14. Let X . Step 1.2 (E ) × ker L∗ 0. For simplicity. Lemma 10. Prove the above lemma. The result below lists the main properties of the regularization. φ) = (L1 u + ıL∗ φ.4. we write RL = RL (L).4. We have to ﬁnd r > 0 such that. We will do this only for RL0 (L). F ) such that un k + φn = 1.4. it sufﬁces to show that both RL0 (L). ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS 477 The proof relies on a very simple algebraic trick which requires some analytical foundation. u ∈ D (L1 ). φ ∈ ker L∗ 0. L) < r .

. Hence the sequence un strongly converges in Lk. 0).4.2) we deduce Ln un = −φn . lim Ln un = lim L0 un = −φ ∈ L2 (F ). We will use the invertibility of this operator to produce an injective operator ker L∗ ⊕ ker L0 ֒→ ker L ⊕ ker L∗ 0.4.e. i. such that u k + φ = 1. F ). Set φ := lim φn .4. The condition (10. the sequence (Ln un ) is strongly convergent to −φ in L2 (F ). and d(L0 .2 to some u. (10.3) now gives L0 un − Ln un ≤ 1/n. i.e. φ) ∈ Lk. Using (10.1) we deduce that (φn ) is a bounded sequence in the ﬁnite dimensional space ker L∗ 0. L0 u = −φ and u ⊥ ker L. Moreover..4.e. φn ) = (0. ind (L0 ) ≤ ind(L). n → ∞. Let r > 0 as determined at Step 1.478 Elliptic equations on manifolds RL0 (Ln )(un . i. Step 2. . This implies dim ker L∗ + dim ker L0 ≤ dim ker L + dim ker L∗ 0 . (10.4. and L ∈ Ellk (E.4) implies u = 0 and φ = 0. 2 Hence it contains a subsequence strongly convergent in L . n n e inequality combined with the Since un ⊥ ker L0 (by (10. Ln ) ≤ 1/n..2 (E ) × ker L∗ 0 . Note that φ = limn φn .3) From (10.4.4) This contradicts the abstract Hodge decomposition which coupled with (10. Putting all the above together we conclude that there exists a pair (u.2)) we deduce from the Poincar´ elliptic estimates that un − um k ≤ C L0 un − L0 um → 0 as m.2) (10. and in fact in any Sobolev norm. Step 1 is completed. Hence RL0 (L) = L ıL∗ 0 PL0 0 is invertible. lim un n k = u k and u k + φ = 1.4.4.

From the equality v = Bφ + Cu we deduce v = 0. As such. These symbols are “polynomials with coefﬁcients in some spaces of endomorphism”.4. Corollary 10. The operator T is invertible and its inverse is bounded. We will regard RL0 (L) as an operator RL0 (L) : (ker L)⊥ ⊕ U → (ker L∗ )⊥ ⊕ V.13. if u(v ) = 0 for some v .4. For every t ∈ [0. We can view both φ and u as (linear) functions of v . and thus ﬁnish the proof of Theorem 10. φ = φ(v ) and u = u(v ). ⊔ ⊓ This corollary allows us to interpret the index as as a continuous map from the elliptic symbols to the integers. we orthogonally decompose L2 (E ) = (ker L)⊥ ⊕ ker L and L2 (F ) = (ker L∗ )⊥ ⊕ ker L∗ . ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS 479 A dual argument. and V := ker L ⊕ ker L0 . 1] Lt = (1 − t)L0 + tL1 is a k-th order elliptic operator depending continuously on t. u v This means T φ + Au = 0 and Bφ + Cu = v.16. Proof. Unfortunately. our deformation freedom T A B C . Thus ind (Lt ) is an integer depending continuously on t so it must be independent of t. We mention only one of them. . and since T is injective φ must be zero. u) ∈ (ker L)⊥ ⊕ U . We have thus produced the promised injective map V ֒→ U .10. Indeed. Since RL0 (L) is invertible.2 (E ) ∩ (ker L)⊥ ⊂ (ker L)⊥ → (ker L∗ )⊥ = Range (L) denotes the restriction of L to (ker L)⊥ . First.4. There is one (major) difﬁculty. L1 ∈ Ellk (E. (Look at the symbols). then T φ = 0. with L replaced by L∗ . it has a block decomposition RL0 (L) = where T : Lk. The deformation invariance of the index provides a very powerful method for computing it by deforming a “complicated” situation to a “simpler” one. ⊔ ⊓ The theorem we have just proved has many topological consequences. F ) if σk (L0 ) = σk (L1 ) then ind (L0 ) = ind (L1 ). ∗ Set U := ker L ⊕ ker L∗ 0 . Now let us provide the details. The analysis has vanished! This is (almost) a purely algebraic-topologic object. will produce the opposite inequality. We claim the map v → u = u(v ) is injective.13 is proved. such that φ 0 RL0 (L) = . Let L0 . and L0 replaced by L∗ 0 . for any v ∈ V we can ﬁnd a unique pair (φ.4. Theorem 10.

a compact. such that V is a stabilizer of each operator Lλ in the family L.V2 ⊗ det V2∗ . It is called the determinant line bundle of the family L and is denoted by det ind(L). g).V2 ⊕ V1 . (a) Show that any subspace V ⊂ L2 (F ) containing ker L∗ is a stabilizer of L.V : Lk. and are called pseudo-differential operators. At this point one should return to analysis. we have an isomorphism of line bundles det ker SL. In particular. More generally. (c) Show that if V1 and V2 are two uniform stabilizers of the family L. i. ⊔ ⊓ 10. oriented Riemann manifold (M. Throughout . 90] for a very efﬁcient presentation of this subject. (b) Show that if V is an uniform stabilizer of the family L.2 Spectral theory We mentioned at the beginning of this section that the elliptic operators on compact manifold behave very much like matrices. and have more general symbols.V − dim V. Consider a compact manifold Λ and L : Λ → Ellk (E.d.480 Elliptic equations on manifolds is severely limited by the “polynomial” character of the symbols. (a) Show that the family L admits an uniform stabilizer.17. Conclude that if V is a stabilizer. We will not follow this path. Such objects exist. Let L ∈ Ellk (E. Exercise 10.V deﬁnes a vector bundle over Λ. Thus the line bundle det ker SL. Perhaps nothing illustrates this feature better than their remarkable spectral properties. F ). then ind L = dim ker SL.o. This is the subject we want to address in this subsection. • and compatible connection. We refer to [62.V1 ⊕ V 2 ∼ = ker SL. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. and try to conceive some operators that behave very much like elliptic p. then we have a natural isomorphism vector bundles ker SL.4. There aren’t that many polynomials around.2 (E ) ⊕ V → L2 (F ) SL. but we believe the reader who reached this point can complete this journey alone.4.V (u ⊕ v ) = Lu + v is surjective. any ﬁnite dimensional subspace of L2 (F ) containing a stabilizer is itself a stabilizer. and a complex vector bundle E → M endowed with a Hermitian metric •. Two polynomial-like elliptic symbols may be homotopic in a larger classes of symbols which are only positively homogeneous along the ﬁbers of the cotangent bundle). then the family of subspaces ker SLλ ..4.V ⊗ det V ∗ → Λ is independent of the uniform stabilizer V . there exists a ﬁnite dimensional subspace V ⊂ L2 (F ).18. A ﬁnite dimensional subspace V ⊂ L2 (F ) is called a stabilizer of L if the operator SL. Consider as usual. F ) a continuous family of elliptic operators.e.V1 ⊗ det V1∗ ∼ = det ker SL.

(c) There exists an orthogonal decomposition L2 (E ) = λ∈spec(L) ker(λ − L). (b) The spectrum spec(L) is a closed. λ = λ0 . Assume for simplicity λ0 = 0.2 (E ) ⊂ L2 (E ) → L2 (E ). so that the Poincar´ e inequality implies 1 = un ≤ C Lun = Cλn → 0. Theorem 10.19. Then Lk. is a selfadjoint. (b)&(c) We ﬁrst show spec(L) is discrete. countable. The ﬁrst identity is true over the entire L2 (E ) while part (d) of the theorem shows the domain of validity of the second equality is precisely the domain of L.o. ∀|λ − λ0 |. discrete. elliptic operator. Thus there exist λn → 0 and un ∈ C ∞ (E ). spec(L) ⊂ R. Thus. the spectrum of L consists only of eigenvalues of ﬁnite multiplicities. λ½E − L. Proof.4. In view of Weyl’s lemma this is certainly the case since λ − L is an elliptic operator. Then the following are true. unbounded set. Part (c) of this theorem allows one to write ½= λ Pλ and L = λ λPλ . Note that for any λ ∈ R the operator λ − La is the analytical realization of the elliptic p.d. (d) Denote by Pλ the orthogonal projection onto ker(λ − L).10. The main result of this subsection states that one can ﬁnd an orthonormal basis of L2 (E ) which diagonalizes La . un = 1. ε. we will ﬁnd ε > 0 such that ker(λ − L) = 0.2 (E ) = D (La ) = ψ ∈ L2 (E ) . More precisely. so its spectrum spec(L) is an unbounded closed subset of R. Its analytical realization La : Lk. the subspace ker(λ − L) is ﬁnite dimensional and consists of smooth sections. such that Lun = λn un . ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS 481 this subsection L will denote a k-th order. and in particular. We will argue by contradiction. given λ0 ∈ spec(L). and for each λ ∈ spec(L) . . formally selfadjoint elliptic operator L : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ).4. (a) The spectrum spec(L) is real. so that λ ∈ spec(L) ⇐⇒ ker(λ − L) = 0. λ2 Pλ ψ λ 2 <∞ . the operator λ − La is a Fredholm. Clearly un ∈ R (L) = (ker L∗ )⊥ = (ker L)⊥ . Let L ∈ Ellk (E ) be a formally selfadjoint elliptic operator. (a) We only need to show that ker(λ − L) consists of smooth sections.

