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International Journal of Chemical Science and Technology

Universal Research Publications. All rights reserved

ISSN 2249-8532 Original Article Nutritional and sensory qualities of wheat biscuits fortified with defatted Macrotermes subhyalinus
NIABA Koffi P.V *1,2, GBASSI K. Gildas3, BEUGRE Avit G1, AMANI Thierry2, MALAN K. Anglade2, 3 and GNAKRI Dago1. 1 Laboratoire de Nutrition et de Scurit Alimentaire, Unit de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences et Technologie des Aliments, Universit Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Cte dIvoire; 2 Laboratoire National de la Sant Publique, 18 BP 2403 Abidjan 18, Cte dIvoire; 3 Dpartement de Chimie Analytique, Chimie Gnrale et Minrale, Unit de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universit FHB, BPV 34 Abidjan 01, Cte dIvoire; Corresponding Author: NIABA Koffi, Email: Received 18 January 2013; accepted 05 February 2013 Abstract Deffated Macrotermes subhyalinus Flour (DMF) was mixed with wheat flour for the manufacturing of biscuits. Varying amounts of DMF were added for a maximum content of 25 (w/w). The code for the biscuit control was BB0 and the code for the biscuit enriched for example with 25 of DMF was BB25. Physical characteristics and nutritional and sensory qualities of biscuits were determined. Biscuit protein levels increase with incorporation of DMF. Values increased from 08.33% (BB0) to 20.13% (BB25). The fat content down from 20.22% (BB0) to 18.42% (BB25). The rate of carbohydrate down from 65.78% (BB0) to 51.83% (BB25). The ash and cellulose contents increase respectively from 0.34% (BB0) to 1.84% (BB25) and 0.85% (BB0) to 2.44% (BB25). The pH of biscuits increase with the incorporation of DMF but the difference was not significant (p 0.05). As for the total acidity, it decreases in the various types of biscuits, but this decrease was not significant (p 0.05). Total sugar content, reducing sugar content, non-reducing sugar content and starch decrease with the increase of DMF. Protein density increases significantly with incorporation of DMF, whereas lipid density decreases. The mineral composition increases in the same direction as the DMF incorporation. The diameter of biscuits increases gradually when the DMF content increased (38.06 mm to 46.83 mm from BB0 to BB25). The thickness of biscuits decreases significantly from 5.73 mm (BB0) to 3.02 mm (BB25). Mass, volume and specific volume of biscuits vary slightly despite the incorporation of DMF. Sensory analyzes show that the biscuits are acceptable up to 25% of DMF incorporation. 2013 Universal Research Publications. All rights reserved Keywords : Macrotermes subhyalinus, Fortified biscuits, Nutritionnal value, sensorial quality. 1. Introduction For many years, edible insects contribute to the diet of different populations in the world. Consumption of insects is an important adjunct in the diet of many people in the tropics (Sodjinou, 2002). There are more than 400 known species of edible insects (Allotey and Mpuchane, 2003). In Africa, many insect species have been used as traditional foods among indigenous populations (Sutton, 1988). Macrotermes subhyalinus, simply called "Termite" is an important part of the diet in some regions of the tropics. In Cte d'Ivoire, termites emerge with the first rains at the end of the dry season. These termites have a high nutritional value (Niaba et al., 2011). In Kenya, the communities of Victoria Lake recommend termites for children and pregnant women (Kinyuru et al., 2009). Termites are eaten raw or fried, usually in the context of a complete meal or with tapioca, bread or maize (Kinyuru et al., 2009). Ordinarily, the termites are not used as emergency food during shortages, but are included as a planned part of the diet throughout the year or when seasonally available (Banjo et al., 2006). Consumption of termites could be greatly improved using modern technical of drying and storage. The current traditional cooking and drying cause problems of acceptability and food hygiene. Given the shortages of food reserves in sub-Saharan Africa, the use of insects as food


