0 Up votes0 Down votes

3 views7 pagesNODE COLOURING

Apr 18, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

NODE COLOURING

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

3 views

NODE COLOURING

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- 2-Maths - IJMCAR - CLIQUE EDGE - Venkanagouda M Goudar - Paid
- graph connectivity
- Miscellaneous Properties Of Full Graphs
- 0691083363
- Demystifying Networks – the Scottbot Irregular
- On Eccentricity-Based Topological Indices and Polynomials Of Phosphorus-Containing Dendrimers
- EJOR dlsfnlsnfldksnfklsdn
- Channel Routing
- rwa
- ESSENTIALS PROGRAMMING MATHEMATICA exercises and solutions.pdf
- 2.6.1 Probability of Reaching a State
- Universal CyclesYu She Project Spellchecked
- Sub-Graph Finding Information over Nebula Networks
- bggm-I
- gd09
- 42408599 Cut Set Matrix
- m2002 ib hl p1
- 20180524.pdf
- Graph Theory
- graphgame

You are on page 1of 7

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering

National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan

{ yllai, s0942783, s0942810}@mail.ncyu.edu.tw

Abstract

For a connected graph ( , ) G V E = , a node

ranking labeling { } : 1, 2,... C V k is a mapping

such that for every path between any two vertices

u , v with ( ) ( ) C u C v = , there exists at least

one vertex w on the path with

( ) ( ) ( ) C w C u C v > = . The value ( ) C v is

called the rank of the vertex v and G is said to

be k-rankable if there exists a node ranking

labeling of G with maximum rank k . The

node ranking problem is the problem of finding

minimum k such that G is k-rankable. There

are two versions of node ranking problem, namely

offline and online. In off-line version, the node

ranking problem deals with a graph where all

vertices and edges are given in advance. In

on-line version, the vertices are given one by one

in an arbitrary order and only the edges of the

induced subgraph of given vertices are known

when the rank of each vertex has to be chosen.

The rank can not be changed after it is assigned.

This paper solved node ranking problem of corona

graphs and mesh in off-line version, and gave

on-line node ranking algorithm for sun graphs.

1 Introduction

Let ( , ) G V E = be an undirected graph where V

denotes the set of vertices and E denotes the set

of edges. G is said to be k-rankable if there is a

mapping { } : 1, 2,... C V k such that every path

between any two vertices u , v with

( ) ( ) C u C v = , there exists at least one vertex w

on the path with ( ) ( ) ( ) C w C u C v > = . The

mapping C is called a node ranking labeling of

G and the value ( ) C v is called the rank of the

vertex v . The node ranking number ( )

r

G is

the smallest integer k such that G is

k-rankable. A node ranking labeling is an

optimal node ranking labeling of G if its

maximum rank is ( )

r

G . The node ranking

problem is the problem of finding the node

ranking number ( )

r

G of a graph G . We

said the node ranking problem is solved if a

formula for the node ranking number is obtained

or an algorithm of an optimal node ranking

labeling is given. The node ranking problem is

applicable in communication network

design[3][15]; finding the minimum height of a

node separator tree of a graph [3][8][15], which

are extensively used in VLSI layout [11][14]; and

developing algorithms for planning efficient

assembly of products in manufacturing systems [4]

etc. There are two versions of node ranking

problem, off-line and on-line versions. In

off-line version, the graph with all vertices and

edges are given in advance. In on-line version,

the vertices are given one by one in an arbitrary

order together with the edges adjacent to the

vertices that are already given. The rank has to

be assigned in real time and once the rank is

assigned to a vertex, it is not changeable. Similar

to the offline version, the on-line node ranking

number is denoted as ( )

*

r

G , which is the

smallest integer k such that G is on-line

k-rankable.

Node ranking problem has been studied since

1980s. In the offline version, it is known that for

a path

n

P , 1 n , ( )

2

log 1

r n

P n = + (

[5].

For a cycle

n

C , 3 n , ( )

r 2

log 1

n

C n = + (

(

[1]. For wheel graphs

1,n

W with n vertices on

the cycle, 3 n ,

(

2 log ) (

2 1

+ =

+

n W

n r

[7]; the

node ranking number of the complete bipartite

graph

, m n

K is

( )

,

1

r m n

K m = + for m n [8];

and star graphs ) (

1 , 1

=

n n

K S with n vertices,

2 ) ( =

n r

S for 3 n [13]. An upper bound of

the node ranking number for an arbitrary tree with

n nodes was given by [3], they proposed an

( )

2

log O n n time optimal node ranking algorithm,

which was further improved to ( ) O n by [12].

