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Artikel JTM 00-00 , JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, FTI, ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya

60111, Telp. : (031)5946230. Fax : (031)5922941

Effect of Transfer Time During Austempering of Nodular Cast Iron FCD 450
Indra Sidharta1 dan Wajan Berata1 1. Laboratorium Metalurgi Jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS Kampus ITS Keputih Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 Telp. /Fax : (031) 591 5060 E-mail : sidarta@me.its.ac.id Abstract Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) requires accurate process control regarding temperature and time. In reality however, there is one parameter that is often disregarded. The parameter is transfer time, i.e. time that is used to transfer nodular cast iron from austinizing furnace into salt bath furnace. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the effect of transfer time on the mechanical properties and microstructures of austempered nodular cast iron FCD 450. The FCD 450 was austenized at 900C for 1 hour, then transferred to a salt bath furnace for austempering process with transfer time variation of 15, 68, and 120 seconds. Austempering was carried out at 316C for 1 hour. Results showed that longer transfer time tended to decrease the hardness and impact energy of the austempered FCD 450.The tendency rose from the decrease of bainite content due to the longer transfer time as indicated by the microstructures. Keywords : Nodular cast iron, transfer time, austempering, bainite. Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) is the most recent addition to the nodular cast iron family which has outstanding mechanical properties such as strength, toughness, hardness and wear resistance [1, 2]. Having potential for up to 50% cost savings, 10% less dense than steel and stronger per unit weight than aluminium are other interesting features that increase the utilization of ADI especially in automotive, agriculture, and military industries [3, 4]. ADI is produced by austempering of nodular cast iron. Nodular cast iron is austenized at a given temperature and holding time and then transferred to salt bath furnace for quenching and austempering process. Correct heat treatment (austempering) process yields a microstructure that responsible for the stupendous features of ADI. During austempering ADI experiences two stage of transformation. In the first stage austenite decomposes into bainitic ferrite and carbon enriched austenite, a structure that is often referred as ausferrite. If the holding time in austempering temperature is extended, the carbon enriched austenite transforms into ferrite and carbide. The ausferrite, depicted in Figure 1 is the structure that is responsible for the exceptional mechanical properties of ADI. Therefore, the austempering process should be closely controlled in order to avoid the formation of ferrite and carbide during second stage of austempering. The decomposition of carbon enriched austenite during second stage of austempering leads to the formation of carbide that is brittle and having adverse effect for application of ADI.

Figure 1. Typical microstructure of ADI. The microstructure consist of dark feathery shape ferrite and light etched austenite. Austempering was done at 343 C for 2 hours [5].

There are several critical factors that influence the successfulness of austempering of nodular cast iron, as follows [1, 4]: Austempering temperature and austempering time Transfer time from the austenitizing environment to the austempering 1

BNI Urip Sumoharjo SBY; a.c.: 0049577731; a.n.: Ir. Sudjud Darsopuspito, MT

Artikel JTM 00-00 , JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, FTI, ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Telp. : (031)5946230. Fax : (031)5922941 environment. The quench severity of the austempering bath The maximum section size and type of casting being quenched The hardenability of the castings The mass of the load relative to the quench bath. Among those critical factors, transfer time receives less consideration; even though in practical during fabrication stage of ADI the transfer time is essential to the final microstructure of ADI as well as its mechanical properties. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of transfer time on the mechanical property and microstructure of unalloyed nodular cast iron FCD 450 during austempering process. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS This research utilized nodular cast iron FCD 450, which can be categorized as unalloyed nodular cast iron, as specimen. The FCD 450 was casted using medium frequency induction furnace into standard Y block shape in accordance of JIS G 5502 [6], as shown in the Figure 2. The casting process was carried out by PT. Pakerti Riken Indonesia. The chemical composition of the Y block is given in Table 1. Specimens were taken from bottom section of the Y block and subsequently machined into standard impact test specimen according to JIS G 2204 [6]. specimens were taken out from the furnace and then transferred to salt bath furnace for quenching and austempering process. Different transfer time i.e. 15, 68, and 120 seconds were applied during transfer process, as represented in Figure 3 by curved line.
Table 1. Chemical composition of FCD 450 used in the experiment