International Journal of Chemical Science and Technology 2013; 3(1): 25-32

should be encouraged. It is in this context that Kinyuru et al. (2009) worked on the incorporation of Macrotermes subhyalinus in wheat flour to manufacture wheat buns. In this study, we propose to incorporate Macrotermes subhyalinus in wheat flour to manufacture wheat biscuits and to assess the nutritional and sensory qualities of such products. 2. Material and Methods 2.1. Sampling Termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) were collected in Abobo-Doum, village located in the municipality of Attcoub (Abidjan, Cte d'Ivoire). Once collected, termites were transported in coolers to the laboratory. The taxonomic identification of the species was carried out in the Laboratory of Animal Biology and Cytology (University Nangui Abrogoua). Wheat flour was purchased commercially. 2.2. Preparation of defatting Macrotermes subhyalinus flour Termites were cleaned and rinsed with water, drained and spread on trays and dried in an oven at 65 C during 72 h. They were subsequently stripped of their wings, ground in a blender and sieved to obtain Macrotermes subhyalinus flour. 3 g of this flour were dispersed in 10 ml of hexane under magnetic stirring during 1 h. The mixture was decanted on vacuum to separate hexane from fat residue. This process was repeated twice and the final residue obtained was dried at room temperature during 24 h. The residue corresponding to the defatted Macrotermes subhylanus flour (DMF) was preserved at 4 C. 2.3. Evaluation of the biochemical composition of simple and mixed flours The biochemical compositions of DMF and wheat flour were assessed. A mixture of both flours was conducted in varying proportions. Mixed flours were codified as presented in table 1. Table 1: Proportions of wheat flour and DMF
CODE Flour FB0 FB5 FB10 FB15 FB20 FB25 Wheat flour 100% 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% DMF 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

BB0 : Wheat biscuit, Control biscuit ; BB5: Wheat biscuit with 5% of DMF, biscuit test ; BB10 : Wheat biscuit with 10% of DMF, biscuit test ; BB15 : Wheat biscuit with 15% of DMF, biscuit test ; BB20 : Wheat biscuit with 20% of DMF, biscuit test ; BB25 : Wheat biscuit with 25% de DMF, biscuit test. 2.5. Physicochemical characterization of biscuits The pH was determined according to AOAC method (1990) and total acidity according to the method described by Obiri-Danso et al. (1997). Moisture, ash and cellulose were determined according to AOAC method (1995). Proteins were assayed according to Kjedhal method (BIPEA, 1976). The fat was extracted according to AOAC method (1995) using the soxhlet. Sugars were analyzed after extraction with ethanol 80% (v/ v). Total sugars were determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method (Dubois et al., 1956), reducing sugars were determined by the method of Bernfeld (1955) and non-reducing sugars were obtained by difference. Carbohydrates were assayed by the method of Bertrand and Thomas (1910). Starches were calculated as the difference between total carbohydrates and sugars by the coefficient 0.9. Energy value corresponding to the available energy was calculated using the specific coefficients of Atwater and Benedict (1902) for proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Nutrient density was calculated according to the method of Favier et al. (1995). Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine minerals according to their own wavelengths. 2.6. Physical characterizations of biscuits Physical parameters such as diameter, thickness, spread and specific volume were determined using AOAC procedure (2000). Diameter of biscuits was measured by laying six biscuits edge to edge with the help of a scale rotating them 90 and again measuring the diameter of six biscuits (mm) and then taking average value. Thickness was measured by stacking six biscuits on top of each other and taking average thickness (mm). Weight of biscuits was measured as average of values of four individual biscuits with the help of digital weighing balance. Spread ratio was calculated by dividing the average value of diameter by average value of thickness of biscuits. Specific volume: The biscuit is placed in a container of given volume. The latter is filled with the selected particles with and without the sample biscuit. The amount of particles excluded when filling in the presence of the sample after weighing allows deducing the volume of the biscuits. Based on its weight, the volume is converted into specific volume. 2.7. Sensory Evaluation Sensory attributes like color, flavor, taste, texture, appearance and overall acceptability were evaluated by trained judges using 7-Point Hedonic Score System. The panelist gives score from seven (7) to one (1) to the product, ranging from like extremely to disliked extremely to find out the most suitable composition of biscuit. 2.8. Statistical Analysisxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Experiments were carried out in triplicate. Results were expressed as meanstandard deviations. Data were analyzed under ANOVA and the Duncan test was applied