There are fewer results in the on-line version. [1]

gave tight bounds for paths and cycles as

( )

*

2 2

1 2 1 log log

r n

P n n + < < + ( (

for 1 n ;

and ( )

*

2 2

log 1 2 log 1

r n

n C n + < < ( (

( (

for

3 n , respectively. The on-line version of a

complete bipartite graph with m n was proved

to be

( ) { }

*

,

1 min 1, 2 1

r m n

m K n m + + + [8]

and the on-line node ranking number of star graph

is given by [13] as 3 ) (

*

=

n r

S for 3 n .

There are several papers worked on on-line trees,

The 26th Workshop on Combi natori al Mathemati cs and Computati on Theory

108

the best known on-line node ranking algorithm for

trees which has

( )

2

O n time complexity and

( ) O n space complexity was given by [6]. [9]

proposed an online ranking algorithm for trees

using CREW PRAM model with

( )

3 2

log O n n

processors. [10] provided an optimal online

ranking algorithm for stars and an

( )

3

O n time

algorithm for arbitrary trees.

This paper established offline node ranking

number for mesh and the corona of any two

graphs and provided an on-line algorithm with

tight bound of online node ranking number for sun

graphs.

2 Offline Results for Corona Graphs

Given graphs G and H with n and m vertices

respectively, the corona of G with respect to H

denoted as H G , is the graph with vertex set

{ ( ) ( ) V G H V G n = distinct copies of ( ) V H

denoted as ( ) ( )

1 2

, , V H V H ( )}

n

V H and the

edge set ( ) E G H { ( ) E G n = distinct copies

of ( ) E H denoted as ( ) ( )

1 2

, , E H E H

( )}

n

E H {( , ) : ( ), ( ),

i i i

u v u V G v V H

} 1 i n . Figure 1 shows an example of graph

3 4

P P .

Figure1: An example of graph

3 4

P P .

Theorem 1: Let H G denote the corona of

G with respect to H. Then the node ranking

number ( ) ( ) ( )

r r r

G H G H

= +

.

Proof: First we show that ( )

r

G H

( ) ( )

r r

G H + . Let

1

f and

2

f be optimal

node ranking labeling of G and H

respectively. Let ( ) { }

1 2

, , ,

n

V u u u

G

= and

( ) { }

1 2

, , ,

m

V H v v v = ,

( ) ( )

V G H V G =

{ , i j

v which is the i-th copy of the j-th vertex of

H , } 1 , 1 i n j m . Define f as

( ) ( ) ( )

1 i i r

f u f u

H

= + for ( )

i

u V G and

( ) ( ) , 2 i j j

v v f f = for ( )

, i j i

v V H , then f is a

node ranking labeling of H G with maximum

rank ( ) ( )

r r

G H + , which implies

( ) ( ) ( )

r r r

G H G H + .

Next we show that ( ) ( ) ( )

r r r

G H G H + .

Suppose to the contrary, that

( ) ( ) ( )

r r r

G H G H < + . Let g be an

optimal node ranking of G H .

Case1: 1 , 1 i n j m , ( ) ( ) , i j i

v g u g > .

Then ( ) ( )

i r

g u H > , ( )

i

u V G . Define a

labeling ' g of G as '( ) ( ) ( )

i i r

g u g u H = ,

then ' g is a node ranking labeling of G with

maximum rank ( ) ( ) ( )

r r r

G H G H

<

,

which is a contradiction.

Case2: ( ) ( ) , i i j

g u g v < , for some 1 , i n

1 j m . Consider a labeling h of G H ,

which exchange the label of

i

u with the

minimum label of

, i j

v for those

, i j

v having

label greater than

i

u . That is, if y is the

minimum label of ( )

i

V H such that ( )

i

g u y < ,

then for all vertices

, i j

v with

,

( )

i j

g v y = , let

( ) ( )

, i j i

h v g u = , ( )

i

h u y = , and ( ) ( ) h x g x =

otherwise. Repeat the same process on h until

( ) ( )

, i i j

h u h v > for all 1 ,1 i n j m . Note

that for each exchange, since it starts from the

smallest label, the order of the ranks are not

changed in graph

i

H , and for ( ) ( )

i k

h u h u = we

must have some j that

( ) ( )

, i j k

g v g u = , since g is

a node ranking labeling of graph H G , there

must be a w on

i k

u u path with

( ) ( ) ( )

i k

h w h u h u > = , which implies h is a node

ranking labeling of H G . Since the

maximum label of h is the same as the maximum

label of g , which lead us back to case 1 and

produce a contradiction.

