Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software


1.0 Introduction:
M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Although wind energy is abundantly available in nature using and controlling it with respect to turbine parameters to obtain maximum efficient electric power output is a challenging task. Also, the production of electricity by a wind turbine generator at a specific site depends upon many factors. These factors include the mean wind speed of the site and more significantly, the speed characteristics of the wind turbine itself namely, cut-in, rated, and furling wind speeds including the hub height. Experience with the existing wind farms have shown that some of the wind power plants have failed completely or performed poorly especially in developing countries because the installed wind turbine systems do not match the site. There are many different models of wind turbine generators, commercially available, with same kW ratings. Each of these wind turbines has their own specifications and speed parameters. These speed parameters affect the capacity factor at a given specific site, and subsequently affect the choice of optimum wind turbine generator for the site.

1.1 Problem Definition, Objectives and Scope of the Proposed Work:
Wind power produced by turbines varies with time and the output of such turbines hence varies. A number of potential wind power sites are available all over the world. Experience with the existing wind farms have shown that some of the wind power plants have failed completely or performed poorly especially in developing countries because the installed wind turbine systems do not match the site. • Hence there arises a need for a systematic approach towards the problem of optimum siting of wind turbine generators.

The site investigation procedure before the installation of Wind turbine (if some site is available for such a study).

M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software • Calculation of the capacity factor using the Weibull statistical model and calculation of mean wind speeds for computation of monthly or annual capacity factor of the site. • Calculation of power output and thrust coefficient values for a chosen turbine and obtaining the respective curves for the turbines. According to Karnataka Renewable Energy Policy (2009-2014), the green power options for Karnataka are as follows, 1. Wind power projects. 2. Mini, Micro and small Hydro power projects (upto 25 MW). 3. Co-generation in sugar and other industries. 4. Biomass and Biogas projects. Under the KARNATAKA RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY, 2009-2014, it is proposed to develop additionally 2969 MW of wind power projects during the five years up to 2014. This would involve a total investment of Rs 15,680 crores. To facilitate successful expeditious commissioning of the targeted wind projects the various statutory clearances will be cleared through single window mechanism.

The government waste lands in windy locations identified for industrial development will be offered to set up wind projects. The capacity of the earlier commissioned wind projects which are more than 10 years old will be considered for augmentation by replacing with efficient higher capacity wind turbine generators.

Earlier allotments not commissioned beyond time period will be reviewed. Small wind energy generators will be promoted up to 10 KW for stand-alone systems. M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software

Table 1.0: Year wise proposed capacity addition (Source: KREP 2009-2014)

Renewable energy source

Target MW 09-10

Year wise proposed capacity addition





Likely total investment (Rs croresat current prices) 15680 2700

Wind Power Mini and Small Hydro Cogeneration in Sugar Industry Biomass/Biogas Waste to energy Total

2969 600

630 100

680 100

530 150

530 150

599 100





























M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software


2.1.0 Literature Review:

M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software [1] Suresh H. Jangamshetti , V. Guruprasada Rau , Optimum Siting Of Wind

Turbine Generators, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONSERVATION, VOL. 16, NO. 1, MARCH 2001. Number of potential wind power sites are available all over the world. Of these, not all the sites have wind turbine generators installed. Experience with the existing wind farms have shown that some of the wind power plants have failed completely or performed poorly especially in developing countries because the installed wind turbine systems do not match the site. Hence there arises a need for a systematic approach toward the problem of optimum siting of wind turbine generators. The production of electricity by a wind turbine generator at a specific site depends upon many factors. These factors include the mean wind speed of the site and more significantly, the speed characteristics of the wind turbine itself namely, cut-in, rated, and furling wind speeds including the hub height. There are many different models of wind turbine generators, commercially available, with same kW ratings. Each of these wind turbines has their own specifications and speed parameters. These speed parameters affect the capacity factor at a given specific site, and subsequently affect the choice of optimum wind turbine generator for the site. [2] Albadi.M.H, El-Saadany.E.F ,Wind Turbines Capacity Factor Modeling—A Novel Approach, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009. Due to wind speed variability, a wind turbine is rarely operating at its rated output. Therefore, the capacity factor (CF) of a turbine is commonly used to estimate the average energy production, which in turn can be used for the economic appraisal of wind power projects. Moreover, CF models are used by manufacturers and wind power project developers for optimum turbine-site matching.

M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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This paper presents a novel method for matching the wind farm with wind turbine generating units from the view point of site data and generator parameters.Tech. A new formulation for CF modeling using the site wind speed and the turbine power curve parameters is presented. The paper focuses on selecting wind generator turbine parameters’ in order to optimize the generated energy while maximizing the utilization of the wind power available at the location.2009 7th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2009). rated. Fahmy. Maged A. Optimization of Wind Farm Power Generation Using New Unit Matching Technique . Ashraf A. This letter presents a novel approach to estimate the CF of variable speed wind turbines using the turbine’s power curve and the Weibull parameters of wind speed at any potential site. The advantage of the proposed model over the existing one is illustrated by a turbine-site selection case study. The turbine’s power performance curve can be described by three parameters: the cut-in. Abdel Samed .Energy Systems.HUBLI.BVBCET.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software The amount of energy produced by a turbine depends on the characteristics of both wind speed at the site and the turbine’s power performance curve. 2010-11 Page 7 . the proposed CF model is simpler and more accurate. and Sherief F. Abu Adma. The simulation results show when using the proposed model for optimum turbine-site matching. [3] Radwan . the energy yield can be increased by 5%. and cut-out speeds. Wind speed at potential wind project sites is characterized by the parameters of the Weibull probability distribution function (pdf).H Abdel-Hamid. When compared to the previous model. The study presents an improvement to the site performance by identifying the best turbine parameters that should be erected at the selected site to maximize the power generation. M.

R. Since wind is an intermittent energy source and to find the economic viability of wind project. power generation from wind is receiving due attention from majority of power planners. The methodology includes discussions on preliminary wind survey to choose the best site for installing wind data instruments. Prevalent wind at any location is both site-specific and very much dependent on the terrain and topographic features around the location. Some of the design and methodology considerations in wind resource assessment .BVBCET.C. Wind power plants consist of single wind machines to wind farms at different locations in the world. which has lead to a cost-competitive gridconnected wind farms in many parts of the world. a proper wind resource assessment (WRA) and analysis of the data collected is very important. Bansal. In the recent years. The small-scale stand alone and off-grid hybrid energy systems are mostly used for energy supply in remote locations.M. there have been lots of advancement in the wind power technologies due to political advancement and the policy framework. selecting the optimum wind turbine suitable for a site and the uncertainties involved in estimating the wind speed using the different WRA techniques.HUBLI. Sauturaga. the financial and economic viability of electricity generation from wind energy is dependent on the level and extent of energy content in winds prevalent at a particular site and also on the payment expected for power generated. With nearly 90% of all the life cycle costs of a wind power plant being upfront. 2010-11 Page 8 .Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software [4] Prasad.Tech.D. An extensive literature survey on WRA is carried out and the different techniques of WRA are discussed. IET Renewable Power Generation Received on 12th June 2007 Revised on 1st August 2008. Owing to the increasing power demand and the environmental concerns of the conventional power sources. M.R.

