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- The Martian Chronicles
- Cress
- Out of the Silent Planet: (Space Trilogy, Book One)
- Our Occulted History: Do the Global Elite Conceal Ancient Aliens?
- Record of a Spaceborn Few
- Record of a Spaceborn Few
- A Closed and Common Orbit
- Ilium
- The Right Stuff
- Brief Answers to the Big Questions
- Dawn
- Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
- The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God
- Hell Divers
- The Universe in a Nutshell
- A Honeymoon in Space
- Finches of Mars
- Forever Free
- The World Without Us

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Gravity in Astrophysical Fluids: Many of the uids encountered in astrophysics are self-gravitating, which means that the gravitational force due to the uid itself exceeds the gravitational force from the external mass distribution. Arguably the most important example of self-gravitating, astrophysical uids are stars. The interstellar medium (ISM) can and cannot be self-gravitating, depending on the conditions. The intra-cluster medium (ICM) is generally not self-gravitating; rather the gravitating potential is dominated by the dark matter. Gravitational Potential: Gravity is a conservative force, which means that it can be written as the gradient of a scalar eld. Newtons gravitational potential, (x), is dened such that the gravitational force per unit mass Fg = (1)

Note that the absolute normalization of has no physical relevance; only the gradients of matter. Poisson Equation: Using Gauss divergence theorem it is fairly straightforward to show that the gravitational potential obeys the Poisson equation: 2 = 4 G (2)

(for a derivation, see Chapter 3 of Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics by Clarke & Carswell).

In general, it is extremely complicated to solve the Poisson equation for (x) given (x (see Chapter 2 of Galactic Dynamics by Binney & Tremaine for a detailed discussion). However, under certain symmetries, solutions to the Poisson equation are fairly straightforward. In particular, under spherical symmetry the general solution to the Poisson equation is (r ) = 4G 1 r

r 0

(r ) r 2 dr +

(r ) r dr

(3)

Note that the potential at r depends on the mass distribution outside of r . However, if we now compute the gravitational force per unit mass Fg (r ) = where M (r ) 4

0

d G M (r ) e r = e r dr r2

r

(4)

(r ) r 2 dr

(5)

is the enclosed mass within r . This shows that the gravitational force does not depend on the mass distribution outside of r . Newtons rst theorem: a body that is inside a spherical shell of matter experiences no net gravitational force from that shell. The equivalent in general relativity is called Birkhos theorem. This is easily understood from the fact that the solid angles that extent from a point inside a sphere to opposing directions have areas on the sphere that scale as r 2 (where r is the distance from the point to the sphere), while the gravitational force per unit mass scales as r 2 . Hence, the gravitational forces from the two opposing areas exactly cancel. Circular velocity: the velocity of a particle or uid element on a circular orbit. For a spherical mass distribution Vcirc(r ) = r d = dr G M (r ) r (6)

Escape velocity: the velocity needed for a particle or uid element to escape to innity. Vesc (r ) = 2 |(r )| (7)

Since gas cannot be on self-intersecting orbits, gas in disk galaxies generally orbits on circular orbits. The measured rotation velocities therefore reect the circular velocities, which can be used to infer the enclosed mass as function of radius. This method is generaly used to infer the presence of dark matter haloes surrounding disk galaxies. Consider a gravitational system consisting of N particles (e.g., stars, uid elements). The total energy of the system is E = K + W , where Total Kinetic Energy: K =

N i=1 1 Total Potential Energy: W = 2 1 2 2 mi vi N i=1 j =i G mi mj | r i r j |

The latter follows from the fact that gravitational binding energy between a pair of masses is proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to their separation. The factor 1/2 corrects for double counting the number of pairs. Potential Energy in Continuum Limit: To infer an expression for the gravitational potential energy in the continuum limit, it is useful to rewrite the above expression as W = where i = G mj j =1 rij 3

N

1 N mi i 2 i=1

(8)