Let

, n m

S be the graph which contains a n-cycle

and each cycle vertex has m hairs. Since the

graph has the shape of sun, we named it as sun

graph. Figure 2 shows an example of graph

5, 2

S .

Figure 2: An example of graph

5, 2

S .

Since the sun graph

, n m

S may be viewed as

n m

C K , following corollary comes directly from

Theorem 1 by knowing that

2

( ) log 1

r n

C n = + (

(

(from [1]) and

( )

1

r m

K = .

The 26th Workshop on Combi natori al Mathemati cs and Computati on Theory

109

Corollary 1: Let

, n m

S be the sun graph of

order ( 1) n m+ . Then the node ranking number

, 2

( ) log 2

r n m

S n = + (

(

.

3 Offline Results for Mesh Graphs

In this section, we proposed an off-line ranking

algorithm for mesh graphs

n n

P P . The

algorithm produced a node ranking labeling of

n n

P P for odd n and 15 n , for even n and

18 n . Figure 3 shows an example of the graph

6 6

P P .

Figure 3: An example of graph

6 6

P P .

Algorithm Offline_Ranking_Mesh

Input : , 15 n n if n is odd and 18 n if n is

even. Each vertex is denoted as

, i j

v for

1 , i j n .

Output : An off-line rank assignment of

n n

P P .

Method:

[ ][ ] array y x holds the label of vertex

, y x

v

If ( n is odd ) Then

Step1: If x y even + = Then [ ][ ] 1 array y x = .

Step2: For 1 x = to 2 n (

(

do

Dividing the graph by x y n + = .

For 2 x n = (

(

to n do

Dividing the graph by 2 x y n + = + .

Step3: For 2 x = to 2 n (

do

Dividing the graph by 1 x y = .

For 2 1 x n = + (

(

to 1 n do

Dividing the graph by 1 y x = .

// The graph is then divided into four isomorphic

subgraphs

1 2 3 4

, , , as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: An example of graphs

1 2 3 4

, , , .

Step4: In the

1

graph, 2 1 i n = (

; call Alpha

( i ); use the label for corresponding vertices in

2

to

4

.

// i means the number of nodes on the edge of

subgraph

1

.

Else If ( n is even and 0 mod 4 n ) Then

Step1: If x y even + = Then [ ][ ] 1 array y x = .

Step2: For 4 3 x n = + to 2 4 n + do

Dividing the graph by 2 5 x y n + = + .

For 4 3 x n = + to 2 1 n + do

Dividing the graph by 1 x y = .

For 2 x n = to 2 1 n + do

Dividing the graph by 1 x y n + = + .

For 2 x n = to 3 4 2 n do

Dividing the graph by 1 y x = .

For 2 3 x n = to 3 4 2 n do

Dividing the graph by

0

3 2 3 x y n u + = = .

// The graph is divided into two isomorphic

subgraphs

1 2

, as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: An example of graphs

1 2

, .

Step3: In the

1

graph, Dividing the graph by

1

2 5 x y n u + = + = . (Repeat the same processes

for the corresponding vertices in

2

.)

// The graph is divided into two subgraphs

1 2

, as

shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: An example of graphs

1 2

, .

Step4: Dividing

1

and

2

by 1 x y = .and

0

2 1 y x n v = = respectively.

// The

1

graph is divided into two subgraphs

1 2

, and the

2

graph is divided into two

subgraphs

1 2

, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: An example of graphs

1 2 1 2

, , , .

Step5: In the

1

graph, 4 i n = ; call Alpha ( i );

In the

2

graph, ( ) 3 12 8 j n = (

; call

Alpha ( j );

In

1

and

2

, there are lines of vertices

denoted as

1 2

, , ,

l

e e e , such that

The 26th Workshop on Combi natori al Mathemati cs and Computati on Theory

110

( )

1 0 1

2 , 1 2 1 x y u c c u u + = + where

( ) 3 4 4 3 12 8 l n n = (

. Let 2 j l = (

.