i. To prove (d). Assume (vn ) is a bounded sequence in L2 (E ). Chap. On the other hand.482 Elliptic equations on manifolds Thus spec(L) must be a discrete set. if λ2 Pλ ψ λ 2 < ∞. We claim that T is also a compact operator. Thus T is a compact. Now consider t0 ∈ R \ σ (L). The spectrum of T is a closed. Using the elliptic estimates we deduce un k ≤ C ( un + vn ). This proves (b)&(c). 6. We can now use the spectral theory of such well behaved operators as described for example in [18]. The desired conclusion follows from the compactness of the embedding Lk. Obviously un = T vn is bounded in L2 (E ). and since ker T = 0. We have to show un = T vn admits a subsequence which converges in L2 (E ).2 (E ) → L2 (E ). λPλ ψ λ 2 = λ λ2 Pλ ψ 2 < ∞. Note that un is a solution of the partial differential equation (t0 − L)un = t0 un − Lun = vn . selfadjoint operator. consider the sequence of smooth sections φn = |λ|≤n λPλ ψ which converges in L2 (E ) to φ= λ λPλ ψ. Using the equality L = t0 − T −1 we deduce σ (L) = {t0 − µ−1 . Conversely. µ = 0.. φn = Lψn .2 (E ). Thus t0 − L has a bounded inverse T = (t0 − L)−1 . µ ∈ spec(T ) \ {0}}. so the above inequality implies un k is also bounded. Any µ ∈ spec(T ) \ {0} is an eigenvalue of T with ﬁnite multiplicity. bounded. note that if ψ ∈ Lk.e. countable set with one accumulation point. Obviously T is a selfadjoint operator. L2 (E ) = µ∈spec(T )\{0} ker(µ − T ). where ψn = |λ|≤n Pλ ψ . then Lψ ∈ L2 (E ).

10. u =1 ⊔ ⊓ is an eigenvalue of L.4. . u ∈ Lk. The eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of L are determined from the periodic boundary value problem −i which implies u(θ ) = C exp(iλθ ) and exp(2πλi) = 1. Show that (a) The space V consists only of smooth sections. L(V ) ⊂ V . u dvg . C).e.2 (E ) as a Lk. (V ⊥ denotes the orthogonal complement of V in L2 (E )). ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS converges in L2 (E ) to ψ . i. Exercise 10. ∂θ ker(n − L) is the usual Fourier decomposition of periodic functions. E = CM and L = −i ∂ : C ∞ (S 1 . Note that u(θ ) = n un exp(inθ ) ∈ L1. The orthogonal decomposition L2 (S 1 ) = n ∂u = λu.o.2 (S 1 ) if and only if n∈Z (1 + n2 )|un |2 < ∞. u ∈ Lk. C) → C ∞ (S 1 . Let M = S 1 .4.21.2 (E ). m → ∞.2 (E ) be a ﬁnite dimensional invariant subspace of L. Using the elliptic estimates we deduce ψn − ψm k 483 ≤ C ( ψn − ψm + φn − φm ) → 0 as n. ∂θ The operator L is clearly a formally selfadjoint elliptic p. Let V ∈ Lk. Hence spec(L) = Z and ker(n − L) = spanC {exp(inθ )}. u =1 > −∞.d. (b) The quantity λ(V ⊥ ) = inf M Lu. u(0) = u(2π ).20.2 (E ) ∩ V ⊥ . Example 10. ⊔ ⊓ The following exercises provide a variational description of the eigenvalues of a formally selfadjoint elliptic operator L ∈ Ellk (E ) which is bounded from below i.2 -limit of smooth sections.e.4. inf M Lu. The theorem is proved. u dvg . ⊔ ⊓ Hence ψ ∈ Lk.

This is a special case of a famous question raised by V.484 Elliptic equations on manifolds Exercise 10. . .24. and then use this information to prove the above Weyl asymptotic formula in this special case. (b) Assume L is the scalar Laplacian ∆ on a compact Riemann manifold (M. . It has been established recently that the answer to Kac’s original question is negative. . If we think of M as the elastic membrane of a drum then the eigenvalues of ∆ describe all the frequencies of the sounds the “drum” M can produce. . φ1 .4. This is what spectral geometry is all about. and denote λ0 = λ(V0⊥ ). For details we refer to [11]. namely the heat operator ∂t + L on R × M .Weyl showed that lim Λ−N/2 d(Λ) = rank (E ) · volg (M ) . .} is a Hilbert basis of L2 (E ). (a) When L is a formally selfadjoint generalized Laplacian then the result in the above exercise can be considerably sharpened.o. and spec(L) = {λ1 ≤ · · · ≤ λm · · · }.23. Use the results in the above exercises to show that if L is a bounded from below. . φm . ⊔ ⊓ Remark 10.25. over an N -dimensional manifold then λm (L) = O(mk/N ) as m → ∞. or [90]. u ∈ V u =1 .2 (E ). (4π )N/2 Γ(N/2 + 1) (10. L. . Thus “we can hear” the dimension and the volume of a drum. We refer ⊔ ⊓ to [38] and the references therein for more details.5) Λ→∞ The very ingenious proof of this result relies on another famous p. Weyl’s formula shows that the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum of ∆ contains several geometric informations about M : we can read the dimension and the volume of M from it.. Set V0 = 0.4. . Show that λm = inf max M V ∈Grm Lu. . . . According to the previous exercise λ0 is an eigenvalue of L. and d(Λ) = dim ⊕λ≤Λ ker(λ − L) = O(ΛN/k ) as Λ → ∞. u dvg . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. .4. φm corresponding to m + 1 eigenvalues λ0 . Set λ1 = λ(V1⊥ ) and iterate the procedure. φm } and λm+1 = λ(Vm +1 (a) Prove that the set {φ1 . λ1 ≤ · · · λm of ⊥ ) etc. ⊔ ⊓ . g) of dimension M . .4. φ1 . Pick φ0 an eigenvector corresponding to λ0 such that φ0 = 1 and form V1 = V0 ⊕ span {φ0 }.22.d. (b) Denote by Grm the Grassmannian of m-dimensional subspaces of Lk. .do.4.Kac in [51]: can one hear the shape of a drum? In more rigorous terms this question asks how much of the geometry of a Riemann manifold can be recovered from the spectrum of its Laplacian. Exercise 10. After m steps we have produced m + 1 vectors φ0 . Compute the spectrum of the scalar Laplacian on the torus T 2 equipped with the ﬂat metric. k-th order formally selfadjoint elliptic p. More precisely H. Set Vm+1 = spanC {φ0 .

Deﬁnition 10. (ii) For each (x. n n−2 ⊔ ⊓ (d) Prove Weyl’s asymptotic estimate (10.10. i. ⊔ ⊓ . Show that dim ker λk − ∆S n−1 = k+n−1 k+n−3 − .4. An elliptic complex is a sequence of ﬁrst order p.ξ ) −→ (Em )x → 0 ⊔ ⊓ Example 10. σ(D0 )(x. Denote by ∆S n−1 the scalar Laplacian on the unit sphere S n−1 ⊂ Rn equipped with the induced metric. the associated sequence of principal symbols is (e(ξ ) = exterior multiplication by ξ ) ∗ ∗ 0 → R −→ Tx M −→ · · · −→ det(Tx M) → 0 e(ξ ) e(ξ ) e(ξ ) is the Koszul complex of Exercise 7.5) in the special case of the operator ∆S n−1 .4. xn ) is called harmonic if ∆Rn p = 0. (i) (C ∞ (Ei ). We assume n ≥ 2. The DeRham complex (Ω∗ (M ). . Di Di−1 = 0.’s 0 1 0 → C ∞ (E0 ) → C ∞ (E1 ) → · · · → C ∞ (Em ) → 0 D D Dm−1 satisfying the following conditions. .o. ξ ) ∈ T ∗ M \ {0} the sequence of principal symbols 0 → (E0 )x is exact. A polynomial p = p(x1 .1.4.4.3 where it is shown to be exact. then ¯ = n(n + k − 2)¯ p.ξ ) −→ (E1 )x → · · · σ(Dm−1 )(x.26. In this case.23 of Subsection 7.3 Hodge theory We now have enough theoretical background to discuss the celebrated Hodge theorem.e. . (a) Show that if p is a homogenous harmonic polynomial of degree k. the DeRham complex is elliptic. Let (M. We will have the occasion to discuss another famous elliptic complex in the next chapter. . and p ¯ denotes its restriction n − 1 to the unit sphere S centered at the origin.28. ∀1 ≤ i ≤ m. 10.4.d. Hence. ∆S n−1 p (b) Show that a function ϕ : S n → R is an eigenfunction of ∆S n−1 if and only if there exists a homogeneous harmonic polynomial p such that ϕ = p ¯. ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS 485 Exercise 10.4. It is convenient to work in a slightly more general context than Hodge’s original theorem. g) be an oriented Riemann manifold.27.. Di ) is a cochain complex. d) is an elliptic complex.1. (c) Set λk := n(n + k − 2).

