Abbasids (749-1258 A.D.

) This second major Muslim dynasty took their name from their ancestor, al- Abbas ibn Abd al-Mutallib, who was the Prophet's uncle. A fter succeeding the Umayyads in 749 A.D., they ruled for the next 500 years, alt hough in reality their effective power declined after around 900 A.D. The Abbasi ds moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, building al-Mansur's famous round city in 762 A.D. It was during the reign of Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809 A.D.) t hat the Abbasid caliphate reached its peak, a time of prosperity, peace and comm unal unity. After that, the decline started, with clashes between the population and troops stimulating the construction of Samarra in 865 A.D. as a city for th e troops. In 945 A.D. the Buwayhids replaced Abbasid power in Iran and Iraq, alt hough they continued to be the nominal caliphs. By the time of the Mongol occupa tion of Baghdad in 1258 A.D. their reign was completely reduced to being a mere figurehead. Abbasid architecture was influenced by Sassanian, Central Asian, and later twelfth and thirteenth century A.D. Saljuk prototypes. Despite the breadt h of the Abbasid territories, the majority of remaining monuments are in the Abb asid homeland of Iraq. Abbasid architecture is noted for the vastness of the sca le used for their cities, as well as the Samarra stucco decoration that spread a nd continued to be used elsewhere for a long time. Abjad The order used in the traditional system of calculation, wherein each le tter signifies a numerical value. Abjad order is derived from the same source of the Greek, Hebrew and other alphabets (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and differs f rom the current order used in Arabic dictionaries. In many examples of Ottoman a rchitecture we find the date of the building by deciphering the last verse of a poem inscribed on any of the elements of the building using the abjad values. Ablaq A decorative technique, popular during the Mamluk period, based on alter nating courses of black and white masonry. The term is derived from the Turkish iplik, meaning rope or thread. Ablution Fountain fore prayers. Fountain found in mosques and used for ritual washing be

Abzin Derived from Persian, it means a small basin found in hammams (baths) fo r washing feet. Acanthus Derived from the Greek akanthos. A plant with serrated leaves co mmonly used in Greek architecture and was continued in Islamic architecture, in both natural and abstract forms. Adhan The daily call to prayer that is carried out mostly from the tops of min arets, and sometimes from the rooftops or the doors of places of worship. Aghani Literally means songs . In Mamluk architecture there are long corri dors lined with seats and walled by mashrabiyyas. The aghani are usually galleri es on upper floors overlooking the main reception areas of houses; the durqa a or the sahn. An alternative term is maq ad aghani. Aghlabids (800-909 A.D.) This dynasty was established in 800 A.D. by Ibra him ibn Aghlab, who was the governor sent by the Abassid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid , to suppress the unrest caused by the Berber tribes in North Africa. Following Ibn Aghlab's success with the tribes, Harun al-Rashid rewarded him by granting h im relative independence in Ifriqiyya in return for an annual tribute. Aghlabid rule centered in Qayrawan, controlled what is now eastern Algeria and Tunisia, a nd expanded into Sicily, Malta and Southern Italy. Their power ended at the hand s of al-Mahdi and a coalition of Berber tribes in 909 A.D. The Aghlabids were th e most important and most powerful of the three dynasties that ruled North Afric a in the ninth century. They founded Qayrawan, the city which became the nerve-c

enter for the entire Maghrib. The contributed greatly to the infrastructure of I friqiyya, and built many waterways and forts. The Great Mosque of Qayrawan was e nlarged and those in Susa and Tunis were repaired. The Great Mosque of Qayrawan, the oldest surviving mosque built by the Arabs in North Africa, was originally by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi . The Aghlabid Ziyadat Allah rebuilt the entire structure during the 9th century, where only the minaret and the mihrab were fro m previous periods. Ahl al-Bayt Literally means 'family of the house' and refers to the family o f the Prophet. A jami Anything that is non-Arab is a jami. In Mamluk documents that term is used to describe non-Arab style of decoration. Ajur Clay baked brick.

Almohads (1130-1269 A.D.) Almohads, also known as al-Muwahhidun, literally means 'adherents of divine unicity'. This was a Berber dynasty founded by Mahdi ibn Tumart, who had studied in the east and then came back to claim himself the mahdi. He had a lot of followers and his dynasty was established with the eradi cation of Almoravid s rule, yet the military occupation of both North Africa and S pain only took place after his death. The city of Marrakesh continued to flouris h under their rule, especially the artistic and intellectual milieus. Monumental construction was at its peak during the first fifty years of their rule, as evi dent from the mosques at Taza, Marrakesh, Tinmallal, Seville, Rabat, Fez and the fortresses and citadels in Marrakesh and Rabat. Almoravids (1046-1157 A.D.) A dynasty of Berber origin that ruled North Afri ca and Spain. Also known as al-Murabitun, their name literally means those who l ived in a ribat. In the case of Almoravids, it was those who lived in a ribat at the mouth of the Senegal River. They were instigated by Abdallah ibn Yasin, a n oted Moroccan scholar, and then led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin who founded Marrakesh a s his capital in 1062 A.D. Their position in North Africa weakened with the rise of a new power, that of Almohads in the early years of the twelfth century A.D. The descendants of Yusuf ibn Tashfin succeeded him to the throne one after the other until the dynasty of Almohads overruled them. Almoravids are responsible f or the unification of Morocco and the rapid assimilation of the Andalusian cultu re through their patronage of architecture, poetry and philosophy. During their rule they spread a simple and fundamentalist form of Islam, advocating close adh erence to Islamic law, and were opposed to theology and Sufism. Al-Murabitun Al-Muwahhidun Amir See Almoravids. See Almohads.

Prince or dignitary.

Amir Akhur A Mamluk post; the prince responsible for the royal stables. The blazon for this position is symbolized by a polo stick. Amir al-Mu'minin Caliphal title meaning 'Commander of the Faithful.' This title was first given to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644 A.D.), the second cal iph, who was known for his strength of character, candor and incredible justice. This title was later assumed by several Muslim leaders until its use faded out in the thirteenth century A.D. following the Mongol invasion. Nevertheless, this title was used through the early nineteenth century A.D. by West African Muslim communities. Amir al-Silah A Mamluk post; the prince responsible for arms.

Anatolian Saljuks

See Saljuks of Rum.

Aqqoyunlu (1467-1502 A.D.) Literally meaning 'Tribes of the White Sheep', t his was a Turkish dynasty that ruled eastern Anatolia, Azerbaijan, Persia, Iraq, Afganistan and Turkestan. Originally Turkic tribes, they began raiding Syria, M esopotamia and Byzantium c.1340 A.D., shortly taking over Diyarbakir. Their init ial advances were by Qara Yuluk Uthman (1389-1435 A.D.) who was appointed by Tam erlane as governor of Diyarbakir in 1402 A.D. After 1435 A.D. they lost some ter ritories to their rival Qaraqoyunlo. Uzun Hasan (1453-1478 A.D.) however defeate d the Qaraqoyunlus in 1467 A.D., taking over their territories in 1469 A.D. Turk oman culture flourished under the rule of Hasan and his son Yaqub (1478-1490 A.D .). They were eventually defeated by the Safavids who took over Tabriz in 1501 A .D. and annihalted the Aqqoyunlu political power in 1502 A.D. The last Aqqoyunlu ruler was sacked from Mardin in 1507 A.D. Arabesque One of the main decorative elements in Islamic art. It is basica lly a scroll of leaf and stems where the intertwining elements create an interla cing geometric system. This vegetal scroll appears to whirl in circles and inter lope with its own indefinite blossoms. Ashara A decorative motif used in illuminating Qur ans, to tell where the end of each tenth aya is. Ataba A term used for both lintel and doorstep. There are different descriptio ns of lintels found in the Mamluk documents, one of which is atab musfan to mean joggled voussiors. Atabeg/Atabek Young prince's guardian, who is often a governor. Can also refer to the commander in chief of an army. Atruja Literally meaning 'citrus fruit'. This refers to a recurring mot if in Islamic architecture, resembling a lemon, often adorned by a three trilobe d chalice at the top. Awlad al-Nas Literally means 'children of people' and was the term given to t he children of the Mamluks who were born in Egypt. A Mamluk could only be a Turk ic slave, and this title did not extend to their offspring born in Egypt. Ayyubids (1171-1250 A.D.) The dynasty was founded by the Kurdish general S alah al-Din al-Ayyubi (d.1193 A.D.), also known as Saladin, who was celebrated f or his recovery of Jerusalem. In the name of Sunni Islam, Salah al-Din establish ed the Ayyubid dynasty (1169 A.D.) and eradicated the Shi i influences of the prev ious Fatimid rule in Egypt and Syria. Despite building the walls and enormous ci tadel of Cairo, he actually only spent eight years in his capital. As well as hi s victory in Jersualem, Salah al-Din also conquered parts of Yemen and Diyarbaki r. The last Ayyubid Sultan was Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub who built a huge corpus o f slave soldiers and stationed them on the island of Roda (Bahri Mamluks). Most Ayyubid building activity concentrated on two main aspects, military architectur e, including walls and citadels, to combat Crusade invasions, andmadrasas. Azar In Mamluk th the ceiling of ly inscribed with cases is thuluth architecture this term is used to denote the wooden band benea rooms. This band is used structurally for support and is usual Qur anic verses and the foundation text. The script used in most on an arabesque background.

Azulejo Spanish for glazed tiles. The term was derived from zilij, Maghr ibi Arabic for tiles. Important production centres in Spain were Paterna, Valenc ia and Seville.

Glass enam eling for example reached perfection during this period.D.) bec ame the first Bahri Mamluk sultan. Ba ika or piers. and acted as an escape route. were encouraged to build.D.D. Qur an illumination of t his period was heavily influenced by the Ilkhanid style. Basmala Refers to the phrase Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim. They were also great patrons of the art of the Book. the complex of Qalawun and the mos que of al-Nasir Muhammad in the Citadel. I t was used by the Persians to describe a specific type of surface decoration of alternating plain and enameled bricks. 1250-1257 A. Although Aybak (r. or its shortened form. 1260-1277 A. Bayt al-Hilani Gatehouse that is usually fenestrated. This is the opening phrase of the first chapter of the Qur'an. Shaykhu and the madrasa of Sarghatm ish. His rule extended for sevent een years. formerly a specialist in lime plaster waterproofing. They were Turks bought at a very young age from the various areas in Central Asia. Bismillah. It frequently marks the beginning of inscriptions on monuments and art ifacts. Bab Sirr A small door. when Shajar a l-Durr. the mosque of Sultan Hasan.Bab Gate or door. and is generally written or orally spoken by Muslims at the start of almost all actions. 'In the Name of God'. Altinbugha al-Maridani. Bayt Arabic for house.). repairing bridges and fortifying the north coast. Bagh Garden. . Amirs. They rose to power in 1250 A. a series of opened or blind arches joined together by columns Ballat Floor tiler. An early for m of air-conditioning. The epitome of Mamluk ar chitecture can be seen in the buildings of Sultan Qalawun (r. 'In the Name of God. This can be seen in the Qur ans commissioned or bequeathed by Sultan Sha ban to his madrasa in al-Darb al-A hmar.D. the Compassionate'. the last Ayyubid Sultan. The bab sirr usually led to a narrow corridor within the walls of the premises. where a direction al opening allowed cooler air to circulate and admitted light into the room. throughout which he protected the Mamluk territories from both the Mo ngols and the Crusaders. converted to Islam and highly trained in all military sciences. found in most medieval Cairene arc hitecture. He was also a patron of arts and his mosque in al-Dhahir is a living proof. Elegant buildings of amirs include the mosques of Salar and Sanjar. the Merciful. often found in medieval Cairene houses. usually hidden.D.) and his descendants.D. the proper Mamluk state started with Sultan a l-Dhahir Baybars al-Bunduqdari (r. especially those of al-Nasir Muh ammad. In religious buildings it was a means f or the ruler to enter and leave the building without being seen. The artifacts belonging to this period in the Museum of Islamic Art of the different mediums show a great variety in techniques and creativity. Badhahanj Derives from Persian. and stationed in barracks on the island of Roda during the 13th century A. widow of al-Malik al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub claimed herself sultana and married the Mamluk amir Izz al-Din Aybak. In general the M amluks were great patrons of the arts and architecture.1279-1290 A. Bahri Mamluks (1250 1382 A.) The corpus of slave soldiers built by al -Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub. An arcade. On the inner front he created an infrastructure by reco nstructing roads. meaning 'opening for breeze'. Banna i Derives from Persian and literally means 'what pertains to the mason'.