FB0: (Wheat flour, control sample) 2.4. Formulation of biscuits The nature of ingredients used in the manufacture of biscuits is shown in table 2. Table 2: Nature of ingredients used in the manufacture of biscuits
Ingrdients(g) Wheat flour (g) DMF (g) Sugar (g) Sunflower oil (g) Baking powder (g) Vanilla essence (g) Water (g) Total dough weight (g) BB0 225 0 56 66 0.25 13.5 60 425 BB5 213.75 11.25 56 66 0.25 13.5 65 429 BB10 202.5 22.5 56 66 0.25 13.5 70 435 BB15 191.25 33.75 56 66 0.25 13.5 75 441 BB20 180 45 56 66 0.50 13.5 80 448 BB25 168.75 56.25 56 66 0.50 13.5 95 462


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to compare mean values. Statistical significant was set at p <0.05. 3. Results 1. Biochemical composition of wheat flour and DMF Table 3 shows the biochemical composition of wheat flours and Deffated Macrotermes subhyalinus flour (DMF). DMF has a high content of protein (65.41%) and ash (12.74%) but a low content of carbohydrate, fat and cellulose with respective values of 13.89%, 1.82% and 6.14%. Wheat flour has a high value in carbohydrate (85.46%) and low content in protein, ash, fat and cellulose (10.04%, 0.45%, 2.73% and 1, 32% respectively). Table 3: Proximate composition of raw materials
Parameter (%) 87.00b 0.84 Dry Matter 10.04b 0.14 Protein 2.73b 0.07 Fat 85.46b 0.80 Carbohydrate 0.45b 0.01 Ash 1.32b 0.03 Crude Fiber Energy 333.58a 1.55 406.37b 0.64 (Kcal/100g) Values are mean standard deviation of three measurements (n = 3). The same letter in the same row index indicates that there is no significant difference between samples for the parameter concerned (p<0.05). Deffated Macrotermes subhyalinus Flour (DMF) 90.40a 0.88 65.41a 0.68 1.82a 0.08 13.89a 0.20 12.74a 0.70 6.14a 0.15 Wheat flour

2. Biochemical composition of mixture of wheat flour and DMF The addition of varying amounts of DMF in wheat flour changes the biochemical composition of the resulting mixture (Table.4). The protein content increases from 10.04% (FB0) to 24.41% (FB25). The carbohydrate content decreases from 85.46% (FB0) to 67.12% (FB25). The cellulose content increases from 1.32% (FB0) to 2.98% (FB25). The ash content increases from 0.45% (FB0) to 2.96% (FB25). The fat down and the differences were not significant (2.73% for BB0 to 2.53% for FB25). Energy value decreased from 406.37 kcal/100 g of dry matter for FB0 against 388.89 kcal/100 g of dry matter for FB25. 3. Biochemical composition of wheat biscuits supplemented with DMF Table.5 shows the biochemical composition of wheat biscuits supplemented with DMF. The protein content of biscuits increases with the incorporation of DMF (from 08.33% to 20.13% for the biscuit control BB0 and the biscuit test BB25). The ash content increases from 0.34% (BB0) to 1.84% (BB25). The cellulose content increases from 0.85% (BB0) to 2.44% (BB25). The carbohydrate content increases from 65.78% (BB0) to 51.83% (BB25). The fat decreases from 20.22% (BB0) to 18.42% (BB25).

Table 4: Proximate composition of mixed flour (Wheat flour / DMF)

Parameter (%) Dry Matter Protein Fat Carbohydrate Ash Crude Fiber Energy (Kcal/100g) FB0 87.00 0.84 10.04a 0.14 2.73a 0.07 85.46a 0.80 0.45a 0.01 1.32a 0.03 406.37e 0.64

FB5 87.50 0.62 14.91b 0.54 2.71a 0.09 79.66b 1.30 1.38b 0.09 1.34a 0.13 402.67d 2.56

FB10 87.90 1.24 16.92c 0.13 2.66b 0.13 76.75c 0.97 1.90bc 0.1 1.77b 0.21 398.62c 1.85

FB15 88.30 0.66 19.26d 1.7 2.62b 0.03 73.90d 0.28 2.31cd 0.4 1.91b 0.09 396.22c 1.76

FB20 88.60 0.96 21.55e 0.12 2.57c 0.07 70.63e 0.94 2.63d 0.44 2.62c 0.13 391.85b2.81

FB25 88.90ca0.80 24.41f 0.37 2.53c 0.02 67.12f 0.58 2.96c 0.05 2.98d 0.07 388.89b0.24