Set Zi = so that H i (E· . Form the operators formal adjoints Di ∗ ∗ ∞ ∞ ∆i = Di Di + Di−1 Di −1 : C (Ei ) → C (Ei ).) ˆ . L2 (E ) = ker ∆ ⊕ R (D (10.4. D· ) → ker ∆i . This follows from the equality ker ∆ = ker D u ∈ C ∞ (Ei ).4. For each i denote by Pi the orthogonal projection L2 (Ei ) → ker ∆i . Denote its cohomology by H • (E· . The above claim is a consequence of several simple facts. and Di as bounded operators L1. Theorem 10.2 → L2 . g). D· ) < ∞ ∀i.1. D = ⊕Di . ∆ = D ∗ D + DD ∗ = (D + D ∗ )2 = D We now invoke the following elementary algebraic fact which is a consequence of the exactness of the symbol sequence. Di u = 0 and B i = Di−1 (C ∞ (Ei−1 )). D· )) over a compact oriented Riemann manifold (M. L2 (Ei ) = ker ∆i ⊕ R (Di−1 ) ⊕ R (Di where we view both Di−1 . ∆ ∈ P DO (E. Set ∗ ˆ = D + D∗ .30.486 Elliptic equations on manifolds Consider an elliptic complex (C ∞ (E· . We will see that the combination ellipticity + compactness prevents this from happening. The operators D ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 7. D· ) ∼ = ker ∆i ⊂ C ∞ (Ei ). we deduce D 2 = (D ∗ )2 = 0 which implies ˆ 2.3. E = ⊕Ei . (Hint: Use Exercise 10. ˆ and ∆ are elliptic. There exists an orthogonal decomposition ∗ ). Endow each Ei with a metric and compatible connection. Then the following are true.12 we have ker ∆ = ker D onal decomposition ˆ ).29 (Hodge). . E ).d. Proof. ker ∆i ⊂ Z i . We claim that the map Pi : Z i → ker ∆i descends to an isomorphism H i (E· .6) This is precisely part (c) of Hodge’s theorem. D ∗ . D· ) = Z i /B i . ∀i. A priori these may be inﬁnite dimensional spaces.o. We can now state and prove the celebrated Hodge theorem. so that we have an orthogNote that according to Corollary 10.4. Assume that M is compact and oriented. (a) H i (E· .4. formally selfadjoint p. This will complete the proof of Hodge theorem. We can now talk about Sobolev spaces and ∗ . D· ). i (b) dim H (E· . ˆ. D Thus D. Fact 1.22 in Subsection 7. ∆ = ⊕ ∆i . Since Di Di−1 = 0. (c) (Hodge decomposition).1. D ∗ = ⊕Di .

Hodge theorem is proved.. Set ∆ = dd∗ + d∗ d. and this means any cohomology class [z ] ∈ H k (M ) is represented by a unique harmonic k-form. n = dim M. where νn. the induced linear map Pi : ker ∆i → H i (E· . using the decomposition (10. and ∗ denotes the Hodge ∗-operator deﬁned by the Riemann metric g and the ﬁxed orientation on M . D· ) is injective.k ∗ d∗. η ∈ Ωk−1 (M ). u = Pi u + Dψ 487 Since u − Pi u ∈ C ∞ (Ei ). Thus ˆ ) = (ker ∆)⊥ . there exist v ∈ C ∞ (Ei−1 ) and w ∈ C ∞ (Ei ) such that ψ = v ⊕ w and ∗ u = Pi u + Di−1 v + Di w. D· ). The form [ω ]g is called the g-harmonic part of ω . ∗ = ker D D ∗ .4.2 (E ). the above equalities imply Since ker Di i i u − Pi u = Di−1 v ∈ B i . ∆[ω ]g = 0 ⇐⇒ d[ω ]g = 0 and d∗ [ω ]g = 0.31 (Hodge). We conclude that Pi descends to a linear map ker ∆i → H i (E· . Fact 1 shows it is also surjective so that ker ∆i ∼ = H i (E· .10.e. D· ). ⊔ ⊓ Let us apply Hodge theorem to the DeRham complex on a compact oriented Riemann manifold 0 → Ω0 (M ) −→ Ω1 (M ) −→ · · · −→ Ωn (M ) → 0. ⊔ ⊓ d d d .k = nk + n + 1. B i ⊂ R (D and we deduce that no two distinct elements in ker ∆i are cohomologous since otherwise their difference would have been orthogonal to ker ∆i . Thus. ELLIPTIC OPERATORS ON COMPACT MANIFOLDS Fact 2. then d∗ ζ = 0. Corollary 10.4. Any smooth k-form ω ∈ Ωk (M ) decomposes uniquely as ω = [ω ]g + dη + d∗ ζ. If moreover ω is closed. Applying Di on both sides of this equality we get ∗ ∗ 0 = Di u = Di Pi u + Di Di−1 u + Di Di w = Di Di w. we deduce from Weyl’s lemma that ψ ∈ C ∞ (E ). Indeed. We know that the formal adjoint of d : Ωk (M ) → Ωk+1 (M ) is d∗ = (−1)νn. ζ ∈ Ωk+1 (M ). Hence. and [ω ]g ∈ Ωk (M ) is g-harmonic. If u ∈ Zi then u − Pi u ∈ Bi .4. i.6) we have ˆ ψ ∈ L1.

η g dvg = M ω ∧ η ∀ ω ∈ H k η ∈ Hn −k .4. i. Corollary 10. Prove that a differential form on G is h-harmonic if and only if it is bi-invariant. We have ∗ω.35. g) the space of g-harmonic k-forms on M . Let G denote a compact connected Lie group equipped with a bi-invariant Riemann metric h. If ω is g-harmonic. g dvg ≤ M M with equality if and only if ω = ω0 . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10. the Poincar´ e duality described in Chapter 7 induces another isomorphism Hk −→ (Hn−k )∗ . ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 10.34. The Hodge ∗-operator deﬁnes a bijection ∗ : Hk (M.e. Proof.33.4. g) → Hn−k (M. denotes the natural pairing between a vector space and its dual. ⊔ ⊓ Using the L2 -inner product on Ω• (M ) we can identify Hn−k (M. ⊔ ⊓ . The above corollary shows Hk (M. g). M ∗ω. P D = ∗. η where ·. Show that |ω |2 |ω0 |2 g dvg ∀ω ∈ Cω0 . then so is ∗ω since d ∗ ω = ± ∗ d ∗ ω = 0.4. ∗ω g dvg = η ∧ ∗2 ω = (−1)k(n−k) η ∧ ω = ω ∧ η. and The Hodge ∗-operator is bijective since ∗2 = (−1)k(n−k) . ∗d ∗ (∗ω ) = ± ∗ (dω ) = 0. Proof.4. On the other hand.32. · 0 0 PD = M ω ∧ η. η g dvg = η. Proposition 10. g) with its dual. Let ω0 ∈ Ωk (M ) be a harmonic k form and denote by Cω0 its cohomology class. deﬁned by P D (ω ). g) ∼ = H k (M ) for any metric g. and thus we can view ∗ as an isomorphism ∗ Hk → (Hn−k )∗ .488 Elliptic equations on manifolds Denote by Hk (M.

.1. D : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ).o. Thus C ∞ (E ) can be identiﬁed with the space of smooth functions u : S 1 → R2n . We will ﬁrst describe their general features.o.Chapter 11 Dirac Operators We devote this last chapter to a presentation of a very important class of ﬁrst order elliptic operators which have numerous applications in modern geometry. Deﬁnition 11.1. Let J : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ) denote the endomorphism of E which has the block decomposition J= −½Rn 0 ½R 0 n 489 . g). and a smooth vector bundle E → M .1. D has a block decomposition D= 0 A B 0 .1 Basic deﬁnitions and examples Consider a Riemann manifold (M.1 The structure of Dirac operators 11. (Hamilton-Floer). Example 11.-s. and D (C ∞ (Ei )) ⊂ C ∞ (E(i+1) mod 2 ). ξ ) = −|ξ |2 g ½Ex ∀(x.e.d. ∗ σ (D 2 )(x. 11. In other words. i. A Dirac operator is a ﬁrst order p. and then we will spend the remaining part discussing some frequently encountered examples. ⊔ ⊓ Note that the Dirac operators are ﬁrst order elliptic p. Denote by E the trivial vector bundle R2n over the circle S 1 .2. The Dirac operator is said to be graded if E splits as E = E0 ⊕ E1 .1. such that D 2 is a generalized Laplacian.d. ξ ) ∈ T M.