making the alloy black and leaving the ornamentat ion contrastingly bright. It is used on all mediums of decoration. brass. 1382-1399 A. wo odwork. Bey Turkish for 'gentleman'.). He protected Egypt from the danger of the Timurids by slaying all their emissaries. illuminated manuscripts. for the Prophet and was used to adorn many of the Islamic monuments. the polo stick. textiles. Ethnically they were Turks but unlike the Bahri Mamluks who were fr om Central Asia. Bimarhane Mental hospital.) Also referred to as Circassian Mamluks. Burda Literally means 'mantle' and refers to the cloak of Prophet Muhammad. Maristan is alternative name for bimaristan. etc. They were named so because they were lodged in the towers of the citadel. denoting the master of the robes. Burji Mamluks (1382 1517 A. See Basmala.D.' It refers to the financial establishment that acted as a royal treasury. 'B urda' is the name of a famous panegyric written by al-Busiri in the 13th century A. Examples of blazons include the p en.D. Bismillah Blazon A symbol used by Mamluks in both architecture and decorative arts to den ote a certain position or rank. meaning 'place for the sick'. the cup. Bint al 'usada Small cushion usually used as head rest. It is a general title of rank and is equivalent to the Arabic title amir.D. Market that is covered. denoting the amir akhur. denoting the court scribe. Bidri A technique of metalwork developed in early 17th century India. Birka Pond. Their artistic patronage reached its zenith dur . denoting the court saqi. Blazons started as simple shields with a decorat ive symbol and eventually became more complex. and the napkin. Bayt al-Myiah Bazaar Bedesten Beg Compartment used to store water containers. metalwork. This is th en covered with salts and mud.Bayt al-Mal Arabic term that literally means 'house of money. The first Burji Mamluk to rule was al-Dhahir Sayf al-Din Barquq (r. These we re the slave soldiers who ruled Egypt from 1382 A. Bukhariyya A decorative element that is usually of a round or oval shape an d filled with patterns (arabesque). the Burji Mamluks were from the areas around the north and the west of the Caspian littoral. The name is derived from that of the city of Bukhara in Uzbekistan or the quarter of Bukhariyya in Basra. espec ially the houses of Cairo. buildings. Burj A tower of a fortress or of city walls. with a palmette or calice decorating either end. until the Ottoman invasion in 1517 A. Marketplace and business centre of an Islamic city.D. Leader of a tribe. and sometimes gold. Bimaristan Derived from Persian. and was responsible for the adminstration of taxes and zakah. A general ho spital. where th e zinc alloy vessel is inlaid with silver. and often domed.D.

Uthman and Ali) and subsequently to any Muslim ru ler. and as many 'Alids sought refug e in their mountains they were gradually converted into Shi i Islam. Although they w ere able to wrest their territories from the 'Abassids and were essentially an i ndependent seat of authority. . it was used as a cenotaph. The Qur an (II: 30) describes Adam as the pr imordial norm and as Caliph. The smaller mosque is referred to as mescit. a system that was built upon and used extensively by the Se ljuks. the representative of God on earth. Up until the ninth century they ma naged to repel more than a dozen Muslim attacks. The Buwayhids created courts in Isfahan. Umar. They functioned as centres of commerce and artisan manufac ture. Buyyids Caftan See Buwayhids. which is where it is derived from. mosques and tombs.iqta'. Chahar Taq Square open structure covered with a dome. In Mughal architecture a chatri was de corative. Chahar Bagh Persian and Mughal word referring to a garden divided into four equal sections around two central axes.). Compl exity in design and technique can be seen in their woodcarvings. Chajja A sloping stone supported on heavy corbels and placed overhanging at roo f level to direct rainwater away from the walls of the building. and like Turks they were popular mercenaries. As Dailamites. A collarless robe open at the front from top to bottom. the founder of the dynasty.D. During the ea rly years of the tenth century Ali ibn Buyah (Imad al-Dawla). Buwayhids A Shi'i dynasty established by mercenary soldiers from the Caspi an region of Daylum who ruled Iran and Iraq from the mid-tenth to the mid-eleven th century A. they lived in mountainous areas north of Qazvin. Caliph Arabic for successor. with an arched openin g in each side. Architectural masterpiec es from his period include his funerary complex in the Northern Cemetery. while in Hindu architecture. in various dynasties. to pay the soldiers. and theminb ar in the mosque of Qijmas al-Ishaqi. excellent examp les are the minbar and the kursi in the funerary complex of Qaytbay. The caravanserai provided safe accommodation for travelling merch ants and their goods. employed in the court of the Samanid prince Nasr ibn Ahmad and was appointed as the governor of Ray.ing the reign of al-Ashraf Qaytbay (r. Other terms describing the same building were khan. Commonly used i n Mughal architecture. began his career in the military. his mo sque in Qal at al-Kabsh and the mosque of Qijmas al-Ishaqi in Darb al-Ahmar. funduq or ribat. Shiraz and Baghdad. ruling in his name. 1468-1496 A. though not all buildings of this type and function were called caravansera i. the word Caliph referred first to the four rightly guided caliphs after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (Abu Bakr. they still maintained recognition of a puppet 'Aba ssid Caliph. In a historical context however. wikala. Cami Turkish word referring to a Friday or congregational mosque. Chatri A domed kiosk built on pillars used extensively in Mughal architecture o n the tops of palaces. They were the first to establish the use of revenue grants. The use of multiple terms was a mere reflection of regional differences. Caravanserai Derived from the Persian karawan (company of travelers) and sera i (large inn).D. Man in this sen se is the vicegerent of God on earth.

. however the most common usage of the term is to mean a house. Educational institute for the study of Islamic hadith. Persian for poor and means a Sufi. Dakhma Literally means 'tower of silence. Darabzin Dar al-Hadith traditions. An Arabized Persian word meaning a balustrade. or any other medium. See Bimaristan. This usually meant territories bor dering Dar al-Islam that did not hold a peace treaty with Muslims. Crenellations Also referred to as 'cresting' and mean battlements. These often include p eony scrolls and lotuses. and trefoils of complicated forms used by the Burji Mamluks. such as the doll-like shapes associated with Ibn Tulu n. Darih Means cenotaph but can also mean the tomb as a whole. The word dar is used for a wide variety of buildings. different styles o f crenellations developed. Cruciform Plan Four vaulted iwans facing each other and surround a court (sahn) . Prophetic Dar al-Harb Refers to territories of war. usually decorating mo sques or fortresses. Darb Khayt A term used by craftsmen for the geometric patterns they carve o n wood. Colophon Last page of a manuscript which includes information about its d ate. Dar A place where a lot of movement takes place. Dar al-Imara The building that houses the seat of authority. Cresting See Crenellations. A glazing technique for cerami cs which separates the colors by using a line of manganese dioxide and grease. marble. Damascening Technique of decorating metal with silver or gold inlay. It is usually th e palace of the governor. meaning 'dry cord'. Dar al-Islam Dar al-Shifa Darb Refers to Muslim lands where sovereignty of Islamic law applies. Circassian Mamluks See Burji Mamluks. Cuerda Seca From Spanish. etc.' and refers to a tower with a flat ro of that is used to expose corpses. From its early usage in Achaemenid Iran. provenance. Arabic for alley or path. author. The Arabic equivalen Darwish t is faqir. t hus preventing the colours from running during the firing process.Chinoiserie Chinese motifs used in Islamic decoration. Dervish. Dar al-Huffaz Institute for the study of Qur'an recitation. They are pa rapets of alternating spacing of solid and open intervals.

Doublure Inside lining of book cover. Hi ndus and Buddhists. dur meaning door and ka meaning place. Dhikr Literally means remembering or reminding. Dihliz An Arabized Persian word meaning corridor. Duwar A colloquial word derived from dar used in the Mamluk documents to mean court or garden. a faqih could f unction as a qadi. Diwan al-'Amm Public reception hall for public audiences. In general religious practice this denotes ways of reminding oneself of God. Until the twentieth century A. acting as a trustee of orphans' pr operty. and were conside . Duwaira Mausoleum or shrine. praise. Duwira Small courtyard. See Darwish. The faqihs represented an important and powerful segment of the community. It is an essential element of a qa a. and mufti. Durka A Persian composite word. Some are found in religious buildings for those reciting the Qur an or some in markets for sellers to display their goods. Divani Arabic script. Faqih Expert in Islamic law. judge. As a judge he would be resp onsible for supervision of charitable trusts. and thus an important feature of Burji Mamluk arch itecture. Sabaeans. this term refers to a reception chamber. Dhimmi People of the book. unlike idolators. stone or marble.. Zoroastrians. Diwan Originating from Persian. They are made of wood. Divan See Diwan. sup plication. It can also refer to the actual litanies and prayers of remember ing.Dayma Dervish Kitchen or guard house in the fields. It later came to mean ministry or government o ffice. Christians. particularly in a Sufi cont ext. as well as the regular activity of remembrance. It can also mean anthology of poems placed in alphabetical order. parti cularly in a palace or residence. etc. and other similar tasks in addition to regular court duties. Durqa a A covered small court (sahn) which interspaces two iwans or more. be it through prayer. A vesti bule which is found in all kinds of buildings especially houses to ensure privac y.D. primarily used in the administrative documents of the Ott oman Sultan's chancery. juriconsultant. usually ornamental. Jews. Diwan al-Khass Private reception hall for private audiences. Dikka An elevated small structure with a flat top on which a person would be s eated. The term was used to describe those who had to pay the jizya (poll tax) and who were not forced to convert because they were adherents of ot her religions. In religious buildings it can be referred to as dikkat al-mubaligh.

Some of the finest examples of Islamic art were a product of Fatimid workshops . but both failed. The Persian equivalent is Dervish. in 914 A.) One of the most important Shi i dynasties that rul ed in the Muslim world. Despite the ambiguity of their origin we do know that their founder started in Salamiyya in Syria.D. Finial A ornamental part usually placed at the top of an architectural structur e such as a minaret or canopy. it means a sheet in a manuscript. They mastered stucco carving an d all the extant Fatimid mihrabs are a proof to that.D. as ca n seen from the mihrab in al-Juhyushi. With the advent of modern legal fo rms. This m arks the second period of the Fatimid history. Their style was influenced by the Samarra style of carving and then Persian influence took the lead. and 919 A. Muq arnas first appeared in Egypt during their rule. First the Ifriqiyya per iod. which ended in 1171 A. and helped bui ld a strong military base from which he overruled the Aghlabids in Tunisia. Their da is for Isma ili ideology were sent by the Fatimids as far as Yemen a nd Sind. art and arch itecture. Their history can be divided into two periods. Mosques usually followe d the riwaq style with the protruding entrances and the tower-like minarets. made Raqqada his capital until al-Mahdiyya was built. Sheets are nu mbered consecutively while the front and back are given letters a and b or r and v (recto and verso). Fleur de Lis French royal lily. the role of the faqih has been decreased in power and importance. kind of pottery made of quartz.. a fountain or a small grave. They were prominent patrons of festivities. In 9 10 A. Ano ther attack in 935 A. The Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo has a vast collection of Fatimid woodwork a nd luster. from Tunisia. white clay and . when they ruled between 908-973 A.D. A faqih is n ow restricted to the function of juriconsultant. als o spelled Darwish. He had many followers. mainly that of the Aghlabids. Their architecture was greatly influenced by the style of North Africa. named himself Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi. at which they excelled.D. Faqir Arabic for poor and means a Sufi. Frequently used in Mamluk crenellations. also failed. During his 25 year reign Ubayd Allah al-Mah di sent two expeditions to Egypt.red protectors of the community and religion.D. a descendant of his. After ma rching into Egypt Jawhar al-Siqilli built the city of al-Qahira and from there t hey ruled Greater Syria and were the guardians of the Holy Places in Hijaz. when the commander of the armies Jawhar al-Siqilli marched into the country removing the Ikhshidids with very little effort. It means either a basin for ablutions. The economy of Egypt witnessed a boost with Fatimid administration and t rade links were well maintained and supported with the main centers in the world . all Isma ilis (Seven-Imam Shi i).D. Folio From the Latin 'folium'. It can also refer to an ornamental piece ending a t the top of a post or a piece of furniture. jurists and lawyers.D. whitish. Fisqiyya In architecture the word has several meanings.D. Fati mid caliphs claimed themselves the true caliphs as opposed to the Abbasids in Ba ghdad. where his duties have been taken over by modern judges. Despite all their efforts the people directly under their rule remained Sunni. where he alleged descent from 'Ali and Fatima and claimed to be the only rightful rul er of Islam. Farshakhana A composite word meaning the warehouse of furniture and tents. Fiqh The scienc of Islamic law. Fritware A hard. Fatimids (969-1171 A. Egypt was finally conquered by al-Mu iz li-Di n illah in February 969 A. jurisprudence.