The reason is that an error of 1% in wind speed measurement leads to a 3% error in energy output since energy is proportional to the cube of wind speed.Energy Systems.BVBCET. 2. Also wind speed should be estimated and compared with wind speeds in the immediate neighbourhood. † Inspection and selection of candidate sites: During the inspection of potential sites. Sites which are sheltered by other features and trees should be avoided. height above the ground. M. season of the year.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software For proper and beneficial development of wind power at any site.1.Tech. All of these factors lead to the reason why WRA and analysis should be done carefully and completely. 2010-11 Page 9 . An accurate wind resource assessment (WRA) is an important and critical factor to be well understood for harnessing the power of the wind. type of terrain and from year to year. the exposure of the sites to all wind directions should be noted.1 State-of-the art literature review on WRA: Researchers recommend the following steps for site selection for a small wind turbine generator installation: † Survey of available meteorological information: These are generally available from the national weather station and may be biased towards airport sites. wind data analysis and accurate wind energy potential assessment are the key requirements.HUBLI. It is well known that wind resource is seldom consistent and it varies with the time of the day. The surface roughness and the obstacle in the vicinity of wind measuring tower are also important factors to be considered for WRA.

A number of research papers present WRA of a site using wind speed data using the wind speed frequency distributions. Some of the numerical models described by are Mason-King model D. 2010-11 Page 10 . building and structures and so on that would affect the choice of wind turbine.Energy Systems. where estimate of long-term mean wind speed is based on short-term measurements and long-term data from a reference site in the vicinity and may also include wind tunnel studies. then the use of more sophisticated models may be appropriate.BVBCET. one site would be only left to carry out a wind measurement programme. roughness coefficient and turbulence intensity are calculated. wind resource and wind machine. One would start from a range of potential sites and eliminate sites after each step.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software † Simple and sophisticated numerical terrain models: In simple terrain models. They also progress from general regions to specific sites.Tech. † Wind measurement programme: This includes short-term wind speed recording and using MCP or wind speed and direction are recorded for long term. A good wind site survey considers two aspects. Wind was used for hundreds of years to power sailing vessels. These steps are in the ascending order of complexity and cost. Using of wind energy in large-scale for electric power generation is a relatively recent development. † Other evaluation technique: This includes the measure correlate predict (MCP) methods. WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program) and FLOWSTAR. finally. MSFD and NOABL.HUBLI. that is. which means that to carry out wind site survey one should look at the wind conditions that would affect the wind energy output from the site and also non-wind conditions such as soil type. If more detail is required on the wind flow in complex terrain near proposed wind turbine sites. drive M.

The beneficial characteristics of wind power include clean and inexhaustible fuel.Tech.BVBCET. and reduced reliance on imported fuels. local economic development. There are many different models of wind turbine generators with the same kW ratings. Production of Electricity using wind turbine generator at a specific site depends on many factors. the speed characteristics of the wind turbine itself namely. and furling (Vf) wind speeds at the hub height. rated (Vr). Today. energy price stability. The Weibull distribution gives good match when used with experimental data. and pump water.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software windmills. So that it is important to be cost effective and should be able to meet load variations and produce energy at a minimum cost per dollar of investment.2 Selecting a Wind Turbine Site: M. Wind has many benefits that make it an attractive source of power for both utility-scale and small distributed power generation applications. modular and scalable technology. These speed parameters affect the capacity factor at a given specific site. Each of these wind turbines generators has its own specifications and speed parameters. cut-in (Vc). This distribution is characterized by two parameters: the shape parameter k (dimensionless) and scale parameter c (m/s). Wind speeds are normally parameterized using mean cube root method and statistically modeled using Weibull probability density function.1. Electricity generated using wind power plays an important factor nowadays due to shortage of natural resources. and subsequently affect the choice of the optimum wind turbine generator for that site.Energy Systems. 2.HUBLI. wind turbines have to compete with many other energy sources. Site matching techniques are based on identifying optimum turbine speed parameters that produces high energy at high capacity factor. These factors include the mean wind speed of the site and more significantly. 2010-11 Page 11 . It also provides clean power that doesn’t harm the environment through emitting gases such as carbon and sulfur dioxides.

modern wind turbines generally produce electricity at 690 volts. 2010-11 Page 12 . The generators in large. Soil Conditions : Both the feasibility of building foundations of the turbines.BVBCET. converts the electricity to high voltage (usually 10-30 kilovolts).e. or inside the turbine tower. perhaps connected closer to a higher voltage transformer station. and we would like to have as few obstacles and as low a roughness as possible in that same direction. M. it is therefore essential to be reasonably close to a 10-30 kilovolt power line if the costs of extending the electrical grid are not to be prohibitively high. If there are already many turbines connected to the grid. Look for a view: To have as wide and open a view as possible in the prevailing wind direction. large wind turbines have to be connected to the electrical grid. you may get a good clue about the prevailing wind direction. Grid Connection : Obviously. i.Tech. If there are trees and shrubs in the area.Energy Systems. a larger cable. A transformer located next to the turbine. For smaller projects. Grid Reinforcement : The electrical grid near the wind turbine(s) should be able to receive the electricity coming from the turbine.HUBLI. the grid may need reinforcement.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Wind Conditions : Looking at nature itself is usually an excellent guide to finding a suitable wind turbine site. and road construction to reach the site with heavy trucks must be taken into account with any wind turbine project.

BVBCET. the more the wind will be slowed down. and thus wind energy is not nearly as important for weather forecasting as it is for wind energy planning. however. the influence from obstacles. Unless during calculations which compensate for the local conditions under which the meteorology measurements were made. and by the contours of the local terrain.Tech. Expressed another way. of nearby obstacles (such as trees. and the influence from the terrain contours. wind speeds are affected by the friction against the surface of the earth. In most cases using meteorology data directly will underestimate the true wind energy potential in an area. Wind speed is slowed down M. however. the wind is hardly influenced by the surface of the earth at all.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Pitfalls in Using Meteorology Data : Meteorologists already collect wind data for weather forecasts and aviation. Precision measurement of wind speeds. 2010-11 Page 13 . at a height of about 1 kilometre. roughness decreases and the laminar flow of air increases. and that information is often used to assess the general wind conditions for wind energy in an area. it is difficult to estimate wind conditions at a nearby site. lighthouses or other buildings). In the lower layers of the atmosphere. As you move away from the earth’s surface. For the wind power utilisation it means the higher the roughness of the earth’s surface. In the wind industry one distinguishes between the roughness of the terrain. Wind speeds are heavily influenced by the surface roughness of the surrounding area. High above ground level.Energy Systems. which is also called the orography of the area.HUBLI. Roughness Class terrain and Wind Shear : Earth surface with its vegetation and buildings is the main factor reducing the wind speed. increased height means greater wind speeds. This is sometimes described as roughness of the terrain.

