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The Military Orders in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Society. The Institutional Embodiment of a Historical Tradition Author(s): L. P. Wright Source: Past & Present, No. 43 (May, 1969), pp. 34-70 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of The Past and Present Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/650110 Accessed: 18/03/2010 14:05
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THE MILITARYORDERSIN SIXTEENTHAND SEVENTEENTH CENTURYSPANISHSOCIETY. OF A THE INSTITUTIONALEMBODIMENT TRADITION* HISTORICAL
THE SPANISH MILITARY ORDERS OF CALATRAVA, SANTIAGO, AND

Alcantarawere founded in the course of the twelfth century, after the example of the Knights Templar, with the task of supporting the Christian kings of the north of Spain in their struggle to wrest the Peninsula from the grasp of the infidel Arab population of the south. They soon acquired a considerable renown, and to their military activities was added an important subsidiary role as colonizers of the new lands they opened up, for as reward for their military successes they were generally granted estates with jurisdictional rights in the conquered territories. At the same time the Orders made a strong appeal to popular piety, and their fusion of the twin ideals of monasticism and chivalry offered a powerful inducement to private alms and donations as well. By the end of the middle ages, therefore, they had come to enjoy vast estates and revenues, and to exercise jurisdiction over large parts of Andalucia and Extremadura. By then, however, they had lost their major reason for existence. The Moors had, since the fall of Seville in I248, been confined to the kingdom of Granada, and by I492 this too was at last in Christian hands. The ReyesCatolicos, Ferdinand and Isabella, were quick to appreciatethe dangers implicit in such a concentration of wealth in private hands, and the Orders were one by one brought within royal control as
* The following abbreviationshave been adopted in the footnotes: (i) Archives and Libraries: AGI. Archivo General de las Indias, Seville. AGS. Archivo General de Simancas,Valladolid. AHN. Archivo Historico Nacional, Madrid. BM. British Museum, London, Deparunent of Manuscripts. BN. BibliotecaNacional, Madrid, Secci6n de Manuscritos. RAH. Real Academiade la Historia, Madrid. (ii) Other abbreviations: Est. Secci6n de Estado. leg. legajo. OM. Seccion de OrdenesMilitares. sig. signatura. I would like to thank ProfessorJ. H. Elliott for the help and advice that he has given me in the preparation of this article.

MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY

35

Ferdinand himself assumed their Masterships. Finally a Bull of Adrian VI in I523 ratified in perpetuity the incorporation of the Orders into the Crown.l Some writers pointed out that the Crown could not be Master of an Order2 much less of three at one time and it was a condition of the Bull of Incorporation that knights and religious persons be appointed to attend to the Orders' spiritual affairs. This diEculty was resolved by the foundation of the Council of the Orders,which was responsible for the day-to-day administration.3 The Council functioned at first in two chambers, one concerning itself with the Order of Santiago, the other with those of Calatravaand Alcantara, each with its own President. Philip II, in I566, caused the two sections to be joined together as a single Council, with a President, eight Councillors, all of them knights of one or other Order, a Fiscal, a Mayor,together with a number of subordSecretary, and a Contador inate officers.4 Some idea of the extent of the Council's responsibilities, and of the amount of property which it controlled, may be into gauged from the fact that of the twenty-eight corregimientos
1 There is no satisfactoryhistory of the Orders as a whole either before or after the incorporationinto the Crown. A good bibliographicalguide to the literatureon the Ordersis providedby Juan sixteenth-and seventeenth-century Pio Garcia y Perez, "Indicador de varias cronicas religiosas y xnilitaresen y Museos,iii, iv, and v (I899-I9OI). Espana", Revista de Archivos,Bibliotecas, The nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuryworks I have consulted appear generallyto be derivative,repetitiveof each other, and often inaccurate,though there is some material of interest in Jose Fernandez Llamazares, Historia de las Cuatro()rdenesMilitaresde Santiago, Calatrava,Alcantara Compendida y Montesa (Madrid, I862), Angel Alvarez de Araujo y Cuellar, Recopilacion Historica de las Cuatro (5rdenesMilitares (Madrid, I866), and a lecture read before the Real Academiade la Historia by Francisco R. de lthagon, (5rdenes Militares(Madrid,I 898). As for modernworks,there are one or two devotedto individual Orders, such as D. W. Lomax, La Ordende Santiago: II70-I275 The role of (Madrid, I965), and F. Gutton, L'Ordrede Calatrava(Paris, I955). is apparent from La Reconquista the Orders as colonizers in the Reconquista del Pais (Zaragoza,IgSI). The Bull of Incorporation Espanolay la Repoblacion itself may be found in Joseph Lopez Agurleta, BullariumEquestrisOrdinisS. de Spatha (Madrid, I7I9), pp. 475-8. Iacobz y Caballeriasde 2 Francisco Rades y Andrada, Cronicade las tres Ordenes Calatrava, Santiago,y Alcantara(Toledo, I572), Cronicade Calatrava,f. 83. s The best account I have come across of the origins of the Council of the Orders is contained in a Consultaof the Council to the king, dated 29 Aug. I7I3: RAH., Coleccion de Mateos Murillo, Miscelanea Historica,i, ff. 3I4-58. de las ()rdenesMilitares. AHN. See also J. Lopez Agurleta,Origendel Consejo OM., Libros Manuscritos,sig. I286 C. 4 Aurea Javierre Mur and Consuelo G. del Arroyo, Guia de la Seccion de A list, unfortunatelyincomplete Militares(Madrid, n.d.), pp. II3-4. Ordenes of the Presidentsand Councillorsof the Orderswho held officebetween I523 and y Castro,D 49, ff. I-8. The I67I, iS to be found in RAH., Coleccionde Salazar subordinateofficersof the Council are detailedin ibid., I 35, ff. 2g8-8v.

10 See note 2 above. puntualde todoslos Consejos Superiores . andto make recommendations forallthe minorecclesiastical appointments in the Orders.7 It was. a vast responsibility. MS. I874). f. Historia Eclesiasticade Espana. .and the offices dependentupon them.quite comparable in scopeto that of the Councilof the Indies.- 3t PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 which Castillewas dividedfor administrative purposes. 352-4* 7 BN. in fact.s One reasonfor this may well have been the delays to which the Councilof the Orderswas subject. en la Cortede Espana.the Councilhad alsoto adjudicate andadvisethe kingon the proofssubmittedin connection with the grantof military habitos. 6 Vicente de la Fuente.for in additionto these responsibilities. 8 Andres Mendo.that while they were independent their secularaffairs wereordered to be heardbeforethe royal judicialtribunals. and all later writers owe a great deal to him. p. and as AndresMendo. I68I). La Sociedad Espanola en el sigloXV1I i (Madrid pp. IOOV: Gabriel Lobo Lasso de la Vega.like that of Rades y Andrada.andit wasspecifically forbidden for the royalaudiencias to hear them. 5972. The repetitionof this prohibitionthroughoutthe sixteenth andseventeenth centuries suggeststhatit waslittleheeded.whereasafter the Incorporation) aIl suits arisingon the landsof the Orders hadto go beforethe Councilof the Orders alone. Cotton.and seventeenth-century Spanish social and economic history. .5 It is an interesting commenton the attitude of the Crown towardsthe Orders. v (Madrid. Dominguez Ortiz is the only modern writer to have attempted to discuss the position occupied in Spanish society by the Orders after the incorporation. Rades wrote what was the first and in many ways the most satisfactory history of the Orders. to punishknightsand comendadores who failedto obey the Statutesof the Orders. C VI. remarked. a seventeenth-century apologist of the Orders. Vesp. and this paper draws heavily on his work. pp. while those who attemptedto carry the story beyond the middle ages provide at best a mere catalogue of the militarycampaigns in which knightsof the Orders 5 BM. f.) MS. 9 Antonio Dominguez Ortiz. Relacionmuy I963). De las (5rdenes Militares(Madrid. since he had access to many documents which have now disappeared. I98. .8 A study of the MilitaryOrdersaftertheir incorporation into the Crownis one of the mostglaringomissions fromthe bibliography of sixteenth. 7v.l? are no more than chroniclesof the deeds of successive Masterswhich end with the royal assumptionof the administration of the Masterships. I98-9.9 Most of the earlyhistoriesof the Orders. A prominent Spanish historian hasindeedrecently remarked thatit is incredible andalmostscandalous thata phenomenon of such enormoussocial dimensionsshould not ever seriouslyhave been lookedat.twenty-two werewithdrawn fromthe jurisdiction of the ConsgoRealand placed whollyunderits jurisdiction.

Certainly their financial significance was clear enough to contemporaries.for their part.000ducats. ff. A generation later.l2 historiesof this sort tend to be indistinguishable from historiesof Spainitself. 28v. I866). With the fall of Granada and the completion of the Reconquista. 15 E. put them respectivelyat llA good example of this is Francisco Caro de Torres. Modernwriters. 13 Martin de Azpilcueta Navarro.y Alcantara(Madrid.ll Sincemenas diverse as Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba. In a way this neglectof the Orders is not reallysurprising. The "history" of the Orders.. and CharlesV's great general. I859). so far as ecclesiasticalincome was concerned. Spanish.the Incorporation markeda beginning.the conquistadores HernanCortesand Francisco Pizarro. pp. In anothersense. 25-6* .andthat of Alcantara at 36Zooo ducats.Calatrava. Indice de Pruebasde los Caballeros que han vestidoel habitode Santiagodesdeel ano I50I hasta la fecha (Madrid.Marquesde Santa Cruz.Antoniode Leyvawere all investedwith militaryhabitos. I9OI).but the Orderswereableto surviveinto a new era as something muchmore important: a primesourceof income. ii (London. The Crownmight now no longerbe in need of private organizations for the raisingof armiesto fight the Infidel.l4 Someideaof whattheseincomesin factamounted to at the beginning of the sixteenth century is givenby the Venetian ambassador. 84-I9I.have ignoredthe later historyof the MilitaryOrders altogether. i (Florence. pp. Historia de las ()rdenesMilitaresde Santiago. the Gran Capitan.Martinde Azpilcueta. arguedthat throughthe Mastershipsof the three Orders the kingof Spainwasthe greatest prelatein the world.patronage. however. He estimated the valueto the Crownof the Mastership of Santiago at 40. andprestige.was clearly at an end.ooo ducats. RelazionidegliAmbasciatori Venetial Senato.the victor of Lepanto. 2 r May I 5 I3.l3 King Ferdinand himselfpointedout that the yield of the Masterships exceededthe revenuesof the kingdomof Naples. I566).the admiral Alvarode Bazan. Vicenzo Quirini.thatof Calatrava at 3s.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 37 tookpart. l4Calendar of State Papers. ISt ser. in the traditional narrative sense. f. Book iii.l5 These Eguresundoubtedlyrose rapidlyas the centuryadvanced.Don Juan de Austria. after the Pope. Alberi. Tractadode las Rentas de los Beneficios Eclesiasticos (Valladolid.while the royal annexationeffectively curbed their independentexistence. de Uhagon. they had fulfilled the primarypurpose of their foundation. l2Vicente Vignau and Francisco R. MarineoSiculo. in Is33) the Italian humanistwriter. II8-9: king Ferdinand tO Pedro de Quintana. I629). the distinguished economic writerand professor at Salamanca.