Values are mean standard deviation of three measurements (n = 3). The same letter in the same row index indicates that there is no significant difference between samples for the parameter concerned (p <0.05). FB0 (Wheat Flour), DMF (Defatted Macrotermes subhyalinus Flour) Table 5: Proximate composition of biscuits
Parameter (%) Dry Matter Protein Fat Total Carbohydrate Ash Crude Fiber Energy (Kcal/100g) BB0 95.52 0.75 08.33a 0.13 20.22d 0.34 65.78a 1.5 0.34a 0.06 0.85a 0.07 481.82d 3.21

BB5 95.26 0.49 10.46b 0.26 19.46c 0.15 63.51b 1.9 0.62b 0.03 1.20b 0.35 475.87c 1.17

BB10 94.78 0.56 12.50c0.15 19.01b0.22 61.12c0.66 0.94c0.07 1.32b0.16 470.41b2.23


BB15 94.32 0.87 15.79d 0.11 18.81b 0.78 57.82d 1.35 1.25d0.10 1.64c0.21 470.36b2.30

BB20 94.25 0.79 18.39e0.19 18.77ab0.56 54.77c0.89 1.57c0.39 1.74c0.15 468.59b1.95


BB25 94.19b0.58 20.13f0.45 18.42a0.74 51.83f 0.93 1.84f0.58 2.44d0.41 462.70a2.27

Values are mean standard deviation of three measurements (n = 3). The same letter in the same row index indicates that there is no significant difference between samples for the parameter concerned (p <0.05). sugar content and starch decrease with the increase of 4. Physicochemical characteristics of wheat biscuits DMF. Total sugar content vary from 20.74% (BB0) to supplemented with DMF. 19.49% (BB25). Reducing sugar content varies from The physicochemical characteristics of wheat biscuits 09.57% (BB0) to 09.14% (BB25) and non-reducing sugar supplemented with DMF are shown in Table 6. Total content varies from 11.17% (BB0) to 10.35% (BB25). acidity of biscuits decrease with the incorporation of DMF. Starch content varies from 41.30% (BB0) to 31.30% However, the pH increases without significant difference (BB25). Protein density significantly increases with the (p 0.05). pH values vary from 5.65 (BB0) to 5.81 (BB25). incorporation of DMF (1.73 for BB0 and 4.35 for BB25). Total acidity values increase from 3.50 meq/100 g of dry Lipid density decreases with the incorporation of DMF matter (BB0) to 2.55 meq/100 g of dry matter (BB25). without significant difference (4.19 for BB0 and 3.96 for Total sugar content, reducing sugar content, non-reducing BB25). International Journal of Chemical Science and Technology 2013; 3(1): 25-32


Table 6: Physicochemical characteristics of biscuits

pH Total Acidity (mq/100g) Total sugar (%) Reducing sugar (%) Non-Reducing sugar(%) Starch (%) Protein density (g/100kcal) Lipid density (g/100kcal) BB0 5.65a 0.08 3.50a 0.32 20.74d 0.71 09.57a 0.45 11.17d 0.29 41.30f 1.60 1.73a0.03 4.19a 0.02 BB5 5.70a 0.02 3.21a 0.47 20.43c 1.45 09.43b 0.68 11.00c 0.82 39.85e 0.9 2.20b0.05 4.10a 0.01 BB10 5.74a0.12 2.93a0.35 20.36c0.89 09.45b0.21 10.91c0.57 37.77d1.24 2.66c0.03 4.04a0.03 BB15 5.75a 0.08 2.80d 0.66 19.85b 1.24 09.29c 0.58 10.56b0.85 35.65c0.8 3.35d0.01 4.00a0.04 BB20 5.79a0.17 2.74a0.24 19.74b1.19 09.21d0.36 10.53b0.71 33.09b0.8 3.93e0.05 4.00a0.02 BB25 5.81a0.45 2.55a0.87 19.49a0.78 09.14a 0.75 10.35a0.45 31.30a0.40 4.35f0.01 3.96a0.01