BVBCET. 1 = Open agricultural area without fences and hedgerows and very scattered buildings. The lowest influences on the wind speed have the water surfaces. 250 metres 3 = Villages.5 = Completely open terrain with a smooth surface.HUBLI.5 = Agricultural land with many houses. Only softly rounded hills 1. mowed grass. 500 metres 2.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software considerably by forests and large cities. • Roughness Class and Landscape Type: 0 = Water surface 0. agricultural land with many or tall sheltering hedgerows. while plains like water surfaces or airports will only slow the wind down a little. small towns.g. 1250 metres 2 = Agricultural land with some houses and 8 metre tall sheltering hedgerows with a distance of approx. Higher roughness class means more obstacles in terrain and larger wind speed reduction. etc. 2010-11 Page 14 . Sea surface is described as roughness class 0. forests and other obstacles are not only reducing the wind speed but they often create turbulence in their neighbourhood. or 8 metre tall sheltering hedgerows with a distance of approx. Wind shear may also be important when designing wind turbines. Buildings. e. M. shrubs and plants. When people in the wind industry evaluate wind conditions in a landscape they describe it by roughness class.5 = Larger cities with tall buildings 4 = Very large cities with tall buildings and skyscrapers In the industry also the term wind shear is used. runways in airports.Tech. It describe the fact that the wind profile is twisted towards a lower speed as we move closer to ground level.5 = Agricultural land with some houses and 8 metre tall sheltering hedgerows with a distance of approx. forests and very rough and uneven terrain 3.Energy Systems.

i.e. The picture shows the wind rose for Brest. from which this image was taken).Energy Systems.1.BVBCET. wide wedges gives the relative frequency of each of the 12 wind directions.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Here large rotor diameter and only a few meter higher tower could mean that the wind is blowing with higher speed when the tip of the blade is in its uppermost position. The result is then normalised to add up to 100 M. one may draw a so-called wind rose on the basis of meteorological observations of wind speeds and wind directions. • The radius of the 12 outermost. one for each 30 degrees of the horizon. on the Atlantic coast of France. but multiplied by the average wind speed in each particular direction. • The compass is divided into 12 sectors.0 Wind rose for Brest. and the frequency of the varying wind directions. on the Atlantic coast of France It is seen that strong winds usually come from a particular direction. (A wind rose may also be drawn for 8 or 16 sectors. To show the information about the distributions of wind speeds. and with much lower speed when the tip is in the bottom position.HUBLI. • The second wedge gives the same information. but 12 sectors tend to be the standard set by the European Wind Atlas.Tech. The Wind Rose : Fig 2. how many per cent of the time is the wind blowing from that direction. 2010-11 Page 15 .

This tells you how much each sector contributes to the average wind speed at our particular location. 2010-11 Page 16 .Energy Systems. • Since the energy content of the wind varies with the cube of the wind speed.A wind rose gives you information on the relative wind speeds in different directions. are associated with frequent gusts of wind which both change speed and direction. mean wind speed. • The innermost (red) wedge gives the same information as the first. and mean cube of wind speed) has been multiplied by a number which ensures that the largest wedge in the set exactly matches the radius of the outermost circle in the diagram. The result is then normalised to add up to 100 per cent. M. • In this case we can see that the prevailing wind direction is Southwest. and thus the energy content of the wind is always changing. so the red wedges are really the most interesting ones.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software per cent. This tells you how much each sector contributes to the energy content of the wind at our particular location.e. i. Turbulence: Hailstorms or thunderstorms in particular.Tech. Variable winds: The wind speed is always fluctuating.each of the three sets of data (frequency. although the most rapid variations will to some extent be compensated for by the inertia of the wind turbine rotor. Exactly how large the variation is depends both on the weather and on local surface conditions and obstacles. Energy output from a wind turbine will vary as the wind varies. but multiplied by the cube of the wind speed in each particular location.HUBLI.BVBCET. They tell us where to find the most power to drive our wind turbines.

e. It also imposes more tear and wear on the wind turbine. how "open" the obstacle is. the foliage may be very dense. (2. In summer. Wind obstacles: Obstacles will decrease the wind speed downstream from the obstacle. whereas a fairly open tree in winter (with no leaves) may let more than half of the wind through. The effect is obviously more pronounced close to the obstacle. When manufacturers or developers calculate the energy production for wind turbines. Towers for wind turbines are usually made tall enough to avoid turbulence from the wind close to ground level. and behind obstacles such as buildings there is similarly created a lot of turbulence. i.Tech. with very irregular wind flows. M.0) Where ‘σ’ is the standard deviation of the wind velocity in the average wind direction. Turbulence decreases the possibility of using the energy in the wind effectively for a wind turbine.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software In areas with a very uneven terrain surface. and close to the ground. and is the magnitude of the average wind velocity. Atmospheric turbulence is known to be anisotropic and is a function of surface roughness atmospheric stability and distance above the ground. In principle the intensity is different for each wind direction. less than 1 kilometre away in one of the more important wind directions.BVBCET. (Porosity is defined as the open area divided by the total area of the object facing the wind).HUBLI. Turbulence intensity ‘I’ is defined by. however. 2010-11 Page 17 . A building is obviously solid.1. The slowdown effect on the wind from an obstacle increases with the height and length of the obstacle. say one third. and has no porosity. The decrease in wind speed depends on the porosity of the obstacle.Energy Systems. they always take obstacles into account if they are close to the turbine say. so as to make the porosity less than. often in whirls or vortexes in the neighbourhood.

2010-11 Page 18 .1.1 Meandering wake behind an ENERCON E-66 wind turbine. if you add smoke to the air passing through the turbine. the wind leaving the turbine must have lower energy content than the wind arriving in front of the turbine. In fact. a long trail of wind which is quite turbulent and slowed down. This follows directly from the fact that energy can neither be created nor consumed. and white represents low speed.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Wake Effect : Fig 2. A wind turbine will always cast a wind shade in the downwind direction.BVBCET. there will be a wake behind the turbine.e. Wind turbines in parks are usually spaced at least three rotor diameters from one another in order to avoid too much turbulence around the turbines downstream.HUBLI. Blue represents high wind speed.Energy Systems. when compared to the wind arriving in front of the turbine.Tech. Since a wind turbine generates electricity from the energy in the wind. In the prevailing wind direction turbines are usually spaced even farther apart. i. Extreme wind speeds : M. You can actually see the wake trailing behind a wind turbine.