as for the mostparttheywere. and oftenthe maintenance of a localpriest20 theirobligations were in the mainslight. 90. 9 Carande.000. Modesto Ulloa. lanzas. ff. ii. The landsof the Orders in themselves did muchto compensate for the loss of Crownlands alienatedin the later middle ages. 40. and 60.l9 But the landsof the Orderswerenot the only sourceof profitfor their new administrators. p. Cotton. 23v-4. Dues appear to have weighed much less heavily on the large encomienda than on the slnall one. It is easy to understandthe demand for encomiendas: they were territoriallordships. Carlos Vy sus Banqueros. As earlyas I525 the MesasMaestrales. 9. . I8.ooo ducats. I967).at the southern limitof the sheep-migrating areas. La Hacienda Real de Castilla (Madrid.were leased out to the Fuggers.. MS. excusado. I949). They thereforeconsiituteda perfect securityfor the loans contracted by the Habsburgmonarchs with Germanbanking firms. 385-9. I340 C.the jurisdictionand incomesof whichaccrued to each comendadorn and while their value was diminished by certaindues-notably subsidio.it wasin no positionto reward its servants withdirectfinancial gifts. 603.ooo ducats. Libros Manuscritos. La HaciendaReal de Castilla en el Reinado de Felipe II (Rome.000. ff. and as a resultof the Incorporation the disposition of the Orders' encomiendas and habitos fell into royalhands. chap. chap. the historianof CharlesV's finances. thoselandswhichhad once been the personaldomainsof the GrandMasters. C VI.however. I533). are an obviousfeatureof any societydependent upon monarchy.some of the best pasturinglands in the country. 18 Details of the variouscontractsfor the leasingof the propertyof the Orders may be found in Ranlon Carande.and4s.If the Crownhad to negotiateloans to enableit to pursueits imperial policies.. exceptfor a brief periodfrom I533 to I537. and Hermann Kellenbenz. Vesp. gives the annualyields as I20.in whosehandsthey remained. cit.l7a clear indication of the paceof inflation at this time. has remarked.000. of I577. it wouldbe impossible to exaggerate the farreachingimplications for the Spanisheconomyof the papal Bull sanctioning the royalassumption of the Maestrazgos. 7 BM. whenthe contract wenttemporarily to the Welserfamily.000.and the veryvarietyof theirsourcesof incomewas a strong attraction.l6 A thirdrelation. Obrade las CosasMemorabiles de Espana(Alcalade Henares. Eventhe annual periodof residence demanded16Lucio Marineo Siculo.38 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 60. sig. 346-84.. They represented the most valuableconcentration of landedpropertyin Spain. f5.op.situated. Titlesof honour.. I963). This new mine of patronage was quickly exploited. OM. 20 A list of the encomiendas of the Orderof Santiagowith the dues incumbent upon them in I652 iS to be found in AHN.l8 As RamonCarande. Die Fuggersche Maestrazgopacht (I525-42) (Tubingen.

however. 24I. What an habito inducedmen to go to the troubleand expenseof procuring gain.by the grantof knighthood. supportfor the ideal of the and purityof blood. iv (I930). Empresaxvii..knightswith no land or well over a thousandcaballeros income apartfrom a derisoryreal a day for their upkeep. Revistadel Centrode Estudios Politico Fajardo. but 25 Such is the impressionleft particularly it is also implicit in all the accountsof the activitiesof the Ordersin the [niddle ages. From one point of view9 as we have seen. Op. and so nationstate.Idea de un Prsncipe 23 For such views. Hidalgufa andseventeenth-century the sixteenthwas that firstessentialqualitywhichformedthe basisof all nobility. four monthsin the case of Santiago. f.22 therewere of the threeOrders. Reglay Apostol Santiago nuevosde la Orden y Cavalleriade el Glorioso Establecimientos (Madrid. p. Cf. by successive General Chaptersof the Orders. Cit.feats of armsin war. be only two in that of Calatrava2l might withoutgreatdifficulty who couldclaimthattheirpresence avoided. the valueof the gold. in its aristocratic.in theoryat least. from the crusading and militantlyreligious. but adornsit jewellery. and similarlyin the volumes of statutesof the other Orders. once Spainhadbeen won back werean anachronism MilitaryOrders from the Moors..25 pointedout that all these conceptsmaybe derived It is frequently which generateda traditionof the Reconquista. The insistence of the Ordersupon nobility of blood is to be found in Francisco Ruiz de VergaraAlava. of enshrineall those qualitieswhich one regardsas so characteristic fervour. pp. sSidalguia the blood "likethe enamelworkin gold however. society predominantly Andres Mendo. Pero Perez. i. 89. Op. to forthey hadcome. Non-residence was frowned upon. for thoseCrownservants absolvedof even this at Courtwas alwaysrequiredwere frequently duty. for was.Librode las CincoExcelencias (Pamplona. 88.and penaltiesmight be imposed even upon those who were absent upon royal service. 233-4I Calatrava". As against the I80 oddcomendadores de habito. 2I7. whichdoes not enhance lay in its and gives it greaterbeauty". i.as earlyas the thirteenth anachronistic. withoutit.23 forth. 21 22 . see Diego de Saavedra Christiano (Antwerp.24 The value of knighthood historicaltradition. I677). the GoldenAge: religious Spanishsocietyin its expansionist pursuitof honour. cap. I653).impossible entryintothe Orders the exclusivepreserveof personalmeritwas still widely considered could be elevatedand refined. But from another. they were anything but century. but somethingmore basicto was clearlynot hope of financial Spanish mentality. the twin cults of hidalguia aristocracy.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 39 and threein that of Alcantara. Cit. tit.I629). "La Encomienda de Extremenos. del Espanol 24 Benito de PenalosaMondragon. by Lomax. pp.

26 For 20-I.survivingas they did right up to the nineteenth century.at least. andhadindeedhelpedto forge..nperador CarIosV" (I527).4o PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 aspirations. p. I28. conforme al Capitulo Generalcelebrado en Madridano 1652 (Madrid.they remained an integralpartof the new age. I963). to distinguish the illustrious from the commonherd.to grantcertificates of noble ascendancy andof purityof blood.to give honourto personswho meritit. 33: "Parecerque se dio al E. 22. I66I). 28AGS.and to the comendadores whomthe Crown named. Imperial Spain I469-I7I6 (London. servedas anextantinstitutional embodiment of thathistorical traditionon whichthe sixteenthand seventeenth centuries.perhaps naturally. in the introduction to the I66I editionof the Statutesof the Orderof Calatrava.it servedin principle to definea socialhierarchy basedon criteriaof birth ratherthan of wealth. This is a themeto whichwe will have to recur later when we considerthe social standingof the knights.andthosewho aspired to join its ranks. in fact. 27Difinicionesde la Ordeny Cavalleria de Calatrava. they were still a central element in a social system which they themselves reflected. example. "Its functionis to conserve the Spanish aristocracy. f. the kingwas presented witha paper"onthe littleuseof the Military Orders" whichsuggested that Spain now had no more need of these outmodedbodies of knights.the noble from the base". . H. The role of the MilitaryOrders.that while the Military Orders had fulfilledthe immediate purposefor whichthey had been created.however.ratherthan law.26Butwhatis notemphasized enoughis the factthatthe MilitaryOrders.27 In otherwords.28 The procuradores of the Cortesheld in Madridin ISSI pp.quite apartfrom their economic importance to the Crown.can thus be seen as one of socialorientation and definition.for it is preciselywhat made grants of habitosso eagerly soughtafterby the middlenobility. modelledthemselves. of oneselfandone'sfamilywiththosearistocratic andchivalric concepts which custom. Thoughno longerinvolvedcorporately in militaryor politicalaffairs. The changed positionof the Orders was. It is at once apparent. puts this pointvery clearlyin his description of the royal Councilof the Orders. renderedobligatory for the hidalgo class. J. an identification. to keepunsullied the purityof noble families. slowto be appreciated by contemporaries. and a first majorstep up the ladderof the Castilian noble hierarchy. The assumption of an habitoof one of the Orderswas by no meansan archaicritual:it was at once a proofof familynobleza and limpieza de sangre. leg. Elliott. Gerdnimo Mascarenas. PatronatoReal.At the GeneralChapterof the Orderof Santiago held in Valladolid in I527.

AHN. they were not doing so.the SpanishMilitaryOrdersat first sight amountedto no more than rigid instituordersof chivalry. to live and servefor the spaceof threeyearsbeforehe be compelled that"theSpanish couldbe professed. who was himself alreadythreateningSpain from his footholdin Catalonia. in whicheveryknightwould African coastof conventsof eachOrder. peticion xv. 94425 ff. 28434.and after a Christianmanner". I954). taken up again century by andmadeas littleimpression at the end of the following decline arbitrista writer.v (Madrid. 33-5.. Anales de la Corona d.troubledalikeby the military an anonymous to a jointattackby Muley and by Spain'svulnerability of the Orders Ismailfrom Morocco. f.3l The was of coursepastbeyondrecalleven by military gloryof the Orders and althoughthe annalistGeronimo the time of the Incorporation. pp. sl The pamphlet is printed with an introductionby David Torra under the title Las (5rdenesMilitares y Marruecos(Tetuan. It is by no means uncommonto trace in institutionsa formal structure whichis in no way relatedto theiractualfunction. 543. and suggestedthat they be entrustedwith the defenceof the Mediterraneancoast againstthe piratesof north Africa. . 208. 25 Aug. vi (Zaragoza. p. peticion 30 Actas de las Cortesde Castilla. MS. in fact. Add. 7r6) Duque de Bejar to Marques de la Paz.32 During the sixteenth and seventeenthcenturies. I652). Suggestionsalong similarlines were frequentlymade howeverthroughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: cf.but their apparently anachronisiic nonethelessaccordedthem a vital and developing tional structures of this paper attemptsto do is social role.e Aragon.30The theme was. 2I-3. I865). honourably.. BN. When 29 Reinosde Leony de Castilla. I732. MS. leg. I30-9. Zuritatells how in the GeneralChapterof Santiagoin I509.v (Madrid. 32 Geronimo Zurita. I903).29 The Cortesof I576 went even further in attackingthe degeneratestate of the on the the establishment andthis timerecommended Military Orders. By this meansit waspredicted Nobility will occupy itself virtuously.. King that the knightsof the Orderpush a suggestion Ferdinand approved into northAfrica.. Est.and in so doing to offer dichotomybetweenstructure on the activityof the Ordersnot only within some tentativeremarks but in that of Spanish noble hierarchy. ff.it need causelittle surprise forward the Reconquista thatthe planwas neverallowedto materialize. Cortesde los antiguos c. the contextof the Castilian societyas a whole.therefore. BM.in alliancewith Louis XIV.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 4I the Orders had beenfoundedand reminded the Crownthat although richly endowedto fight the Infidel. What the remainder for the Ordersof this examinein rathermoredetailthe implications and function.

on a largescaleit may in the end only be resolved by revolution. iv. togetherwith the obligationto confess and to communicate four 33 AHN. op. cit. they couldcontinueto be regarded indulgently as venerable archaisms. 5I4-7. II9V-20. I76I). particularly afterPaulIII's Bull of I540 whichpermitted the knights of Calatrava andAlcantara to marry andto interpret theirsolemnvow of chastityin the sense only of conjugal chastity. 36 BMU MS.a stateto whichof courseall Christians werein anycasebound. ff. v. apparentlyto ensurethat the future wife was of pure ancestry: BM. a generalstatementwith no detailsof the propertyto which it referred.and it is rareto find particular reasonsfor the request for an habitoratherthan any other pension or title. by permission of the Masterand in his name. which. Egerton 485. cap. 78. 35 The Bull is printed in I. and others.. leg. f. cit. tit. Ruiz de Vergara. Harleian3476. under the pretence that the knight was only administering them.and its presentation no more than a formality. 82.. ISI-2.. Petitioners would generallyput forwardthe servicesrenderedto the Crownby themselves their ancestorsand their relatives. ff. Theoretically they never ceasedto be just this yet at the sametime militaryhabitos were conferred upon childrenand new-bornbabies. op. Consejo de las (trdenes. J.op. . BullariumOrdinisMilitiae de Calatrava(Madrid. The knightsof Ssntiago needed no such dispensation for they had always been permitted to contract marriage see Lomax.however. By the latterhalf of the sixteenthcenturythis inventoryitself had become a mere symbol. cit. MS. pp. 83. 90-3. Archivo Secreto. The Orders did in fact eventuallyfall victimto the revolutionary upheavals of the nineteenth century5 when the tensions engendered by thisgrowing discrepancy became too great. 33.36Daily recitation of the canonical prayers became commutedto a few Paternosters and presence at Mass. 57. pp. Andres Mendo. OM.33 as well as on older candidates whopetitioned forthemalleging meritsandservices which had little to do with the religiousends and natureof the Orders. Ortega y Cotes.42 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 such a discrepancy occurson a small scale it may be dismissedas absurdor merelyquaint. Before xnarrying. Throughout the periodin question. Series I...34 In practice the smallnucleusof friarsattached to the convents of each Order aIone lived under the rigour of monasticdiscipline. 34 Petitions for habitosare to be found in every collection of Spanish state papers in such numbers as to make it impossible to list them.35 Now alsothe vow of povertywas fulfilledby presenting each year an inventoryof goods and possessions. 8I. In principlethe Ordersstill retainedthe character which their namesuggests:that of religiousordersfollowinga monastic rule and devotedto the struggleagainst the Infidel. The communal obligations of the knightscameto be of little importance. pp. knights of all three Ordershad to obtainleave from the king..