4. Then. 2 2 A simple computation shows that D is a Dirac operator. and we set E ˆ := π ∗ E . where t denotes the coordinate along the factor R. Suppose E is a vector bundle over the Riemann manifold (M. 2 du ∀u ∈ C ∞ (E ). x0 ) = lim 1 u(t0 + h. Consider the trivial bundle C2 over the complex plane C equipped with the standard Euclidean metric.5.490 CHAPTER 11.d. x0 ) . x0 ) − u(t0 . the pullback of We have a natural projection π : M ˆ via π . Example 11. and D : ˆ the cylinder R × M . D : C2 → C2 deﬁned by u v where z = x + y i. E to M ˆ of E In particular. ⊔ ⊓ Example 11. is a Dirac operator. g) be an oriented Riemann manifold. x) → x. (t. ∂z ¯ = (∂x + i∂y ). Note that the Cauchy-Riemann operator Then D is the suspension of the Hamilton-Floer operator. ˆ is a Dirac operator called the suspension of D . the Hodge-DeRham operator d + d∗ : Ω• (M ) → Ω• (M ). t ∈ R. ⊔ ⊓ −→ 2 0 −∂z ∂z 0 ¯ · u v . D by u(t) v (t) = 0 −∂t + D ∂t + D 0 u(t) v (t) . The Cauchy-Riemann operator is the ﬁrst order p. ⊔ ⊓ . (Hodge-DeRham). Let (M.1. Fu = J d Clearly.1. we can deﬁne unambiguously ∂t u ˆ(t0 . h h→ 0 where the above limit is in the t-independent vector space Ex0 . F2 = − dθ 2 is a generalized Laplacian. A section u ˆ is then a smooth 1-parameter family of sections u(t) of E . Denote by M ˆ the 2 ˆ cylindrical metric g ˆ = dt + g on M . Now deﬁne ˆ : C ∞ (E ˆ ⊕E ˆ ) → C ∞ (E ˆ ⊕E ˆ ). DIRAC OPERATORS with respect to the natural splitting R2n = Rn ⊕ Rn .o.1. according to the computations in the previous chapter. and by g C ∞ (M ) → C ∞ (M ) is a Dirac operator. ˆ → M . dθ ⊔ ⊓ Example 11. We deﬁne the Hamilton-Floer operator F : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ). and 1 1 ∂z = (∂x − i∂y ). (Cauchy-Riemann).3. g).

1.7. x ∈ M we conclude that {c(ξ ). u). (b) The bundle E admits a Clifford structure.6. i. From the equality ∗ c(ξ + η ) = −|ξ + η |2 ∀ξ. ∀ξ.e. Thus. (a) A Clifford structure on a vector bundle E over a Riemann manifold (M. The morphism c is usually called the Clifford multiplication of the (Clifford) structure. c(η )} = −2g(ξ. we see that each Dirac operator induces a bundle morphism c : T ∗ M ⊗ E → E (ξ. for any x ∈ M . such that {c(ξ ). To prove the reverse implication let c : T ∗M ⊗ E → E . B } their anticommutator {A. where for any linear operators A. η )½E .1. (b) A Z2 -grading of a Clifford bundle E → M is a splitting E = E + ⊕ E − such that. g) is a smooth bundle morphism c : T ∗ M ⊗ E → E . Deﬁnition 11. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 11. (a) There exists a Dirac operator D : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ). ∀u ∈ C ∞ (E ). We have just seen that (a)⇒(b). ∀α ∈ Ω1 (M ). Proof. e) → c(ξ )e. x) is an endomorphism of Ex depending linearly upon ξ . Since D 2 is a generalized Laplacian we deduce that c(ξ )2 = σ (D 2 )(x.. Its symbol is an endomorphism σ (D ) : π ∗ E → π ∗ E . Clifford structure) is called a Clifford bundle. B we denoted by {A. the operator projection. and any ξ ∈ Tx c(ξ ) := σ (D )(ξ. c(η )} = −2g(ξ. the Clifford multiplication by α is an odd endomorphism of the superspace C ∞ (E+ ) ⊕ C ∞ (E− ).11. ξ ) = −|ξ |2 g ½Ex . A pair (vector bundle. such that c(ξ )2 = −|ξ |2 . B } := AB + BA. η ∈ Ω1 (M ).1. η )½Ex . where for every 1-form α we denoted by c(α) the bundle morphism c(α) : E → E given by c(α)u = c(α. THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS 491 Let D : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (E ) be a Dirac operator over the oriented Riemann manifold (M. η ∈ Tx M. g). Let E → M be a smooth vector bundle over the Riemann manifold (M. Then the following conditions are equivalent. To summarize. g). where π : T ∗ M → M denotes the natural ∗ M . c(α)C ∞ (E ± ) ⊂ C ∞ (E ∓ ).

Deﬁnition 11. ⊔ ⊓ . DIRAC OPERATORS ∇ : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ). Prove the last assertion in the above example. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 11. ∀u. g) is then a pair (E. with symbol c. and ρ : V → End (E ) is an R-linear map such that {ρ(u).1. In the following subsections we will address precisely this issue.2.o.9. for every connection CHAPTER 11. A Clifford multiplication associated with (V.8. If (ei ) is an orthonormal basis of V . v )½E .55 of Section 2. ρ(v )} = −2g(u. Let V be a real. v ∈ V. We will look at the following universal situation. g) be a Riemann manifold. generated by V . v ∈ V. and q :V ×V →R a symmetric bilinear form.4 shows that c deﬁnes a Clifford multiplication on Λ• T ∗ M .2 Clifford algebras The ﬁrst thing we want to understand is the object called Clifford multiplication. ﬁnite dimensional vector space. v ) · ½ ∀u. Consider a real ﬁnite dimensional. g).the metric dual of ξ . while iξ denotes the interior differentiation along ξ ∗ ∈ Tx M .1. For each x ∈ M . and ξ ∈ Tx ∗ ∗ c(ξ ) : Λ• Tx M → Λ• Tx M by where eξ denotes the (left) exterior multiplication by ξ . q ) is the associative R–algebra with unit. and subject to the relations {u. ρ). The Clifford algebra Cl(V. ⊔ ⊓ c(ξ )ω = (eξ − iξ )ω. Euclidean space (V. Then.492 be a Clifford multiplication. Let (M.10. 11.2. Clearly D is a Dirac operator. If ∇ denotes the Levi-Civita connection on Λ• T ∗ M .1. ρj } = −2δij ½E . The Exercise 2. and it is natural to try to understand its structure. then the Dirac operator c ◦ ∇ is none other than the Hodge-DeRham operator. then ρ is completely determined by the linear operators ρi = ρ(ei ) which satisfy the anti-commutation rules {ρi . v } = uv + vu = −2q (u.1.d. the composition is a ﬁrst order p. The above proposition reduces the problem of describing which vector bundles admit Dirac operators to an algebraic-topological one: ﬁnd the bundles admitting a Clifford structure. where E is a K-vector space. D = c ◦ ∇ : C ∞ (E ) → C ∞ (T ∗ M ⊗ E ) → C ∞ (E ) ∇ c ⊔ ⊓ ∗ M deﬁne Example 11. The collection (ρi ) generates an associative subalgebra in End (E ).

v ) ⊗ 1. qi ). and is uniquely deﬁned by its universality property: for every linear map : V → A such that A is an associative R-algebra with unit. and T .11. q) ℄ Φ Ù A ı denotes the natural inclusion V ֒→ Cl(V. 2) be two real.12. q ) depends only on the isomorphism class of the pair (V.1. sign q ). q ) → A such that the diagram below is commutative. The correspondence T → T# constructed above is functorial. It is known from linear algebra that the isomorphism classes of such pairs are classiﬁed by some simple invariants: (dim V. where I is the ideal generated by u ⊗ v + v ⊗ u + 2q (u. The above corollary shows that the algebra Cl(V. q ) exists. u.. q1 ) → Cl(V2 . and {(u). qi ) (i = 1. (½Vi )# = ½Cl(Vi .. (b) In the sequel the inclusion V ֒→ Cl(V.1. The Clifford algebra Cl(V. (a) When q ≡ 0 then Cl(V. when q is an Euclidean metric on the n-dimensional space V . ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 11. for all admissible S . In this case. Set Cl(V. i.11.e. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 11. q ). Let (Vi . q )= vector space + quadratic form. v ) · ½. and (S ◦ T )# = S# ◦ T# .1. THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS 493 Proposition 11.13.1. Sketch of proof Let A = ⊕k≥0 V ⊗k (V ⊗0 = R) denote the free associative R–algebra with unit generated by V . Then.qi ) . The map ı is the composition V ֒→ A → Cl(V. q ) is . 0) is the exterior algebra Λ• V .14. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 11. where we view Vi as a linear subspace in Cl(Vi .e. q ) will be thought of as being part of the deﬁnition of a Clifford algebra. q2 ) such that T# (V1 ) ⊂ V2 . (v )} = −2q (u. ∀v ∈ V1 induces a unique morphism of algebras T# : Cl(V1 . ﬁnite dimensional vector spaces endowed with quadratic forms qi : V → R. Thus when thinking of automorphisms of this structure one should really concentrate only on those automorphisms of R–algebras preserving the distinguished subspace. i.1. This makes a Clifford algebra a structure richer than merely an abstract R–algebra: it is an algebra with a distinguished real subspace. v ∈ V . We let the reader check the universality property. q ) = A/I . q ) where the second arrow is the natural projection. rank q. V ı Û Cl(V. We will be interested in the special case when dim V = rank q = sign q = n. there exists an unique morphism of algebras Φ : Cl(V. any linear map T : V1 → V2 such that q2 (T v ) = q1 (v ). Prove the universality property. the Clifford algebra Cl(V.