the largest wind speed to be considered is the maximum gust over a 50-year return period for a specified averaging time period. But.Energy Systems. Park effect: Each wind turbine will slow down the wind behind it as it pulls energy out of the wind and converts it to electricity. on the other hand. it is preferred to space turbines as far apart as possible in the prevailing wind direction.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Certain wind project sites may experience extreme wind speeds caused by a severe weather situation. Ideally. Since extreme wind events may result in mechanical load levels that can lead to damage or failure of wind turbine components. All the wind turbines are designed to withstand a certain level of loading caused by an extreme wind event. Park Layout : M.HUBLI. 2010-11 Page 19 . such as a hurricane or tornado.BVBCET.Tech. land use and the cost of connecting wind turbines to the electrical grid would tell us to space them closer together. As defined in the IEC 61400-1 wind turbine design/safety standard.

the wind rose. it can easily reach 9 metres per second in a natural "tunnel". and 4 diameters apart in the direction perpendicular to the prevailing winds. M. 2010-11 Page 20 .HUBLI.BVBCET.Tech. This is known as a "tunnel effect".Energy Systems. and its speed increases considerably between the obstacles to the wind. and between 3 and 5 diameters apart in the direction perpendicular to the prevailing winds. The tunnel effect: The air becomes compressed on the windy side of the buildings or mountains. say. even if the general wind speed in open terrain may be.2 Wind farm park layout As a rule of thumb. The turbines (the white dots) are placed 7 diameters apart in the prevailing wind direction. Energy Loss from the Park Effect With knowledge of the wind turbine rotor. In this picture the placement has three rows of five turbines each in a fairly typical pattern.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 2. So. turbines in wind parks are usually spaced somewhere between 5 and 9 rotor diameters apart in the prevailing wind direction. the energy loss will be somewhere around 5 per cent. 6 metres per second.1. Typically. the Weibull distribution and the roughness in the different directions manufacturers or developers can calculate the energy loss due to wind turbines shading one another.

HUBLI.Energy Systems. In case the hills are very rough and uneven. Once again.BVBCET. one may also experience that wind speeds are higher than in the surrounding area. the wind will be whirling in a lot of different (and rapidly changing) directions. once it passes through the wind turbine rotor. If there is much turbulence it may negate the wind speed advantage completely. if the hill is steep or has an uneven surface.1. On hills. Fig 2. To obtain a good tunnel effect the tunnel should be "softly" embedded in the landscape. there may be lots of turbulence in the area. 2010-11 Page 21 . and the changing winds may inflict a lot of useless tear and wear on the wind turbine. one M. As before. In particular.Tech. you may notice that the wind becomes very irregular. The hill effect: A common way of siting wind turbines is to place them on hills or ridges overlooking the surrounding landscape. Also.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Placing a wind turbine in such a tunnel is one clever way of obtaining higher wind speeds than in the surrounding areas. and once the air reaches the ridge it can expand again as its soars down into the low pressure area on the lee side of the hill. this is due to the fact that the wind becomes compressed on the windy side of the hill. because the high pressure area actually extends quite some distance out in front of the hill. it is always an advantage to have as wide a view as possible in the prevailing wind direction in the area. i.3 Diagram indicating the wind tunnel effect You may notice that the wind in the picture starts bending some time before it reaches the hill.e.

usually with strong winds and/or heavy clouding) or unstable (rising air because of ground heating — by the sun).BVBCET. M. or when the atmosphere becomes stable. When the (high altitude) wind is strong (a 10-meter (33 ft) wind speed higher than approximately 6 to 7 m/s (20-23 ft/s)) the stable atmosphere is disrupted because of friction turbulence and the atmosphere will turn neutral. then. 2010-11 Page 22 . is most dramatic near the surface. Doubling the tower height generally requires doubling the diameter as well. Typically. called wind shear. 2. which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. A stable atmosphere is caused by radiative cooling of the surface and is common in a temperate climate: it usually occurs when there is a (partly) clear sky at night.Energy Systems.3 Turbine design: Tower height: The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the drag of the surface (sea or land) and the viscosity of the air.HUBLI. A daytime atmosphere is either neutral (no net radiation. in daytime the variation follows the 1/7th power law. increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. Here again the 1/7th power law applies or is at least a good approximation of the wind profile. The variation in velocity with altitude.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software may get significant amounts of turbulence. Doubling the altitude of a turbine.Tech. which may negate the advantage of higher wind speeds. wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase.1. increasing the amount of material by a factor of eight. At night time. As a result the wind speed is higher and a turbine will produce more power than expected from the 1/7th power law: doubling the altitude may increase wind speed by 20% to 60%.

2010-11 Page 23 . tower heights approximately two to three times the blade length have been found to balance material costs of the tower against better utilisation of the more expensive active components.Tech. Tower Stiffness: A key consideration in wind turbine design is the avoidance of resonant tower oscillations excited by rotor thrust fluctuations at rotational or bladepassing frequency. while those with a natural frequency lying between rotational frequency and blade passing frequency are said to be soft. with the higher ratios producing the softer towers. the tower is described as soft–soft. Towers with a natural frequency greater than the blade-passing frequency are said to be stiff. so unacceptably large stresses and deflections could develop if the blade-passing frequency and tower natural frequency were to coincide.HUBLI. Wind-turbine towers are customarily categorized according to the relationship between the tower natural frequency and the exciting frequencies. and tend to radiate less sound. since stiff towers usually require the provision of extra material not otherwise required for strength.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software For HAWTs. However. because cyclic loadings at this frequency only arise if there are geometrical differences between blades. The principal benefits of stiff towers are modest – they allow the turbine to run up to speed without passing through resonance. Personnel Safety and Access Issues: M. Rotational frequency is less of a concern. soft towers are generally preferred. If the tower is designed to meet strength requirements and no more. If the natural frequency is less than rotational frequency. its frequency category is primarily determined by the ratio of tower height to turbine diameter. The damping ratio may be only 2–3 percent for tower fore -aft oscillations and an order of magnitude less for side-to-side motion.Energy Systems.BVBCET.

• locking devices for immobilizing the rotor and the yawing mechanism – rotor brakes and yaw brakes are not considered sufficient.BVBCET.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software An integral part of wind-turbine design is the inclusion of the necessary safety provisions for operation and maintenance staff.Energy Systems. so that its effectiveness is not dependent on the integrity of the gearbox – typically the device consists of a pin mounted in a fixed housing. so the number of days on which access for maintenance is possible will be restricted. The designer needs to assess the requirement for all-weather access to the nacelle at an early stage. • Suitable fixtures for the attachment of safety harnesses for personnel working outside the nacelle. • an alternative means of egress from the nacelle. careful attention needs to be paid to the route between the tower top and nacelle to avoid hazards arising from sudden yawing movements. • Guards to shield any rotating parts within the nacelle. 2010-11 Page 24 .Tech. M. enabling personnel to lower themselves through a hatch in the nacelle floor. for use in case of fire in the tower – this can take the form of an inertia-reel device. because of the risk of accidental release and the occasional need to deactivate them for maintenance purposes. which can be engaged in a hole in a shaft-mounted disc. Minimum requirements include the following: • ladder access to the nacelle – this needs to be fitted with a fall-arrest device. Similar restrictions will arise if the nacelle cover has to be opened to the elements in order to provide space for personnel to enter. unless ladder runs are short and protected by intermediate landings.HUBLI. Lattice towers afford no protection from the weather when climbing. the rotor locking device should act on the low-speed shaft.