VII.nor as de Calatrava. de Calatrava. to give him militaryexperience. leg.29 July I652. cap. op. Difiniciones cap. OM. thoughtheselists of dutiesandresponsibilities Impressive century. .y otrosreligiosos dores.in orderto introduce spell in the religiouslife. cit.and was in fact of greaterbenefit than the service that was therebyexcused. andit wasin fact a frequentsubjectfor discussion membersof the Orderscould now in any sense be consideredas religiousat all. cit.Catalogode las Obligaciones de la Orden. OM. I2.4lOntheotherhand. amountedto no more than the universallay Catholic devotion. Tratadosobreunproblema Militares(Valladolid. v. MS.leg. were in practice obligations. of his own Orderof whichboundmembers accountof the obligations and many other writers dwelt at length upon them. 38 Ruiz de Vergara. 39 A number of exemptions of this sort are to be found in AHN. viii.. When the GeneralChapterof Santiago protestedin I652 at the excessive number of dispensationsfrom galley service the Couneilof the Orderspointed out that the money paid for such dispensations all went for militarypurposes. 54I-52.and individualdispensations concerned essentialnature.. razon de su abitoy profesion en quese adviertecomose ha de 41Diego de la Mota.op. que los Comenda40 FranciseoRades y Andrada.they one may doubtwhether.and particularly the subjectof specialdispensation. 6-7V. .cavalleros. andhe was obligedtoo to servea six-month royal galleys..AHN. andseventeenth the courseof the sixteenth stress upon the obligations incumbent upon the knights and a short in fact publishedseparately Radesy Andrada comendadores. The Ordersof coursehad their defenders. I57I).. 879: "Kalendariode la maneradel rezar de la Orden de Cavalleriade Aleantara". Diego de la Mota.Archivo Secreto Series I. i. Consultaof Council of Orders.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 43 times a year. The vows were those of all other religious from them did not affecttheir orders.tit.38But both these the galley service. caps.at least by the mid-sixteenth thatknightsneeded but a deadletter. vii.39 frequently manytimesin andexpanded reprinted of the Orders.a period of residencein the him to the Conventwas expectedof the knight. f.delaMotawasclearly were habitos thatmilitary at a numberof developments..37 In the year of noviciate. I58. He stressed to be bestowed neither as casual gifts. Consejode las (5rdenes. tit. financialrewards. a of in the province of Santiago of the Order canonof Ucles (the capital of the ceremonyof character Castille)insisted on the ecclesiastical assumingthe habito. tit.. ff. caja I. Difiniciones 37 Ruiz de Vergara. Calatrava. and pp.40 mayseem. It was ominous wereanything of their religious to be remindedso frequentlyof the implications whetherthe vows. cap. BN. The Statutes conanuedto lay centuries.i and iv. i. Consejode las ()rdenes.tit.I603).after assumingthe habitobut before takingthe vows of profession. de Calatravatienenen priores. (Toledo. I0. el habitode las ()rdenes pretender . iv.

op.44To counter the prevailing malaise in the Orders.ff.but only as fittingprizesfor those whose Christian actionsrenderedthem worthyof membership in the Orders. showneitherenthusiasm nor devotionwhenthey do pray. nor in settlement of services performed. from which all quotationsare taken. The Castilianversion of is work. 43 44 45Ibid.. Since a number. occupation.42 A long sectionof the workdeals with simony. xi. for example.it occurred to me that I might render the Lord's Prayerinto our common Castilian tongue. withoutany differences beingapparent". In a work written presumably to justifythe secularization of the Orders. Alonso de Penafielhad writtenin even strongerterms. Someindicaiion of the intellectual level at whichhe had to aimhis argument is provided by his justification of the inclusionof a remarkable Spanishtranslation of the Lord's Prayer:". 89.Ayala offered a succinct statementof what the religiousvows impliedfor the lives of the knights.it was not simonyfor habitos to be bought and sold..44 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 secularhonours.in the form of alternate lists of actionsthat were obligatory and of those that were forbidden.I657). p.through theirfailureto understand the prayers they recite.46A little beforethis. cap.is in fact a long resumeof the author'sLatin text. In his view. whichhe diagnosed as a mixtureof ignorance and negligence. .Martinde Ayala.. I6V-I7- Andres Mendo.43 The spiritual natureof military knighthoods was emphasized also by the bishop of Guadix. f.47 The 42Ibid.and indeed in every otherparticular.other writersacceptedthe relaxation of their rules and tried to create a new raiionalefor them. Martin de Ayala. g4v. cit. Compendio y Declaracion de lo queson obligados a guardar los Cavalleros de la Ordende Santiago(Milan.. 46 . I552). and de la Mota went so far as to considerin additionas simonythe assumptionof an habitofor the purpose simply of receivingan encomienda. 47 Alonso de Penafiel y Araujo. nor evenfor ministers to be bribedin order thattheymight put in a good wordfor a personinterested in obtaining one. AndresMendo remarked thatin his viewthe knightscouldno longerbe considered as religious. farfromleadingthe life of religious orders"thetenorof life of the knightsis just that of the rest of the laityas regards ambition.. ff.day-to-dayconcerns. Obligaciones y excelencias de las tres ()rdenes Militares(Madrid.46 Ratherthan endeavour to drawbackthe Ordersto their original spiritualnorms.?I3 Ibid.recreation.in view of the numberof timesit has to be said". Habitosmight not be givenin returnfor payment. 84-8V. I643).in a pamphletwritten duringthe period of his auendanceat the Councilof Trent as a member of the Spanish delegation. De Ordinibus MilitaribusDisquisitiones (Salamanca.

MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 45 vow of poverty. moreover. as we have seen. despite inflation.. II Oct. p. ed. L.000 a year. 49 48Ibid. was a French Benedictine who travelled in Spain at the beginning of the seventeenth century.49 A foreigner might be expected to see such matters in a different perspective from a Spaniard. living comfortablyfrom the revenues of their encomiendas without having to soil their hands with any manual work. . Consejoy Juntas Hacienda. I960)..5l In so far as the Orders offered financial rewards to AHN. 2I3.sI.leg. showing that the present way of life Consulta of the Ordersin no way justified their being considered as exempt on these grounds. To add colour to his description. but in fact. Barrau-Dihigo.5? lshe seigneurs depicted by Joly would in all probability have been of the Military Orders. Barthelemy Joly. The majority of authors might vainly argue that the Orders were in fact true religious bodies. Consultaof Councilof de Hacienda. I0 July I684. RevueHispanique. was no bar to the acquisition of property of all sorts. I66I see also Antonio Dominguez Ortiz.f. for without goods and money the knight would be unable to fight or to perform the acts of charity to which he was obliged. he quoted two current Spanish proverbs which poked fun at the sort of men who obtained the right to bear the y el insignia of the Order upon their tunics: "conla crus en lospechos (the Cross on their chests and the devil in their diabloen los hechos" (the Devil does not deeds) and "el diablono huyede todaslas cruces" flee from every Cross). 7I85: Consultaof Council of Castille. the Crown appropriatingthe whole amount for its defence expenditure. the amount set aside for their support remained fixed. In rich before they ever assumed habitos theory the knights had the right to be sustained from the estates of the Orders. I603-4". and most observers seem to have been under no illusion as to the true position. When in I684 the Council of the Ordersasked that knights should not be included in a donative which fell on the owners of carriages. Politicay Hacienda de FelipeIV (Madrid. note 46. p. This sum was so inadequatethat it was commonly maravedzs referredto as "the knights' bread and water".48 Penafiel's outspokenness is exceptional. and estates. and in the end was not paid at all. 83I-II40: 61 AGS. for example. at one reala day-I2..leg.in view of their religious status. but the reality was obviously too apparent. 6?"Voyage de BarthElemy xx (I909). but the very fact that the or the free acquisitionof propertywere discussed at all is sale of habitos sufficient indication that such things were in practice not uncommon. Joly en Espagne. He remarkedin his memoirs that the knights were really no more than wealthy marriedgentlemen. the couIlcil of Castille put forward a long to refute this pretension. 589. Seccion de Consejos Suprimidos.

Libro I8.F 8.I 23.xxxi (Madrid. do not appearin the later list. The yearly incomes of encomiendas fluctuated to some extent. 340V-2' and RAH. ff. MS. each with minor variations: BM..46 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 their members.889 I35. six encomiendas of Santiago. 97-II2. Libros de Copias. thesis.. I955). Anuario de Historia del DerechoEspanol. op. cit. I568-7I (Ph. I85-204V. and it was no more than a pious hope..888. given in an early seventeenth-century relacion. see Salvador de Moxo. BM. I78.. 5B BN. MS. p. can serve as a general indication:52 Order Santiago Calatrava Alcantara Number of Encomiendas 94 5I Value (ducats) 308. ff. BN. for Philip II to charge his son with the restitution to the Orders of the properties which had been taken from them. pp.. for the nominal purpose of rasing money for the defence of the Mediterraneanagainst pirates.however. pp.. 226. 25686. The Causesof the SecondRevoltof theAlpufarras. therefore. See K.. At all events a relacion of I7I2 gives the following figures:56 52 This relacionsurvives in a number of copies. though the number was naturally limited. R 23. 55 i. Luis de Salazar sobre las (5rdenes".55 In the course of the seventeenth centurythe value of those encomiendasthat remained seems to have declined further. Harleian 3569. I96I). I88-95. 327-6I. they did so through their encomiendas. 6: "Papeles de D. Garrad. 53 On the dismembermentof the property of the Orders. RAH. PatronatoReal.248 38 The encomiendas had suffered in both number and value as a consequence of the sales and alienationswhich CharlesV and Philip II had carriedout by papal licence. 54 The revenues of the silk industry were alreadyearmarked for the salaries of the Captain General of Granada and his officials. and Carande. Add..D. I-24. 7423.mostly on the revenues of the silk industry in Granada. Cambridge. "Las Desamortizaciones Eclesiasticas del Siglo XVI". The defence of the Andalucian coast might better have been served by refraining from crippling the majorindustry of the region by an insupportableburden of taxation. . some of which were indeed of considerableworth. Coleccionde Salazary Castro. Seccion de Libros Raros. Coleccionde Salazary Castro. ff.54 It would appearthat about one fifth of all the encomiendas of the three Orders had been alienated by I600. Lists of properties alienated may be found in AGS. f. or possibly through the devastation caused by the Portuguese rebellion in parts of Extremadura where many encomiendas were situated.000 I I4. MS. no. whether on account of the general economic depression. ff.53 The Orders were compensated for what they lost by the grant of juros. 4II-7. and in fact it is doubtful whether any interest was ever paid upon these bonds. but the following figures. It should be noted that the Calatravafigures include five tenencias in additionto the 5 I encomiendas of the seventeenthcentury relacionanalysedabove. ff.