Dividing

1

and

2

by

j

e and

1 j

e

+

respectively.

Let

2

u x y = + for the vertices

, y x

v on line

j

e and

3

u x y = + for the vertices

, y x

v on line

1 j

e

+

.

// The

1

graph is divided into two subgraphs

11 12

, and the

2

graph is divided into two

subgraphs

21 22

, as shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: An example of graphs

11 12 21 22

, , , .

Step6: In

11

, Dividing the graph by

1

2 2 2 1 y x n n v = + = (

.

// Graph

11

is divided into two subgraphs

11 11

,

as shown in Figure 9.

In

12

, Dividing the graph by

( )

2

2 2 4 16 1 y x n n v = + + = (

(

.

// Graph

12

is divided into two subgraphs

12 12

,

as shown in Figure 9.

In

21

, ( )

3 1

2 1 p u u = ; ( )

0

1 2 q v = ;

call Beta ( , p q );

In

22

, ( )

0 3

2 1 p u u = ; ( )

0

3 2 q v = ;

call Beta ( , p q );

Figure 9: An example of graphs

11 11 12 12

, , , .

Step7: In

11

, ( )

0 1

2 2 i u v = ; call Alpha ( i );

In

11

, let ( )

2 1

2 1 p u u = ;

( )

1 0

2 1 q v v = ; call Beta ( , p q );

In

12

, ( )

0 2

2 2 i u u = ; call Alpha ( i );

In

12

, let ( )

0 2

2 1 p u u = ;

( )

2 0

2 1 q v v = ; call Beta ( , p q );

Else // n is even and 0 mod 4 n .

Step1: If x y even + = Then [ ][ ] 1 array y x = .

Step2: For 4 3 x n = + (

to 2 3 n + do

Dividing the graph by 2 4 x y n + = + .

For 4 3 x n = + (

to 2 1 n + do

Dividing the graph by 1 x y = .

For 2 x n = to 2 1 n + do

Dividing the graph by 1 x y n + = + .

For 2 x n = to 3 4 n (

do

Dividing the graph by 1 y x = .

For 2 2 x n = to 3 4 n (

do

Dividing the graph by

0

3 2 2 x y n u + = = .

// The graph is divided into two isomorphic

subgraphs

1 2

, which is the same as in Figure 5.

Step3: In the

1

graph, Dividing the graph by

( )

1

2 2 2 8 x y n n u + = + = (

(

. (Repeat the same

processes for the corresponding vertices in

2

.)

// The graph is divided into two subgraphs

1 2

, as

shown in Figure 6.

Step4: Dividing

1

and

2

by 1 x y = and

0

2 y x n v = = respectively.

// The graph

1

is divided into two subgraphs

1 2

, and the graph

2

is divided into two

subgraphs

1 2

, as shown in Figure 7.

Step5: In

1

, 4 i n = ; call Alpha ( i );

In

2

,

( ) 3 4 1 2 i n ( = (

; call Alpha ( i );

In

1

and

2

, there are lines of vertices

1 2

, , ,

l

e e e such that

1

2 x y u c + = + , where

( )

0 1

1 2 1 c u u , ( ) ( ) 2 8 2 4 3 l n n = + + + (

(

.

Let 2 j l = (

, dividing

1

and

2

by

and

1 j

e

+

respectively.

Let

2

u x y = + for the vertices

, y x

v on line

j

e and

3

u x y = + for the vertices

, y x

v on line

1 j

e

+

.

// Graphs

1

and

2

are divided into subgraphs

11 12

, and

21 22

, respectively, as shown in

Figure 8.

Step6: Dividing the graph

11

by

( )

1

2 2 2 8 2 y x n n v = + + = (

(

.

// Graph

11

is divided into two subgraphs

11 11

,

as shown in Figure 9.

Dividing graph

12

by

( )

2

2 2 2 16 y x n n v = + + = (

(

.

// Graph

12

is divided into two subgraphs

12 12

,

as shown in Figure 9.

