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# CHP6.

## LAMINATE WITH MIDPLANE SYMMETRY Membrane behavior

We consider in the following a laminate with midplane symmetry. The total thickness of the laminate is denoted as h. It consists of n plies. Ply number k has a thickness denoted as ek. Plane x,y is the plane of symmetry

Displacement Field The elastic displacement at each point of the laminate is assumed to be two dimensional, in the x,y plane of the laminate. It has the components: uo , vo. The strains can be written as:

## In an analogous manner ; with

and with

Therefore

Remarks
Aij are independent of the stacking order of the plies. ( ????? ) Normal stress resultants Nx or Ny create angular distortions (A13 , A23). This coupling will disappear if the laminate is balanced. (A13 = A23 = 0 ???)

It is possible to substitute the stress resultants Nx, Ny, Txy with the global average stresses

Calculating the term without knowing the thickness h (but using percentage of certain direction of plies p (in %)

Inversion

Determination of apparent moduli Ex, Ey, Gxy, nxy, nyx of LAMINATE related to membrane behavior

Given: The stress resultants are given and denoted as: Nx, Ny, Txy. Estimate the ply proportions in the four orientations. Assume that plies are identical (same material and same thickness).

Problem : The apparent elastic moduli of the laminate and the associated coupling coefficients, in order to estimate strains under loading (deformation) The minimum thickness for the laminate in order to avoid rupture of one of the plies in the laminate

## Principle and procedure of calculation

Given : Nx, Ny Txy Fiber and matrix material Assume : all plies have the same material. 1st step Estimate the ply proportions in the four orientations.

OR

## 3rd step Determine Apparent Moduli of laminate

Inversion of matrix

## Determine : Ex, Ey, Gxy,

xy,

yx,

OF LAMINATE !!!!

Determine : h
h (unknown)

ox,

oy,

xy

Principle and procedure of calculation 4th step Determine h using Tsai-Hill criteria ( failure condition for each ply ( or direction)
Introducing h for each ply or direction

## Principle and procedure of calculation

( in l, t coordinate )

Flexure Behavior

and

OR WITH

(for ply k)