905 Not till much later in the eighteenth century does one again begin to find figures approachingthose of the early seventeenth century.597.ITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 47 Order Santiago Calatrava Alcantara Number of Encomiendas 88 56 38 Value in de vellon maravedis Net Gross 585642. His biographer tells how in I529 Francisco de los Cobos.leg. Est.I26. CharlesV (Pittsburgh.999 3. In others. 7702 ducats. while a few were worth considerably more than this: Socuellamos.833..999 4.999 7. "the valuable.I57 26. in the Order of Santiago was worth I6.000 ducats.I25 75.935 28.MII.499 9)999 and over 4 94 3 SI 38 yielded between one and three thousand The majorityof encomiendas ducats.624 39.856 46. but far more prestigious encomienda highest title a courtier could receive short of a patent of nobility". I2I-2. I7-I8. were not everything.97I 20.000 755?? I0.I7I. of course. pp. the royal secretary.222 705928 I23. Herera. Manzanares.000 5.000 - Santiago 4 9 32 I7 7 II 6 4 Calatrava 2 Alcantara 4 I2 7 3 4 6 2 4 20 I2 3 3 3 I 4. the rewards to be had were certainly inviting.I959). 9.999 I. 57 68 . The following table gives a break-down of the values of individual encomiendas as they were in the early seventeenth century:57 Value in ducats Up to 499 500 . f.58 was of Los Cobos was fortunate. for many the grant of an ecomienda great economic importance.ooo - I.250 ducats. however.000 3. Hayward Keniston. Francisco de los Cobos Secretary of the Emperor Details of the exchangeare in AGS. I6. in that of Calatrava. or even less-which could hardly support a single individual once the various obligations to which the encomienda was liable had been met.999 2. note 52. particularlyfor the younger sons of titled families who could have little hope of any ultimate share in the These figures are taken from the relacioncited above. in that of Alcantara. Financial rewards.500 ducats.005 54.483 Equivalentin ducats Gross Net I565380 I06. there were some which at the best of times Among the encomiendas brought in only comparativelysmall amounts .000 2.was keen of Azuaga for the less to exchange his well-endowed encomienda mayorof Leon.589. (Castilla).

. leg. although technically they could be consideredonly as administrators. 6?RAH. A widow was frequently allowed to continue in possession of her late husband's encomienda. Colecci6n de Salazary Castro. Morel-Fatio. for example. Castellar. among them the Princess Doria. 2605. their encomiendas were in fact used for the most part for the reward of services and as a means of bestowing royal favour. was the younger son of the third count of Coruna.62 or she might well be granted an encomienda for the first time in the name of a younger son mayores. however. no less than twenty-three candidates came forward. five of Calatrava. . In addition. and Ayamonte. Although even then the Castilian Orders did not escape. ed.Sancino. for such could easily be the occasion for the development of bitter faction fighting. It alreadyenjoyed direct revenue from various dues which fell on the encomiendas as a whole. and it took the incomes from any vacant encomiendas.and Guzman. Marquesde Ciadoncha(Madrid. and the marquesesof Cerralvo. Among these might be men and women of the highest social rank.59 It was natural that at the time of a vacancy in an encomienda.48 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 inheritance. At the beginning of the eighteenth century a "Relation of the encomiendas which are granted with future succession to the Lord Infante Don Phelipe" listed four encomiendas of Santiago. Bulletin Hispanique. ff. Est. 66..6l 59 A. pp.and not as comendadores. I949) containsnvunerous examplesof this. When the encomienda of Moratallabecame vacant in I6I2. including four of the five encomiendas The Order of St. and had considerable financial problems until the king bestowed on him the encomienda of Penausende in the Order of Santiago. "Don Bernardino de Mendoza". Not infrequently encomiendas were held by women. some of the more wealthy encomiendas were from time to time grantedto members of the royal family. f. 27-8. 62 Luis de Salazar y Castro. Los Comendadores de la Orden de Santizo. the counts of Fuentes de Aragon. this meant in practice that they enjoyed all the financial axldsocial advantagesofthe encomiendas without any ofthe (admittedly meagre) obligations to the Orders themselves that the comendador generally owed.60 The Crown characteristically extractedas much advantageas it was able from this source.and three of Alcantara. for many years Spanish ambassadorin Paris. which in fact culminated in the virtual secularization of that Order under Charles III. Bernardino de Mendoza. 65-8V. Viii (I906). ffl AHN.. I 26. John of Jerusalemwas the one most affected by this policy. there should gather large numbers of petitioners for it.

I622 C)rder Number of Santiago Calatrava Alcantara Total encomiendas 94 5I 38 I 83 Comendadores from titled families 38 26 I7 ?' 4? * 4 50 . and a considerablygreaterproportion of their total value. 57-8: "Relacionde encomiendasde la horden de Santiago que fuesen dado a personasno cavallerosde la horden. the proportion of the total value of the Orders' encomieszdas which these nobles held. Seccion de Raros. This is brought out clearly by the following tables.leg. ano I6I3". relating to the year I622. 89-9V: "Memoriaque hizo el Sr.. that any knight of the Orders might be lucky enought to achieve an encomienda. 2693.000 II4. and it was perhaps for this reason that Santiago. I622 Order Santiago Calatrava Alcantara Total Value of all encomiendas 308. MS. the Order with the most encomiendas. 7 44 2 8I VALUE OF ENCOMIENDAS IN NOBLE HANDS. ff.. I85-204V (encomiendas and their values) and in AGS. . Coleccion de Salazar y Castro. and second.65 NUMBERS OF ENCOMIENDAS IN NOBLE HANDS. FranciscoGero. 3 63 "9 70.63 In I7I2 more than one-fifth of the encomiendas of the Order of Calatravain Castille and Aragon were in the hands of women (I2 out of 56).I37 Value of encomiendas in hands of nobles I84. 64 The high nobility seem to have enjoyed practically half the total number of encomiendas.2I4 ?5O 59.o67 357.. Harleian 3569. which show Erst the proportion of comendadores who came from the ranks of the dukes. I >6.869 I02. ff. R 23. as were 8 of the 38 encomiendas of Alcantara. g 75 .. was also B3 RAH. a rnugeresy a otros efectos diferentes".7 6I .888. counts. MS. or their immediate families. ff. Graciay Justicia. no.889 I35.248 558. 64 BN.I50 The example of Calatrava in particular is quite striking: half the encomiendas are held by nobles. 65 These tables have been drawnup from the informationcontainedin BM. de Heredia de provisionesde encomiendascon beneficio de mugeres. yet these account in themselves for over three-quarters of the total value. Obviously there was always the possibility. BN. 9 44. 890 (encomiendas and naJnesof comendadores).MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 49 whom she had to support. however remote. and marqueses. 6.

the correspondingvoluxnefor the other two Orders (Madrid includes 3.which is hidalguia." I3. I3043. M. can have entered the Orders withanydirectly materialistic motives. 67 The remarksmade here in connection with the idea of limpiezade sangre are necessarilyvery lisnited. 68 BN. and Albert A.000 I903) . CollectedStudies in honourof AmericoCastro'seightieth year. which is purity of blood. For a wider treatment the tW0 basic works are Antonio Doniinguez Ortiz.one such plan is printed by Jose Gomez Centurion.67 In Spain there are two classes of nobility [wrote a contemporary]. introduced his own limpieza statutein the Cathedral Chapter the decisiveimpulseto the generalacceptance of limpiesa as an essential ?sThe list of knights of the Orderof Santiago(note I2 above) containssome naInes.66But in reality. II7V: "Papel que di6 el Reyno de Castilla a uno de los Senores Ministros de la Junta diputada para tratarse sobre el Memorial presentadopor el Reyno a Su Magestadcon el libro del PadreMaestreSalucio.for poorer hidalgos. lx] (I9I2).68 The MilitaryOrderswere one of the principalcommunities in Spaindevotedto the preservation and continuance of the statutesof purityof blood. MS.whichsoughtto excludefrompositionsof influence all who might have any trace of Jewishor Moorishblood in their veins. Only the most optimistic. 63-82. Juan Martinez Siliceo.and anotherlesser. It was this senseof self-identity. La Clase Social de los Conversos en Castilla en la Edad Moderna (Madrid. ed. Caballeros de habito constitutedno special rank within the Castiliannoble hierarchy.5o PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 the Ordermost soughtafterfor habitos. which gave the habito its placein the artistocratic cursus honorum. andin particular the guarantee of nobilitywhich was impliedin it. Les Controverses des Statuts de "Puretede Sang" en Espagnedu XVe au XVIIe Siecle (Paris.Calatrava y Alcantaraen I674 y I703". Recent work is well summarizedby Dominguez Ortiz in "HistoricalResearch on Spanish Conversos in the last fifteen years".I I8 of Alcantara together less than half the Santiago total. Hornik (Oxford. The Council of the Orders tried to introducesome system of rotationbetween the three Ordersin the concession of habitos. it is much more disgraceful to lack purity of blood. pp."Desproporcionalidad en la concesion de mercedes de habitos entre las tres ?5rdenes de Santiago. When the archbishopof Toledo.886 membersof the Orderof Calatrava and 2. I960). the chances of obtaining an encomienda of whatever valuewereslight.but also the racially suspect. I956). butthey did havea distinctinstitutional character by virtue of the historical traditionwhich the Ordersembodied. pp. f. the class which we call Old Christians. P.or the most noble-blooded. I965).. however. because in Spain we hold a convnon peasant of pure ancestry in greater esteem than an hidalgo of dubious origins. 449-452. soldiersor any but the most influential Crownservants. And althoughthe possessionof hidalguia is more prestigious. Boletinde la Real Academia de la Hzstorsa. Sicroff. The intensityof the demandfor militaryhabitos. canonlybe understood in termsof a societywhichexcluded from its upper ranksnot only the base-born. One greater.

the pressureto obtain an habitowas overwhelming. contains seventy-nine persons. 890: "Relaeion de personas que suplican a VM les haga mereed de Havito de las tres OrdenesMilitares euyas memoriales VM me ha snandadoremitir" (3I Mar. .and the acquisitionof an habito thereforecame to hold supremeimportance for the three or four thousandfamilieswho formedthe middleranksof the hidalgo class. the sourceof innumerable worries. But for the massof middlinghidalgos the pursuitof an habitomight wellbe an obsession. a good match would be more or less assured.fifteenof whomaskedfor the habito as a marriage poriionfor their daughters. Grantsof habitos becameso widespread thatbeforelong the situation was reachedwhere suspicionfell automatically on the nobilityand limpiezaof any family which did not hold one. I3267.and for the commonpeople. 4I27: Royal Decree. expenses. beyond all such suspicion. of which our Lord Emperoris general and perpetualAdministrator. MS. Habitos werevaluable not onlyto the manambitious forhis personal fortune. and conflicts. I646).69 Withthe Orders so intimately connected witha conceptnowblessed by the Primal See of Spain. Est. f. (Espana). A list of those who had peiitionedthe Crownforhabitos in MarchI646.no person may be admitted who is not an Old Christian.whose positionno one would dare to call in question. 25 Aug. I660. Graeia y Justicia.the matterdid not ever arise. the endof alltheiractivities. The necessity to place one or more daughtersin society through an advantageous marriage wasan acuteworryfor thosewhoseown social positionwas matchedby no corresponding fortune. The habitoput automatically not onlyits possessor. 71 AGS. 27gv: "Sobre el Estatuto de Limpieza de la Saneta Iglesia de Toledo". For the high nobility.7lbut in practice this can havehadlittle effect. 70 AGS.leg. All that couldbe done was to 69 BN. but his familyanddescendants as well. They were also commonlysoughtafter as dowries..MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY SI qualification for officeand honour followingway: he explainedhis actionin the The principalreasonwhich has moved me the Arehbishopand my Chapterto make the said Statute is that it is well known and attested that in the three Ordersof Knighthoodthat there are in Spain.so greatwasthe demand for habitos to be given for this purpose.70In I660 what appearsto be only one of several attempts on the partof the KingandCouncilof the Orders to stopthe concession of habitos as dowries foundshapein a RoyalDecree. If the future husbandcouldbe temptedby the offerof an habito. The Orders couldnotwithstand thepopular demand. however. Madrid.. leg..