D. The empi re ended when internal squabbles arose. Herat and Nishapur. Artistically the Ghurids are best exempl ified by the madrasa at Shah-i Mashhad. Also means the pediment over doo rs and the gable on top of the middle part of a building. ribats. which is remarkable for its brick and te rracotta decoration and best shows the style of the period. Conqueror or warrior. the arch of Bust. usually associated craft guilds or Sufi orders. Such compl exes are also known as caravanserais. They were originally chiefs of mountain tr ibes who had defeated the Khwarazmis in Iran and the Ghaznavids in Afghanistan a nd India. often referring to Turkomans on the frontiers of I Ghaznavids (962-1187 A. Ghurfa Arabic for room.D. or khans according to reg ional differences. It was his son Mahmud of Ghazna (r. Unfortunately most of the sites of the Ghaznavid capitals are now in ruins. U nder his son Mas ud the empire disintegrated in the west and Khurasan and Khawariz m were lost to the Saljuks. Furn Arabic for oven or bakery.) A Turkish dynasty that ruled Khurasan. It is usually a multi-story building contructed around a central courtyard. Balkh. Frontispiece The first page of a manuscript. Fusayfisa Mosaic. the Palace of Mas'ud III.D. especially in baths. Ghiordes Knot 'Turkish' or symmetrical now used in carpets and rugs. With the rise of the Ghurids in central Afghanistan the power of the Ghaznavids was reduced dramatically. In Egypt the use of mosaic began during the Roman era in Alexandria.frit.) who beca me fully independent and became known as the 'hammer of the infidels' because of his victories in the Indian subcontinent. lasting from the mid-twe lfth to early thirteenth century A. while in Ghazni. . remains o f the palace of Lashkhari Bazaar in the suburbs. As a dynasty that proclaimed aff inity to Persianate culture through claiming Persian rather than Turkish lineage . The design employed then influenced to a great degree Coptic textile designs. Mahmud insisted on maintaining a Persian administration and cultural legacy. and the Bah ram Shah minaret have survived. Funduq A North African complex used by merchants for lodging or storage. Futuwwa Chivalry order. Towards the end of his life he overru led the Buwayhids and occupied Ray and Hamadan. Afghanist an and northern India from its base in Ghazna. Architecture flourished du ring their rule in the cities of Bust. where their first known ruler was Izz al-Din Husayn who paid tribute t o the Saljuk Sultan Sanjar. Ghazi slam. 998-1030 A. Once the Saljuks fell in Khurasan the Ghurids then e stablished an empire stretching from the Caspian Sea to northern India. Ghurab Literally means a crow but in Mamluk architecture it means door hooks and latches. In Bust. Their founder Nasir al-Dawla Sebu ktigin ruled this area on behalf of the Samanid court and eventually ruled the p rovince for himself. Ghurids (1150-1212 A.) Sunni Eastern Persian dynasty that ruled from th e central region of Afghanistan. Frit itself is made of quartz with soda flux. wikalas. and the Giyat h al-Din Mausoleum exist. which was called Ghur.D.

Gul Gunbad Rose.D. Hanafi One of the four Sunni legal schools. both private and public. or Tomb of the Amir. The name is derived from Hal ab (Aleppo). a Persian who stud ied with Ja far al-Sadiq in Madina. They struggled between Ottoman authority and Spanish a ttacks until they were eventually deposed by the Ottomans in 1574 A. A hajib is a chamberlain who controlled the access to the ruler. the Almohad founder. Hajj refers to a man and Hajjah i s used for women. Persian for seven colours. because the style was inspired from there. 1229-1249 A. Hadra Literally means presence and is used by Sufis to denote an act of devoti on.1249-1277 A. Hamam/Hammam Refers to bath houses.Girikh Knotted geometric ornament. and forced to accept the Spanish Emperor Charles V' s occupation in 1535 A.D.) became the Almohad governor of Tunisia. The Hafsids were domina ted by Ottomans in 1505 A.D.D. eastern Alg eria and Tripoli from their main capital Tunis. in Samarkand where Timur Lang is buried. Gur Persian for wild donkey. Hafsids (1229-1574 A. It describes overglaze painted tiles Hajib Derived from the Arabic root hajab or to veil. It can also be used as a title for someone who has gone on pilgrimage.D. Some other uses are purely decora . Hanbali One of the four Sunni legal schools. Haniyya A squinch.D.). Abu Zakariya Yaha (r. Muham mad I al-Muntasir (r.) and continued un til 1494 A. however examples of which are no longer extant. Zakariya's son. In a hadra different prayers.) repelled the Seventh Crusade in 1270 A.D. Hadith The sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. Halabi A special type of a staircase mentioned frequently in the Mamluk documen ts. An architectural element in the form of a niche used to carry domes on square or rectangular bases. taking on the title of caliph. but also means tomb. creating the largest dynasty succeeding the Almohads.. His school of law was the strictest amon gst the four. and established independence in 1229 A. They were originally the Berber tribes of Banu Hafs Umar. In the latter context.D. Hajj The Pilgrimage to Mecca. The originator of this scho ol was Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855 A. verses from the Qur an and zikr (remembrance of God) are recited/chanted. Haft rang in Iran.D.).) This was the dynasty ruling Tunisia. Any hadith is of two parts the matn (subject) and the isnad (chain of transmission). named after one of the primary supporters of Ibn Tumar t. Public hammams w ere an important feature of Islamic cities.D. This is why we have Gur-i Mir. Abu Hafs Umar's son. Following his death bloody feuds errupted. when many sub-regions gained independence. It denotes free-standing domed mausolea. but pr osperity was recovered under Abu-l Abbas Ahmad (1370-1394 A.D . Persian for dome.D. The originator of this scho ol was Abu Hanifa al-Nu man ibn Thabit ibn Zuta (699-767 A.

the Madrasa of Sarghatmish (1356 A. The post was held b y the muhtasib. Hisba Prefecture of civil life during the medieval period. Hawd Water basin. . Haramlik or the women.D. The space in a house or palace allocated f Hasht Bihisht Literally means 'Eight Paradises. Hira Camp for short-term usage. Hilal Crescent. Haramayn Arabic term referring to the Holy Mosques of Mecca and Medina. Hasil A storage place. The hanuts were rented and the revenue generated as a result was u sed for the upkeep of the building. found p articularly in the Iranian regions. literally meaning 'thousand weavings'. I t derives from the word haram. In architecture it is a surface decoration where the wall is patterned in relief with bricks tha t create a play of light and shadow.tive as the one used on the Raqqa gate built by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur in the 8th century A. Hazar Baf Persian.D. although thes e enclosures may have been more utilitarian in nature. This can be seen in the shops beneath the Mosque of Salih Tala i (1160 A.) and the Mosque of Qijmas al-Ishaqi (1481 A..) in Palmyra. Hiraqlah A square terrace-like structure with four corner towers that is surrounded by a circular moat and circular walls. meaning sanctuary. Hijra The migration of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Madina (Yathrib) in 622 A. specifically with reference to the Holy Mo sques of Mecca and Medina. Syria. Hayat s.D.). Hawsh A large open area that could be a courtyard of a house or a cemetery att ached to a large religious structure. Ground floor hall in Anatolian Ottoman houses used to receive male guest Hayr Walled enclosure.). and usuall y associated with early Islamic palaces. Hisn A fortress. Examples are found in Qasr al-Hayr West (724-7 A. Hanut Rooms beneath religious buildings used as shops. the function of which were the same as the hanut. or stand-al one stores.D. It is usually us ed to denote sanctuary of the mosque.D. Haram Arabic word generally referring to a sort of sanctuary. sometimes used to contain game for hunting.D. In a sense it was the basis for the evolution of muqarnas.' and is a term used to refer t o octagonal pavilions.D. Hazira Funerary enclosure that is unroofed and often includes a mosque. Derived from Turkish. warehouses. They were rooms found in wikalas or beneath religious b uildings. which is the first year in the Hijri calendar.)and Qasr al-Hayr East (728-9 A.

a black eunuch who i mpressed ibn Tughdj greatly and was thence promoted. and Qayrawan university . The mosque of Ali Shah in Tabriz (the Arg). the Friday Mosque at Kirman. thus creating the first independent Islamic dynasty in Morocco. founded Qayrawan and Andalus mosques. The first Il-Khanid to rule after Hulagu was his son Abaqa followed by his grandson Arghun who at a cer tain stage converted from Shamanism to Buddhism. Ikhshidids A dynasty that ruled Egypt right before the Fatimid conquest. Ghazan was followed by his brother Uljaytu who made twelver Shi i Islam the court religion in 1310 A.. The Qur ans commissioned by both Ghazan and Uljayt u are among the summits of illumination and calligraphy.D. Ghazan.D.) The first Mongol dynasty to rule Iran.D. The ijaza functioned as a certified qualification. Th e founder was the general Muhammad ibn Tughdj al-Ikhshid.D. This was very popular in mosque construction. and the grandson of the P rophet. Husayn Al-Husayn was the second son of Ali and Fatima. and in so doing the ruling class of Iran were once again Mu slims. It is also awarded to students of calligraphy once they master a certain writing style. However the figure tha t played an important role in shaping the empire was Kafur. Ijaza Licence or authorization. In Januar y 1256 A. Il-Khanids (1256-1353 A. Arghun s son. After the death of Ali al-I . created the first central government. chamber or cell. The Fatimids had brought his head from Karbala and buried it next to t he Eastern Palace. Many grand examples from the period can still be seen in Iran. A. had ith and Qur'an. a descendant of the Prop het. particularly in the early periods.D. The Il-Khanids thence became very important patrons of Islamic art and architecture. Hulagu the grandson of Jinghis Khan crossed the Oxus River coming fr om Transoxiana (bilad ma wara al-nahr) to Iranian lands to consolidate the victor ies of his grandfather. Moulay Idris's son. Hujra Room. This is usually in the form of a certificate a warded to a student after successful completion of the study of Islamic law. Hypostyle A structure composed of supporting columns beneath a flat roof.D. converted t o Islam in 1295 A. and were thus at odds with all their eastern neighbor s. The Berbers in Morocco recognized him as their leader and he founded Fez in 789 A.D. The empire founded by Hulagu in Iran was one of the four Mongol empires established by Jinghis Khan s descendants. when their last ruler was killed.D.D. drisids (789-985 A. It was during the Il-Khanid period that tile mosaic gradually beca me the main form of decoration. He was born in 642 A. was founded by Moulay Idris ibn Abdallah. Being a venerated s aint. many structures were built in different parts of the Muslim world commemor ating him. the Friday Mosque at Varamin and the stucco mihrab added to the Masjidi Jami at Isfahan are some examples of their excellent patronage in the field of architecture. and was murdered in 680 A. Idris II. stressing the Islamic-Arab chara cter of the state. The Idrisids were Shi'i.) This dynasty ruling from North Africa during the ninth c entury. which continued until 985 A.D.Hizam With reference to the kiswa of the Ka'ba this is an embroidered or woven textile band composed of eight sections used to cover the upper part of the kis wa. Ikat Textile technique where threads are tie-dyed before weaving. The 19th century mosque of al-Husayn now occupies this spot..