Elements C Si Mn Cr S P Cu Mg

Quantity (wt.%) 3.43 3.62 0.27 0.020 0.014 0.026 0.127 0.053

Quenching and austempering were conducted in salt bath furnace containing molten salts mixture of KNO3 and NaNO3 with composition ratio of 6 : 9. Austempering process was carried out at 316 C for 60 minutes. Microstructure analysis, impact test and hardness test were performed in order to investigate the effect of transfer time to the characteristics of the austempered FCD 450.

Figure 3. Schematic process of austempering carried out in the research.

Figure 2. Dimension of standard Y block. Units in mm

The austempering process conducted in this research is shown schematically in Figure 3. The specimens were heated at austenitizing temperature of 900 C for 60 minutes in electric heating furnace. Afterwards, the

Microstructure analysis involved standard metalography procedure using 2 % nital as etching reagent. After etching, the specimens were examined using light optical microscope Olympus equipped with digital still camera. Impact test was performed at room temperature on unnotch specimen using Charpy Impact Test method, and Brinnel hardness test was done on the surface of specimens. Results are discussed thoroughly in 2

BNI Urip Sumoharjo SBY; a.c.: 0049577731; a.n.: Ir. Sudjud Darsopuspito, MT

Artikel JTM 00-00 , JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, FTI, ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Telp. : (031)5946230. Fax : (031)5922941 order to determine the effect of transfer time. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Microstructure of as-cast FCD 450 is shown in Figure 4. The microstructure of ascast FCD 450 consists of nodule graphite which is surrounded by ferrite phase in pearlitic matrix. The microstructure is often referred as bulls eye structure, a typical microstructure of as-cast nodular cast iron. Transformation of microstructures of the FCD 450 after austempering with different transfer time i.e. 15, 68, and 120 seconds is depicted in Figure 5. The microstructure consists of nodule graphite, bainite and small amount of retained austenite. Nodule graphite is represented as holes instead of full nodule graphite. Most likely, the graphite was damaged during grinding and polishing stage, leaving holes in the matrix. During austenitizing most of nodule graphites are dissolved in the austenite. In austempering stage, diffusion of carbon occurs, leading to the decomposition of austenite into bainite. The morphology of the bainite observed in this research is different in comparison to the bainite obtained in previous study of austempering of unalloyed nodular cast iron [7]. Typically, austempering of unalloyed nodular cast iron produces needlelike acicular or lower bainite in the temperature range of 300-350 C [5, 7]. and few amount of white network of retained austenite. The morphology is referred as inverse bainite. Unlike conventional bainite in which ferrite is the dominant phase, inverse bainite is dominated by cementite [8, 9]. The first phase to form is plate-like spine cementite which grows directly from austenite then subsequently becomes surrounded by a rim of ferrite and a non-lamellar eutectoid mixture of carbide and ferrite rim. Inverse bainite is often developed in high carbon steel [10]; however, the mechanism regarding its transformation is virtually unknown and requires further investigation. As can be seen in Figure 5, different transfer time yields few changes in the microstructure. The number of the inverse bainite decreases as the transfer time increases. The morphology of the inverse bainite is also affected with the increase of transfer time. The inverse bainite obtained in transfer time 15 seconds displays a finer morphology of inverse bainite compare to the bainite obtained by other transfer time. The changes indicate that the transformation is similar to the transformation of fine and coarse pearlite with the increase of transfer time. The increase of retained austenite network occurs as the transfer time increases above 15 seconds, even though it is not significant. The effect of different transfer time on hardness and impact energy is shown in Figure 6. The hardness of as-cast FCD 450 increases after austempering process regardless the transfer time. The rise of the hardness is obvious, due to formation of bainite structure during austempering process. In general, the hardness tends to decrease as the transfer time becomes longer, even though it is not significant. The tendency can be explained from changes of bainite morphology after different transfer time is applied. As described previously that the decreasing number of bainite occurs when longer transfer time is applied. Therefore, the hardness tends to decrease because the number of bainite is also decrease as transfer time is increased. Impact energy of austempered FCD 450 also has similar tendency as hardness. Austempering produces significant increase of 3

Figure 4. Microstructure of as-cast FCD 450. Magnifications 500X.