In graph

21

, let ( )

3 1

2 1 p u u = ;

( )

0

1 2 q v = ; call Beta ( , p q );

In graph

22

, let ( )

0 3

2 1 p u u = ;

( )

0

3 2 q v = ; call Beta ( , p q );

Step7: In graph

11

, let ( )

0 1

2 2 i u v = ; call

Alpha ( i );

In graph

11

, let ( )

2 1

2 1 p u u = ;

( )

1 0

2 1 q v v = ; call Beta ( , p q );

In

12

, let ( )

0 2

2 2 i u u = ; call Alpha ( i );

In graph

12

, let ( )

0 2

2 1 p u u = ;

( )

2 0

2 1 q v v = ; call Beta ( , p q );

End of Algorithm Offline_Ranking_Mesh_Graph

Procedure Alpha ( int i )

If ( ) 3 i Then {

3 p i = (

; 1 q i p = ;

The 26th Workshop on Combi natori al Mathemati cs and Computati on Theory

111

// p means the number of nodes of the

dividing line P.

1 1

p p p = + ;

Dividing the graph by

1

: 2 2 1 I y x p c = + .

Dividing the graph by

1

: 2 2 1 P x y p c + = + + .

// The graph

1

is divided into three

subgraphs

11, 12, 13

as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: Subgraphs

11, 12, 13

.

In graph

11

, call Alpha ( p );

If ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 11 r r p

P p + and

( ) ( ) ( ) 11

2 1

r r p

P and

( ) ( )) 11 r p

P Then {

In the

12

graph, dividing the

graph by

0

: 4 a x y n + = .

2 q q = ;

}

Else If ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 11 r r p

P p + and

( ) ( ) ( ) 11

2 1

r r p

P > and ( ) ( )) 11 r p

P

Then {

Dividing graph

12

by

0

: 6 a x y n + = .

3 q q = ;

}

Else {

Dividing graph

12

by

0

: 8 a x y n + = .

4 q q = ;

}

// The graph

12

is divided into two

subgraphs

1 2

, as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11: An example of graphs

1 2

, .

In

1

, call Beta ( , p q );

1 i i p = ; c + + ;

In

2

, call Beta ( , p q );

In

13

, call Alpha ( i );

Return ( )

1 r

; // ranking of

1

}

Else If ( ) 2 i = Then Rank the vertices individually

with 2, 3, 4.

Else Rank the vertex with 2. // 1 i =

End of Procedure Alpha

Procedure Beta ( int p , int q )

If ( ) 3 q Then {

In

1

, there are dividing lines :

1 2

, , ,

q

a a a

as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12: An example of dividing lines

1 2

, , ,

q

a a a .

If q is odd Then {

Dividing the graph by

2 q

a

( (

.

// The dividing line divides the graph into

two the same graphs.

2 q q = (

;

}

If q is even Then {

Dividing the graph by

q 2+1

a .

2 q q = ;

}

}

Else If ( ) 2 q = Then call Gamma ( p );

Else Rank by optimal ranking as path // 1 q =

call Beta ( , p q );

End of Procedure Beta

Procedure Gamma ( int p )

If ( ) 3 p Then {

// graph

1

is divided into two subgraphs:

1 2

,

by

1

a .

In

1

, there are dividing lines:

1 2

, , ,

p

b b b .

Figure 13 shows

1 2

, and

1 2

, , ,

p

b b b .

Figure 13: Graphs

1 2

, and

1 2

, , ,

p

b b b .

If p is odd Then {

Dividing the graph by

p 2

b

(

(

.

// The graph is divided into two identical

subgraphs.

2 p p = (

;

}

If p is even Then {

The 26th Workshop on Combi natori al Mathemati cs and Computati on Theory

112

Dividing the graph by

2 1 p

b

+

.

2 p p = ;

}

}

Else If ( ) 2 p = Then Rank the nodes using 2 to 5.

Else Rank the nodes individually with 2 and 3.

call Gamma ( p );

End of Procedure Gamma

Theorem 2: The labeling given by Algorithm

Offline_Ranking_Mesh is a node ranking labeling of

n n

P P for odd n and 15 n , for even n and

18 n .

Proof: In the algorithm, we always assign greater

rank for the dividing vertices, and on every path

between two nodes of the same rank there is at least

one dividing line, so the labels given by the

algorithm must follow the node ranking condition for

n n

P P .