Sheikh Hasan Buzurg (r.). It is also known from the sources that he constructed a number of sumptuous palaces . the Isma'ilis have been divided into several main branches and minor sects. Jalayrids (1336-1432 A. Over time. Isma'ilis An important Shi'i community whose ideology is based on recogniz ing the esoteric. Iwan A vaulted open hall with a rectangular or arched facade.D. Iqd Arabic for arch. He was abl e to delay the Fatimid expansion in Egypt until his death. western Iran and Aze rbaijan from their main capital in Baghdad and also Tabriz (1358-188 A.) took over northwest Iran in 1358 A. The iwanworked well as an entrance of a mosque. Kafur declared himself as the sole ruler of Egypt. Unfortunately none of his e stablishments are extant. He is known to have s ponsored scholars and writers. where currently the two major branches are the Nizaris and the Dau dis. the Ismailis made significant contributions to Islamic civilization.khshid in 966 A.D.D. where we find the magnificent remains of the 6th century palace of Kisra o r Taq-i Kisra. and his son. while the Daudis belong to the Mustali-Tayyibi branch who recognize a line of da'is in their imam's abse nce. an entrance to th e prayer hall or the prayer hall itself. iqd qawsi: horseshoe arch. after the Ilkhanid downfall in 1335 A. 1336-1356 A. The iqta' system was created by the Buwayhids and was developed extensively by the S aljuks. The iwan is a P ersian invention and its origins can be traced back to the palaces of Achaemenid Iran. Imam A religious leader. the most important of which was al-Mutanabbi. Mosul .765 A. Izar A decorative frieze. Ithna 'Asharis They constitute the largest division of Shi'i Muslims. Istabl Stable. two mosques. and exoteric. sheikh Uwais (r.D. and are n amed after their recognition of the twelve imams.D.) seized power of Baghdad in 1336 A .. a main unit found in Ottoman religious complexes. p articularly during the flourishing period when they established the Fatimid cali phate. Some of the different kinds of arches are: iqd mada ini: t rilobed arch. The combination of four iwans arranged axially around a courtyard became one of the most important plans of religious b uildings in the Muslim world. Azerbaijan in 1360 A.) Mongul dynasty ruling Iraq.D. Imamis See Ithna 'Asharis. They are also known as Imamis or Twelvers.). Isma'il. The opposite one was next in size and the other two were t he smallest.D. They were originally a major Mongul tribe that rose to high positions under the Ilkh anids.D. Imaret Soup kitchen. aspect of scripture. decendents of 'Ali ibn A bi Talib. Iqta A grant of land given for military officials and is not hereditary. a hospital and the Kafuriyya gardens. iqd mudabab: pointed arch. the preacher of the Friday ceremony or leader of the Muslim community..D. The ceremonial purpose of the structure is epitomized by its use in Ctesi phon. zahir. The qibla iwan (sanctuary iwan) was always the lar gest and the deepest. The Nizaris recognize the Agha Khan as their imam. Named after t he eldest son of Ja'far al-Sadiq (d. 13561374 A. batin.D.

D. Jali Jamalun Pierced marble or stone screen used in India. Those who die in jihad are considered martyrs. specifically the people of the book. If a Muslim ruler could not provide the needed security for his subj ects. Joggled voussoirs were typically used in alternating colors in Ayyubid architecture. the Qaraqoyunlu in Diyarbakir and Tamerlane in Baghdad. I n return for exemption from military service. A term used to describe a gabled roof. he was required to refund this money. Jukha Juz Woolen blanket. It is a protruding balcony supported on corbels. The Qaraqoyunlu however ousted the Ja layrids from Baghdad in 1411 A. jihad al-nafs. Jarokha This is a feature used extensively in Mughal architecture derive d from Hindu architecture. Jaran A basin usually found in Mamluk baths.. They nevertheless developed their own distinct style in miniature paintin g. The different types encountered i n the Mamluk documents are the 'marble jaran' and the 'stone jaran'. this money was used for maintainin g the army. and deposed the last Jalayrid ruler from Basra and Khuzistan in 1432 A. Jizya A tax that used to be levied on non-Muslim adult males.D. Joggled Voussoirs Construction method where the stones of an arch or linte l are placed interlocking. Artistic patrimony by the Jalayrids was not as glamo rous as other Turkish dynasties. Tamerlane expel led the Jalayrid ruler from Baghdad in 1393 A.D. Arabic and literally means 'part'.D. but the latter returned in 139 5 A. but the Jalayrids returned again in 1406 A. It is the principal religious building of Islam. converted to Islam and highly trained. They were directly answerable to the Sultan.and Diyarbakir in 1365 A.D. In Mamluk document s they are referred to as 'atab musfan. although Shaikh Uwais was a great patron of the arts. Jihad 'Holy war' to extend Islam in the non-Muslim provinces. with a hood placed on columns. Persian for 'taster'. opened arcades overlooking a squarish or rectangular open courtyard. pavilion or fortress. In Bur ji Mamluk architecture the gallery beneath the finial of the minaret was referre d to as a jawsaq. Its common usage is for one of the th . These were th e infantry troops of the Ottoman army brought at a very young age from the Balka ns. This is why it is used to denote the mosque where the Friday noon prayer is celebrated. which is what Salah al-Din did when he was forced to withdraw from Syria. Jashankir the amirs.. The Jalayrids later fought against the Muzaffarids in Iran. A prominent Mamluk post occupied by one of Jawsaq Derived from Persian meaning kiosk. becoming more complex in design under the Mamluk s where they became a major architectural decorative feature. Janissaries Derived from the Turkish yeni ceri or 'new troop'. The other meaning is the greater war against one s self. However this is the limited meaning of jihad. which means to 'gather things' and literally means mosque. The battles continued where Tamerlane detsroyed Baghdad in 1401 A.D. The simpl est and earliest form it took was the riwaq-mosque.D. although the infirm and poor were exempted from this tax. Jami From the Arabic root jam'.

The details of the plan differed from one province to the o ther. It literally it means 'scribe o Katib al-Shari a f the religious law'. In Islamic a rchitecture khan is used to describe the caravansaries found in Iran. another name for Mecca. a term commonly used during the r eign of the Saljuk and Mongol rulers. Katib Scribe. water tank. Turkish for portal or gateway. Muslims face the Ka ba when th ey pray and this is the direction to which mihrabs point. . The first time the word khanqa is encountered was in the 10th century A . This black stone was kept at the eastern corner of the Ka ba. ruined building. Literally it means a line and is used in Egypt to mean street as well. duplexes or triplexes for the travellers. The root of this word katab means to write. An alternative name for khan is wikala or ribat. Ibrahim and Isma il were told that it should be a cube and around a celestial stone. Above-ground opening of the well of the sahrij. Katkhuda Mamluk rank of executive offficer of the janissaries. with single rooms. A secretary of an Islamic court. Khartum Khatt A wind-catcher on the roof of a building. Khart Small carved wooden pieces used in the construction of geometrical windo w grilles. The basic plan consis ted of an open court with a well and surrounded by rooms for storing and display ing merchants goods. It was Ibrahim (Abraha m) and his son Isma il who rebuilt the Ka ba as ordered by God.D. in Khurasan. Kalip Kapi Stencil used in calligraphy. mostly horses. which was preserved nearby a hill in Mecca and the n given to Ibrahim by an Angel. Karalama Karkhana A term used in the literature written on Indian art and means th e princely workshop of the Mughal court. The Qur an tells us th at God ordered Ibrahim to build a sanctuary at a specific spot in Bacca (XXII:26 ). The idea behind a Sufi hospice started when Zayd ibn Sawkhan constructed during the caliphate of Uthman ibn Afan a house for a scetics. Annexed there is usually an area that would function like a stable for housing the animals of the merchants. clerk or secretary. Khan Derived from Persian meaning a 'house with full amenities'. Kharaba/Khirba Kharaza Ground with ruins. Syria and Anatolia. Ka ba The house of God which is located in Mecca. Practice sheet used by calligrapher. The plural is ajza . God then informed Ibrahim to institute the rite of pilgrimage to Mec ca.irty volumes of the Qur an. Khanqa Persian for Sufi monastery. Khan can also refer to Turkish nobility. The upper floors of a khan are the accommodation areas.

In Mamluk archit ecture it means a small shallow stucco dome with perforations in the form of geo metric patterns. The word root in Arabic khuluw mean s to become isolated. Khukha A wicket. The first Khedive was Isma il.D. It was always used as a ceiling technique for toilets. so n of Muhammad Ali. This term was used in Ottoman Turkey where this institution fl ourished. It a lso indicates the sense of one marking out a piece of land to claim its possessi on. Khazna Treasury. It litera lly means the place where a king eats or drinks. Khedive The title given to the sovereign ruling Egypt from 1867 until 19 14 A. Khuristan A small cabinet or room for the storage of prepared food. al-kufi al-farisi or al-kufi al-baghdadi and al-kufi al-maghribi. but generally refers to the Friday sermon. The one responsible for the treasury of the Sultan. See madrasa. Khutba Literally means 'speech' or 'sermon'.' It was used in the early Islamic period wi th reference to marking out new settlements such as Kufa. Book. Khushkhasha An Arabized Persian term meaning a small kiosk. It is also th e direct ancestor of all the calligraphic styles of Andalusia and of North-West Africa. See Qit'a. under the command of the Ottoman Sultan. Turkish term referring to a small pavilion used for temporary residence.Khatta Literally means 'marked out. Kufi (Kufic) One of the oldest types of Arabic calligraphy and the first call igraphic perfection of Islam. which used to be donated by Egypt. Its name derives from the Iraqi town Kufa. destitute or unoccupied. Kulliye Turkish for madrasa or a religious school where students reside as well as study. . Khurda In architectural terms it means a small piece of colored marble used for marble mosaic panels. A typica l example is the one still found in the toilet in the house of Muhib al-Din al-M uwaqqa in Bayt al-Qadi known as the waqf of Uthman Katkhuda. The black silk that covers the Ka ba. Khazana Khazindar Small room or chamber. A small door set in a larger one. which w as one of the earliest centeres of Islamic learning. Kilim Kiosk Kiswa Kit'a Kitab Rug of flatweave without knots. Kufic has many derivatives. Khilwa A small cell for meditation. Khawarnaq An Arabized Persian word meaning a small wooden niche. Basra and Fustat.

Later it was adopted for the decoration of pottery. The mo st popular meaning is the chair that carries the mushaf (Qur an) in a religious bu ilding. Usually it is in the form of a recess in one of the walls that is covered by wooden doors. Enamelled pottery with a cobalt blue glaze. . Kundal Multicolored painting on a relief case. Sun-dried earth bricks. c. Lala The tutor of the sultan's sons during Mamluk times. Levha Libn Libna Large calligraphic panel. Area unit. Lajvardina Laqabi Pottery decoration where colored glazes are placed within carved ridges. kursi mirhad. 44m2 Lintel The horizontal stone or beam over an opening. Lazurd Lapis lazuli. Qur ans endowed to religious buildings were very big in size and were alwa ys kept on the kursi where the reader sits and recites from it. A kursi was as la vishly decorated as any other part of the building. Luster A technique for decorating glass that developed in Egypt and Iraq throug h the 7th and 8th centuries. During the Ottoman period they became narrower and more elongated. This is usually found abov e doors and windows and was often decorated. In Mamluk documents it was used to describe any element that was small in size. Mabayn Cloisters or corridor. Kuttab A primary school where children learn how to read. It al so means the base of a minaret. Another usage for the term is to mean toi let and in this context it is called kursi raha. Kurdi A decorative element (decorative brackets) that appeared in Egypt during the Burji Mamluk period. it was used to decora te the springing of the arch into the area proper of an iwan. and is usually a charitable foundation. kursi khala . Exquisite geometric designs executed on wood can be seen onkursis. The lower part o f the kursi is a closet to keep the Qur an or its volumes (ajza ). usually wooden. Kursi The word means chair and in architecture it had several meanings. Kutubiyya A wooden cupboard for the storage of books found in houses and r eligious buildings as well. Latif Literally means gentle and gracious. Lusterware was made by the addition of metal alloys on the glaze and then firin g the item at a low temperature.Kumbet Turkish for free-standing mausoleum. write and recite the Qur an. Usually made out of carved wood. Kunna Narrow canopy above window.