However, this experiment produced bainite structures which have morphology of plate-like white layer which probably cementite, dark sheath of ferrite and/or bainite,

BNI Urip Sumoharjo SBY; a.c.: 0049577731; a.n.: Ir. Sudjud Darsopuspito, MT

Artikel JTM 00-00 , JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, FTI, ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Telp. : (031)5946230. Fax : (031)5922941 impact energy of as-cast specimens regardless

Figure 5. Light optical micrographs of FCD 450 after austempering with different transfer time. Magnifications 500X. (a) Transfer time of 15 seconds. (b) Transfer time of 68 seconds (c) Transfer time of 120 seconds.

Figure 6. Effect of different transfer time application during austempering on hardness and impact energy of nodular cast iron FCD 450.

BNI Urip Sumoharjo SBY; a.c.: 0049577731; a.n.: Ir. Sudjud Darsopuspito, MT

Artikel JTM 00-00 , JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, FTI, ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Telp. : (031)5946230. Fax : (031)5922941

Figure 7. Schematic illustration of austempering process superposed to a C-T diagram of an unalloyed nodular cast iron [11]. Solid line indicates ideal process of austempering and dashed line indicates austempering process with longer transfer process. (P = Pearlite, B = Banite, M = Martensite)

the transfer time used during the process. Impact energy is decreasing with the increase of transfer time. The tendency is also related to the number of bainite formed after austempering. As can be seen in Figure 5, that the number of bainite is decrease as the transfer time used is increased. The fact influences the impact energy so the impact energy is decreases as the transfer time increases. Both tendency of hardness and impact energy of FCD 450 after being austempered with different transfer time can also be approached from the formation of pearlite. During transfer process from heating furnace to salt bath furnace prior to austempering, the specimen was in contact with ambient air and may be subjected to air cooling. Depending on the transfer time that is the duration of the specimen exposed to air cooling, the specimen may contact pearlite formation curve as indicated in Figure 7. Figure 7 shows two austempering processes schematically superposed in a C-T diagram of unalloyed nodular cast iron.

The solid line represents ideal austempering, i.e. typical austempering process which produces fully bainitic structure. If the specimen is in contact with ambient air for longer period and assumed to be air cooled, the the cooling curve may contact the pearlite formation zone, as represented by dashed line in Figure 7. Thus, specimen may undergo formation of austenite to pearlite. Work by Corobbo and Arias [12] also suggested that longer transfer time may induce the formation of pearlite. The formation of pearlite may cause the decrease of hardness and impact energy. In general, pearlite structure has lower hardness than bainite structure [13]. Consequently, if the pearlite is formed during transfer process and the number of bainite decreases, the hardness is decreased. The decrease of impact energy is also influenced by pearlite formation. Work by Tokta et al [14] demonstrates that pearlitic matrix in nodular cast iron yields lower impact strength than that with lower bainitic or upper bainitic matrix. Therefore, it can be concluded 5