we deduce that the map V → Cl(V ). while iv denotes the interior derivative along the metric dual of v .494 CHAPTER 11.e. so that. x ∗ y := y · x ∀x. the map c extends to a morphism of algebras c : Cl(V ) → End (Λ• V ).. we conclude that the natural injection ˜ V ) extends to a morphism of algebras Cl(V ) → Cl( ˜ V ). This may as well be regarded V ֒→ Cl( as an antimorphism Cl(V ) → Cl(V ) which we call the transposition map. and moreover Clε (V ) · Clη (V ) ⊂ Cl(ε+η) mod 2 (V ). Using the universality property of Cln .e. Cl1 (V ) = ker(α + ½). and subject to the relations ei ej + ej ei = −2δij . the Clifford algebra Cl(V ) is naturally a super-algebra. or Cln . v → −v ∈ Cl(V ) extends to an automorphism of algebras α : Cl(V ) → Cl(V ). The element x† is called the adjoint of x. i. Note that α is involutive. y ∈ Cl( where “·” denotes the usual multiplication in Cl(V ). Then Cl( ˜ V ) coincides with Cl(V ) as Let (Cl( a vector space. ˜ V ).55 we deduce c(v )2 = −|v |2 g. Note that for any u. α2 = ½. i. where as usual ev denotes the (left) exterior multiplication by v . using the universality property of Clifford algebras.2.. DIRAC OPERATORS usually denoted by Cl(V ). Note that Cl(V ) = Cl0 (V ) ⊕ Cl1 (V ). In other words. Set Cl0 (V ) := ker(α − ½). ∀ui ∈ V. by the universality property of the Clifford algebras. Note that (u1 · u2 · · · ur )♭ = ur · · · u1 . but its multiplication ∗ is deﬁned by ˜ V ). so that. the automorphism α naturally deﬁnes a Z2 -grading of Cl(V ). x → x♭ . Invoking again the Exercise 2. For each v ∈ V deﬁne c(v ) ∈ End (Λ• V ) by c(v )ω := (ev − iv )ω ∀ω ∈ Λ• V. v ∈ V u · v + v · u = u ∗ v + v ∗ u. ∗) denote the opposite algebra of Cl(V ). For x ∈ Cl(V ) we set x† := (α(x))♭ = α(x♭ ). . If (ei ) is an orthonormal basis of V . then we can alternatively describe Cln as the associative R–algebra with 1 generated by (ei ). +.

called the symbol of x. Λ• V is a selfadjoint. · · · ik ≤ dim V } form a basis of Cl(V ). If (ei ) is an orthonormal basis.18. is called the symbol map.15.1. (b) A K-superspace E is said to be a K-Clifford s-module if there exists a morphism of s-algebras ρ : Cl(V ) → EndK (E ). 1 ≤ i1 . Prove that ∀x ∈ Cl(V ) we have c(x† ) = c(x)∗ .16. This is an element of Λ• V .11.C)-vector space E is said to be a K. For more information we refer the reader to the excellent monograph [62]. ⊔ ⊓ For each x ∈ Cl(V ). Show that q(Λeven/odd V ) = Cleven/odd (V ). THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS Exercise 11. This shows that the symbol map is bijective since the ordered monomials {ei1 · · · eik .17.Clifford module if there exists a morphism of R–algebras ρ : Cl(V ) → EndK (E ). (a) A K(=R-.1. ρ) be a K-Clifford module. ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 11. 495 where the ∗ in the right-hand-side denotes the adjoint of c(x) viewed as a linear operator on the linear space Λ• V endowed with the metric induced by the metric on V . real Cl(V ) super-module. we set σ (x) := c(x)1 ∈ Λ• V . Hermitian if K = C) such that ρ(x† ) = ρ(x)∗ ∀x ∈ Cl(V ). The real theory is far more elaborate. Exercise 11. . ⊔ ⊓ In the following two subsections we intend to describe the complex Clifford modules. Example 11. then σ (ei1 · · · eik ) = ei1 ∧ · · · ∧ eik ∀eij . (c) Let (E.1. The inverse of the symbol map is called the quantization map and is denoted by q : Λ• V → Cl(V ). ρ : Cl(V ) → EndK (E ). The resulting linear map Cl(V ) ∋ x → σ (x) ∈ Λ• V. The module (E. ⊔ ⊓ We now see that what we originally called a Clifford structure is precisely a Clifford module.1. ρ) is said to be selfadjoint if there exists a metric on E (Euclidean if K = R.1.

1 . There exists a complex Cl(V )-module S = S(V ) such that Cl(V ) ∼ = EndC (S) as C−algebras. ∀i.e. =C (V. fk } be an orthonormal basis of V such that Jei = fi .0 V. V 0. .1. Jv ).1. . v ) + ig(u. The decisive step in describing the complex Cl(V )-modules is the following.0 = ker(i − J ) and V 0. i.19.5. We can now decompose V ⊗ C into the eigenspaces of J V = V 1.0 = Λ•. a skew-symmetric operator J : V → V such that J 2 = −½V .) Proof.15) of Subsection 2.2. Proposition 11.0 = spanC (ej − ifj ).496 CHAPTER 11. ek .0 ⊕ V 0. it depends on several auxiliary choices.. J ) ∼ (Above.5) which allows us to identify V 0.1 = ker(i + J ). Let n = 2k. and consider an n-dimensional Euclidean space (V. J ) h(u. The (complex) representation theory of Cln depends on the parity of n so that we will discuss each case separately. DIRAC OPERATORS 11.2. 1 ≤ j ≤ k 2 is an orthonormal basis of V 1. Alternatively. Extend J by complex linearity to V ⊗R C.1 . J )).1 = spanC (ej + ifj ). where V 1. Consider a complex structure on V . Such a J exists since V is even dimensional.2. Vc∗ denotes the complex dual of the complex space (V. while the collection 1 εj = √ (ej + ifj ).0 . The reader may want to refresh his/her memory of the considerations in Subsection 2. . Let {e1 . (see (2. f1 . g) . Set S2k := Λ• V 1. v ) = g(u. . V 1. With respect to this Hermitian metric the collection 1 εj := √ (ej − ifj ).0 )∗ .1 ∼ =C Vc∗ ∼ =C (V 1.3 Clifford modules: the even case In studying complex Clifford modules it is convenient to work with the complexiﬁed Clifford algebras Cln = Cln ⊗R C. The metric on V deﬁnes a Hermitian metric on the complex vector space (V. (The above isomorphism is not natural. . 1 ≤ j ≤ k 2 is an orthonormal basis of V 0.

where gC denotes the extension of g to (V ⊗ C) × (V ⊗ C) by complex linearity. εj ) = δij . fj = √ (εj − εj ).20.1 can be identiﬁed with complex linear functionals on V 1. The anti-commutation rules follow as in the Exercise 2.55 using the equalities gC (εi .1. (See [89] for a very nice presentation of these facts. 497 The elements w ∈ V 0. The elements w ∈ V 1. The Cl(V )-module S(V ) is known as the (even) complex spinor module. A little work (left to the reader) shows the morphism c is injective.1. and as such. ∀v ∈ V .) so that. c(fj ) = i(e(εj ) + i(εj )). To check that the above constructions do indeed deﬁne an action of Cl(V ) we need to check that. {c(ei ).0 and V 0. c(fj )}.2.0 ⊕ V 0. This boils down to verifying the anticommutation rules {c(ei ). we have to specify the action of each of the components V 1.1 . This shows S2k is naturally a Cl(V )-module.0 V. We have i 1 ei = √ (εi + εi ). ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 11. THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS A morphism of algebras c : Cl(V ) → End (S2k ) is uniquely deﬁned by its restriction to V ⊗ C = V 1.11. Note that dimC S2k = 2k so that dimC EndC (S) = 2n = dimC Cl(V ). . This completes the proof of the proposition. ⊔ ⊓ Using basic algebraic results about the representation theory of the algebra of endomorphisms of a vector space we can draw several useful consequences. c(ej )} = −2δij = {c(fi ). 2 2 c(ei ) = e(εi ) − i(εi ). w )w1 ∧ · · · ∧ w ˆ j ∧ · · · ∧ wℓ .1 . ∀ω ∈ Λ•. we have c(v )2 = −½S2k . c(fj )} = 0.0 .0 will act by exterior multiplication √ √ c(w)ω = 2e(w)ω = 2w ∧ ω. they will act by interior differentiation √ c(w )w1 ∧ · · · ∧ wℓ = − 2i(w )(w1 ∧ · · · ∧ wℓ ) = √ ℓ 2 j =1 (−1)j gC (wj . Hence.