Many madrasas were built next to the houses of the founders or in other cases the houses became the madrasas. The structure was a communal one combining worship. The term was used to describe a specific shape of minaret finial that flourished in Egypt during the Ayyubid per iod and the early Bahri Mamluk. the Prophet's city. traditional system of mathem atics (abjad). The tutor in the madrasa sits. then it is referring to Medina. Hanbali and Shafi'i. These could be used to throw stones or pour boiling liquids on unwanted intruders. Under the rule of the Mamluks the building of madr asas flourished tremendously. These however had not been open to the public during that period. If the name of the city however is al-Madina. Madfan Grave.D. in eastern Iran. Some of the madrasas were built by teachers who taught in them. In 1356 A.D. The Gha znavids also used madrasas in order to spread Islam in the areas of Ghur. André Godard argues that the Khurasani hous e plan is the origin of the madrasa plan.Mabkhara Literally means incense burner. Sin ce Egypt was Shi i during the dissemination of madrasas all around the Islamic wor ld. The earliest madrasas w e know of are those built in the tenth century A. Hanafi. Mediev al documents prove the existence of about 38 madrasas in Nishapur alone.D. The word it self could be derived from the city of Mada in (Ctesiphon). Ma liki. usua lly found in forts. Hanbali. with its four iwans overlooking a cour tyard.. Modern hist orians working on the pre-Saljuq period in eastern Iran suggest that madrasas ex isted one and a half centuries before the official Saljuq adoption of the instit ution. there are no madrasas to be found in it before the twelfth century A. who use d the institution to eliminate all the traces of Shi i presence in Egypt. in the form of a cruciform plan or four iwan plan overlook ing a courtyard. education and buria l.D.). The vihara constituted of several elements and the ones discovered are of a f our-iwan plan overlooking a courtyard. Bartol d linked the madrasa to the Buddhist vihara. minarets installed by Baybars al-Jashankir in t he mosque of al-Hakim and those in the mosque of Salar and Sanjar. the Salihiyya built in 1242 A. the first of which was that of Baybars al-Bunduqda ri built in 1266 A. Architectural origins of the madrasa are traced back to eastern Iran where the i nstitution originated. city gates and walls. Hanafi. In the beginning each madrasa was dedicated to the teaching of one of the four schools of law (madhhab). Madr asas were introduced in Egypt with the advent of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi. we get the first mosque-madrasa in Cairo. which was int ended for all the four rites. Madina City. etc. Maliki or Shafi'i. Madhhab School of Islamic law. Machicolation/Machicoulis Openings looking downward used for defense. citadels. Following this inauguration. Examples of this finial can be found in the Madr asa Salihiyya. Madrasa An institute for higher education. S tudents there studied Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). history. that of . by Sufis or by wealthy notables. sev eral madrasas were disseminated throughout the Saljuk territories and many were found in cities including Merv. Zawiyat al-Hinud. which f lourished in eastern Iran and Central Asia right before the Muslim conquest of t he area. The madrasa usually consisted of the teaching halls and the dorms. all pre dating the great madrasa of Nizam al-Mulk (1068 A. Five yea rs after his arrival there were five madrasas in Cairo.D. The formal history of the madrasa as a public institution starts with the Saljuk wazir Nizam al-Mulk who inaugurated his madrasa in Baghdad in 1068 A. Mada ini In Mamluk architecture it describes a trilobed arch.D. The most important of th e Ayyubid madrasas was the last. There are four schools in Sunni Islam. literature.D. probably with his back against a pillar. in which religious sciences w ere taught. higher grammar. and expounds to a gr oup of students sitting in a circle around him in what is known as a halaqa. Balkh and Herat. Some of thesemadrasas were anne xed to already existing mosques.

who studied and ta ught in Medina. Its mention in the sources started with the tenth centu ry A. . This is an old device used to tell time by measuring the regu lated flow of water through an opening. Ma'jil Open air cistern. In this context. historian Mas udi who described the majlis hiri bi-kummayn or the T-plan h ouse found in Iraq and Egypt. and al ways overlooked a court. Mafraj Reception chamber. Maghani Maghribi See aghani. kitchens. Spain.). Maghtas Derived from ghatas or to immerse or dip. I t is the same as salamlik. and al-Masjid alAqsa in Jerusalem. A fully cursive script which developed directly from Kufic. jalas. stables and in some cases. Majana Clepsydra. which means to sit. Minaret. It is also used to refer to prayer areas in complex es built in the proximity of the Haramayn in Mecca and Medina. often with a view. Majma' Large assembly hall. Manjanik A weapon placed above fortresses which threw heavy stones to def end the place. hospitals. Malkaf A cooling and ventilation device composed of a wind scoop on a roof conn ected to a wind shaft. Maliki One of the four Sunni legal schools. the second of the four major imams. to receive people. Mandara Male reception room that is usually found on the ground floor. This creates wind circulation in the building. His teachings spread to the western Islamic world including al-A ndalus.Sultan Hasan with a miniature scale plan of the mosque for each madrasaoccupying one of the corners of the building. The originator of this school was I mam Malik (713-795 A. Malwiya Mamluks Manar/Manara A spiral tower. The proximity of these three holy mosques makes the construction of nearby individual mosques redundan t since most people would not foresake praying in the Haramayn and al-Masjid alAqsa. During the Mamluk period it meant a room that was closed as to differentiate it from the iwan. Mangur The Nile Delta cities' traditional style of building where red (single b ake) bricks and black (burnt) bricks with white pointing are used on mihrabs and entrance façades. Being of a residential nature madrasas had amenities for the students living inside like toilets.D.D. the majma' replaces what would have been the mosque area in a madrasa or khanqa complex for instance. Majlis Derived from the Arabic root. A room in a house which served the same function as the iwan. Makhzan Warehouse or storeroom. It is found in baths a nd is the pool in the hot room. See Bahri Mamluks and Burji Mamluks.

Marvered Method of glass decoration. meaning 'place for the sick'. Even today a Sufi is called m arabut in North Africa. on open place that lets light in the building. etc. as can be seen from the maq ad of amir Mamay. Small closet in the walls of a qa a to keep cushions. and is used to refer to a sh rine or sanctuary. . It was reserved for the ruler or the governor. Maqsura Prayer area. Maq ad Samawi Maqbara A maq ad with no roof. Tomb or cemetery. which literally means a cage. The stone or metal surface are called a 'marver'. This maq ad is also called maq ad turki Maq ad Qibti The closed form of a maq ad. The equivalent of this element in Anatolia is the kafes. While turning the vessel against a m etal surface or flat stone. The word is derived from the root qa ad . It was introduced in Cairo in the fifteenth century A. while disabling the pas serby or the neighbours from viewing the inside of the house. By extension. Maristan is an alternative name for bimaristan. Two maq ad qibtis s are still extant in Cairo. usually part of the qibla. the one of Qay tbay in the Northern Cemetery and the one of al-Ghuri in al-Ghuriyya. however the term now means Copt ic in spoken Egyptian Arabic. The portal to the maq ad. to drink. Mashwar Tribunal or public reception hall. in amirs resid ences and on an enormous scale. sharab. The wooden scree ns that covers windows of medieval houses. was usually beautifully adorned and leading to a staircas e. found beside the maq ad and thus overlooking the courtyard as well.D. separated from the rest by means of a wooden screen. According the endowment deed (waqfiyya) of al-Ghuri the function of the maq ad qibti is to l odge women who are there to visit the tomb of the sultan or to see the buildings of the family. Mashhad Literally means 'scene of witness'. glass trails are pressed flush against its surface. Maq ad The loggia of a house or a palace. In Arabic. It w as invariably on the first floor and facing north to catch the northern breeze. It was also a good way to minimize the heat caused by direct sunlight during the long summer days. Water jars were kept behind them or in front of them and this is probably why t he element was called mashrabiyya. carpets. Being a loggia it was opened by at least one arch and overlooked the courtyard o f the house. No example of this kind is extant. qibti means Egyptian. small lanterns. They served to protect the privacy of the household by allowing the family to see the street. Mashrabiyya Derived from the Arabic root. the mausoleum of the Sufi is sometimes called marabut. to sit. Mashura Pronounced 'mas-hura'. Manzil House. Maristan Derived from Persian. Instead of the opened arcade it had l arge window grilles. In architecture it is the light shaft. A general ho spital.Manwar Derived from the Arabic root nur or light. Marabut Warriors and Sufis who dwelled in the ribats.

but now refers to a city square o r open space. Merenids (1244-1465 A. Place for ablution. spreading all the way to Algeria. The mihrab can be either flat or a concave recess in the wall.D) managed to stop the Wattasid power in 1458 A. originating from the Banu Marin tribe who settled in eastern an d southeastern Morocco at the turn of the twelfth century A. intricately decorated and can be moved from one place to the other . 1421-1465 A.' but is used to refer to a mausole Mazmala A place where jars of water were stored to be cooled. Mastabas were found in vestibules of houses for the gua rd or doorman. Millefiori Italian word literally meaning a 'thousand flowers'. The Merenids took Meknes (1244 A. were left plain like the one in the Khanqa of Barquq in the Northern Cemetery of Cairo. Maydan Originally used to denote polo ground. Ma zana Mazar um. Another type of mihr ab is the portable one which flourished during the Fatimid period.D.D. An ablution area usually found next to religious buildings. Mastaba A bench.D. Mihman Sarai Hotel or guest accommodation. Mazwala Sun dial. Mimar Architect. however. and 1393-1458 A. he died soon after. They were usually found in corridors and covered by a carved wooden screen. and even launchin g several attacks on Spain. under the authority of the Wattis ids and even under the Nasrids of Granada (1374-1393 A. marble dadoes or mosaic.D. Some.) This is a berber dynasty which ruled Morocco fro m 1244-1465 A. deposing the Almohads in Marrakesh in 1269 A. Mina i A type of pottery that developed in Iran under the Saljuks. Interesting examples can be seen in the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo.D. They then became the most imp ortant power in the Maghreb.) and Fez (1248 A. Minaret.D. Mihrab A prayer niche found in religious buildings indicating the direction to the Ka ba in Mecca. .D. or in marketplaces for the merchants to display their goods. Although the Merenid ruler Abd al-Haqq (r. Other terms us ed in its stead aremazyara or bayt al-azyar. Decline started post 1358 A. A changing room in a bath. It was very detailed and depicted epics as in miniature painting s.D. where child sultans r uled between 1358-1374 A. following which Morocco was ruled by the Wattasids.Masjid Maslakh Mosque.).) as well as other important Moroccan town s. during the t welfth century. the latter form is the most popular one..D.D.D. Mathara Mayda Pronounced 'mat-hara'. These mihrabs were wooden. The technique is like that of enameling. They were carved of stone and in some cases encased with marble. Most mihrabs were decorated with stucc o carvings. Literally means 'place of visitation. This is a t echnique of glass mosaic.

chatris. Intricate geometric patterns with mother of pearl inlay and ivory usually a dorned minbars. By that time. He was re-named Jingis Khan.D. Persian Central Asian. one in Central Asia (Chagatay Khanate). Four separate empires evolved as a result. Their architectural palette was inspired by local Hindu. his son Sgodei continued the Mongol conquest s in Korea. reaching an end in 1857 A . oceanic or universal ruler . 1627-57 A.D.) and Aurangzeb (r. Mughals (1526-1857 A.). Jahangir (r.D.) This dynasty. onwards.D. however stone and marble were used as well. The Mughals were great patrons o f the arts and architecture. witnessed the fragmentation of the empire started by the military genius. a young ambitious Mongol born in 1162 A.D. After his death in 1227 A. Persian influence is seen in the tilework. His grandsons enlarged the empire even farther. when the British dethroned the last sultan. He later marched west and eradicated the Khawarizmshahs ruling northeast of Iran.D. Common Hindu influences include the ric h ornamentation of piers and columns.). parts of West Asia and Russia. but generally refers to master crafts Muslim citizen in Christian Spain. chajjas and jahokas. 1523 A. 1605-27 A. meaning fierce.D.D. the use of corbelling rather than voussoir s. the thirteenth centur y A. Mizrab e building. Also spelled muezzin. and chahar baghs. Georgia. Drainage pipe with an outlet pouring from any of the walls of th Mongols A Turkic tribe that originated from the eastern part of Mongolia . sponsoring the Red Fort in Delhi and the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan (r. reaching a climax during the rules of Akbar ( r. Mudéjar Muezzin. and ten years later he had overtaken the lands of northwestern Ch ina. the iwans. This type of calligraphy was popular for Qur'ans from the thirteenth century A.D. one in Eastern Europe (Khanate of t he Golden Horde) and one in Iran (Il-Khanids).Minbar Pulpit from which the imam of the mosque gives his sermon on Fri day. Muhaqqaq A rounded calligraphic script with well proportioned horizontal and ascending lines. developed by the wazir ibn Muqala. in 1206 A. Mughals also excelled in the use of pietra dura inlay using semi-precious and colored stones. and native Indian Islamic architecture. and is consid ered one of the six 'classical hands'.) in 1526 A. Mughal buildings are distinguished by the use of red sa ndstone and white marble.). The covered or sanctuary area of the mosque. Following Aurangzeb's reign. Mu'adhdhin Mu'allim man. Mirhad Latrine. . Armenia. was established by Babur (d. Mugharaf Mughatta Niches.D. Literally means 'teacher'. See Mu'adhdhin. The Mughal empire spread all over the Indian subcontinent except the far south. 1658-1707 A. Mughal control weak ened and territories broke off into individual states. northern China. who unified the different Mongol tribes by winning dominion over all the small tribes.D. Wood was the most common material used for the construction of m inbars. Their leader was Temüjin (blacksmith). The man who raises the call to prayer.D. 1556-1605 A. one in Mongolia and China (Yuan Empi re). Mishka An oil lamp.D . based in India.