. 267. suggeststhat up to the middle of the sixteenth century these inquiries were fairly rudimentary. VI. i. at the age often. leg. it was inevitable that they should attempt to close their ranksto all who were rsotofthe most unimpeachablesocialrespectability. until by the early seventeenth centllry hidalgoblood was demanded of the parents and grandparentsof the claimantto an habito. Caballeros de Santiago. tit. Now it was permissible to assume the habito without actuallyprofessingor taking any vows. 26 Sept. fixed in the early Constitutions at sixteen. See Marcel Bataillon. f. vii. Difiniciones de Calatrava. cap. of Jewish or Moorishblood. The officialage of entry into the Orders. xlv (I959). I. granted the dignity of an habito when he was not yet oneyear of age. Xii. 4444. Habitoswere commonly given to very young children. or in the case of Santiago. Only two sets of papers relating to proofs survive for the period before I5I8. a child could hardly be given a better start in life than to have an habitoconferred upon him at an early age. I67I. 74 Lviis Cabrerade Cordoba. Difiniciones de Calatrava. cap. IO June I672. One can see from the Constitutions approved by successive General Chapters of the Ordershow the entry requirementswere graduallytightened. tit.52 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 insist that the future husband at least be named. and severalothers. which were insisted upon before an habito could be conceded. iii.. and cases like that of the infant son of Rodrigo Calderon. being limited to the 72AHN. whether penitenced or condemned. cit. iV. rather than that the grantbe made a completely open one. VI.AcademieRoyale de Belgique. 73 Ruiz de Vergara. Relaciones de las cosassucedidas en la Corte de Espana (Madrid. while he himself had to be of legitimatebirth and to enjoy popularesteem. nor those who had pursued base occupations.. f. V. . tit. i. 75 At the same time the rigour of the proofs necessary to ascertainthese qualities. 595-6I6@ 76 Ruiz de Vergara. cap. was reduced after the incorporation of the Orders into the Crown. I857). I. 76. ii. his pedigree similarly was not to contain victims of the Inquisition.74 Once the Orders had so obvious a social function to fulfil. p. pp. where for a time they were stored. cit. the rest having perished in a fire at Burgos.. 4445. 76 Vignau and thagon.76 But such evidence as there is. "Don Rodrigo CalderdnAnversois". tit. was also increased. his ancestryhad to be free from all trace. Philip III's unscrupulous favourite. need causeno particularsurprise.73 Even this minimum requirement was frequently broken.op. however remote. only seven. idem. 7 2 In the same way. leg. op. Calderon had good reason for wishing his sons to enter the Orders in view of his own highly suspect ancestry. I48: Consulta of Council of Castille. caps. Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres et des SciencesMorales et Politiques. Seccion de Consejos Suprimidos. Vii.p.

"The peasantsin particular go by". Series I. of the Orders in the Council detained that andpetitions of somefaultin the proofs. The reignof PhilipIV wasanimportant societywasnowat its height. grewenormously. Fromthen on. Extensive of these investigations and complexity were expensesshot up. quoted 80 ChristovalSuarez de Figueroa. 73-9. p.. p. leg. a wholevillagewouldstandin aweshoulda knightof oneof the Orders beat would practically pass through. Consejo de las ()rdenes.arld he mentionedas a particular detained in the Council. Alreadyperhaps how in his youth writingin I6I7. passions evidencewasrequired. 443. Dominguez (5rtis.) p. Moreoverthe 77 Some interesting general renzarkson the conduct of the inquiries are pp. Some of the msny petitions 79 Luis Cabrerade Cordoba. recalled late. weremadeso severe. documentary were as pettyjealousies mightwellbe suborned excited. cit. Op. addressedto the Crown asking for the speedy despatch of habitosdetained in the Council Inay be found in AHN. Diego de la Motareported in this way.79 of the Orders the manyAlabitos complaint not unnaturally forhabitos of petitions number growing The rapidly on the partof thosewhowerealready of the ranks metwitha stiffening knights. themselveson the chest if they saw the Comendador were however. Under Philip III the many habitos naturally on generally andnot despatched.. 78 Diego de la Mota. 3I. Knighthoods at and not a few knightsmen of no substance muchmorenumerous.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 53 of the collectionof evidencefroma few witnessesas to the hidalguia wastakenin the form by whichevidence pretendent. Suarezde Figueroa. for obviousreasons. forentryintothe Orders Oncetherequirements the numberof doubts and queriesthat could arise over eligibility rose sharplyas well. op. however. Cit. 56I. When he wrotein held habitos thattherewerefifty-four I603. OM. 202.yet paradoxiin Spanish Theirinfluence whichhadgainedthat forinstitutions callythis wasto provedisastrous positionpreciselythroughtheir exclusivecharacter.. The procedure apparently by speciallyappointedinformants of writtendepositions the scope did not beginuntil aroundI540. containedin Domingues Ortiz. Now.whichwasthe sourceof manygrievances up in the Council de Cordobain throughoutthe provinces. f.and who did not.led to complaints account the severityof the inquiriesshouldbe relaxed. Archivo Secreto.80 turning pointforthe Orders.andwitnesses 77 unleashed.wish to see the old it was too prestigeof the Ordersbecomedebased. La Soczedad .78The annalistCabrera of the statutes modification for a general to the demands I6I4 referred source of of limpiezade sangre. all. I49.I. La Clase Social de los Conversos.El Passagero Espanola.such respectwas a thing of the past. (MadridI6I7).

OM. I. Egerton 332. 83 The Pragmaticis printed in Novisima Recopilacion de Leyes. Prestige wasall that the Orders hadhadto justifythemselves for overa century.5 July I623. Many different hopesandaspirations wereraised briefly. On the Decree of the c4ct0s positivos. 29. 82 BM. MS. p. . Two yearslater. the Inquisition. ley 22. however.issuedasa Pragmatic by PhilipIV on Io February I623. Consulta. XI. The intention ofthis law... incidentally gavethe lie also to the prestigeof the Orders within Spain. the ColegiosMayores. Philip explainedthe positionin terms that 81 Dominguez Ortiz. It was inevitable that the accession of the new monarch shouldbe heraldedwith a good deal of anticipatory rumour. the Councilof the Orders wasmaking representation to the kingover the prodigality with which habitos were granted. pp.83 The Council. 2I2-5V. Seccion de Inquisicion. therewasnothing leftonwhichto rebuild. n.82 The Councilof the Orders wasopposedfromthe firstto eventhe degreeof relaxation in the limpieza statutes impliedin the law of the actos positivos. They embodied a glorious military tradition. 2I I. Consejo de las ()rdenes. Lib.while the law of the threeactospositivos was being promulgated in order to facilitate thetaking of proofsofpurityof blood.d. leg. In a letterto the President of his Councilof State. 85 AHN. f.. f. 2I6-220.saw this as opening the floodgatesto a torrentof unsuitable and unworthy applicants.anddoubtless alsoin an endeavour to silencethose criticswho pointedout the incongruity of honoursin essence militarybeing given so regularlyto mere courtiers. caja I. butit wasfairly soonapparent thattherewasto be no realchangeof direction. see Sicroff.8l Courtiers.. but no longerweretheirmembers willing or evenableto fightin defenceof theircountry. ff. leg. or the Cathedral of Toledo.the kinghadto reward his servants somehow.. was to renderimmunefrom furtherinvestigation any family whichhadsuccessfully hadits ancestry testedthreetimesin eitherthe Military Orders. cit. Consultaof Council of Orders.however. 6275. 84 The protracted argumentbetween king and Colmcilof the Ordersover this may be followed in the series of Consultascontainedin AHN. oncethat mythwasexploded. The Orders wereno exception. tit.54 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 periodof nationalemergency afterI635 whichmadeapparent to the world thattheprestige of Spain wasonlya shadow.84 and in fact it nevercompletely put the law into effectsinceit always insistedthatatleastoneofthe actos positivos submitted musthavebeen obtained in the Councilitself. In I62I despatches for 30 habitos weresentto Flanders to reward deserving members of the Spanish army. xxvii..were not exactlyneglectedeither.however. Op. Cit.85 Whatever the attitudeof the Councilof the Orders. 203. op. 5I0.

Money we have not.88 The opening of the seventeenth century saw the first big increasein the membershipof the Orders. The Conde Duque de Olivares. and 8gv-go: "Nomina 88 RAH. lists of knights of the 89 AGS. ff. I625.. Politica y Haciendade Felipe IV. 440-6I4: Military Orders. 6v-7v: "Nicandro. 3.86 Membershipin the Ordersthereforecontinued to rise. Est.I 34. In I557 the Order of Santiago contained 242 knights.. II004. 79-80. put habitos the same blithe disregard for public opinion as he had shown in 90 introducing into Castille the Portuguese marranos. does not trouble to author of the Nicandro. la ignoranciay embidia ha esparcido por deslucir y rnancharlas heroycas e inmortalesaccionesdel Conde Duque de Olivares". however. in comparisonwith what was to come. 87 Figures derivedfrom Vignau and lBhagon. but contents himself with justifying it.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 55 could hardly be simpler. MS. see Dominguez Ortiz. sig. part II. deny it. .. and who could properly be rewardedin no other way 91 At the was one of the beginning of the war with France. de Santiago. Coleccion de Salazar de la Orden de Santiago". 957 of Santiago... The following table shows the number of habitosof the Order of Santiago alone. so we have thought it right and necessaryto remedy the fault by increasingthe number of honours". ff. chap. 90 On this. by I625 there were I. was so open and unconcealed that even the The sale of habitos Olivares' chief apologist. "Without reward and punishment no monarchy can be preserved. 859 D: king to President of Council.459 knights in the three Orders.o Antidoto contralas calumniasque 91 BN. xix (Papeles Varios). This was nothing. and I97 of Alcantara. leg.Caballeros y Castro. II Aug. 305 of Calatrava.89a figure way above anything known before. arguing that in fact were given only to men who would in any event have merited habitos them. Consejo y Juntas de Hacienda. and in I572 only 22I. the sale of habitos 86AHN. Now rewardsmay be either financialor honorific. whose all-pervadinginfluence enabled him to cast aside such restraints of the Orders up for sale with as had prevailed hitherto. despatchedin each five-yearperiod from I52ItO I660:87 I52I-25 I526-30 IS3I-35 I536-40 I54I-45 I546-50 I55I-55 I556-60 I56I-65 I566-70 45 I07 I36 79 94 48 23 80 II3 87 I57I-75 I576-80 I58I-85 I586-90 I59I-95 I596-I600 I60I-09 I606-I0 I6II-I5 5I 6I 90 79 87 I06 I04 I22 I64 I6I6-20 I62I-25 I626-30 I63I-35 I636-40 I64I-45 I646-50 I65I-55 I656-60 I68 5I5 459 308 464 542 424 360 I97 These figures speak for themselves. Coleccion Vega.