0 V .1.498 CHAPTER 11. its twisting space can be recovered as the space of morphisms of Clifford modules W = HomCl2k (S2k . e2k we can form the element Γ = ik e1 · · · e2k ∈ Cl(V ). Exercise 11.0 V. The action of Cl2k on S2k ⊗ W is deﬁned by v · (s ⊗ w) = c(v )s ⊗ w. . Prove that with respect to these data the chiral grading of S is S+/− ∼ ⊔ ⊓ = Λeven/odd. Γ} = 0. . However this does not exhaust the family of Clifford s-modules. . ∀v ∈ V . Given a complex Cl2k -module E . ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 11.24. It is called the chirality operator deﬁned by the orientation. The chirality operator introduces a Z2 -grading in any complex Clifford module which we call the chiral grading. g) is an oriented. S⊗ ˆ denotes the s-tensor product. For any positively oriented orthonormal basis e1 . .1. ⊔ ⊓ Assume now that (V.23. The modules endowed with the chiral grading form the where ⊗ subfamily in which the twisting s-space W is purely even. DIRAC OPERATORS Corollary 11. 2k-dimensional Euclidean space.22. W complex s − space . The family of s-modules can be completely described as ˆ W . There exists an unique (up to isomorphism) irreducible complex Cl2k -module and this is the complex spinor module S2k . . The vector space W is called the twisting space of the given Clifford module. Let S = S(V ) denote the spinor module of Cl(V ). Note that Γ2 = 1 and Γx = (−1)deg x Γ ∀x ∈ Cl0 (V ) ∪ Cl1 (V ). Since {v. This means that any algebra isomorphism Cl(V ) → End (S(V )) is an isomorphism of Z2 -graded algebras. The chirality operator deﬁnes an involutive endomorphism of S. ⊔ ⊓ Remark 11. and hence a Z2 -grading of End(S).21. where W is an arbitrary complex vector space.1. E ). One can check easily this element is independent of the oriented orthonormal basis. This produces two things: it deﬁnes an orientation on V and identiﬁes S = S(V ) ∼ = Λ∗. and thus deﬁnes a Z2 -grading on S S = S+ ⊕ S− (S± = ker(±½ − Γ)). The above considerations extend to arbitrary Clifford modules.1. we deduce the Clifford multiplication by v is an odd endomorphism of S. Let J be a complex structure on V . Any complex Cl2k -module has the form S2k ⊗ W . and thus it is an element intrinsically induced by the orientation.

g) be a 2k-dimensional. This complex structure produces an isomorphism 0. this metric is unique up to a multiplicative constant. ∀y ∈ Cl(V ). ∀y ∈ Cl(V ). THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS 499 Example 11. . in which the grading of S∗ is ˆ S∗ .1.0 ∼ Λ• R V ⊗R C = Λ V ⊗ Λ V = S ⊗ (Λ V ) = S ⊗R S . RV ⊗ C = Λ To understand the chiral grading we need to describe the action of the chiral operator on Λ• R V ⊗ C.1. the chirality operator deﬁnes Z2 gradings on both S. g). ∀x ∈ Cl(V ). Using Exercise 11.1. To ﬁnd the twisting space. and the anti-automorphism ♭ to the complexiﬁed Clifford algebra Cl(V ).0 ∗ ∼ ∗ ∼ •. and S∗ . As in the real case. we set y † := α(y ♭ ) = α(y )♭ .1. Euclidean space. Thus. Moreover.1. This can be done via the Hodge ∗-operator. (11.1. The automorphism α can be extended by complex linearity α(x ⊗ z ) = α(x) ⊗ z. and the grading as a super-tensor product S⊗ the second grading is precisely the degree grading even Λ• V ⊗ C ⊕ Λodd V ⊗ C. Let (V. Then Λ• R V ⊗ C is naturally a Clifford module. while ♭ extends according to the rule (x ⊗ z )♭ = x♭ ⊗ z. More precisely we have Γ · ω = ik+p(p−1) ∗ ω ∀ω ∈ Λp V ⊗ C.26. Then for every isomorphism of algebras ρ : Cl(V ) → EndC (S(V )) there exists a Hermitian metric on S(V ) such that ρ(y † ) = ρ(y )∗ . we pick a complex structure on V whose induced orientation agrees with the given orientation of V .25.1.27. ⊔ ⊓ In order to formulate the ﬁnal result of this subsection we need to extend the automorphism α. Prove the equality 11. Let S(V ) denote the spinor module of the 2k-dimensional Euclidean space (V. it has the form ∼ Λ• R V ⊗ C = S ⊗ W.1.11.24 we deduce that forgotten. Proposition 11. This shows the twisting space is S∗ . On the other hand. so that Λ• RV ⊗ C can be given two different s-structures: the chiral superstructure. oriented.• •.1) ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 11.

30. . Proof. Let (V. . . and ρ : Cl(V ) → EndC (E ) be a complex Clifford module. for each g ∈ G. e2 . odd 1 where x0 ∈ Cleven m . ⊔ ⊓ 11. Ψ(x + x ) = x + e0 · x . . ∀s1 . and ρ as ∆⊗½W .4 Clifford modules: the odd case The odd dimensional situation can be deduced using the facts we have just established concerning the algebras Cl2k . for some isomorphism of algebras ∆ : Cl(V ) → End(S). g) be a (2k + 1)-dimensional Euclidean space.1. s2 ) := h(ρ(g)s1 . Decompose E as S⊗W . s2 ∈ S. irreducible Cl(V )-modules S+ (V ) and S− (V ) such that Cl(V ) ∼ = EndC (S+ ) ⊕ EndC (S− ) as ungraded algebras. . We leave the reader to check that this is the metric we are after. . Then E admits at least one Hermitian metric with respect to which ρ is selfadjoint.28. Denote by S2k+2 the spinor module of Cl(V ⊕ R). We view Clm as the Clifford algebra generated by {e1 .29. . . Clm ∼ = Cleven m+1 . hG := 1 |G| hg . Proof. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 11. where V ⊕ R is given the direct sum Euclidean metric and the orientation or (V ⊕ R) = or ∧ or (R). ⊔ ⊓ Corollary 11. Fix an orientation on V and a positively oriented orthonormal basis e1 . Then there exist two complex. . .1. . . . DIRAC OPERATORS Sketch of proof Choose an orthonormal basis {e1 . g ∈G Each ρ(g) is an unitary operator with respect to this metric. ρ(g)s2 ). e2k } of V . The direct sum S(V ) = S+ (V ) ⊕ S− (V ) is called the (odd) spinor module.1.1. e2k+1 . The bridge between these two situations is provided by the following general result. We leave the reader to check that this is indeed an isomorphism of algebras. and denote by G the ﬁnite subgroup of Cl(V ) generated by the basic vectors ei . . Now deﬁne 0 1 0 1 Ψ : Clm → Cleven m+1 . and x ∈ Clm . . We can now form the averaged metric. Proof. em }. and some metric on W . Lemma 11. These generate the algebra Clm+1 . denote by hg the pulled-back metric hg (s1 . . The sought for metric is a tensor product of the canonical metric on S. Pick a Hermitian metric h on S(V ) and. . Let (V. em } of the standard Euclidean space Rm+1 . g) as above. Pick an orthonormal basis {e0 .500 CHAPTER 11. e1 . The uniqueness follows from the irreducibility of S(V ) using Schur’s lemma.

⊔ ⊓ As in the previous section. (d) A connection on E. (b) A ﬁberwise injective morphism of vector bundles ı : T ∗ M ֒→ C such that.e. For more details we refer to [62]. The above result can be used to describe the complex (super)modules of Cl2k+1 . ∀x ∈ M ∗ {ı(u). ρ(u† ) = ρ(u)∗ . g) one needs several things. together with a morphism c : C → End (E) whose restrictions to the ﬁbers are morphisms of algebras. ∀u ∈ Cl(V ). 501 and we thus we get the isomorphisms of algebras − Cl(V ) ∼ = Cl(V ⊕ R)even ∼ = Endeven (S2k+2 ) ∼ = End (S+ 2k +2 ) ⊕ End (S2k +2 ).5 A look ahead In this heuristic section we interrupt a little bit the ﬂow of arguments to provide the reader a sense of direction. Let (V. For brevity. We need a Lie group G which admits a smooth morphism ρ : G → AutV . . Tautologically. (c) A bundle of Clifford modules.e. (a) A bundle of Clifford algebras C → M such that Cx ∼ = Cln or Cln . which we assume is orthogonal.1. ρ deﬁnes a representation ρ : G → GL(V ). ı(v )}C = −2g(u. we can choose Hermitian metrics on S± (V ) such that the morphism ρ : Cl(V ) → EndC S(V ) is selfadjoint. we discuss only the real case.1. and denote by AutV the group of automorphisms φ of Cl(V ) such that φ(V ) ⊂ V .11. ∀x ∈ M . i. THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS Choose an isomorphism ρ : Cl(V ⊕ R) → EndC (S2k+2 ). 11. The group Autc V is deﬁned similarly. We will not present the details since the applications we have in mind do not require these facts. The next step in our story is to glue all the pointwise data presented so far into smooth families (i.. v ∈ Tx M. v ). Then S2k+2 becomes naturally a super Cl2k+2 -module − S2k+2 = S+ 2k +2 ⊕ S2k +2 . bundles). To produce a Dirac operator on an n-dimensional Riemann manifold (M. The above collection of data can be constructed from bundles associated to a common principal bundle. g) denote the standard ﬁber of T ∗ M . using the complexiﬁed algebra Cl(V ) instead of Cl(V ).e. a vector bundle E → M . i. ∀u. The symmetry group of this principal bundle has to be a Lie group with several additional features which we now proceed to describe.