With the Ilkhand fall in 1335 A.' Muqarnas One of the most important decorative elements of Islamic archite cture.. This . 1314-1358) took over after his father and occupied Yazd in 1318 A.. prev enting fraud.D. Musalla Generally means place of prayer. Muluk al-Tawa'if The rulers of smaller Spanish principalities following t he end of the Cordovan caliphate. Fars with Shiraz in 1353 A.) th e Muzaffarids acquired wealth and invested in cultural achievements. Mushaf Pronounced 'mus-haf'.) This is an Arab dynasty ruling southern Iran. they were in battle with pretenders until Tamerlane deposed them in 1393 A.D. restraining public harassment or fights.. Muzaffarids (1314-1393 A. and other similar civil regulations. where they would often be based in ribats. Another definition would be the division of a squinch into a number of small niches. usually at the borders of Dar al-Islam. the grandson of a Khorasani ruler who had advanced under the Ilkhanids becom ing the governor of Maibod. Can refer to a small prayer are a or to a large open-air space for congregational prayer. but refers to an albu m collecting samples of drawings. Single volume Qur'an. Taking its name from Sharaf al-Din Muzaff ar. all of Persia. Mustahfizan Mamluk member of the janissaries.D. Tabriz and Isfahan in 1357 A.D . They are composed of small arches carved of the building material and arranged on top of each other forming honeycombs. Ku rdistan. Namaz Persian for prayer.D. Naskh/Naskhi Literally means 'copied'.D. It is a type of calligraphy that was d eveloped by the wazir Ibn Muqala. and at a time. From 1387 A . This person is responsible for overseeing public cleanliness.D. and is one of the most widespread styles. a town in the vicinity of Isfahan. otherwise known as the 'Party Kings. paintings and calligraphy. Nafura Fountain. he took over Kerman in 13 41 A. Copper. Mushahhar Construction technique where red and white stone are placed in a lternating courses. thus be coming the most powerful dynasty in Iran.D. Mulid The celebration of the birthday of a Prophet or a Saint. overseeing commercial transactions.Muhtasib The post responsible for prefecture of civil life during the med ieval period.D. also called stalactites. Muraqqa' Literally means 'collection of fragments'. Under Shah Juha (r. Mubariz al-Din Muhammad (r. Al-Muzaffar's son . Nadir Nahas Refers to the frieze beneath the ceiling in Mamluk architecture. The latter context is where 'Id prayers usually take place. 1358-1384 A. See Salat. Murabit Soldiers for the faith..

from the thirteenth century A.D. The last period. lasting from 1238 A.D. was able to expand the Granada region further south. This script is composed of elongated sweeping diagonals and short ascending strokes. They were also great patrons of the arts.D. Popularly used for non-Qur'anic Iranian manuscripts. In general. the Ottomans had taken over what remained of the Byzantine Empire. Ibn Khaldun was a diplomat in the court of Muhammad VI.D. multi-leveled domes and tilework. The Ottoma n dynasty can thus be divided into three stages.D. until its end in 1922 A. The Nasrid dynasty continued until Granada fell to the Christians in 1492 A. particularly in their imp erial cities. Calligraphers who excelled at this script included Sultan Ali al-Mashhadi. until 1492 A. Although the Ottomans continued to be a major power unti l the nineteenth century A. The first.. The Ottomans left a ric h architectural legacy for they had built extensively. they ruled all of modern Turkey. From 1453 A. Molten glass ball inflated on a blowpipe. Pontil Solid metal rod onto which glass vessels are moved after the blowpipe. carpets and textiles are among their most celeb rated artistic legacies. A strong military organization w as established and by 1453 A. the Balkans. to the mid-sixteenth century A. he stil l created peace treaties with the Christian kings. the lead er of a Turkic clan who moved to the borders of Byzantine empire having fled the Mongul invasion in the thirteenth century A.D.D. until the capture of Constantinople represents a period of growth f rom a small sovereignty to a major dynasty. and paid tribute to Ferdinand I of Castile. much of North Afri ca and the Middle East. T he mark left by the pontil on the base of the glass object is called the 'pontil . Parison a 'gather'.D. Joining the First World War was a destructiv e blow leading to the loss of the rest of its Arab provinces. which was their main palace.D. This is also known as Pietra Dura Technique of inlay using colored and semi-precious stone used in Mughal architecture. that the Muslim gener al Muhammad I ibn Nasr rose to power and was able to control Granada. The Nasrids were the patrons of one of the most celebrated Islamic buildings.D.D. is considered the grand Ottoman period of superior developments in technology and arts. Istanbul. Nasta liq A type of calligraphy developed in Iran and known also as the fa rsi script or ta liq. when it fell to the Christians. making Constantinople their capital. Pishtaq Persian term for portal projecting vertically or horizontally pe rpendicular to the façade.) This was the last Muslim dynasty that ruled Spai n. Alhambra. Although M uhammad I ibn Nasr. they had already started losing land to local lea ders in Europe and the Middle East. By the sixteen th century A. clearly written script is considered one of the six 'classical hands'. was that of the decline which started in t he mid-sixteenth century A.rounded. Mir Ali and Mir Imad. It was following the defeat of Almohads whe n many Andalusian Muslim cities fell into Christian hands. Its end was at the hands of the movement of the Young Turks led by Ataturk in 1922 A. establishing a recognized Ottoman architecture known for its tall pointed minarets.D.D. th is type of calligraphy was also extensively used by the Ottomans on their buildi ngs and in their manuscripts. Pomander Pierced container of perfumes. when it was founded by Muhammad I ibn Nasr.D. Ottomans An important dynasty that traces its origins to Uthman. the Nasrid court in Granada was a viable cultural center. Nasrids (1232-1492 A. where Iznik tiles.

Diyarbakir.D. where their blue mosque stands with its distinct style. D. For extra ventilat ion a badhahanj was usually found on top of one of the iwans.D.D. includin g stone carved. Reza Khan led a coup ending Qajar rule. Qal a A citadel. Their zenith was under Jahanshah (1435-1467 A. and their last ruler was unseated in 1469 A.D.). Their contribution to architecture can be seen in their capital Tabriz. Qaraqoyunlus (1380/90 -1469 A. In Cairene archite cture the size of the qa as was reduced as time went by.D. l eading to the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1925 A. Iraq and most of Iran from 1380/90 -1469 A. The Qaraqoyunlus were defea ted by the Aqqoyunlus in 1467 A.D. 1797 A. The plan was inspired from the four-iwanplan or cruciform plan of the religious buildings.D. parts of Georgia and Shirvan by 14 19 A. Grave.) This dynasty.D. Mashrabiyyas were used inside the qa as to cover the recesses on the side walls of the two iwans. and Herat in 1458 A. The eighteenth century A. Qajar art was he avily influenced by European art. Vaults are of many shapes. ruled parts of eastern Anatolia.) gained independence and took ove r northwest Iran with Tabriz. The area inside the aghani was reached by a small staircase. . Qabaq Qabr Sport based on target practice. it could be round. Burji Mamluk qa as being sm aller than Bahri Mamluk ones. the Caucasus. Qalansuwa Qamariyya A type of opening in the form of a stucco grille. took over southern and central Iran with Isfahan in 1452 A. Fars and Kerman in 1453 A. with stained glass.) who deposed the Timuri ds in 1447 A. Qajars (1796-1925 A. and marks the beginning of artistic decadence. Qabw An Arabic term meaning 'to make something in the shape of a dome'. rectangular or sq uarish. h e took over Baghdad in 1411 A. 1390-1420 A.. Azerbaijan. crosse d and fan.D.D. saw civil conflicts whi ch ended Qajar unity. including barrel. They were found in houses on ground floors and first floors alike. 1380-1390 A.) ruled the territories from eastern Anatolia through Azerbaijan and Armenia. Pointed turban for men.D. In ar chitecture in means a vault.D. In Mamluk documents they have been described in different ways.D. of Turkic tribal origins.) Literally meaning the 'Tribes of the Bla ck Sheep'. unt il his successor Qara Yusuf (r.D.D.D. Originally Jalayrid allies. Qadi Arabic for judge. Qara Muhammad (r. and took power over Iran in 1796 A. Qandil Lamp... The source of light and air in the qa a was theshukhshaykha or a wooden hexagonal skylight.. Battling against the Timurids and the Jalayrids. this Turcoman dynasty named after their original totem animal. There is no on e single shape associated with a qamariyya. and by 1919 A.mark'. originat ed as a tribal federation established by Muhammad Khan (d. these were called aghani. Qamis Short tunic or shirt.D. Qa a A room with the following plan: two elevated areas (iwans) opposing each other and overlooking a lower area called the durqa a.D..

It symbolizes the position of a dignitary and his functio ns.D. the mihrab is found in the q ibla wall of a mosque.Qarqal A small basin to which water flows from the shadirwan. In Mamluk architecture the term describes a small hotel. the one responsible for the royal wareh ouse (jamdar). The Bahri Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muha mmad ibn Qalawun was the first to use written blazons and from his time onwards the inscribed rank became the sultanic blazon. Noteworthy examples are those of Qaytbay built in 1474 A. Qulla Clay water jug. and is used to refer to a calligraphic panel. The name is derived from the city Kashan in Iran. Different ranks used by the Mamluks included cupbearer (al-saqi). Can also refer to the citadel. Qubba Qur an Literally means dome.D. khans or stores. Literally means 'piece'. Tiles adorned buildings in Iran si nce the pre-Islamic period. For example. Qishlaq Qit'a Quarters used in winter. the one re sponsible for the royal arms (silahdar). Qaytun In Egypt. Qaysariyya A type of caravanserai that lodges craftsmen on its upper floors and housed their goods on the ground floor around a sahn. Qashani Glazed tiles. and the taster (jashinkir). It can also be defined as a type of collective building for the accommodation of the middle class. Qasr Palace. Qasaba Central part or avenue of town or citadel. Rahba An open stretch of space. it was the space in a house that overlooked water. Architecturally can refer to a minaret finial that resem bles the upper part of such a water jug. capital or metropolis. It is also used to mean a mausoleum. often by an army. Some rab s were found above wikalas. The Word of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. Qizilbash Literally means 'red-head' and refers to Turkomen who followed t he Safavids and were part of their court. in the North ern Cemetery close to his funerary complex and that of Kizlar in Siyufiyya stree t built in 1618 A. Rab In Arabic. A group of duplex es or triplexes rented mostly for travelers or to anyone interested. it literally means 'a place where someone would feel comforta ble'. Qibla The direction to Ka ba in Mecca. Rank A Persian word meaning colour and in a historical context it means blazo n. which was a major centere of tile production. In Egypt their use to decorate buildings was only in troduced during the Mamluk period. . It usually comprises the main axial area. They wore the red head gear known as t aj-i Haydari. insignia or emblem. Mos t of the houses overlooking the ponds in Cairo (birkat al-fil or al-azbakiyya) h ad a qaytun as its basement.