}2rasme et l'Espagne (Paris. (Inglaterra).98 His Majestydecided that three hundredhabitosshould be conferred. I2 May I642. natural. was writing in I643 that it was so commonplace for habitos to be sold in Madrid.94 Olivares had already shocked traditionalorthodoxy by declaring in a meeting of the Council of State that the statutes of limpieza were unjust and impious "against all law. so that the resultantyield might help to defray the expenses of the war irl Cataloniaand Poralgal. BM. therefore. 95AGS. Los 3?udios en la Espana Modernay Contemporanea.each for a certain sum in silver. Egerton 332. Diego Velazquezund sein 3'ahrhundert. Count of Castrilloto Secretaryof Council 93 Carl Justi. Erasmoy Espana (Mexico. the upper reaches of which were concernedto preserveand fortify their position. f. f. from the point of view of a social hierarchy. I963)5 P 4? 97 Julio Caro Baroia. and to safeguardHis Majesty's conscience. moreover. 92 AGS. divine. he assembledjuntas of distinguishedlawyers who rnet together with many learned theologians to debate the matter. second Spanishedition. a hierarchy. I625. without incurring the sin of simony. It was an unfortunate story. Before His Majesty issued the necessarydecree.Humanism and the Social Orderin TudorEngland(Chicago. . Est.96 It is hardly surprising. 4I26: I64I. Penafiel describes the situation. They ruied that His Majesty might distribute the habitosto his vassals for a silver payment. however. I96I). iS the essential work on the reception of renaissance humanist ideas in sixteenth-century Spain. that under his rule grave suspicions came to be voiced at the apparent subversion taking place within the Orders.93 The story may well be apocryphal. 88. (Espana).97 Meanwhile the tranquility of the royal conscience was assured by the customaryjuntasof lawyers and theologians. I888). The writings of satirists and moralists alike bear ample witness to popular alarm.56 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 faculties with which the count of Castrillo was empowered when he was left in charge of the government in Madrid. Est. I954). ii (Bonn. 2849: Consulta of Council of State. I937). I966). king to Geronimo de Villanueva. and His Majestythereuponresolvedto execute the project. cit. p.. 98 Penafiel.La Sociedad Criptofudia en la Cortede FelipeI V (Madrid. and undoubtedly the majority of habitosstill went to persons well qualified to assume them. the ambassadorof the duke of Modena.95 and his own blood was notoriously suspect. I Nov. 234 and note. that an old retainer of Count Fulvio Testi was now to be seen proudly displaying the cross of Santiago upon his chest. pp... MS. 238 : of Orders. Interesting for its remarkson the humanists'view of nobility is Fritz Caspari. 94 MarcelBataillon. still deeply affected by renaissance ideas of nobility as a hall mark of both personal merit and ancient lineage. ii (Madrid.leg. 9 6 Julio CaroBaroia. however. I Nov.92 Ippolito Guidi. op.leg.. 355-7. and human".

I790).102 for habitos Going to Madrid or to some other large city was an obvious way to escape the petty jealousies of a small community. Historico 102 lfiIemorial ii. 376-7. among persons of quality who deserve them. who shall contribute in cash stlch a sum as is equivalentto the value of the grant. pp. Scarcelyhad Olivaresretired from oice should not be given in return for than the king ordered that habitos loans or other services to the Treasury. but in relation to the The price for which habitos prestige of the oice. relates specificallyto the English court.. it was not high. Espanol. With the summoning of a General Chapterof the Ordersin s652the first such meeting for nearly thirty years. 34-5. that the proofs be conducted at court by common repute. and so frequently are they sold at a figure that this might be reckonedas the customary of I8. I862).l?? Clearly the distribution of hundreds of habitosand the relaxation made in the procedurefor investigatillgthe qualities of the candidates. Espanol. I4 (Nov. Present. who might well be quite ignorant of his family background.l03 The Orders had therefore to insist that necessary inquiries should not be limited to those who came into contact with the pretendant in the capital. s36v-7. in 104 Catalonia. reduced now to a mere formality.99 Pellicer's news-sheet for I2 November I64I. Historico 99 Memorial pp. but contains much of obvious relevancetoo to the Spanish experience. could only combine to produce a devaluation of the prestige of honours once so prized.000 reales price of them".000 or 20. Coleccion de Pellicer. I62. no. the "inflation of honours" was removing much of the dignity attached to them. "The Inflation of Honours. xxvi.l?l There were naturally many people who were concerned that this should not happen. In I643 it was firrillyreassertedthat the proofs should be made in the places of origin of the pretendants. or for raising men to serve. I558-I64I". A Jesuit news-letter of I639 bestowed as pensions or reported: "Every day there are many habitos to rewardservices rendered. vol. Other reforms were also in the air. reprinted in Antonio xxxii(Madrid. despite the statute to the 100 Josef Pellicer y Tobar.Semanario Past and 101 Lawrence Stone. and that the concession of should also be stopped in respect of those who hitherto had habitos been granted them for serving.Los 104 RAH. pp. xv (Madrid. Erudito. gave a little more information on what happened: being at such a desperatepitch. 257-8. xvii. . Valladares. and to hide any defects of ancestry that these might uncover. His Majestyhas been pleased Circumstances with provision to order My Lord Count of Castrilloto dispose of 500 habitos. "Avisos Historicos". pp. ffudios. As over so much of western Europe at this time. ff.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 57 were sold varied. I958). 103 See Julio Caro Baroja. 45-70. p.

"Documentos sobre el motin de la Feria en I652". I329: Consulta of yunta de Execucion. In the end. 108 For example AGS. Seccion de Consejos Suprimidos.leg. Est. Antonio Dominguez Ortiz. 7I62. 28437.aftera popularrevolt in Seville. (Castilla). but it could not by this means ever disappear. 105 Interestingpapers relating to this Chapterare containedin AHN.28 Aug. and several more.l08 but the chiefconcern of the Conde Duquewasto secure the personal military service of allthe aristocracy. Archivo Hispalense) nos. pp..hopeswere revivedthat something furthermightbe done to halt the downward trend.BN.and BM.l07 The prestige of the Orders mightbe dilutedby strength of numbers. . leg. 107 AHN.through reinforcing the proofsof nobility andpurity of blood. The Crown itself foundit hardto refrain fromutilizingso cheapandeffective a wayof rewarding its servants.. I652).and in so doing he extinguished for ever the lingeringnotion that they still contained corporately some measureof militaryprowess. 7I7.. however modestit mightbe. 2I-2 (I947).oncethe appetitesof wealthyand influential aspirants to membership in the Ordershad been whetted. leg. 25 (Royal Decree.. leg. In I652n for example.PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 effectthata Chapter wasto be calledeverythreeyears. IS Mar.however. and f. OM. An habitomightbe givenas a reward for the manwho raiseda givennumberof men for the royalarmies at his owncost.I0 July I640. was already well-established. The customof concedinghabitos to the procuradores of the Cortesfor theirservices. but it wasclearly farfromeasyto pull back. Seccion de Consejos Suprimidos. I340 C.leg. What Olivares attemptedto do in addition. legs. f. andnot infrequently he wouldactually obtainone.for example..who in turn selected thirteenof the most deservingand bestowedhabitos uponthese. As early as I525 procuradores were petitioning for habitosbefore they returnedto their localities:AGS. MS. 69-93.. 29 (Consultaof Councilof Castille. considered himselfentitledto be honoured for it with a knighthood. 26 July I652). Add. 106 This is apparentfrom a summaryinspection of the Consultas de Gracia expedients issued by the Camara de Castilla for the concession of various positions and ofiices.sig. the Cardinal Archbishop Pimenteldrewup a list of thirty-twonames which he submittedto the Councilof Castille. The most notoriousabusescertainlydo appearto have beeneliminated. They are to be found in AHN. f. Guerra Antigua. I64I..was to use the Ordersas a sourceof men and of moneyfor war purposes. many loyal citizens confidentlyexpectedto have their assistance in quellingthe riotrecognized andrewarded withthe grant of an habito.l06Whoeverhad occasionto lend any mannerof service to theCrown orto thecommunity. I3. 69. MS. Libros Manuscritos. I379: Consultaof unta de Coroneles) I9 June I64I. I374: idem..l05 Discussioncentredon how habitos might be restoredto theirold dignity. 4407-4742.

3I Dec.leg. Seccion de Consejos Suprimidos.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY andin particular of theknights of the Military Orders . Under Charles II it would appearthat habitos were no longer openly sold.. Seccion de Gobierno. I00. I642. 2I439.or at leastto appointand pay a proxyto servein theirstead. though this does not by any meansimplythat their concession reverted to more orthodox criteria. but merely one of mercenaries paid by the knightsto fight in their name. 1ll BM. xxv 110 E. Amongthe mass of petitionsfor habitos directedto the Councilof Castille.the reasonsput forwardto justifythe requestsare diverse andoccasionally bizarre. f. andothercolonial officials. suffered heavy desertions. treasurers. and was defeated by Frenchforces near Leridain OctoberI642.. particularly on the part of the knightsthemselves. MS. 59 . Rarely now does there seem to be even the pretence that habitoswere bestowed as a reward of true merit. 24I: "Calidadesque han de tener los hidalgos que han de ser admitidosparaservir en el batallonde Cavalleriade las Ordenes en lugar de los Comendadores y Cavallerosdellas".Indiferente(General). includingthe recapture of Barcelona. Other instances are given by Dominguez Ortiz in the articlecited in the previousnote.g. alguaciles mayores. leg. It is an interestingand ratherpathetic commentaryon the ideals of the MilitaryOrdersthat even these paid mercenarieshad to submit themselves at this critical stagein Spain's military fortunes to the same inquiriesas to birth and ancestry as characterized the admission of new knights.l 09 Repeatedly.beforebeing allowedto takeup arms... 2 AHN. f. and many others.ll3 Many were content simply with detailingthe services lent in the past by their ancestors. 3 Ibid. f. 788. Anuario de Historia del DerechoEspanol. I47.ll4 Hitherto 109 For full details see Antonio Dominguez Ortiz.leg. 114 AGI.ll?but the regiment whichwas so assembled was starved of provisions. 799-823. 4444. 30 Jan. I640. 77: Orderof Philip IV that the knights of Calatravaserve on the frontiers of Spain.ll2 for othersit wasenoughthat theirfathershad servedas treasurers of millones or in other positionsin the administration. 4445. (I955). containsmany such examples.lll If Olivareshad at root a pressingneed to use the revenuesand resources of the Orders in a time of national emergency.. BM. 99. Add. ff. Egerton 332. Petitionswere passedon in the same way by the Council of the Indies in favour of relatores. but by this stage it was not a companyof knights at all.the favouritism and corruption which markedout the reign of the last Austrianking had little such justification. pp. "La Movilizacion de la Nobleza Castellana en I640". MS. Admittedly it was able to recoupits forces sufficiently to play an effectivepart in the later campaigns. Someaskedfor an habito for havingfought bullsin localfiestas. 50. f. knightsweresummoned to servein person.

the number of dispensationsrose out f. IOI: Royi Order. his steady rise is evident under as proportion. enjoy his hidalgo blood his that or birth might discover that he was of illegitimate or perhaps contained some trace of a Jewish or Moorish ancestor. leg. I692. but others which a of discriminacriteria merit it accepted.. OM. are difficulties in grantedby the Papacy make clear the most frequent might. Consejo y suplir defectos para obtener el Breves de Su Sanctidaden razon de dispensar Coleccion de Salazar y habito de la Orden de Santiago". Age Golden of amirror of the social ideals the reasons for ofview it is perhaps even more interesting to discover they might be which for might be withheld than those whichhabitos never granted were which habitos to conferred. Camara had no greater good number of them out of hand. There were attempts to to the entry allowing while service. of the position the most interesting in view of the light it sheds on the that discover might he Orders within contemporary society. his of one or he. 115 RAH. there as figures Such to ascertain with any certainty. volume 4 Sep.ll5 but how far these were political purpose of the all clear What is certain is that the characterand at had become Orders Military the in knighthood of institution venerable perverted. 6275. .135. See also RAH. military for men with Santiago or distinction two Ordersto those who merited it through family other not is practice in effective service. are. was pursued. caja 2: "Memoria 116 AHN. 132-3. the from evident is as expect. I (9-29-5-5949). occupation or profession that considered unworthy of the prestige of knighthood.. ff.. but a Dispensations under Philip II were few and far to power coming the With successor. de de las 6rdenes. all of of Olivares.ll6 between. Castro. the through instance first the for them to be channelled in advisable rejected body This vetted. completely Orders served as It has been argued already that the Military From this poiIlt Spain. be could where they de Castilla. might one what conform well with table opposite. however. ancestors. He he status by royal privilege rather than by blood. for example. Other sources.. the of Council the of Archive in the Secret remain from conclusions dealof work would be necessaryto draw any general Dispensations accessible. with no very clear intrinsic Order of the of habitos reserve tion. page 6I. The papers relating and a great Orders. whicha would-be knight might find himself. is impossible The number of dispensationsgrantedin differentyears however. more them. Varios de Historia.60 AND PRESENT PAST 43 NUMBER Orders for petitions had gone directly to the Council of the these considered was it but they were now so numerous that consideration.