(9)

where rij = |ri rj |. In the continuum limit this simply becomes 1 (x) (x) d3 x (10) 2 One can show (see e.g., Galactic Dynamics) that this is equal to the trace of the Chandrasekhar Potential Energy Tensor W = Wij In particular,

3

(x) xi

3 dx xj

(11)

W = Tr(Wij ) =

i=1

Wii =

(x) x d3 x

(12)

which is another, equally valid, expression for the gravitational potential energy in the continuum limit. Virial Theorem: A stable, gravitational system obeys 2K + W = 0

Actually, the correct virial equation is 2K + W + = 0, where is the surface pressure. In many, but certainly not all, applications in astrophysics this term can be ignored. Many textbooks dont even mention the surface pressure term.

Combining the virial equation with the expression for the total energy, E = K + W , we see that for a system that obeys the virial theorem E = K = W/2

Example: Consider a cluster consisting of N galaxies. If the cluster is in virial equilibrium then 2 1 N 1 G mi mj 2 m vi =0 2 i=1 j =i rij i=1 2

N

(13)

If we assume, for simplicity, that all galaxies have equal mass then we can rewrite this as Nm 1 N

N 2 vi i=1

G (Nm)2 1 2 N2

N i=1 j =i

1 =0 rij

(14)

where M = N m and is a parameter of order unity that depends on the radial distribution of the galaxies. The above equation can be used to measure the total dynamical mass M . For example, using spectroscopy to measure the line-of-sight velocities of the galaxies, and assuming isotropy, one has 2 that v 2 = 3 vlos . Isotropy also allows one to infer the mean reciprocal pair separation from the projected pair separations. This method was applied by Frits Zwicky in 1933, who inferred that the total dynamical mass in the Coma cluster is much larger than the sum of the masses of its galaxies. This was the rst observational evidence for dark matter, although it took the astronomical community until the late 70s to generally accept this notion. For a self-gravitating uid in virial equilibrium E = K = 1 1 3 2 mi vi = N m v 2 = N kB T 2 2 i=1 2

N

(16)

where the nal equality is formally only valid for an ideal uid of monoatomic particles. However, we can use the same equation for any uid (including a collisionless one), if we interpret T as an eective temperature that measures the rms velocity of the constituent particles. 5

Heat Capacity: the amount of heat required to increase the temperature by one degree Kelvin (or Celsius). For a self-gravitating uid this is 3 dE = N kB (17) dT 2 which is negative! This implies that by loosing energy, a gravitational system gets hotter!! This is a very counter-intuitive result, that often leads to confusion and wrong expectations. Below we give two examples of implications of the negative heat capacity of gravitating systems, C Example 1: Consider a satellite galaxy orbiting Earth. When it experiences friction against the (outer) atmosphere, it looses energy. This causes the system to become more strongly bound, and the orbital radius to shrink. Consequently, the energy loss results in the gravitation potential energy, W , becoming more negative. In order for the satellite to re-establish virial equilibrium (2K + W = 0), its kinetic energy needs to increase. Hence, contrary to common intuition, friction causes the satellite to speed up. Example 2: A star is a gaseous, self-gravitating sphere that radiates energy from its surface at a luminosity L. Unless this energy is replenished (i.e., via some energy production mechanism in the stars interior), the star will react by shrinking (i.e., the energy loss implies an increase in binding energy, and thus a potential energy that becomes more negative). In order for the star to remain in virial equilibrium its kinetic energy, which is proportional to temperature, has to increase; as for the satellite, the stars energy loss results in an increase of its temperature. In the Sun, hydrogren burning produces energy that replenishes the energy loss from the surface. As a consequence, the system is in equilibrium, and will not contract. However, once the Sun has used up all its hydrogren, it will start to contract and heat up, because of the negative heat capacity. This continues until the temperature in the core becomes suciently high that helium can start to fuse into heavier elements, and the Sun settles in a new equilibrium.

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