However. it should be partitioned off to minimize the fire risk to personnel. and aesthetics. Blade count: The determination of the number of blades involves design considerations of aerodynamic efficiency. system reliability. 2010-11 Page 25 . whereas increasing the blade count from two to three yields only an additional three percent in efficiency.Tech. Noise emissions are affected by the location of the blades upwind or downwind of the tower and the speed of the rotor.BVBCET. with consequent weather limitations. M. If the power transformer is located in the tower base or nacelle instead of in a separate enclosure at ground level. Wind turbines developed over the last 50 years have almost universally used either two or three blades. a small increase in speed can make a big difference. Aerodynamic efficiency increases with number of blades but with diminishing return. Standard rules for electrical safety apply to all electrical equipment. the lower the material and manufacturing costs will be. Given that the noise emissions vary by the 7th power of blade speed.HUBLI. Generally. component costs. Increasing the number of blades from one to two yields a six percent increase in aerodynamic efficiency. Typically one bladed rotors will operate at higher tip speed ratios. particular care must be taken with the routing of electrical cables between tower and nacelle. the fewer the number of blades. in order to avoid potential damage due to chafing when they twist. Component costs that are affected by blade count are primarily for materials and manufacturing of the turbine rotor and drive train.Energy Systems. Further increasing the blade count yields minimal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency and sacrifices too much in blade stiffness as the blades become thinner. If the interior of the tower is interrupted by intermediate platforms. these operations have to be performed outside.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Consideration also needs to be given to the means of raising and lowering tools and spares.

Operating closer to their optimal tip speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings.or two-bladed rotor. System reliability is affected by blade count primarily through the dynamic loading of the rotor into the drive train and tower systems. which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up. Turbines with one or two blades can use a pivoting teetered hub to also nearly eliminate the cyclic loads into the drive shaft and system during yawing. each blade experiences a cyclic load at its root end depending on blade position. Rotation control: Tip speed ratio : The ratio between the speed of the wind and the speed of the tip of the blade of a wind turbine.Energy Systems. M.BVBCET. the higher the rotational speed will be. This is true of one. 2010-11 Page 26 . aesthetics can be considered a factor in that some people find that the three-bladed rotor is more pleasing to look at than a one. resulting in lower gearbox and generator costs. High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed/wind speed ratios of 6 to 7. two. However. This is because blade stiffness requirements to avoid interference with the tower limit how thin the blades can be. While aligning the wind turbine to changes in wind direction (yawing).Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software In addition.Tech. Modern wind turbines are designed to spin at varying speeds (a consequence of their generator design). keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. Use of aluminum and composites in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia. three blades or more. the fewer the number of blades. Finally.HUBLI. these cyclic loads when combined together at the drive train shaft are symmetrically balanced for three blades. yielding smoother operation during turbine yaw. Fewer blades with higher rotational speeds reduce peak torques in the drive train.

To keep the rotor and hub within their centripetal force limits. As a rule of thumb. because it is dangerous to have people working on a wind turbine while it is active.Energy Systems.HUBLI. Overspeed control is exerted in two main ways: aerodynamic stalling or furling and mechanical braking. which makes this structure sensitive to overspeed. Because the power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed. • To enable maintenance. older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades. • To keep the rotor and tower within their strength limits. Furling is the preferred method of slowing wind turbines. Since the blades generate more downwind force (and thus put far greater stress on the tower) when they are producing torque. it is sometimes necessary to bring a turbine to a full stop. the tip speed can be limited to approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s). most wind turbines have ways of reducing torque in high winds. 2010-11 Page 27 . The speed and torque at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for several reasons: • • • To optimize the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in light winds. the noise from a wind turbine increases with the fifth power of the relative wind speed (as seen from the moving tip of the blades). In noise-sensitive environments. and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines.BVBCET. • To reduce noise. turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. The centripetal force from the spinning rotors increases as the square of the rotation speed.Tech.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software In contrast. which have higher inertia. M. The high inertia buffered the changes in rotation speed and thus made power output more stable. To keep the generator within its speed and torque limits.

Other turbines use an electric servomotor for every rotor blade. A natural strategy. and thus the ordinary drag. when stopped. This technique was successfully used on many early HAWTs. on some of these blade sets. it requires some form of pitch angle control. Standard modern turbines all furl the blades in high winds.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Stalling and furling: Stalling works by increasing the angle at which the relative wind strikes the blades (angle of attack).Energy Systems. it was observed that the degree of blade pitch tended to increase audible noise levels. which reduces the induced drag from the lift of the rotor. Stalling is simple because it can be made to happen passively (it increases automatically when the winds speed up). Small wind turbines (under 50 kW) with variable-pitching generally use systems operated by centrifugal force. A fixed-speed HAWT inherently increases its angle of attack at higher wind speed as the blades speed up. is to allow the blade to stall when the wind speed increases. However.Tech.HUBLI. Furling works by decreasing the angle of attack. These systems are usually spring loaded. the blades automatically furl. as well as the cross-section. A fully stalled turbine blade. when stopped. A fully furled turbine blade. has the edge of the blade facing into the wind. either by flyweights or geometric design. One major problem in designing wind turbines is getting the blades to stall or furl quickly enough should a gust of wind cause sudden acceleration. and it reduces the induced drag (drag associated with lift). so that if hydraulic power fails. and employ no electric or hydraulic controls. has the flat side of the blade facing directly into the wind. but it increases the cross-section of the blade face-on to the wind. They have a small batteryreserve in case of an electric-grid breakdown. 2010-11 Page 28 . Since furling requires acting against the torque on the blade. M. then. Many turbines use hydraulic systems.BVBCET.

M. This method is useful if the kinetic load on the generator is suddenly reduced or is too small to keep the turbine speed within its allowed limit. Braking of a turbine can also be done by dumping energy from the generator into a resistor bank. This is also known as feathering.BVBCET.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software The variable wind speed wind turbine uses furling as its main method of rotation control. converting the kinetic energy of the turbine rotation into heat.1.HUBLI.4 Dynamic braking resistor for wind turbine.Energy Systems. 2010-11 Page 29 . The wind turbines have three modes of operation: • • • Below rated wind speed operation Around rated wind speed operation Above rated wind speed operation At above rated wind speed the rotors furl at an angle to maintain the torque. Electrical braking: Fig 2.Tech.

so to minimize costs. The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material. Turbine size: Fig 2.1. and siting requirements.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Cyclically braking causes the blades to slow down.BVBCET. There can also be a stick brake. which increases the stalling effect.Tech. the turbine's rotation can be kept at a safe speed in faster winds while maintaining (nominal) power output. For a given survivable wind speed. Labour and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size. as the mechanical brakes would wear quickly if used to stop the turbine from full speed. This way. Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length. M. reducing the efficiency of the blades. wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials. Such brakes are usually applied only after blade furling and electromagnetic braking have reduced the turbine speed.Energy Systems. 2010-11 Page 30 .5 A person standing beside medium size modern turbine blades. the mass of a turbine is approximately proportional to the cube of its blade-length.HUBLI. Mechanical braking: A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance.