Values are mean standard deviation of three measurements (n = 3). The same letter in the same row index indicates that there is no significant difference between samples for the parameter concerned (p <0.05). Table 7: Mineral composition (mg/100 g DM) of wheat biscuits Mineral(mg/100g) BB0 BB5 BB10 BB15 BB20 BB25 02.21a 0.08 12.06b 0.92 25.66c1.12 44.00d 0.98 52.66e0.77 71.70f0.45 Sodium 17.43a 0.96 31.33b 0.74 42.56c1.15 54.18d 1.87 74.58e0.89 79.92e1.19 Calcium 258.85a 1.52 295.82b 1.14 299.66b1.57 300.82b 1.63 305.35b1.47 333.40c1.87 Phosphorus a b c d e 117.74 1.32 173.45 1.47 232.00 1.35 304.33 1.66 323.12 1.24 364.63f1.87 Potassium a b c d c 109.83 1.33 116.59 1.54 123.12 1.66 132.04 1.71 138.64 1.16 142.81f1.28 Magnsium a ab bc c d 10.80 0.33 13.04 0.55 15.13 0.26 17.89 0.54 26.97 0.71 28.95d0.43 Iron 1.18a0.03 2.59b0.24 3.24b0.33 4.49c0.66 6.02d0.84 8.66e0.74 Copper a ab abc bc c 3.08 0.12 4.16 0.25 5.64 0.17 6.38 0.13 7.68 0.19 13.26d0.27 Zinc Values are mean standard deviation of three measurements (n = 3). The same letter in the same row index indicates that there is no significant difference between samples for the parameter concerned (p <0.05). Table 8: Physical characteristics of biscuits BB0 BB5 BB10 BB15 BB20 BB25 Diameter (mm) 38.06a 0,.5 41.23b 0.87 41.61b0.38 42.86c 0.70 44.53d0.49 46.83e0.15 Thickness (mm) 5.73e 0.11 5.10d 0.26 4.17c0.13 3.86b 0.06 3.63b0.10 3.02a0.09 a b c d e 06.64 0.17 08.09 0.45 09.97 0.40 11.10 0.30 12.26 0.31 15.48f0.51 Spread ratio b a a a a Weight (g) 6.94 0.44 5.86 0.43 5.82 0.77 5.77 0.63 5.73 0.21 5.56a 0.46 Volume (cm3) 8.52b 0.80 5.80a 0.46 5.67a0.13 5.57a0.17 5.46a0.25 5.21a0.12 Specific volume 1.23b 0.05 0.99a 0.06 0.97a0.12 0.96a0.11 0.95a0.12 0.94a0.08 (cm3/g) Values are mean standard deviation of three measurements (n = 3). The same letter in the same row index indicates that there is no significant difference between samples for the parameter concerned (p <0.05). 5. Mineral composition (mg/100 g of dry matter) of wheat biscuits supplemented with DMF. The mineral composition (Table 7) of wheat biscuits increases gradually with the incorporation of DMF. Macrominerals including sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium increase significantly (p<0.05). Sodium varies from 02.21 mg (BB0) to 71.70 mg (BB25), potassium from 117.74 mg (BB0) to 364.63 mg (BB25), calcium from 17.43 mg (BB0) to 79.72 mg (BB25), phosphorus from 258.85 mg (BB0) to 333.40 mg (BB25) and magnesium from 109.83 mg (BB0) to 142.81 mg (BB25). Micro-minerals also increase with significant difference (p<0.05). Iron varies from 10.80 mg (BB0) to 28.95 mg (BB25), copper from 1.18 mg (BB0) to 8.66 mg (BB25) and zinc from 3.08 mg (BB0) to 13.26 mg (BB25). 6. Physical characteristics of wheat biscuits supplemented with DMF. The physical characteristics of wheat biscuits are shown in Table 8. Diameter of biscuits significantly increases with incorporation of DMF. The diameter of BB0 is 38.06 mm while that of BB25 is 46.83 mm. The thickness decreases significantly with respective values of 5.73 mm (BB0) and 3.02 mm (BB25). Weight, volume and specific volume decreases slightly without significant difference (p 0.05). 7.pOrganoleptic characteristics of wheat biscuits supplemented with DMF. Organoleptic characteristics of wheat biscuits are shown in Table 9. Sensory analysis showed attractiveness of panelists for wheat biscuits test. According to the panelists, no significant difference was noted between the color of BB5 and BB10 biscuits test and the biscuit control BB0. The difference in color appears from 15% of DMF incorporation. The biscuit aroma test remained constant and was similar to the control. Biscuits test have a texture similar to that of control. After 20% of DMF incorporation, the texture of biscuits was significantly different. The incorporation of DMF improves the taste of biscuits compared to the control. Biscuits test have the same acceptability as biscuits control.