Theorem 3: The maximum rank given by Algorithm

Offline_Ranking_Mesh for odd n and 15 n is

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 6 1 6 8 1 12 n n n n n + + + + + + ( ( ( (

( (

10 x + ; and for even n, 0 mod 4 n and 20 n

is ( ) ( ) {

4 2 8 1 max 3 4 2 8 , n n n n n + + + + ( (

(

} 2 4 8 5 n n + (

(

; and for even n 0 mod 4 n and

18 n is ( ) 4 2 8 1 n n n + + ( (

( (

( ) { ( ) max 3 4 2 8 , 2 4 3 12 n n n n + + + + ( ( ( (

( (

( ) ( ) } 3 12 8 3 24 9 n n x + + + + ( (

(

, where

0 if 0, 2

2 if 4

4 if 6, 8

5 if 10

y

y

x

y

y

=

=

=

for ( ) ( )

3 12 3 12 y n n = + (

.

Theorem 3 gave us an upper bound for the node

ranking number of a mesh

n n

P P for 17 n .

For 16 n , Table 1 shows the node ranking number

of

n n

P P which is obtained by a brute force

computer testing, and is denoted by the formula that

represents the relation between n and ( )

r n n

P P .

Table 1: ( )

r n n

P P for 16 n .

n ( )

r n n

P P

1 7 n 2 1 n

8 10 n 2n

11 2 1 n +

12 2n

13 2 2 n +

14 2 1 n +

15 2 3 n +

16 2 2 n +

4 Online Results

In this section, we proposed an on-line ranking

algorithm for sun graphs

, n m n m

S C K = , and

analyze both time and space complexities of our

algorithm. Notice that there are ( 1) n m+

vertices in

, n m

S . Let

1

v to

( 1) n m

v

+

represent

the order of the coming vertices.

Algorithm Online_Ranking_Sun_Graph

We use structure array Sun[] to record the

information of each node, and use value_record[]

as the counter of the index values appearance.

Input:

n: the number of vertices on the cycle of

, n m

S .

m: the number of vertices on the hairs of

, n m

S .

i

v for 1 ( 1) i n m + the vertices together with

the adjacent vertices

j

v for 1 j i < .

Output:

An online node ranking labeling of

, n m

S .

Method:

For 1 i = to ( ) 1 m n + do {

If

i

v has no adjacent vertices, ( ) 2

i

rank v =

Else if

i

v has only one neighbor

j

v for

j i < and

j

v has two neighbors with

degree >1 then ( ) 1

i

rank v =

Else {

1. Set the occurrence record to zero except rank 1

(which is set to 2)

2. Applying online tree algorithm given in [5] to

loop through each adjacent path, go as long as

possible, to find the max value j that has

occurred at least twice

3. Find minimum available rank k that is greater

than j

4. Set ( )

i

rank v k =

}

}

End of Algorithm Online_Ranking_Sun_Graph

Theorem 4: Algorithm Online_Ranking_Sun has

( )

( )

3

O mn time complexity and ( ) O mn space

complexity.

Proof:

First we analyze the time complexity of the

algorithm. Since a Sun graph with ( ) 1 m n + vertices

has exactly ( ) 1 m n + edges, each time when insert a

new node

i

v , the looping for finding max j used

online tree algorithm which takes

2

( ) O i times , so

after ( ) 1 m n + vertices inserted, the whole process

will be at most ( ) ( )

2

2 2

1 2

1

n

m

+ + +

+

( ) ( )

3

O

mn

= times. For the space complexity, we

use structure array with ( ) 1 m n + elements to store

the node plus one array to record the rank occurrence,

the total space complexity then is

( ) ( ) ( ) O mn O mn O mn + = .

The 26th Workshop on Combi natori al Mathemati cs and Computati on Theory

113

Theorem 5: For a sun graph

, n m

S with 7 n is

( )

*

2 , 2

log 2 log 6

r n m

n S n m + + ( (

( (

.

Proof:

Since the online node ranking number is at least as

much as the offline node ranking number, we know

that

( )

*

2 ,

log 2

r n m

n S + (

(

. Let

, n m

S be the

graph which contains a n-cycle for 1

i

v i n and

each cycle vertex has m hairs denoted as

,

for 1 ,1

i j

u i n j m . If we use adversary

analysis, for the best we can do, saving rank 1 for the

vertices which are known as hair, assume that the

vertices of

, n m

S are coming as follows:

1 2 3 4

, , , v v v v coming in first, so they get labels

2,3,2,4.