Tech.Energy Systems. however GRP is the most common material for modern wind turbine blades. M. wind turbine blades can be made from a wide variety of materials. the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower. Also. For these reasons they were superseded with solid airfoils. Generating electricity: For large. commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines. Materials: One of the strongest and stiffest construction materials available for wind turbine blades is carbon-fibre in an epoxy resin matrix. 2010-11 Page 31 . this is very expensive and can only be used by some blade manufactures for highly loaded parts of the rotor blades .when stiffness is critical. Usually the rotational speed of the wind turbine is slower than the equivalent rotation speed of the electrical network . Wood and canvas sails were originally used on early windmills due to being cheap and easily manufactured. Modern rotor blades (up to 126 m (413 ft) diameter) are made of lightweight glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) with an epoxy or polyester resin matrix.HUBLI. Smaller blades can sometimes be made from aluminium.BVBCET. behind the hub of the turbine rotor. In sum. Unfortunately.typical rotation speeds for a wind generators are 5-20 rpm while a directly connected machine will have an electrical speed between 750-3600 rpm. they require much maintenance over their service life. Typically wind turbines generate electricity through asynchronous machines that are directly connected with the electricity grid. they have a relatively high drag (low aerodynamic efficiency) for the force they capture. though some are more effective than others.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Typical modern wind turbines have diameters of 40 to 90 meters (130-300 ft) and are rated between 500 KW and 2 MW. However.

2010-11 Page 32 . which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. While the rotating field winding consumes a fraction of a percent of the generator output. In some cases. Very small wind generators (a few watts to perhaps a kilowatt in output) may use permanent magnets but these are too costly to use in large machines and do not allow convenient regulation of the generator voltage. to match power line frequency. the turbine can capture a significantly larger fraction of the wind energy. matching the line frequency and voltage.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Therefore. This can be solved using multiple technologies such as doubly fed induction generators or full-effect converters where the variable frequency current produced is converted to DC and then back to AC.Energy Systems. Commercial size generators have a rotor carrying a field winding so that a rotating magnetic field is produced inside a set of windings called the stator. a gearbox is inserted between the rotor hub and the generator. 2.4 Wind class classification: Table 2. the DC energy will be transmitted from the turbine to a central (onshore) inverter for connection to the grid. especially when turbines are sited offshore.1. Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed. adjustment of the field current allows good control over the generator output voltage.BVBCET. This also reduces the generator cost and weight. Electrical generators inherently produce AC power.1.Tech.gov) M.0 WIND CLASS (Source: http://rredc. Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently. Although such alternatives require costly equipment and cause power loss.nrel.HUBLI.

BVBCET.Energy Systems.3) 600 8.8) 5.8(19. For example.3) Speed m/s (mph) 0 4.4(14. 2010-11 Page 33 .5) 1 (a) Vertical extrapolation of wind speed based on the 1/7 power law. wind power class =3 represents the Wind Power Density range between 150 W/m 2 and 200 W/m2. To maintain the same power density.7) 6. speed increases 3%/1000m (5%/5000) elevation. This is particularly the case if they are located in a very turbulent wind M.4(21.7) 800 8. Note: Each wind power class should span two power densities.4(14.5) 300 6.6) 7.7) 5. (b) Mean wind speed is based on Rayleigh speed distribution of equivalent mean wind power density.1) 2000 11.6(12.0(15.4(9. 2.1.9(26.8) 50 m (164 ft) Wind Power Density (W/m2) 0 200 Speed m/s (mph) 0 5.4) 500 7.5) 400 7. The offset cells in the first column attempt to illustrate this concept.6(12.0(17.5(16. Wind speed is for standard sea-level conditions.0(15.Tech.5 Fatigue Loads (Forces) : Wind turbines are subject to fluctuating winds.1(11.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Wind power class 10 m (33 ft) Wind Power Density (W/m2) 0 100 2 150 3 200 4 250 5 300 6 400 7 1000 9. and hence fluctuating forces.HUBLI.9) 6.0(13.

the largest wind speed to be considered is the maximum gust over a 50-year return period for a specified averaging time period.6 Extreme wind speeds : Certain wind project sites may experience extreme wind speeds caused by a severe weather situation. other natural storming wind producers such as— M. such as a hurricane or tornado. Metal is therefore generally not favoured as a material for rotor blades. but could also lead to third party risk. and jointly. both individually. Natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes are well documented and the areas they affect are well defined. such as rotor blades. Metal fatigue is a well known problem in many industries. It is also important to calculate the forces involved in each bending or stretching of a component. but their occurrence and behaviour are not well anticipated.HUBLI. All the wind turbines are designed to withstand a certain level of loading caused by an extreme wind event. Wind turbine component damage or failure can occur when extreme wind produces forces on the wind turbine plant buildings/machines above the wind turbine design limit.Energy Systems. Furthermore. 2010-11 Page 34 . A historical example is the huge German Growian machine (100 m rotor diameter) which had to be taken out of service after less than three weeks of operation. Since extreme wind events may result in mechanical load levels that can lead to damage or failure of wind turbine components.BVBCET.1. 2. As defined in the IEC 61400-1 wind turbine design/safety standard. When designing a wind turbine it is extremely important to calculate in advance how the different components will vibrate.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software climate. may eventually develop cracks which ultimately may make the component break.Tech. Components which are subject to repeated bending. Failures may not only prohibit the operation of the wind turbine.

The mode of failure of a wind turbine due to an extreme wind event cannot be generalized and depends on the turbine type and configuration. where winds could lead to extreme damaging gusts. or extra-tropical cyclones can occur at anytime. a good approach is to assess the remoteness of M. the wind turbine should have its blades idling in a position creating minimal torque on the rotor. When winds are above the cut-out speed. At this time.Tech. it is generally suggested that the following actions can be considered when siting turbines in order to mitigate risk resulting from extreme wind speed events: • Turbine Siting: For sites located in well-known storm areas. If a grid failure were to occur in conjunction with an extreme wind event—which is a likely scenario—the yaw control will become inactive. the grid components/structures could also be part of the potential windborne debris. 2010-11 Page 35 .Energy Systems.HUBLI. as well as the specifics of the extreme wind event and site conditions. there is less modelling capability in place that can predict the impact made to a wind plant if an extreme wind event occurs. Also. microburst. Based upon recognized industry practices. predicting the maximum wind speed from a storm is unrealistic in most cases.BVBCET. Examples of possible failure scenarios include blade failure or a tower buckling or overturning. For some types of wind events—such as tropical cyclones—there is meteorological expertise/data to quantify the probability of occurrence of a wind gust above the design limit of the wind turbine that is being considered for a particular area.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software but not limited to—squall lines. This is the only safety mechanism other than the yaw control. The decision to build a wind site and to protect the public from negative impacts of an extreme wind event is the responsibility of the project developer/owner. regardless of the location on the globe. The loss of yaw control could increase the likelihood of damage/failure in the case of an extreme wind event. With today’s meteorological knowledge.