BNI Urip Sumoharjo SBY; a.c.: 0049577731; a.n.: Ir. Sudjud Darsopuspito, MT

Artikel JTM 00-00 , JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, FTI, ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Telp. : (031)5946230. Fax : (031)5922941 that if pearlite is formed during transfer process, the impact energy may be as well decreased. Moreover, toughness in ADI which can also be represented by impact energy is also influenced by the morphology of ferrite and austenite, and volume fraction of austenited produced after austempering [5]. Therefore, if some of austenite that is required to enhance toughness is transformed into pearlite during exposure to ambient air, the volume fraction of austenite after austempering is fall. Thus, the final toughness of the specimen is decrease. However, the volume fraction of austenite has not been studied in this research. Therefore, further investigation need to be carried out in order to confirm the effect of transfer time in the volume fraction of austenite. CONCLUSION The hardness and impact energy of ascast FCD 450 are improved after austempering process regardless the transfer time. In general, transfer time influences the final microstructure and mechanical properties of austempered nodular cast iron FCD 450. Hardness and impact energy tend to decrease if the duration of transfer time is extended. The tendency occurs due to the decreasing number of bainite formed during austempering as the transfer time is prolonged. Formation of pearlite, which may take place due to longer transfer time, is also responsible for the tendency. The experiment yields different morphology of bainitic structure compare to those of typical austempered ductile iron. The morphology obtained in this experiment is inverse bainite that has different morphology compares to normal bainite. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are grateful to Ruruh Satriyo Utomo, who has assisted this research. The supports of material nodular cast iron FCD 450 and casting process by PT. Pakerti Riken Indonesia is also gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES [1]. Kim Y.-J., et al., 2008, "Investigation Into Mechanical Properties of Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI) in Accordance with Austempering Temperature", Materials Letters, 62, 357-360. [2]. Laino S., Ortiz H. R. and Dommarco R. C., 2009, "The Influence of Austempering Temperature on the Wear Resistance of Ductile Iron under Two Different Tribosystems", ISIJ International, 49, 132-138. [3]. Zimba J., Simbi D. J. and Navara E., 2003, "Austempered Ductile Iron: An Alternative Material for Earth Moving Components", Cement & Concrete Composites, 25, 643-649. [4]. Tun T. and Lwin K. T., 2008, "Optimizing the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Austempered Ductile Iron for Automobile Differential Gear", Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, 18, 199-205. [5]. Yang J. and Putatunda S. K., 2004, "Improvement in Strength and Toughness of Austempered Ductile Cast Iron by a Novel Two-Step Austempering Process", Materials and Design, 25, 219-230. [6]. Japaneese Standards Association, 2008, JIS Handbook Ferrous Materials and Metallurgy, Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo. [7]. Sidharta I. and Berata W., 2007, "Karakter Mekanik dan Struktur Mikro FCD 500 Hasil Austempering dalam Pembuatan Austempered Ductile Iron", Seminar Nasional Teknologi Industri XIII, Surabaya, Indonesia, 6-7 Maret, 506-1 - 506-8. [8]. Reynolds W. T., Aaronson H. I. and Spanos G., 1991, "A Summary to the Present Diffusionists Views on Bainite", Materials Transactions, 32, 737-746. [9]. Bhadeshia H. K. D. H., 2001, Bainite in Steels, 2nd edition, IOM Communications Ltd, London. [10]. Joarder A. and Sarma D. S., 1991, "Bainite Structures in 0.2C-3.6Ni Steel", Materials Transactions, 32, 705714. [11]. Voort G. F. V., 1991, Atlas of TimeTemperature Diagrams for Irons and Steels, ASM International, Ohio.

BNI Urip Sumoharjo SBY; a.c.: 0049577731; a.n.: Ir. Sudjud Darsopuspito, MT

Artikel JTM 00-00 , JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN, Jurusan Teknik Mesin, FTI, ITS Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Telp. : (031)5946230. Fax : (031)5922941 [12]. Corobbo M. D. and Arias S., 2009, "Evaluation of Impact and Fatigue properties of Austempered Ductile Iron", Master Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg. [13]. Verhoeven J. D., 2007, Steel Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgist, ASM International, Ohio. [14]. Tokta G., Tayan M. and Tokta A., 2006, "Effect of Matrix Structure on the Impact properties of an Alloyed Ductile Iron", Materials Characterization, 57, 290-299.

BNI Urip Sumoharjo SBY; a.c.: 0049577731; a.n.: Ir. Sudjud Darsopuspito, MT