D. The w ord was also used to describe urban structures which served commercial purposes or in which Sufis congregated. to bind . forming some sort of balcony.D. Khan. Medieval architects u sed this expression to describe two windows joined by a column in between. particularly in the commercial or lodgin g context. and caravanse rai can also be used to denote a ribat. Few years later he was ruling from Iraq to Uzbekistan. Rayhan A calligraphic script where a finer pen is used for the vowels. Ribat The term is derived from the Arabic root. Riq'a Calligraphic script usually used on administrative documents.D. Rawshan Another term for mashrabiyyas. In the eastern Muslim l ands we have the celebrated eleventh century Ribat-i Sharaf in Khurasan and Riba t-i Malik on the road between Bukhara and Samarqand. It is a kind of caravanserai but with a specific function. Sabat Sabil Passage with vaulted ceiling. Rikabkhana Derived from Persian. A t the age of twelve Shaykh Safy s grandson Isma il invaded Iran. It was stri ctly Sunni in orientation but by the mid fifteenth century A.D. The sabil would usually be located on the ground floor with the kuttab above it on the first floor. and a kuttab. dedications and colophons in Qur'ans. it came to mean an Islamic castrum used as a base for holy war (jihad). More specifically. meaning stable. it means a living unit with all its dependencies. Qazvin the second and then later i n 1598 A.Rawda Garden or paradise.D. Shah Abbas made Isfahan the capital. Drinking fountain usually established for public charity. Tafertast and Tit. Many ribats are still to be found in the Maghrib. it is used to describe mashrabiyyas when they overlook a street.D. By the tenth centur y A. They were the descendants of the Sufi Shaykh Safy al-Din Ishaq (1252-13 34 A. Tabriz was the first capital. R ibats were built throughout the Muslim world from Morocco to Central Asia.D. it means an arcade carried on columns or pillars. In a hous e. In a mosque. an elementary Qur'anic school for children where they would usually learn reading.D.D. rabata meaning to tie. writing and Qur'an. after the Aq Qoyunlu fled in fear of his advances. The last Safavid Shah was Sulta . no other Safavid was as passionate or charismatic.D. This foundation c ould be attached to a mosque or be a separate structure in itself. After his death in 1524 A. especially throughout the Seljuk lands. It is c onsidered one of the six 'classical hands'. wikala. until 1 722 A. Sabil-Kuttab A charitable foundation composed of a sabil. Riwaq The meaning of this word differs according to the context in which it wa s used. public water dispen sary. It is also used sometimes for sura headings.) who founded his tariqa in his hometown Ardabil in 1300 A. This is considered one of the six 'classical hands'. Rawhayn fi jasad Literally 'two souls in one body'. Another role they played was supporting the posta l services. Safavids (1501-1722 A. Susa. Isma il was full of p assion and vigor and this was how he marched into Tabriz in 1501 A.) A dynasty that ruled Iran from 1501 A. it became Shi i. Munastir. Sadr The back wall of an iwan.

and by 1058 A.D. and Herat. they adopted the cultural and literary heritage of Persia and maintained a Persian administration. which was to a great degree influenced by the Timurids but never reached its excellence.D. The Safavi ds were amongst the important patrons of Islamic art. Balkh. An important transformation took pl ace in the mosque plan. especially wit h the eradication of the Shi i Buwayhids.D. beforehand. military officia ls and merchants also endorsed several madrasas. Viziers. The Saljuks were the bearers of the flag of Sunni Islam and which they spread through the institution of the madrasa. In terms of decoration. while s tone was used in Anatolia. The combination of four iwans over looking a court with a dome chamber on theqibla side soon became a standard plan throughout the Iranian lands. The advent of the Saljuks. Salari The wooden leaves of a window attached to the iron window grilles often encountered in sabils. Saljuks (1038-1195 A. and they were known as the nomadic predators of the Iranian north-eastern frontiers and the m ercenaries in the armies of the Abbasid Caliphate. Architectural forms developed a nd spread rapidly during the Saljuk dynasty. who inaugurated his madrasa in Baghdad in 1068 A. The Maydan-i Shah in Isfahan represents the typical Safavid style o f architecture.n Husayn who was overthrown in 1722 A. The court of a mosque whether it be opened or closed. these prayers are a constant link to God. In the co ntext of the root. The advent of Turkic tribes from beyond the Oxus and Syr Darya r ivers had already been taking place long before the rise of Islam. Iran. elaborate st ucco and terracotta were extensively used in Iran and the eastern areas.D. towards the Ka'ba in Mecca. who eventually ruled fro m Transoxiana to Anatolia marks the elimination of the Shi i presence in this part of the world. however they are not one o f the peaks. the iwan became an important feature in both secular and religious architecture. Sahrij The root sahar means to melt something. Follow ing this inauguration. These are the second pillar of Islam and are performed by Muslims five times a day. They o pened the way for the immigration of Turkic tribes to Anatolia. The Saljuks belong to the Oghuz clan part of the Gok Turki c tribes.D. Prayer s can be individually or in congregation.D. rich households had the salamlik as a separate building. the Abbasid Caliph al-Qa im had bestow ed on him an honorary title. Few Saljuk monuments still remain in their homeland. Sunni Islam was to become the system of their government. and must pray in any clean place oriented towards the qibla. for the majority was destroyed by the Mongul invasion.e. moremadrasas were established throughout the Saljuk terri tories. Not having a rich culture of their own. Those migrating into the Iran ian lands were Turkish military aristocracy and many small Turkish dynasties rep laced the established Iranian ones as what happened with the Samanids and the Ma m unid Khawarazm-Shahs. eventually leadi ng to the Turkicization of Byzantine lands following the Manzikert victory in 10 71 A. ablution. and many were found in Merv.) This was the first great Turkish dynasty to rule Iranian lands. Salamlik Men s reception area in houses and palaces. An individual must be ritually pure by performing wudu'. where a new prototype incorporating a domed chamber in t he qibla area in front of the mihrab evolved. The Friday prayer taking place at noon however needs to be in congregation. i. In architecture it means a water tank.D. Saha Sahn Terrace or open space. Th e formal history of themadrasa as a public institution started with the Saljuk v izier. Salat Prayers. Derives from the Arabic root silla. rising to power with Tughril who marched into Baghdad in 1055 A. Nizam al-Mulk. In general. meaning link. by the Afghan Ghazali tribe. There are several m . During the ninteenth c entury A. dep osing the Buwayhid prince.

D. Ismail (r.D.) Pre-Islamic dynasty in Iran that ruled c. . who then made Bukhara the capital.D. Saqaqa Tank of water used for ablution. Artistically t he Saljuks of Rum were distinct from those of Iran.D. the land of Anatolia.. they were defeated by the Monguls.) who took o ver Iznik in 1078 A. the son of the Sama rqand governor. large areas of Persia with Khorasan. The dynasty experienced great prosperity from the mid twelfth century A. Saljuks of Rum (1037 A. Salsabil A marble or stone plaque that leans on the wall of a sabil or a qa a and is part of the shadirwan. 225-65 1 A.D. territorie s were lost and in 1243 A.) defeated the Saffarid Empire by 903 A. controlling Afganistan.D. and it was his son Suleyman I (r. This dynasty was founded by Ardashir.).D.) This Turkish dynasty ruling Anatolia was a branch of the Great Saljuks. and by the Qarakhanids where they lost Transoxiana in 999 A. known to the West as Avicenna..D. 1077-1086 A..D. founded and named after Sam an Khudat. their court flou rished becoming a locus of Persian spitituality and Persian Islamic literature u nder Mansur I (961-976 A. possibly a distant relative of the Achaemenids. Its main function is for the water to flow over it. 914-943 A. They were defeated by th e Ghaznavids in 994 A.D. Fergana and Samarqand. babbling into a fountain in the middle of the room. Zoroastrianism was the state religion. Saqi Mamluk rank of cupbearer who's responsibility includes the sultan's tabl e and drinks. and their lan guage was Pahlavi. who had rep laced the Parthian dynasty. This Sunni dynasty continued to be faithful to the Abass ids. The entrance of the mosque of Sultan Hasan in Egypt was heavily influenced by Anatolian entrance portals.). The Buyids however pushed the Samani ds back to Transoxiana and Khorasan from 945 A. when in 1240 A. where Saman Khudat's 4 grandsons were Tahirid governors in Heart.D. Shash.D.adrasas and tombs in Iraq and Syria. Their arts were influenced b y Central Asia.) The Samanid dynasty. until the mid thirteenth century A.D. In 874 A.D..D. and the latter finally killed their last rule r while fleeing in 1005 A.D. was born and studied in Bukhara.) the dynasty expa nded greatly to include territories from Baghdad. The Muslim armies started taking over following the conquests of Qadisiyya (636 A. who was a cousin of the Saljuk rulers. ruled over Eastern Iran. Under Nasr II (r.D. t he Saljuks of Rum ruled under the authority of the Ilkhanids who eventually took over their territory making it an Ilkhanid province in 1308 A. During the Crusade conflicts the Saljuks of Rum managed t o acquire extensive autonomy although they were under the official authority of the Great Saljuks.D. Monumental portals were another feature of the mosques there. Syria.). His brother. This plaque is decorate d finely with geometric patterns or with carvings of fish. 892-9 07 A.D.) The last Sasanian ruler was Yaz degird III (651 A.D. like the Ince Mi nare Madrasa in Konya or the G?k Madrasa in Sivas.D. 225-651 A. Art and culture flourished under the Samanids. Nevertheless. From 1279 A. In general.) and Nuh II (967-997 A. the Tahi ridis were overthrown by Nasr I ibn Ahmad (r. Afganistan and Central Asia from the late ni nth century to 999 A. Sasanians (c. and it was during this period that the renowned philosopher and physician Ibn Sina.D. Mesopotamia and of course. Sasanian prototypes were important infleunces .D. although they were Tahiridi subjects.1308 A. Kerman and Mazandaran (Persian Gulf) to the Indian borders and Turkestan. where they lost Khorasan.) and Nihavand (642 A. Samanids (819/874-999 A.D.D. Iraq. toget her with the single or twin minarets.D. 874-892 A.D. whose main administrative capital was Ctesiphon.D. It was founded by Kutalmish. Sarai Turkish for palace. but the most Saljuk monuments have remained in Anatolia. The most popular plan for mosques was the basilica plan with three domes in front of the qibla wall.

From the qarqal the water flow s on the salsabil. Tom bstones were always beautifully adorned with the different scripts. In the royal palaces it is supervised by the mihtar al-sharabkha na. stucco work at Khirbat al-Mafjar and the e ntire design of Qasr Kharana. A title given to descendants of the Prophet or to Sufis. if not the. especially used for manuscripts. In architecture it describes the tombstone. most widespread in Egypt. Shad It is derived from the Arabic root. The originator of this scho ol was Imam Shafi'i (767-819 A. Shamsa A term derived from shams or sun used in documents to describe o rnaments that are round in shape or rounded windows. finally spending the last years of his life in Egypt where he is buried in the Mausoleum of Imam Shafi'i. Saz Popular Ottoman vegetal motif based on the leaves of the reed. and then flows to a fountain in the middle of the room. which carries some Qur anic verses and an epitaph. Sharbakhana A composite Arabic-Persian word meaning warehouse for storing dr inks and their respective tableware such as expensive porcelain. fruits. In Umayyad architecture this is indicated by t he mosaic motifs in the Dome of Rock. Sawma'a Sayyid Cell or minaret. See Crenellations. essential oils an d even potions. It can al so refer to a type of musical instrument. It was in use since the Achaemenids. Shafi'i One of the four Sunni legal schools. The whole idea is for decorative purposes and for causin g a cool breeze in the place and this is why we find it in houses as well. . He was bo rn in Palestine and raised in Mecca. This refers to a pottery where patterns are incised onto a vessel that was first covered with a slip and coated with a lead glaze. the third of the four major imams. gold or rock cr ystal cups. This school h as always been one of the. See shamsa. It might have been used for windows because they admit sunlight and are thus shamsas. It is also derived from the word shams. Sgraffiato Italian term which literally means 'scratched'. Further influence can also be noted in Khan 'Atsha n and the 'Abassid palace of Ukhaidar. Shahid The Arabic root of the word means 'to witness'. It consists of a wooden stalactite conch with an opening for wat er to pour from into a small basin called qarqal. Shadirwan A Persian word for an element mostly found in sabils adorning on e of its walls. set on the wall at an angle. Shaykhuni A way of roofing. shadd or to strengthen.in Islamic art and architecture. Imam Shafi'i studied under Imam Malik (see Maliki) in Medina. Shararif Plural for shirfa.).D. Shamsiyya Another term used to describe rounded ornaments. Shah Persian for king. Sehna Knot 'Persian' or assymetrical knot used in carpets and rugs. It is also used for the storage of sweets. though gener ally it means architect. in Mecca and in Iraq.

this unique reservoir of religious gui dance is an indispensable foundation for the study and understanding of any aspe ct of Islam. Tabaqa The Arabic root means 'to fold' and also means 'level. pilgrimage. Constitution of workers into guilds An underground corridor or a tunnel. Amir tabl akhana was the prince who had the right to have drums played at the gate of his palace. Simurgh Sinf Sirdab Sirja Siyyaj Slip-carved Persian mythical bird. Suq Sura Marketplace. etc. levels of earth. Sunna The traditions of the Prophet Muhammad that forms a huge body of literat ure. a duplex. a r oom. triplex. Ranging over topics as varied as doctrine. It supplements the Qur an and acts as a source of guidance for the followers of Islam. Pottery decoration where slp is carved away from the surface. and spirituality. Shurfa/shurfat See crenellations. fasting. taxation. usually mystics. In architecture it means a lodging area in a building. Slip-painted Pottery decoration technique where the piece is covered in a col or against which contrasting earthy pigments are painted thinly. Sesame oil press. Squinch An arch or system of arches usually placed at the corners of a s quare supporting a dome. Tabhane Turkish term referring to lodging section attached to some mosqu es where travellers. Tablakhana A composite Arabic-Persian word meaning the 'house of the drums' . Stucco Fine plaster carved into low-relief decoration used both in interiors an d on exteriors of monuments. governmen t. Sidila A large recess in the side walls of a qa a. . Stalactite See Muqarnas. but they were incorporated int o the main body of later mosques. It was basically a warehouse for the storage of musical instruments.Shikaste Literally means 'borken. could stay for three days free of charge. Fence of any kind. By the end of the Burji Mamluk period the side iwans (northern and southern) were reduced in size greatly and were thence calledsidilas.' This refers to calligraphy where parts of the word are placed at different levels. prayer. Qur'an chapter. In the early mosques these were separate annexes. buildings or people'.