31. In concrete applications E comes with a metric.e. happen in many geometrically interesting situations. and a representation µ : G → GL(E ). Let (V.. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 11.502 CHAPTER 11.2) This commutativity can be given an invariant theoretic interpretation as follows. DIRAC OPERATORS We also need a Clifford module c : Cl(V ) → End (E ). and ρ : G → Aut (E ) be a linear representation of G. This follows from the following elementary invariant theoretic result. Consider an arbitrary principal G-bundle P → X .32.e. Let G be a Lie group. for every v ∈ V . The very pleasant surprise is that all these. such that. ∀g ∈ SO(V ). 1 In practice one requires a little more namely that ∇M is precisely the Levi-Civita connection on T ∗ M .1. The group G acts on this tensor product. Moreover. such that c(g · v )(ω ) = g · (c(v )(g −1 · ω )). it deﬁnes an orthogonal representation on the canonical Clifford module c : Cl(V ) → End (Λ• V ). and any g ∈ G. This leads to signiﬁcant simpliﬁcations in many instances. ∇E (c(α)u) = c(∇M α) + c(α)∇E u. Using the universality property of Clifford algebras we deduce that each g ∈ SO(V ) induces an automorphism of Cl(V ) preserving V ֒→ Cl(V ). ∀g ∈ G. Example 11. Assume that there exists e0 ∈ E such that ρ(g)e0 = e0 . and the above commutativity simply means that c is invariant under this action. g) be an oriented Euclidean space. ω ∈ Λ• V. To produce all the data (a)-(d) all we now need is a principal G-bundle P → M such that the associated bundle P ×ρ V is isomorphic with T ∗ M . .. (This may not be always feasible due to possible topological obstructions). the Clifford multiplication is covariant constant. With respect to these connections. E g c(v) E Ù ÛE Ùg ÛE c(g ·v) (11.33. u ∈ C ∞ (E ). ∇E u0 = 0. the chances that a Lie group G with the above properties exists are very slim. View the Clifford multiplication c : V → End (E ) as an element c ∈ V ∗ ⊗ E ∗ ⊗ E . i. Lemma 11. Any connection ∇ on P induces by association metric connections ∇M on1 T ∗ M and ∇E on the bundle of Clifford modules E = P ×µ E . v ∈ V.1.1. and we also need to require that µ is an orthogonal/unitary representation. ⊔ ⊓ Apparently. and an arbitrary connection ∇ on P . Prove the above lemma. and even more. ∀α ∈ Ω1 (M ). the diagram below is commutative. Then e0 canonically determines a section u0 on P ×ρ E which is covariant constant with respect to the induced connection ∇E = ρ∗ (∇).1. i.

where Cl(V )⋆ denotes the group of invertible elements.6 The spin group Let (V. It is thus natural to determine the subgroup x ∈ Cl(V )⋆ . where α : Cl(V ) → Cl(V ) denotes the involutive automorphism of Cl(V ) deﬁning its Z2 -grading. In general. Its impact is mainly on the æsthetics of the presentation which we borrowed from the elegant paper [7].34. but as we will see by the end of this subsection. Proposition 11.1. ∀u ∈ Cl(V ). The element x decomposes into even/odd components x = x0 + x1 . SO(V ) satisﬁes the equivariance property (11. ker ρ = (R∗ . Proof. These have the form ϕx : Cl(V ) → Cl(V ) u → ϕx (u) = x · u · x−1 .1. . By construction.. and hence a posteriori this alteration has no impact. if x ∈ Γ(V ). We will instead try to understand the Clifford group Γ(V ) = x ∈ Cl⋆ (V ) α(x) · V · x−1 ⊂ V . If (M. The corresponding Dirac operator is the Hodge-DeRham operator.1. the map ρx Cl(V ) ∋ u −→ α(x)ux−1 ∈ Cl(V ) is not an automorphism of algebras.2). g) is an oriented Riemann manifold.e. and let x ∈ ker ρ. As connections we can now pick the Levi-Civita connection and its associates. we can now build our bundle of Clifford modules starting from the principal SO bundle of its oriented orthonormal coframes. Clearly R∗ ⊂ ker ρ. the Clifford group Γ(V ) comes equipped with a tautological representation ρ : Γ(V ) → GL(V ) ρ(x) : v → α(x) · v · x−1 . ⊔ ⊓ The next two sections discuss two important examples of Lie groups with the above properties. g) be a ﬁnite dimensional Euclidean space. The candidates for the Lie groups with the properties outlined in the previous subsection will be sought for amongst subgroups of interior automorphisms. Spin.11. 11. The group of automorphisms of the Clifford algebra Cl(V ) contains a very rich subgroup consisting of the interior ones. then ρx = ±ϕx . where x is some invertible element in Cl(V ). ·) ⊂ Cl(V )⋆ . and the condition α(x)ei x−1 = ei translates into (x0 − x1 )ei = ei (x0 + x1 ).1. It turns out that all the groups one needs to build Dirac operators are these three classes: SO. ∀i. To establish the opposite inclusion choose an orthonormal basis (ei ) of V . x · V · x−1 ⊂ V . and Spinc . THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS 503 i. These are the spin groups Spin(n) and its “complexiﬁcation” Spinc (n).

Lemma 11. ⊔ ⊓ Note that since {x1 . x]s = 0 ∀i.504 This is equivalent with the following two conditions CHAPTER 11. ∀v ∈ V . (a) N (Γ(V )) ⊂ R∗ . x]s = 0. We let the reader check the following elementary fact. Hence α(N (x)) · v · (N (x))−1 = −α(x♭ ) · y † · (x♭ )−1 This means N (x) ∈ ker ρ = R∗ . and this concludes the proof of the proposition. Proof. which implies y † = α(y ♭ ) = −y . we deduce N (Γ(V )) ⊂ Γ(V ). we deduce N (x · y ) = (xy )♭ (xy ) = y ♭ x♭ xy = y ♭ N (x)y = N (x)y ♭ y = N (x)N (y ). ei } = 0. y ∈ Γ(V ). ∀x ∈ Γ(V ). Since α(x)vx−1 ∈ V . Since [·. we deduce that α({α(x) · v · x−1 }♭ ) = −α(x) · v · x−1 ∈ V. y = α(x) · v · x−1 is an element in V . For any v ∈ V we have α(N (x)) · v · (N (x))−1 = α(x♭ x) · v · (x♭ x)−1 = α(x♭ ) · {α(x) · v · x−1 } · (x♭ )−1 . The center of the Clifford algebra is the ﬁeld of scalars R ⊂ Cl(V ). On the other hand. then = −α(x♭ ) · α(x♭ )−1 · v † · x♭ · (x♭ )−1 = −v † = v. ∀y ∈ Cl(V ). In particular.35. Let x ∈ Γ(V ). that is. so that. Hence x† ∈ Γ(V ). ⊔ ⊓ Deﬁnition 11. (b) The map N : Γ(V ) → R∗ is a group morphism.36.37. Proposition 11. In particular. the even part x0 lies in the center of Cl(V ). since α(Γ(V )) ⊂ Γ(V ). α( (x♭ )−1 · v · α(x♭ ) ) ∈ V. The spinorial norm is the map N : Cl(V ) → Cl(V ) N (x) = x♭ x. (x♭ )−1 ∈ Γ(V ). x] is a superderivation of Cl(V ) we conclude that [y. (b) If x. ei } = 0. the above two equalities can be written as one [ei . ⊔ ⊓ Using the fact that x → x♭ is an anti-automorphism.1. DIRAC OPERATORS [x0 . In terms of the s-commutator.1. We ﬁrst prove that x♭ ∈ Γ(V ).1. Since this should happen for every i this means x1 = 0. α((x♭ )−1 ) · v · x♭ ∈ V. ei ] = x0 ei − ei x0 = x1 ei + ei x1 = {x1 . ∀i. ⊔ ⊓ . then x1 should be a linear combination of elementary monomials ej1 · · · ejs none of which containing ei as a factor.