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Table 9: Sensory evaluation of biscuits

BB0 Colour Aroma Texture Taste Appearance Overall Acceptability 6.90 0.79 6.35a 0.71 6.30a 0.34 5.20a 0.70 6.10a 0.24 6.15a 0.41

BB5 6.20 0.45 6.65a 0.60 6.10a 0.12 5.40a 0.90 5.85a 0.14 5.95a 0.17

BB10 6.10 0.25 6.25a0.34 6.40a0.30 5.45a0.14 5.80a0.34 5.85a0.33


BB15 5.25 0.15 6.75a 0.12 6.25a 0.19 5.75a 0.25 5.80a0.40 5.80a0.31

BB20 5.84 0.23 6.85a0.17 5.15ab0.16 5.90a0.16 5.65a0.80 5.80a0.42


BB25 5.20a0.20 6.90a0.23 5.05b0.21 6.65b 0.18 5.70a0.31 5.75a0.23

The same letter in the same row index indicates that there is concerned (p <0.05). 4. DISCUSSION The manufacture of wheat biscuits supplemented with defatted Macrotermes subhyalinus flour requires the formulation of Macrotermes subhyalinus flour and the purchase of wheat flour. Macrotermes subhyalinus has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of the flour. The protein and carbohydrate contents significantly increased compared to the non-defatted flour of Macrotermes subhyalinus. The levels of protein and carbohydrate in non- defatted Macrotermes subhyalinus which were respectively 38.2% and 03.0% (Niaba et al., 2011) take after defatting the values of 65.41% and 13.89%. This improvement is due to the concentration of nutrients after lipids removal. According to Srivastava (2010), flour obtained after oil extraction has improved nutritional properties. The influence of defatting on the biochemical composition of food was highlighted by Meit (2008) and Serrem (2011). Wheat flour is less rich in protein (10.54%) compared to DMF (65.41%) and has a significant level of carbohydrate (85.46%) compared to that of DMF (13.89%). The different levels of fortification of wheat flour with DMF changed the biochemical composition of the mixed flour. The protein content of mixed flour increased. This increase seems to be due to the high protein content of DMF. Mixed flour shows an increase in ash and cellulose contents and a low content in fat. The content of carbohydrate decreased compared to the values of DMF. Biscuits fortified with DMF have new characteristics. Humidity increases with the incorporation of DMF. This increase could be attributed to proteins that facilitate water retention (Talati et al., 2004; Tyagi et al., 2007; Njintang et al., 2007; Kumar et al., 2010). The protein content significantly increased compared to the control (141.65% for BB25). This value is the same as that observed in the work of Olaoye et al. (2007) concerning wheat biscuits supplemented with legumes. Fat in wheat biscuits significantly increased. The addition of butter and sunflower oil during production could explain this increase (Serrem et al., 2011). Fat is an energy source for biscuits (Olaoye et al., 2007). It contributes to the appearance of biscuits, improves the flavor and gives a good feeling in the mouth (Pareyt and Delcour, 2008; Odoemelam, 2005, Zoulias et al., 2002). The carbohydrate content down because DMF is not a major source of carbohydrate. This decrease was highlighted by Mohsen et al. (2009); Serem et al. (2011) and Islam et al. (2012) in the fortification of wheat flour with defatted soy flour. The ash content increases because