however the risk to wind turbine equipment is independent of the remoteness of the site. Remote areas usually tend to reduce the potential for collateral damage in the event of storming winds.7 Potential Wind Damages According to Wind Speed Distribution: Table 2. As mentioned before. it is recommended that the site be made private by using a fence and visual warning signs at the boundary of every site—regardless of its location. If site personnel must access the site while extreme wind speed conditions either exist or are probable. 2010-11 Page 36 . • Operator Safety: Restrict access to the wind plant by site personnel while extreme wind speed conditions exist. Operating a wind turbine that has experienced an extreme wind event may not be safe and the wind turbine should be thoroughly inspected before normal operation is resumed. 2.1.BVBCET. • Turbine Deactivation: Ensure that equipment is in good working order and that turbine control systems designed to protect equipment in the event of an extreme wind speed occurrence are operational.Tech.Energy Systems. yawing to place the turbine rotor on the opposite side of the tower access door. • Physical and Visual Warnings : Should a customer decide to build on a site with extreme wind risk. and parking vehicles at a safe distance from the tower.1 Potential wind damages according to wind speed distribution M. some natural disasters could lead to extreme wind speeds above the design limit of any wind turbines.1. safety precautions may include remotely shutting down the turbine.HUBLI.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software the potential wind plant.

Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 2.BVBCET.1.Energy Systems.HUBLI. The degree of this success and the level of wind penetration varies largely on: M.8 GRID INTEGRATION: It has been proven that wind power can be successfully integrated with the power grid.Tech. 2010-11 Page 37 .

⇒ Load following ⇒ Scheduling ⇒ Reserve • Response to abnormal conditions: ⇒ Voltage disturbances ⇒ Faults 2. 2010-11 Page 38 .1. One reason is that the generator has to work M. Power Quality issues are: ⇒ Harmonic Distortion ⇒ Voltage Transients and Sags ⇒ Voltage Flicker ⇒ Step Load Voltage • The firm capacity of the windfarm and the associated wind power dispatch issues. Wind turbine generators are a bit unusual.HUBLI.Tech.Energy Systems.BVBCET. compared to other generating units you ordinarily find attached to the electrical grid. which in turn determines the renewable capacity limit.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software • The design limits of the tie-line—the key design parameters being: ⇒ Voltage levels ⇒ Capacity ⇒ Voltage Regulation ⇒ Tie-line Stability • Interface standards—mainly related to power quality.9 Wind turbine control and Generator control: The wind turbine generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.

Tech.HUBLI.000 and 30. Fig 2. using a large fan for air cooling. M. Cooling System : Generators need cooling while they work. 2010-11 Page 39 . The current is subsequently sent through a transformer next to the wind turbine (or inside the tower) to raise the voltage to somewhere between 10.BVBCET.6 Wind turbine generator Generating Voltage (tension) : On large wind turbines (above 100-150 kW) the voltage (tension) generated by the turbine is usually 690 V three-phase alternating current (AC). On most turbines this is accomplished by encapsulating the generator in a duct.000 volts. Large manufacturers will supply both 50 Hz wind turbine models (for the electrical grids in most of the world) and 60 Hz models (for the electrical grid in America).Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software with a power source (the wind turbine rotor) which supplies very fluctuating mechanical power (torque).Energy Systems. depending on the standard in the local electrical grid.1.

Indirect grid connection means that the current from the turbine passes through a series of electric devices which adjust the current to match that of the grid. which also gives some electrical efficiency advantages. and with various forms of direct or indirect grid connection of the generator.C.Tech. Direct grid connection mean that the generator is connected directly to the (usually 3-phase) alternating current grid.c flows in the armature winding and D. but they require a radiator in the nacelle to get rid of the heat from the liquid cooling system. Water cooled generators may be built more compactly.HUBLI. With an asynchronous generator this occurs automatically. Design Choices in Generators and Grid Connection : Wind turbines may be designed with either synchronous or asynchronous generators. you would be quite likely to damage both the generator.BVBCET. which they carry continuously without overheating. Synchronous Generators : The synchronous machine is one in which a. Starting and Stopping the Generator : If you connected (or disconnected) a large wind turbine generator to the grid by flicking an ordinary switch. The main steady-state operating characteristics are: M. Synchronous generators are usually rated in terms of the maximum kVA loads at the specified voltage and power factor. the gearbox and the current in the grid in the neighbourhood. 2010-11 Page 40 .Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software but a few manufacturers use water cooled generators. is applied to the field winding.Energy Systems. The armature winding is usually on the stator.

BVBCET. With an inductive load. The curve can be drawn for one value of field current which is usually the value required to give rated terminal voltage at rated armature current. 2010-11 Page 41 . Due to rapid variations of load from instant to instant. The variation of terminal voltage with load is due to the influence of armature reaction. Consider a synchronous generator delivering power at constant frequency to a unity power factor (i. If the field current is held constant while the load varies. The voltage is increased when the load is high and decreased when the load comes down. resistive) load. Terminal voltage versus armature current.e. The curve showing the field current required to maintain rated terminal voltage as the constant power factor load is varied is known as the compounding curve. because of the varying voltage drop in the armature circuit. The compounding curve at any other power factor can also be determined. In many industrial installations.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software I. fluctuations of load are heavy.Tech. To overcome this unsatisfactory feature.Energy Systems. When the power factor of the load is unity. Characteristic curves of terminal voltage can be plotted against armature current for any constant power factor load. Field current versus armature current II. the fall in voltage with increase of load is comparatively small. the voltage also fluctuates considerably. automatic voltage regulators are usually provided to maintain the generator voltage reasonably constant in spite of the fluctuating load. M. the terminal voltage will vary.HUBLI. the demagnetising effect of armature e reaction causes the terminal voltage to fall much more rapidly.