for example. perhaps is heading. might well be described simply as lack position by their enjoyed who hidalgos those of number the moreover. It given above on page 55 The table should be read in conjunctionwith that Santiagoover the same of Order the in granted habitos of numbers the showing 117 period. I558-I657 633 I 2 I608 I583 I558 I559 I560 I56I I562 I563 I564 I565 I566 I567 I568 I569 I570 I57I I572 I573 I574 I575 I576 I577 I578 I579 I580 I58I I582 I I 2 I584 I585 I586 I587 I588 I589 I590 I59I I592 I593 I594 I595 I596 I597 I598 I599 I600 I60I I602 I603 I604 I605 I606 I607 I I I I I 2 I I I 2 I I609 I6I0 I6II I6I2 I6I3 I6I4 I6I5 I6I6 I6I7 I6I8 I6I9 I620 I62I I622 I623 I624 I625 I626 I627 I628 I629 I630 I63I I632 3 I 4 2 I 2 3 5 8 2 I 4 4 I 6 5 5 I0 6 I4 I5 6 I 2 I - 634 I I635 I636 I637 I638 I639 I640 I64I I 642 I 643 I 644 I 645 I 646 I647 I648 649 I 650 I I65I 652 I I653 I654 I655 I656 I657 4 2 4 I7 7 9 I2 IZ 7 8 2 9 6 s 8 3 2 4 - 2 4 in largenumbersto raisemoneyfor the war were conferred habitos rebellions andPortuguese withFrance.andafterI640 for the Catalan which for faults ancestral or personal aswell. .ll7 An analysisof the following: the shows granted were dispensations Philip II Lack of nobility Illegitimacy Pursuit of base office Impurity of blood Noble status by royal privilege only Total 2 Philip III 22 23 Philip IV II7 2I Total 7? 4 5 3 I0 I4I 49 3 I I 50 67 - 3 208 4 268 since the These figures are not as revealing as they might be. occupation. properly men some and small. significant. of nobility. privilege and not by blood seems unduly general same this under included be also of this category may in fact IV the Philip under that however. manual a of Pursuit categoriesare not altogetherdistinct.ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY MILITARY 6I THE ORDER DISPENSATIONSFROM THE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS OF PAPAL OF SANTIAGO.

as they formal exception to this was a barred only The in Spain.be faults of nobility should of dispensations given for cent).3tulian see are in AHN. in Orders. sections 4 and Antonio Marichalar. Duro. his of defiance of in result a insisted. Xii. Francisco .ll9 saintly of which raised a storm privilege have a to century. part iv. only as king that it had been issued habito the of the of title formal example the Perhaps the best special papal dispensation.l22 su familia de 118 62 AND PRESENT PAST 43 NUMBER y Alvar Garcia de Santa Maria Francisco CanteraBurgos. de I4-5. I90-I: "Representacion 332. The informaciones the only for of his witnesses were finally examined. criticism. I952). communities of the descendants of the made by Philip III in favour thirteenth dispensation bishop of Burgos in the In D. 72I3.l20 entered inquiries. It was only strong and granted by Urban in ofdispensation being requested that no mention be made Council. it was dispensation. dpoca 122 Cesareo Fernandez su Diaz Pimientay El AlmiranteD. I pp. to invariably and when it was. en la Orden y Poggio. Pablo de descendentes los a concede a pesarde ser confesos". Romero(Madrid.ll8 radical antecedents seem many others of dubious practice.. para el ingreso de Pruebas to Jose Wanguesnert Expedientes Introduction p. a mere 6 low for given five fold dispensations over while his successor have risen formal of Philip III should under subject under the Impurity of blood was rarely on behalf of those 32o2per cent. ii. (Madrid. from one or other of the genealogical for dispensing the face of Generally the initiative was taken by the king. obtenerhabitosmilitares are provided by Julio Caro examples of number A 120 5. I952). papers The Santiago. from other similar closed converted or were from the Orders. with as we have seen.. por el qual se Egerton MS. rigorously Jews in their veins were. The habitowon by the more well are of examples of this Some was the outcome only general Julian Romero Francisco distinguished In I624 the admiral II's personal intervention. OM. hidalguia hundred the to as for lack of proof grant the deny to necessary brief Orders pressure which led to the VIII.to be completely sure. per 44 percentage against as III (56-25 higher than under Philip per cent noticeably occupations. pp. Conversos ff. Baroja.. but the mother. Pontificio BM. del Consejo de las (Madrid. Orders the of the requirements of entry Council the part of the or less open opposition on known. I905). details full habito For 121 relating to Romero's no. Breve 119 inconvenientes del Cartagena los de Burgos el obispo manifestando (:)rdenes de D.l2l Philip IV in recognition of his Philip by habito an awarded was Ribera force ten times de battle with a Turkish running over one three-day heroic were very extensive and of the Council superior. Pablo de Cartagena.Los dios. 280-4. with the blood of Jews families Those Moorish antecedents. impossible as it was for any the Ordersby various subterfuges. however thorough.

this was only because of the opposition raised by the widespread grants of habitos to lawyers. The argument is apparent in a paper dated 3 August I653.l24 Among the points it made were the following: The Orderof Santiagoand its knightshave alwaysenjoyedenormousprestige. 80-4. pp. Revista Europea.. Additional information is provided by Francisco R. If in the General Chapter of I652 it was conceded that dispensations on behalf of men with distinguished military service might be sought and granted more readily. pp. royal influence was usually not far to seek. The proofs. 257-7I.. 39-43.iii (I899). Once one began to reassert the military nature of the Orders.Revistade Archivos. When the rules were bent in any way. 203-I4: "E1Consso del CapituloGeneralde la Ordende Santiago representa lo que tiene por combeniente se disponga para mayor beneficio della".ii (I874). which took II3 days to conduct. the hierarchyof the Orderswas intransigentso far as entry was concerned. saying that this was all that was necessary to render it a masterpiece must unfortunately be rejected: the formalities attending the grant of the habito date frorlltwo years after the work was finished. But the essence of the story is true. directed to the king by the Council of the Chapterof the Order of Santiago. pp. The red cross of Santiagowhich the artistproudly displays on his tunic in his self-portrait in Las Meninas was the outcome of a long sequence of obstruction and delay on the part of the Council of the Orders. in general terms. its rules have been relaxedin all mannerof ways a situation worthy of the closest attention of Your Majesty and your great wisdom in looking to a remedyfor it. and 402-6. since both as King and Masteryou owe it to honour and favour the Order. . The legend attached to this painting-that on its completion Philip himself seized the brush and added the cross to the artist's chest.l23 These particular instances are naturally welldocumented. . in that it highlights the direct royal responsibility for the conferring of the knighthood. but they could doubtless be repeated of many other less famous men.ibid. CruzadaVillaamil "Informacionesde las calidadesde Diego de Silva Velazquezpara el habito de la Orden de Santiago". administrative officials. 124 BN. and courtiers. MS. are printed by G. but since the year I600 . op. it was hard not to concede that in the case of soldiers certain defects of genealogy might necessarily have to be overlooked. 7I7. and "Nuevos documentos referentesa Diego Velazquezen la Orden de Santiago".MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 63 necessity for royal intervention in order to secure an habito is that of Diego Velazquez. The impression one gains is that. vii (I902).BibliotecasyMuseos.5769. The Council of the Chapter therefore asks: That no habitoof this Orderbe concededto anyonewho is not clearlyreputed 123 There is naturally a large literature on Velazquez and his habito. ff. I05-I0 275-8. cit. . de ldhagonin two articles: "Diego Velazquezen la Orden de Santiago". The legend of Las Meninasis discussedby CarlJusti.

but they also hold the nlajorityof the habitosand encomiendas which were not intended for them at all. That Your Majesty be pleased to refrain from bestowing the favour of an habitoon any of your servantswho does not enjoy the rank of knight in the royal household. pp.to securefriendlywitnesses.hadnecessarily to seekalliesamongthe witnesses arld informants. with the result that there are few such oices that they have not appropriatedfor themselves. In any event nobody should be able to receive dispensations for more than one fault.other than the membersof the Councilof the Orders. The only exception that may be made is in respect of soldiers. if these last were promoted to membership of the Council of Castille. with the exception of soldiers whose valorous services and exploits themselves enhance their blood. for who knew what consequences malice. . in the hopethathe mightbe fortunate enoughto be granted a dispensation. The manwho chosenot to confessto anydefectsin his ancestry.. If their deeds and services are as fine as those of Julian Romero who was dispensed from the lack of nobility in his farnily. Nonwadays the position is so distortedthat not only do oidores have the greaterprestige. Only a few years ago there were no administrators. the rewardsof study for those who aspiredto judicialor administrative posts. while these men are enjoying the benefit of them. A new statute should be Inadeto the effect that no dispensationsbe given at all other than to those who have served ten years in the war. in conformitywith the relevant statute.is no more than their due.and appealing 125 MemorialHistoricoEspanol.whopromised to let his nephewhavea suitable sumof money for this purpose. No lessa personthanthe bishopof Cuzcowrotein I636. or in possession of a rich estate with which to lend lustre and honour to the Order. mighthave. as was invariablythe case in the time of Philip II. he had secret inquiries made as to the characterand backgroundof every pretendentbefore concedingthe habito. I864).xviii (Madrid. It is not right that soldiers cannot share in honollrs designed for themselves. nor have any ancestor who has been penitenced by the Inquisition. Militaryhonourswere establishedfor militarymen. since they are unnecessaryand give rise to a lack of esteem for the Order.. a development which has resulted in a fall in the esteem in which they were held in formertimes That His Holiness should not be asked to grant dispensationsfrom the entry requirementswhich the knights of this Order have to fulfil. . who was a candidate for an habito. XiV-XVi. advising his nephew. This might indeed be advisableiil any event..taking care that no honour or award be made to anyone whose proofs did not show him worthy of them . there was always the possibilityof admittingthe faults in one's pedigree. establishedfor the rewardof militaryvalour.suggestedthe bishop.they may be held to warrantspecial favour. in order to fulfil the requirementsfor entry.l25 On the other hand. on which they reflect little credit.enjoyingthese positions. however even the alcaldesde cortecan aspireto the same honour . He should take good care to rewardthem in advance. This honour. But they must not have any trace of Jewish or Moorish blood. nor on any of your ministers' servants who is not of this rank. Now.or simplya badmemory. Generosityin bestowing mercedes of this sort has advancedto such a point that even the solicitorsof the Councils hold habitosand the Colegiosare full of them. they were at once recognizableby their habitos. .64 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 to be a gentleman of pure ancestry.

The Crown. The criteria adopted by the Order of Santiago at Toledo in IS60 for "low and vulgar offices" were those of silversmith and painter.or any other pursuits similaror inferiorto these.. and lively polemics were sometimes the result. and as such with the assumption of an habito. for its part.op. tit. If the Crown's bankers wanted habitos in return. one of the witnesses. skilfully side-stepped the issue by Ruiz de Vergara. In the Spanish ports. Scruples at sullying one's hands in vulgar trade were forgotten. could not afford to stand in the way of domestic enterprise. The example of foreign merchants. I966). 1 26 127 . I3-6V. B1M.MS. and in any event it was much men who were usually best able to loan money to the Treasury when required.. the German banker. When in I6I5 the proofs were taken in connection with the habito of Calatravaconferred upon Jorge Fugger. or merchants? This last category was the one which caused most trouble. Appearances. there was added a further potential stumbling block: that of base office. which might or might not be regarded as "oficios viles y mecanicos". as we have seen. of course. shopkeeper and moneylender. The bishop of Augsburg. To the possible defects of birth and ancestrythat any person seeking an habito might have. see particularly Ruth Pike. ff. scribe (other than one of the royal scribes). Was a midwife. prejudicing her own and her descendants' nobility by performing her duties?127 More important. stone-cutter. members of the liberal professions.l26 Doubts frequently arose with regard to borderline activities. v.and above all the Genoese. notaries. secretaries. incompatible with nobility.what of such persons as artists. embroiderer. for example. and the one man also with some interest in rewardingservices rendered in his name. it was common to find well-known families who took advantageof the new opportunities presented by the economic expansion of the sixteenth century to engage in overseas trade and speculative enterprise. the one man who could set aside the rules laid down by the Orders and their Council. cap. and particularlyin Seville and Cadiz. I. inn or tavern keeper. Egerton 343. produced a natural desire to share in this profitable field. the leading question was obviously the one that inquired whether he or his ancestors had ever dedicated themselves to trade or lent money at interest.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 65 directly to the king. Enterpriseand Adventure: The Gencwese in Seville and the Opening of theNew World(Ithaca. then it would not be politic to refuse them. cit. if these occupationswere pursued as money-makingactivities. It was concluded that she was not.l28settling in Spain after the opening up of the New World market. Manual occupation was. 128 On the Genoese. had to be kept up. public attorney.