For 3 3 i n , all

, i j

u for 1 j m

comes before

2 i

v

+

.

Then comes

2,

for 1

n j

u j m

and

,

for 1, 2, 1 and 1

i j

u i n j m = .

At last,

n

v then

,

for 1

n j

u j m .

In this coming order, before

n

v comes in, no vertex

can be recognized as end vertex, hence online tree

algorithm worked for this case which is the worst

case and our algorithm guarantee the maximum rank

is no more than

2

log 6 n m + (

(

, hence we have

( )

*

, 2

log 6

r n m

S n m + (

(

, which complete the proof.

5 Conclusion

There are several papers discussed the node

ranking problem. In this paper, we presented

off-line node ranking number for the corona graphs

and gave labeling algorithm for mesh. We also

gave on-line algorithm for sun graphs. Both time

and space complexities of our algorithms are

analyzed.

References

[1] E. Bruoth and M. Hornak, On-line ranking

number for cycles and paths, Discussiones

Mathematicae, Graph Theory 19, pp.

175-197, 1999.

[2] J.S. Deogun, T. Kloks, D. Kratsch, and H.

Muller, On vertex ranking for permutation

and other graphs, Lecture Notes in

Computer Science 775, pp. 747-758, 1994.

[3] A. V. Iyer, Optimal node ranking of trees,

Information Processing Letters 28, pp.

225-229, 1988.

[4] Md. A. Kashem, X. Zhou, T. Nishizeki,

Algorithm for generalized vertex-rankings

of partial k-trees, Theoretical Computer

Science 240, pp. 407-427, 2000.

[5] M. Katchalski, W. McCuaig, and S. Seager,

Ordered colorings, Discrete Mathematics

142, pp. 141-154, 1995.

[6] Y.-L. Lai and Y.-M. Chen, An Improves

On-line Node Ranking Algorithm of Trees,

Proceedings of the 23

rd

Workshop on

Combinatorial Mathematics and

Computation Theory, pp. 345-348, April

19-20, 2006.

[7] Y.-L. Lai and Y.-M. Chen, On Node

Ranking of Graphs under Strong

Orientation, Proceedings of the 24

th

Workshop on Combinatorial Mathematics

and Computation Theory, April 27-28, 2007.

[8] Y.-L. Lai and Y.-M. Chen, On Node

Ranking of Complete r-partite Graph,

Journal of Combinatorial Mathematics and

Combinatorial Computing 67, 2008.

[9] C. Lee and J. S. Juan, Parallel Algorithm for

On-Line Ranking in Trees, Proc. Of the 22

nd

Workshop on Combinatorial Mathematics

and Computational Theory, May 20-21, pp.

151-156, 2005.

[10] C. Lee and J. S. Juan, Jun. 2005, On-Line

Ranking Algorithms for Trees, Proc. of Int.

Conf. on Foundations of Computer Science,

Monte Carlo Resort, Las Vegas, Nevada,

USA,. June 27-30, pp. 46-51, 2005.

[11] C.E. Leiserson, Area-efficient graph layouts

(for VLSI), Proceedings of the 21st Annual

IEEE Symposium on Foundations of

Computer Science, pp. 270-281, 1980.

[12] A. A. Schaffer, Optimal node ranking of

trees in linear time, Information Processing

Letters 33, pp. 91-96, 1989.

[13] G. Semanisin and R. Sotak, Kosice, A note

on on-line ranking number of graphs,

Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal 56, pp.

591-599, 2006.

[14] A. Sen, On a graph partition problem with

application to VLSI layout, Information

Processing Letters 43, pp. 87-94, 1992.

[15] P. de la Torre, R. Greenlaw, A. A. Schffer,

Optimal edge ranking of trees in polynomial

time, Algorithmca 13, pp. 592-618, 1995.