1. .1. ⊔ ⊓ Exercise 11. we have a short exact sequence 1 → R∗ ֒→ Γ0 (V ) → SO(V ) → 1. every element of Γ(V ) is Z2 -homogeneous. vk ∈ V such that T = ρ(v1 ) · · · ρ(vk ). x2 = α(x2 ) = α(x)2 so we conclude that N (x)2 = N (α(x))2 . Prove that any orthogonal operator T ∈ O(V ) is a product of at most dim V reﬂections. where λ ∈ R and u ⊥ x. Since any orthogonal transformation of V is a composition of such reﬂections (Exercise). the transformation ρ(x) of V is orthogonal. then we deduce ρ(x)v = −λx + u.38. For every x ∈ Γ(V ) we get N (ρ(x)(v )) = N (α(x)vx−1 ) = N (α(x))N (v )N (x−1 ) = N (α(x))N (x)−1 N (v ). vj ∈ V . Note that ρ(Γ0 (V )) ⊂ SO(V ) = Hence. ⊔ ⊓ Set Γ0 (V ) := Γ(V ) ∩ Cleven . In particular. (b) There exists a short exact sequence of groups 1 → R∗ ֒→ Γ(V ) → O(V ) → 1. ρ(x) is the orthogonal reﬂection in the hyperplane through origin which is perpendicular to x. det T = 1 . this also establishes (c). we have N (v ) = −|v |2 g . ρ T ∈ O(V ). For x ∈ V with |x|g = 1 we have α(x) = −x = x−1 . THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS Theorem 11. Proof. (b) & (c) We only need to show ρ(Γ(V )) = O(V ). .39. i. In other words. This shows that ρ(x) is an orthogonal transformation. . Since both N (v ) and N (ρx (v )) are negative numbers. we deduce that for each T ∈ O(V ) we can ﬁnd v1 . we deduce that the only possible choice of signs in the above equality is +. Hence. it is either purely even. . .1. Incidentally. ∀v ∈ V .11. Suppose V is a ﬁnite dimensional Euclidean space.e. N (ρ(x)(v )) = ±N (v ).. (a) Note that. (a) For every x ∈ Γ(V ). ρ 505 (c) Every x ∈ Γ(V ) can be written (in a non-unique way) as a product x = v1 · · · vk . On the other hand. or purely odd. If we decompose v ∈ V as λx + u.

v ∈ V are such that |u| = |v | = 1. If dim V = 3. 0 ≤ t ≤ π/2 lies inside Spin(V ). vi ∈ V. then the path γ (t) = (u cos t + v sin t)(u cos t − v sin t). u ⊥ v . k ≥ 0. . (i) The map ρ is a group morphism . In particular. 2k}.41. It sufﬁces to look at the ﬁber ρ−1 (1) = {−1. If u. . the fact that Spin(V ) is connected would follow if we showed that any points in the same ﬁber of ρ can be connected by arcs. ⊔ ⊓ The results we proved so far show that Spin(V ) can be alternatively described by the following “friendlier” equality Spin(V ) = {v1 · · · v2k . and the map Spin(V ) ֒→ Cl(V ) is a smooth embedding. There exist short exact sequences 1 → Z2 → Pin(V ) → O(V ) → 1 1 → Z2 → Spin(V ) → SO(V ) → 1. when dim V ≥ 3.1. Since SO(V ) is connected if dim V ≥ 2.1. 96]) that Spin(V ) is in fact a Lie group.55). DIRAC OPERATORS x ∈ Γ(V ). Set Pin(V ) := and Spin(V ) := x ∈ Γ(V ). Observe that Spin(V ) is a closed subgroup of the Lie group GL( Cl(V ) ).1. and simply connected if dim V ≥ 3.2. The proof of the following result is left to the reader. Moreover. 1}. this shows that Spin(V ) is a compact topological group. it is homeomorphic to the sphere S 3 which is simply connected. ∀i = 1. then Spin(V ) is isomorphic to the group of unit quaternions (see Example 11. because |u cos t ± v sin t| = 1.29 and [44.40. The fact that ρ : Spin(V ) → SO(V ) is a covering map is an elementary consequence of the following simple observations. The morphism ρ : Spin(V ) → SO(V ) is a covering map. In particular.506 Deﬁnition 11. . This implies (see Remark 1. (iii) The subgroup ker ρ is discrete. N (x) = 1 CHAPTER 11. ⊔ ⊓ Proposition 11. the group Spin(V ) is connected if dim V ≥ 2. To prove that Spin(V ) is simply connected. Proposition 11. we argue by induction on dim V . |N (x)| = 1 . Spin(V ) is the universal cover of SO(V ). γ (π/2) = 1. = Pin(V ) ∩ Γ0 (V ). Proof.42. |vi | = 1. and in particular.1. (ii) The map ρ is continuous. . and moreover γ (0) = −1. and proper.

v (t)}. v (t) = x cos 2θ (t) + f (t) sin 2θ (t). ∀t ∈ [0. Note that σ (t) = so that σ (t) ∈ Spin(V ). σ (t)−1 (t) = cos θ − xf sin θ. Using Sard’s theorem we deduce that there exists a vector x ∈ S dim V −1 . − f sin 2 2 where we denoted the inner product in V by •. |f0 (t)| θ : [0. 1] → [0. and deﬁne v (t) := u(t)e ∈ V . f (t) := 1 f0 (t). and U is a subspace.11. SO(U ) ֒→ SO(V ). for any t. f0 (t) := v (t) − (v (t) • x)x. u ˆ(0) = u ˆ(1) = 1. Fix a unit vector e ∈ V . In particular. such that. closed path there exists a codimension one subspace U ֒→ V such that u ˆ is homotopic to a loop in Spin(U ). it sufﬁces to show that if dim V > 3. x cos θ θ − f sin 2 2 −x cos θ θ . 1] → Spin(V ). Denote by f (t) the vector obtained by applying the Gramm-Schmidt orthonormalization process to the ordered linearly independent set {x. THE STRUCTURE OF DIRAC OPERATORS 507 Note that if V is an Euclidean space. 1]. θ (0) = θ (1) = 0. We can ﬁnd a smooth map . the natural inclusion U ֒→ V induces morphisms Cl( U ) ֒→ Cl(V ). such that v (t) = ±x. set u(t) := ρu ∈ SO ( V ) . such that the diagrams below are commutative Spin(V ) i ρ Ù Ý Spin(U ) ρ Û SO(Ù V ) Ý Û SO(U ) u ˆ : [0. ˆ(t) The correspondence t → v (t) is a smooth. Spin(U ) ֒→ Spin(V ). closed path on the unit sphere S dim V −1 ⊂ V . 2π ).1. In other words. the vectors v (t) and x are linearly independent. On the other hand. Hence. Set σ (t) := cos θ + xf sin θ ∈ Cl(V ). and σ (t)xσ (t)−1 = (x cos θ + f sin θ )(cos θ − xf sin θ ) = x cos 2θ + f sin 2θ = e0 . then for every smooth.

Since the elements of Γ(V ) are either purely even. ∀t ∈ [0. x1 ] = [e1 . 1 ≤ i < j ≤ dim V } = R ⊕ q(Λ2 V ). Thus. or purely odd.43. and {x1 . . . u ˆs (t) := σs (t)−1 u ˆ(t)σs (t). en . Consider the quantization map q : Λ∗ V → Cl(V ). x] ∈ V. T1 Γ0 (V ) ⊂ R ⊕ q(Λ2 V ). . we deduce that the tangent space at 1 ∈ Γ(V ) is a subspace of E= x ∈ Cleven (V ). . Proposition 11. The Lie bracket is given by the commutator in Cl(V ). .508 In other words. en be an orthonormal basis of V . e1 } = 0. ∀v ∈ V . We can decompose x as x = x0 + e1 x1 . where x0 ∈ Cl(V )even . The next result offers a more precise description. and x1 ∈ Cl(V )odd are linear combinations of monomials involving only the vectors e2 . If we denote by U the orthogonal complement of x in V . we deduce 1 1 e1 x1 = [e1 . Then spin(V ) = q(Λ2 V ). we deduce that u1 (t) ∈ Spin(U ). Fix x ∈ E . For every s ∈ [0. 1]. . The group Γ(V ) is a Lie group as a closed subgroup of the group of linear transformations of Cl(V ). . and let e1 . and 1 us (t) := ρ− σs (t) u(t)ρσs (t) ∈ SO (V ). and as such we can identify its Lie algebra spin(V ) with a linear subspace of Cl(V ). ⊔ ⊓ We can view Spin(V ) as a submanifold of Cl(V ).1. . e1 ] = 0. xv − vx ∈ V. Proof. for s = 1 we have 1 u1 (t)x = ρ− σs (t) u(t)ρσs (t) x = ρσs (t)−1 v (t) = x. Since [x0 . 2 2 In particular this means x1 ∈ R ⊕ V ∈ Cl(V ). Observe that for s = 0 we have u ˆ0 (t) = u ˆ(t). DIRAC OPERATORS σs (t) := u ˆs (t) = cos sθ + xf sin sθ. On the other hand. 1] deﬁne CHAPTER 11. . ρσ(t) x = v (t). Repeating the same argument with every vector ei we deduce that E ⊂ R ⊕ span{ei · ej .

1. ρ∗ (x)ej )ei ∧ ej = 2 i<j xij ei ∧ ej = 2σ (x) ∈ Λ2 V. ε) → Spin(V ) such that x(0) = y (0) = 1. ei ej → ei ∧ ej .11. where σ : Cl(V ) → Λ• V is the symbol map. This gives spin(V ) ⊂ {x ∈ R ⊕ q(Λ2 V ) . then the Lie algebra morphism ρ∗ takes the form ωρ∗ (x) = − i<j g(ei . where the above bracket is the commutator of x ˙ (0) and y ˙ (0) viewed as elements in the associative algebra Cl(V ). ⊔ ⊓ To get a more explicit picture of the induced morphism of Lie algebras ρ∗ : spin(V ) → so