John stood firm. 129 .l29 individual. and kindly more look to Masterof the Order asking him in dispensing Santiago of Order the of to follow the example mercaderes. leg. y Frasesproverbiales de Refranes 131 Gonzalo Correas. de las ()rdenes. a papal future any avoid Orders the was obtained in I622. I906). 36. 6275 caja I. Luis MarcinezKleiser. difficulties.. Guia de Madridpara el ano P.66 AND PRESENT PAST 43 NUMBER Fugger that he neither knew nor had heard it said. I43-50.l30 shopkeeper more implacable It was clear that the power of money was much within Spanish dominant less no certainly and that of nobility. The Brief itself 130 AHN. than can do and (Money society. pp. lxix (Madrid. Alcantara (Madrid. and only a very of Burgos inhabitants The it. in the precious honour of professing to rest therefore had Peninsula the of cities and the other prosperous drop quietly might which content with the Spanish national Orders.. Consejo de Ortegay Cotes.despite letters which they persuadedPhilip upon them. t lelr more lnconvenlent requirements. I759). and to establish a uniform rule. p.Boletinde la Real Academiade la Historia. (Madrid. OM. Money is caballero/es aristocracyby the into ascended who Typicalof the mentality of those in which the way the is blood their than rather virtueof their wealth the Order enter to moneyednobility of Burgos attempted tenaciously refused had which Order one the ofSt. antano". in any were had they dealings money for their own profit. John of Jerusalem. to assume habitos The time when noble merchants found it easiest I 626 the Council In reign. I877).l3l powerful a Don Dinero"(Mr. with the king of Spain case To and were thereforenot a matter of public concern. that declaring or had merchants. This was in its firm remained it and Constitutions its to relax the rigidity of repeatedly were aristocraticexclusiveness. pp. BuilariumOrdinisMilitiae de Joseph Ignatio in nlay be read 70-I. de AutoresEspanoles. to the statute to the small applied not to large-scaleentrepreneurs. 93-4. his father or his grandfather. was apparentlythe first half of Philip IV's * * I656 (Madrid. The bankers of Burgos II to send to the spurned. pp. "El dinero todo lo puedey vence" is a (Money caballero" es dinero conquereverything) and "El them turned Quevedo before long proverbs were popular gentleman) poems: "Poderoso into a refrain for one of his most celebrated gentleman).but only activity or common money-lender. which extended to all the brief commercial on prohibition the that effect of Santiago. What lent or prince other any with not and alone."Tipicas cxxxv (I954). Vocabulario snay be found in Espanolg Parnaso El from poem.l32 occasionallyfrom the blanket prohibition upon few could boast The Order of St. Biblioteca pinceladasdel vivir burgalesen los dias de 132 Ismael GarciaRamila. I926). had been himself. Quevedo's 85.

a citizen of Seville. Simon Freus de la Fuente.the firsttype could aspire to an habito. yet employedunderlings to do the routinetransactions fiorhim. When in I630 an habitowas granted to the powerful Seville businessman Tomas Manarafor his son Miguel. pp.Luis Ponce de Sandoval. but an essential method of distributingindividual wealth. I626. in the sense in which the term is used in this interrogatory.ITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 67 of Statedebateda new constitution proposed by the Catalans which would enabletheir nobilityto engagein trade without prejudicing their chancesof obtainingmilitaryhabitos. I902). nor does this witness believe that he can be consideredas pursuing any base office. under no circumstances could the second. Est. . Trade was clearly a vital factor for Spain's continuanceas an imperialpower. a child of threeat the time. Fernando de Saavedra andothers. D.since it is clearthat in this city other gentlemenof much worth who hold habitos in the Military Orderspursue similaroccupations.there is no questionof his being a merchant. 2849: Consulta of Council of State. .moresubtletywas calledfor. and the smallmanwho of necessityhad directlyto engagein buyingand sellinghimself. 2I OCt. of considerable wealth.MII. Anothermember of the Council. D. for it is not sixnply trade as such. and accused him of deceiving the 133 AGS.obtainedan habitoof the Orderof Santiago. Julio Cesar Escayoli.D. Although it is true that the said Tomas Maiiarais a businesssnanwith a valuablestakein the Indies trade.not to mentionthe dukeof Medina Sidoniaandothernoblelordswhotookpartin the sametrade. MelchorMaldonado. . (Inglaterra). The Marques de Tabara.leg.l34 Afterthe Chapter of I6525 however. l34Manuel Gomez Imaz. Pedro Lopez de San Roman. and it could not be dismissedas vulgar moneymaking. What is so generalcannot be forbidden. 4I-2. one of the witnessesand himselfthe Treasurer of the Casade Contractacion declared that: .summonedhim shortly afterwards.l33One of the members.however.. Duartede Portugal. just as in Extremadura and Ledn grazingand wool are. D. Pedrode Toledo. Otherwitnessescited in supportof this observation the habitos held by the merchants Adriande Legasco. voicedthe general feelingin making the usual distinction betweenthe entrepreneur whomadehis moneyfromtrade.Juan de Cordoba.pointedto the real crux of the matter: In Genoa trade is the general way of life and means of livelihood.Presidentof the Councilof the Orders. Miguel Manara: algunos datos referentesal insigne fundadorde la Santa Caridadde Sevilla (Seville.withno thoughtthatit mightdetract fromtheirpersonal honour. Assuminghe was of good birth.

that the habito could not in fact boast such an impeccable ancestry as his. innkeeper. He genealogypresented added. might well feel that their new social position justified their so doing. Paz y Melia [Madrid. 203). I892]. An example.Jeronimo de 137 JuanCatalinaGarcia. for he was stripped of protests seem to have availed him his habitoand imprisoned appeareda very bad and "which excessive punishment''. A. Avisos. i. The example of Velazquez has already been mentioned in a different context. ed. 208 (citing Barrionuevo. The Council pointed out the lack of rank of the pretendants. 36 See above. note I23. His nothing. social corresponding position. but it has its place too in the wider setting of the struggle of the artist to be recognized as a of a liberal profession and member not merely as a manual order labourer. Guadalajara .l37 Orders contain no dispositions connection in with nobility. for would be unlikely to petition for an hnibito. The holders of some proscribedoffices would hardly think in terms of enteringthe ownefforts had apparently Ordersin the first place. blood or that such requirements were in occupation. a few days before his death. and no obstacle. for their rivals finally being allowed to were quick to allege that in acting as the royal architecttheir father was labouringwith his hands. but fortunately for them. Pedro Lopez replied that he was an Old Christian of hidalgo ancestry in all four grandparents' that his merchantstatus was lines. ii.Biblioteca deEscritores de la Provinciade (Madrid.l36 For painted not as a profession but only similar Olmo had to suffer severe setbacks reasons the sons of D. p. though it would appear practice These exclusions only begin to appear exacted from an early date. an artist. but otherswhose lifted them out of the pariicular rank in which their fathers or their grandfathers had lived. Charles II. on the other hand. La SociedadEspanola. to achieve his habito In it was in the end necessary for Velazquez to subscribe to the fiction that he for the king's pleasure. pp. perhaps unwisely in the many of those who did wear event. might well do so. formally in the Difiniciones and Establecimientos of the sisteenth century as a symptom of the transformation of the Orders into institutions of social discriminalS5 Dominguez 68 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 Ortiz.though they do provide a good example acrossproblems of an theeconomic importance of which was matched by no occupation. gave the order for the necessary despatches The primitive Rules of the to be issued. since his no other difficulty. I899). Jose del before assume habitos of Santiago. 373-7. p.l35 Merchantswere not of course the only class to come ofthis nature.Council by not revealing that he was a brokerin the Seville a merchant in the Indies Lonja and trade.

l40 If there were absurdities in the way the Orders continued to function. 139 Americo Castro. pp. The Order of Alcantarahad securedpapalconfirtnation of its own limpiezastatuteas earlyas I483 (Bullarium. contains snany ideas on the Spanish attitude to honour. themselves in a sense absurd.and seventeenth-century mentality. pp. I. and 357-86. 24I-2)e .l38 Such a codification was necessary if the Orders were to isolate themselves as a distinguished and highly respected sector of the Spanish aristocracy. They were religious bodies which owed no greaterreligious obligations than any other secular institution. i).l39 They served as a means of authenticatingnoble ancestry for a generationwhich set its standards by such criteria. which were basic to the sixteenth.but this they could not ever be: royal policy and popular pressure served alike to enlarge their membership and to take away the force of their statutes. And in addition. for they still conserve the blood of their first ancestor Tubal and in order to achieve honour and lordship. and the society which they mirrored. in fact. The Orders can be regarded as a microcosm of Castilian society in its rise as well as in its decline. handed down through the long wars * * 138 Thus the Regla de la Ordende la Cavalleriade Senor Santiagodel Espada (Valladolid. Excelencia IV: "Among the Spaniardsis to be found a more ancientnobility than exists in other nations. and ignored even their own criteria for judging this. As time went on. 140 See for example Penalosay Mondragon. they performthe bravestof deeds". were equally anachronistic. Their position. was wholly anachrotiistic but then the social concepts which they embodied. by dispensing from any that provec lnconvenlent. I-50. they set themselves up as the arbiters of social acceptability. cit.MILITARY ORDERSIN SPANISH SOCIETY 69 tion. cap. Revista de FilologiaEspanola) iii (I9I6). it is because they attempted to give force to attitudes and ideals. It has become almost a historical cliche to assert that somewhere in the psychological background to Spanish imperialism there lurks a crusading tradition. the Orders were revealed as a chimera. The Orders became honorific orders of chivalry in an age in which notions of honour and chivalry were of immense importance."Algunasobservaciones acercadel concepto del honor en los siglos XVI y XVII". which was closely connectedof coursewith the whole problemof limpieza.. The peculiar circumstances which had given birth to the Orders had in fact given birth also to those forms of Castilian life which emerged dominant at the end of the middle ages.op.I527) begins tentatively to insist on hidalguiaand limpieza(tit. They professed military aims and were unwilling to fight even in defence of their country at a time of national peril. In successive editions of the Statutes of this and the other Ordersthe phraseology becomes stricter and more rigid.

see especiallyJ. H. (Mexico. Cambridge L. I966). P. For the Spanish backgroundto the conquest and settlement of the New World.l4l and certainlyHabsburgSpain was alwaysa nationacutelyawareof its own historical past. the primeembodiment of the militaryand religiousnorms of medievalSpain. At everystage Spanishsocietyinfluenced. The SpanishSeaborne Empire(London.4th edn. and was in turn influenced by.El Estadoespanolen las Indias. therefore. thanto see in the survival of the Orders. M. . Ots Capdequi.crusade and empire. Parry. I965).7o PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 43 of the Reconquista. Wright l4lAn excellent brief account of this "tradition of conquest" is given by J. Whatmorenatural. Gonville and CaiusCollege. 27-37. pp. the institutionof the MilitaryOrders. the essentialintellectual link betweenreconquest and conquest.

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