no significant difference between samples for the parameter of a high content of ash in DMF. Wheat biscuits present low total acidity. This is most likely due to a departure of volatile acidity and organic compounds during cooking. The pH is an important parameter in the formulation of biscuits. An acidic pH is associated with the development of a pleasant taste (Ogunjobi and Ogunwolu, 2010). Sugar content (reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars) is the consequence of sucrose addition in the preparation of biscuits. The starch content of biscuits down due to an absence of starch in the DMF. The nutritional density of a nutrient is the amount this nutrient provided by 100 kcal of the food. Protein density with gluten increases with the incorporation of DMF. The values reach 4.35 g/100 kcal for BB25. A density lower than 5.5 g of protein for 100 kcal is recommended for this type of product (FAO/WHO, 2006). Lipid density is higher in wheat biscuits but remains constant. The values reach 3.96 g/100 kcal for BB25, beyond the values for processed foods cereal for infants (FAO / WHO, 2006). The mineral composition of biscuits with gluten improves with the gradual incorporation of DMF. Macrotermes subhyalinus is an important source of minerals (Niaba et al., 2011). The macronutrients (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium) have important concentrations in the biscuits as well as the micronutrients (iron, copper and zinc). Biscuits with gluten have physical characteristics that change with the incorporation of DMF. The diameter increases as the thickness decreases. According to Baljeet et al. (2010), these two parameters always move in opposite directions. The spread ratio of biscuits which is the ratio between the diameter and the thickness increases. Spread ratio is the most important parameter to assess the quality of biscuits (Bose and Shams-Ud-Din, 2010). Biscuits with high values of spread ratio are best (Eissa et al., 2007). The incorporation of DMF in wheat flour reduced gluten content, reduces the elasticity of the pasta as well as the thickness of biscuits (Serem et al., 2011). The weight of biscuits down with the incorporation of DMF. This can be explained by the hydrophilic nature of proteins contained in the DMF, which causes hyperhydration of proteins in the flour mixture. The consequence of this hyperhydratation is the formation of dry and brittle pasta. The quality of biscuits is generally evaluated by its specific volume which is a technological parameter that can adequately inform on the textural properties of biscuits (Igrejas et al., 2002; Manoharr et al., 2002; Pedersen et al., 2004, Fustier et al., 2007). Biscuits control has a higher


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specific volume as biscuits test. Specific volume of biscuits test decreases with the incorporation of DMF. According to Bartolucci (1997) a high specific volume corresponds to a light biscuit. The decrease of the specific volume of biscuits test in our study may be explained by the dilution of gluten responsible for gas retention during cooking. Sensory evaluation of biscuits highlighted their sensory characteristics. Regarding to color, wheat biscuits are clear, but the incorporation of DMF attenuated this clarity. Clarity of biscuits is partly due to the whiteness of the wheat flour. Siddiqui et al. (2003) found that the decrease in biscuits color was related to the high level of proteins. The amino acids of proteins react with reducing sugars during baking in the Maillard reaction. Biscuits color becomes darker with increasing of proteins (Dhingra and Jood, 2001; Iwe, 2007; Ubbor and Akobundu, 2009; Mohsen et al., 2009). Color is an important parameter to correctly assess the baked biscuits (Hussain et al., 2006). In terms of flavor, wheat biscuits do not undergo significant change with the incorporation of DMF. This could be explained by the defatting of Macrotermes subhyalinus. In fact, the fat is responsible for the flavor in foods. Wheat biscuits have a smooth texture. This texture after 20% of DMF incorporation undergoes deterioration. Cooking conditions, status of components such as fiber, starch, protein (gluten) and the amount of water absorbed during the kneading of the pasta contributes to the texture of the final product (Gomez et al ., 2003; Bakke and Vickers, 2007; Akhtar et al., 2008; Serrem et al., 2011). Taste is the main factor that determines the acceptability of a product (Banureka and Mahendran, 2009). According to the panelists, wheat biscuits have good taste. Incorporation of DMF has not significantly improved the taste of the biscuits. Termites keep their taste during cooking (Oningbinde and Ekpo, 2007). In sum, all the wheat biscuits were declared acceptable. Conclusion The incorporation of DMF in wheat flour significantly improves the protein content of mixed flours. Biscuits from these flours were rich in nutrients. Protein content increased enormously as well as mineral content. Sensory analysis showed that the addition of termites has been accepted by the panelists for a maximum content of 25% DMF incorporation. Given the richness in nutrients of termites, the presentation of these insects in forms food like biscuits could serve as food for young children. References Akhtar S, Anjum F, Rehman S, Sheikh M, Farzena K. 2008. Effect of fortification on the physico-chemical and microbiological stability of whole wheat flour. Food Chem., 112:156-163. Allotey J, Mpuchane S. 2003. Utilization of useful insects as a food source. Afr. J. of Food Agr. Nutr. and Dev. 3: 2. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 16th ed. AOAC International Arlington, VA, 250 p. AOAC. 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis chemists, 15th ed (AOAC Arlington) Virginia, USA.

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Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82, 16371644.

Source of support: Nil; Conflict of interest: None declared


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