The 26th Workshop on Combi natori al Mathemati cs and Computati on Theory

114

- 2-Maths - IJMCAR - CLIQUE EDGE - Venkanagouda M Goudar - PaidUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- graph connectivityUploaded byjohnjabaraj
- Miscellaneous Properties Of Full GraphsUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- 0691083363Uploaded bymarieta_dantas
- Demystifying Networks – the Scottbot IrregularUploaded byCatur Setiyawan
- On Eccentricity-Based Topological Indices and Polynomials Of Phosphorus-Containing DendrimersUploaded bybalamaths
- EJOR dlsfnlsnfldksnfklsdnUploaded byGaurav Lathwal
- Channel RoutingUploaded byHarsh Tibrewal
- rwaUploaded byshifali
- ESSENTIALS PROGRAMMING MATHEMATICA exercises and solutions.pdfUploaded byalan aban
- 2.6.1 Probability of Reaching a StateUploaded byt881141
- Universal CyclesYu She Project SpellcheckedUploaded byDavid Berge
- Sub-Graph Finding Information over Nebula NetworksUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- bggm-IUploaded byretardedshrimp_19806
- gd09Uploaded byRocco Balsamo
- 42408599 Cut Set MatrixUploaded byVegemboga
- m2002 ib hl p1Uploaded byGloria Taylor
- 20180524.pdfUploaded byJames Dunkelfelder
- Graph TheoryUploaded byPhuc Tri Nguyen
- graphgameUploaded byjeewon7
- sdarticle (1)Uploaded byterradeath
- Ds Da-2 Lab 18bca0045Uploaded byShamil Iqbal
- Landscape ModelingUploaded byEduardo Yassuda
- Social Network AnalysisUploaded byLove Jain
- TotDOre.pdfUploaded bysoroosh
- iete-elan.ac.in_SolQP_soln_AC10_sol.pdfUploaded bySuttiBala
- chp9_3Uploaded byVakidi Srikanth Reddy
- 12 Graphs Post3upUploaded byIbad Mohammed
- Tabu Search an Advanced TutorialUploaded byZougoulougou
- 00386007Uploaded bytousif_1994_111

- Roman DominanceUploaded bychithu1234
- Graph Theory With Applications - J. Bondy, U. MurtyUploaded byvkniranjan
- liuty (1)Uploaded bychithu1234
- Recent Results in Independence DominationUploaded bychithu1234
- Inverse Non Split DominationUploaded bychithu1234
- Hattingh (1)Uploaded bychithu1234
- HotUploaded bychithu1234
- Vertex Separation of Unicyclic GraphUploaded bychithu1234
- Independent DominationUploaded bychithu1234
- Circular ArcUploaded bychithu1234
- Domination ParametersUploaded bychithu1234
- Brain Tumor 2Uploaded bychithu1234
- Brain TumorUploaded bychithu1234
- Brain Tumor 1Uploaded bychithu1234

- MTUploaded byPawan_Singh_6974
- CSF213-L5Uploaded byNilayan Ahmed
- Discrete Maths TreesUploaded byOcira Oyaro
- SweetyUploaded byPawan Kumar
- Planar GraphsUploaded byvbsvathsala
- FlowchartsUploaded bySuresh Rajiv
- Manufacturing Technology (ME461) Lecture12Uploaded byJayant Raj Saurav
- ANNUploaded byTeam Straight
- Data Structures With JavaUploaded bydure
- Fundamental Data StructuresUploaded bySumanth_Yedoti
- Trading Resources in Quantum Shannon TheoryUploaded byMark M. Wilde
- Numerical LabUploaded byBabji Babu
- Regex - How to Check That a String is a Palindrome Using Regular Expressions_ - Stack OverflowUploaded bysiete
- Synopsys Random-Constraints ProposalUploaded bylaplaceiitkgp
- Seminar Ppt(Minimax Algorithm)Uploaded byAshish Sabade
- 100526Uploaded byvol2no5
- Logic.overviewUploaded byReni Hoxhaj
- Essentials of MetaheuristicsUploaded byxjackx
- Binary HeapUploaded byMohamaad Sihatth
- solu8Uploaded byBasil Aziz Tinah
- COS3751-202_2013_2_b.pdfUploaded byFreePDFs
- aiUploaded byHima Bindu
- AI FINAL FILE[1]Uploaded byMohit Arora
- 2. Questions on Methods of Analysing CircuitsUploaded bykibrom atsbha
- DS-UCP-2017Uploaded byVineetPandey
- 3.1 Tuple Relational CalculusUploaded byAbhideepBakshi
- Chapter7_JSP_Takeshi and Ryohei NakanoUploaded byAlberto Peñaranda Gutierrez
- primitive network and graph theory.pdfUploaded byDhavalVora
- Binary Tree 1Uploaded byNeha
- Adiabatic Quantum Computation – a Tutorial for Computer ScientistsUploaded byBruna Israel

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.