Taj al. It is used to describe leaf work or scroll work in Islamic art. a small garden in a house or a decorative panel in the shape of a square. Takhtabush A space designated for the public that was found in the Ottoman domestic architecture of Cairo. Refers to Sufi order. Tamwih Tanur Taq Enameling. Different capitals were used in Muslim arch itecture. Tazzgig Using a transparent glaze for pottery . carpets and cushions. iron or brass Also pronounced tastiyya. Its A natolian equivalent is the hayat. Tawwaf Circumambulation. To illuminate a manuscript. It could be a court. Its most common usage means cenotaph. The applied stones were commonly marble or semi-precious stones. The facade was divided in two parts by a supporting column. Mainly found in big houses. It means a small fountain. It was usually flat roofed with a façade opening onto the courtyard. Tawriq Literally means leaf tendril. In Mamluk baths the w ord tabut meant a wooden box used as a locker by the bathers. Its origins are f rom Persian or Near Eastern house plans. Tashtkhana A composite Arabic-Persian word used to describe the place where the textiles of the Sultan were washed. amongst which are the ionic. Tariqa Literally means 'path' or 'way'.Tabut Storage box. Taj-i Haydari Red head gear worn by Turkomen of the Safavid court. It also houses the Sultan s entire wardro be. mainly with reference to that around the Ka'ba in Mecc a. it was the hall on t he ground floor allocated for receiving male visitors before they were allowed i n other areas of the house. Tadhhib Tahun Mill. Persian for arch. Traditional clay oven with open top.Amud Capital of a column. Tasfih Tashtiyya Covering anything with metal sheets. Talar An open hall of columns found in many Iranian palaces. Corinthian. muqarnas and bell-shaped capi tals. Tarbi a A square shaped area. Tawqi' Calligraphy used for administrative documents. and in mills the t erm was used for a flour storage place. Tarsi A masonry technique where pieces of stone are inlaid in a panel of stone . This is considered one th e six 'classical hands'. Pronounced 'tad-hib'. Tarima Open loggia.

After his campaign in India . This is considered one of the six 'classical hands'. Surrounding the arcades were the Sufi cells.905 A. as it replaced the term khanqa . In Mamluk documents it was used to denote the mausoleum w . Also included were a small mosque and a graveyard. Tikiyya A Sufi hospice. Further west he defeated the invincible Bayazid I in Ankara in the year 1402 A. which contained his name and a victory phrase drawn beautifully.D.D.) This great Turkic dynasty founded by Timur Lang who claimed descent from Jingis Khan. The shrine complex of Khuja Ahmad Yasavi in Jassy and Timu r s Mausoleum. however the plan differed. Historia ns. Tulunids (868 . the M osque of Bibi Khanum. in Shahr-i Sabz. The usage of the Ottoman structure does not vary from the usage of the Ayyubid or the Mamluk khanqa. and would thus send all th e craftsmen from conquered territories to Samarqand. His descendants were also great patrons of both architecture and the arts of the book. thus gaining power over Iran.) This was a minor dynasty established by Ahmad ib n Tulun (d. which allowed Timur to crea te a base in Samarqand. Shah Rukh s s on. The celebrated mosque of Ibn Tulun (876-879 A. Timurids (1370 1507 A. commissioned several buildings throughout Timurid territories. like Hafiz-i Abru. His son Shah Rukh moved the capital to Heart. transforming it into on e of the most important cities in the history of Islamic culture. by taking over Egypt and destroying the Tulunid capital. Turba Grave or tomb. Atikiyya consists of an open courtyard surrounded by arcade s on its four sides. Thuluth A cursive script that is bold and monumental. Timur's descendents continued to control the Timurid empire. after whic h he went into Iran and conquered Muzaffarid and Jalayrid lands. To the north he penetrate d Moscow. three years before his death when he had set out to conquer China.) which ruled briefly over Egypt and Syria. As a subgovernor of Egypt for the Abassids. Tim Covered market. Cultural patronage was an important aspect of Timurid court life. the Khamsa of Ni zami.D. but by th e mid-fifteenth century A. Ibn Tulun seized the chance of the weakening Abassid s to create a private army and take over Egypt in 868 A. Ulug Beg.D. western provinces were lost. the Abassids still managed to reclaim their lost power in 905 A. th e most important of which is her Friday Mosque in Mashhad. Gawhar Shad. S hah Rukh s wife. like Abd al-Rahman Jami and painters like Bihzad were appreciated and sponsored by the Timurids. it means the artistic signature of the Ottoman Sul tan. great mystics. T ikiyyas flourished all around the Ottoman Empire until World War I when most of them were abandoned. to name a couple..D. and their rule ended i n 1507 A. were commissioned by most of Timur s descendants.D. It was use d to certify documents by the Sultan. Although the Tulunids expanded into Syria. 884 A. The Shahname of Firdawsi. Timur built one of the biggest mosques in the Muslim world in Samarqand. Gur-i Mir in Samarqand are yet other examples of the Timur's grande ur. Tughra Derived from Turkish.D. was the last greatest Muslim dynasty of St eppe origin. This term was used during the Ottoman period. He attested that the measure of the genius of an empire is its buildings. also commissioned several observatories and refurbished the Registan Square in Samarqand by building his madrasa.Tekke See Tikiyya. Tiraz Inscription band found on the façade of a building. where the remains of Timur's palace Aq S aray.. His first campaigns were in Khawarizm and Khurasan. when Heart was overtaken by the Turkmans. show the grandeur of this chieftain. Timur s father ruled Kish in Transoxiana. From there he conquered areas to the west. which were usu ally small vaulted rooms.D.) however remains standing.D.

Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan built th e dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. See Ithna 'Asharis.) and Hisham (r. because of the opposition of the Arab tribes in Iraq and others i n Medina. Utruja e elements. Ustadar Mamluk position of tutor.D. The gre atest caliphs of the Umayyads were Mu awiya. Turkish for 'Friday Mosque' or 'Great Mosque'. Their architecture wa s heavily influenced by Byzantine norms.) The first dynasty of Islam which was founded by Mu awiyya ibn Abu Sufyan (r.D.D. Umayyads (661-750 A. Its p lan is derived from Byzantine mausolea and its decoration. Citron or ethrog and is used to describe the shapes of decorativ Valide Turkish for mother. but not as strong as those of Byzantium. Valide Turkish for mother. who became a very important persona in the later periods of the Ottom an court. Turbe Mausoleum in Turkish. Wakala See Wikala. Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (r. In the Ottoman period it referred to the mother of t he Sultan.ith all its dependencies. Mu awiyya used the a lready existing Byzantium base of shipyards to build a strong Arab navy. In the Ottoman period it referred to the mother of t he Sultan. led by Ab u Muslim who gained the caliphate for the Abbasids. the first monument in Islam. 685-705 A. The mural paintings adorning its walls are all of Byzantine inspiration.).D). who was also responsible for managing the sultan's private issues. who was the governor of Syria after the Syrian conquest. Façade. all similar to Roman forts.D. 661-80 A. which became a main cultural center of the Muslim world. . He came to rule the entire Muslim world from his capital Damas cus. 717-20 A.D. Abd al-Malik (r. Most of the Umayyads were ki lled during these happenings. Other influences from the east played a role. Umayyad caliphs built several desert pal aces. are classical in inspiration. the mosaic on its inn er walls. Their caliphate fe ll in 750 A. They were overthrown by a revolution that began in Khurasan. The façade of Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi shows Sasanian influences on the sculpted fi gures. Vizier Minister. Th e mosaic floors in Khirbat al-Mafjar are yet another classical influence. in 691 A. including his residence and treasury affairs. Vizier Minister.D. 724-744 A.). Voussoir Wajiha Stones shaped like wedges used in the construction of arches. Voussoir Stones shaped like wedges used in the construction of arches. one of those who survived was Abd al-Rahman who fl ed to North Africa and reinstituted the Umayyads in Spain. Twelvers Ulama Ulu Cami Religious scholars of Islam.. who became a very important persona in the later periods of the Ottom an court. The bath at Qusayr Amra is the typical Roman b ath.

Some waqfiyyas were carved on th e exterior or interior walls of the buildings. The deed itself had to be lega lly authenticated and kept with a qadi (judge). what goes on inside and the relation of th e building with its surroundings. Zawiyas however had no lodging area. head and feet . Like the khan. face. it literally means collecting things and then compres sing them or contracting them. Wudu' Ablution required to make the believer ritually pure. Usually the patron would stipulate in the endowment deed that what he draws up f rom his property will be dedicated for this cause and he appoints someone to ove rlook the occurrence of his stipulations. the basic plan consist ed of an open court surrounded by rooms for storing merchants goods and for their display as well. Curses called down on anyone who alter s any of the waqfiyya s conditions are often encountered in them. Waqfiyya The deed where the waqf is written. The alternative name in Pers ian is waqfnamah. It was not only lands that were e ndowed to buildings. including the cost of maintenance and salaries. Annexed there is usually an area that would function as a stab le for housing the animals of the merchants.Wali Governor. Yataghan Yurt A round tent used in Turkey and Central Asia composed of a movable woode n frame covered in felt or skin. Wikala The Egyptian caravanserai. The upper floors of a khan are the accommodation areas. traditions or behavioral codes of Turks. Long sword with a blade that curves inwards. arms. with single rooms. Wazir Arabic for minister or vizier. Wazara In Mamluk architecture. It can also mean a corner. mouth. Since many shaykhs sat in the corners of the mosques or madrasas instructing their students so term wa s thus used for small mosques and oratories. Zellij Moroccan Arabic term for small enamelled ceramic tiles used to decorate . mostly horses. Yasa Customs. which include the conditions of admini stration and upkeep. It is obligatory b efore prayer. Zawiya In Arabic. Zeghir Thumb-ring used by archers. but Qur ans as well and their deed was usually inscribed on e ither the first or last page of the Qur an. and is composed of washing hands. it referred to a dado usually made of marble. For the upkeep of religious buildings and charitable foundations a system had to be instituted to guarantee that their functions will not come to a halt once the f ounder had died. Waq-waq Mythical talking tree. khanqa or complex. Zawiyas were also used by Sufi tari qas and named after them and in this sense resemble khanqas.Waqfiyyas are imp ortant documents for the study of the social history of Islamic architecture as it thoroughly describes the building. The revenues generated from allotted plots of land or other ins titutions were dedicated to the upkeep of a mosque. The person appointed was usually a descendant of the patron. duplexes or triplexes for the travelers. Waqf A very important institution in the history of Islamic architecture. madrasa.

which was in the shape of a tower of man See Dhikr. Lterally means 'visitation'. . Ziyarat . These are used extensively in North African and Andalusian architectu re. Not all mosques had ziyadas. Zikr Zilu The Zoroastrian temple. which usually refers to the covered par t of the mosque. but a very good example is the one of the mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo.buildings. Ziggurat y levels. Ziyada The extra or empty space between the mosque and the surrounding buffer wall. but is used to refer to a mausoleum Zulla Arabic term meaning shaded area. Floor covering made of flat weave.

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