In the picture to the left we have installed three electromagnets around a circle.Tech.HUBLI. Synchronous Motor Operation : The compass needle (with the North pole painted red) will follow the magnetic field exactly.7 All 3-phase generators (or motors) use a rotating magnetic field. With a 50 Hz M. When one phase is at its peak. As you can see. the other two have the current running in the opposite direction. 2010-11 Page 42 . the magnetic field will make one complete revolution per cycle. The fluctuation in magnetism corresponds exactly to the fluctuation in voltage of each phase. Since the timing of current in the three magnets is one third of a cycle apart. each of the three electromagnets alternate between producing a South pole and a North pole towards the centre. and make one revolution per cycle.BVBCET.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 3-Phase Generator (or Motor) Principles : Fig 2. and in light grey when the magnetism is weak. at half the voltage. The letters are shown in black when the magnetism is strong.1. Each of the three magnets is connected to its own phase in the three phase electrical grid.

you will discover that it works like a generator. is that the magnet in the centre will rotate at a constant speed which is synchronous with (running exactly like the cycle in) the rotation of the magnetic field. The reason why it is called a permanent magnet motor is that the compass needle in the centre is a permanent magnet. if the magnet at the top is a strong South pole. i. So.e. The more force (torque) you apply. we have in fact managed to build what is called a 2-pole permanent magnet synchronous motor. In the picture above. The setup with the three electromagnets is called the stator in the motor. but the generator will still run at the same speed dictated by the frequency of the electrical grid. M.BVBCET. but in fact the compass needle feels the pull from the sum of the magnetic fields around its own magnetic field. 2010-11 Page 43 . obviously because it rotates. It may look like three poles to you. (You could make a real motor by replacing the compass needle by a powerful permanent magnet.Tech. because this part of the motor remains static (in the same place). not an electromagnet. (You should have a more powerful magnet to produce much electricity).Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software grid.HUBLI. The compass needle in the centre is called the rotor. the needle will make 50 revolutions per second. sending alternating current back into the grid. the more electricity you generate.Energy Systems. The reason why it is called a 2-pole motor is that it has one North and one South pole. 50 times 60 = 3000 rpm (revolutions per minute). the two magnets at the bottom will add up to a strong North pole. Synchronous Generator Operation : If you start forcing the magnet around (instead of letting the current from the grid move it). or an electromagnet which maintains its magnetism through a coil (wound around an iron core) which is fed with direct current). The reason why it is called a synchronous motor.

There are several reasons for this. they first have to convert alternating current to direct current before sending it into the coil windings around the electromagnets in the rotor. e.BVBCET.HUBLI. If you disconnect the generator from the main grid. Wind Turbines With Synchronous Generators : Wind turbines which use synchronous generators normally use electromagnets in the rotor which are fed by direct current from the electrical grid. Consequently. permanent magnet synchronous generators are not used very much. The rotor electromagnets are connected to the current by using brushes and slip rings on the axle (shaft) of the generator. Neodynium) are quite expensive. even if prices have dropped lately. Changing Generator Rotational Speed : A Four Pole Generator : M.g. with this type of generator you will normally want to use an indirect grid connection of the generator. In practice.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software You may disconnect the generator completely from the grid.Tech. Another reason is that powerful magnets (made of rare earth metals. and start your own private 3-phase electricity grid. 2010-11 Page 44 .Energy Systems. Since the grid supplies alternating current. however. hooking your lamps up to the three coils around the electromagnets. One reason is that permanent magnets tend to become demagnetised by working in the powerful magnetic fields inside a generator. you will have to crank it at a constant rotational speed in order to produce alternating current with a constant frequency.

Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 2.Tech. or 1500 revolutions per minute (rpm). We have simply connected the six magnets to the three phases in a clockwise order. by adding 3 more electromagnets to the stator. you see how the magnetic field now moves clockwise for half a revolution before it reaches the same magnetic pole as before.HUBLI. it will obviously make 25 revolutions per second on a 50 Hz grid. When we double the number of poles in the stator of a synchronous generator we will have to double the number of magnets in the rotor as you see on the picture. 2010-11 Page 45 . Numbers of Poles : Obviously.Energy Systems.1.8 A four pole generator The speed of a generator (or motor) which is directly connected to a three-phase grid is constant. This generator (or motor) has four poles at all times. If you double the number of magnets in the stator however. In the picture to the left. two South and two North. and dictated by the frequency of the grid. With 9 magnets we M. as we learned on the previous page. and introduce another pair of poles. Since a four pole generator will only take half a revolution per cycle. you can ensure that the magnetic field rotates at half the speed. Otherwise the poles will not match. we could repeat what we just did.BVBCET.

The reasons for using these relatively high-speed generators are savings on size and cost. however. In the case of asynchronous (induction) generators it is equivalent to the idle speed of the generator. large (expensive) generator.Energy Systems. Asynchronous (Induction) Generators: M. The general result is the following: Synchronous Generator Speeds (rpm) : Table 2. For a given power output you then have the choice between a slow-moving. 2010-11 Page 46 .Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software get a 6 pole machine. The maximum force (torque) a generator can handle depends on the rotor volume. High or low speed generators : Most wind turbines use generators with four or six poles.1.HUBLI. which will run at 1000 rpm on a 50 Hz grid. It applies to all sorts of generators.Tech.2 Values of rpm for different pole number Pole number 2 4 6 8 10 12 Rpm (for 50 Hertz) 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500 Rpm (For 60 Hertz) 3600 1800 1200 900 720 600 The term "synchronous generator speed" thus refers to the speed of the generator when it is running synchronously with the grid frequency. or a high-speed (cheaper) smaller generator.BVBCET.

(Generator slip and a certain overload capability). elevators. and tends to be comparatively inexpensive. fans. The generator also has some mechanical properties which are useful for wind turbines.Energy Systems. compressors. also called an induction generator to generate alternating current. pumps. One reason for choosing this type of generator is that it is very reliable. This type of generator is not widely used outside the wind turbine industry.1. and other applications where you need to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. and in small hydropower units.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 2. but the world has a lot of experience in dealing with it anyway: The curious thing about this type of generator is that it was really originally designed as an electric motor.BVBCET. 2010-11 Page 47 .HUBLI.9 Asynchronous (Induction) Generators Most wind turbines in the world use a so-called three phase asynchronous (cage wound) generator. one third of the world's electricity consumption is used for running induction motors driving machinery in factories. The Cage Rotor: M.Tech. In fact.

0 Figure of a cage rotor The rotor that makes the asynchronous generator different from the synchronous generator. once again.1 Figure indicating motor operation M. Now. what is happening? Fig 2.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 2. The rotor is placed in the middle of the stator. which in this case.Energy Systems.HUBLI.2.2. with holes punched for the conducting aluminium bars. is a 4-pole stator which is directly connected to the three phases of the electrical grid. using a stack of thin insulated steel laminations. Motor Operation : When the current is connected.BVBCET. 2010-11 Page 48 . The rotor consists of a number of copper or aluminium bars which are connected electrically by aluminium end rings.Tech. In the picture at the top of the page you see how the rotor is provided with an "iron" core. the machine will start turning like a motor at a speed which is just slightly below the synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field from the stator.

This difference in per cent of the synchronous speed . This is one of the most important reasons for M. it will be running at 1515 rpm. or torque) applied to it. which means that once again the stator induces a strong current in the rotor. and it will not interact with the stator. It is a very useful mechanical property that the generator will increase or decrease its speed slightly if the torque varies. 2010-11 Page 49 . e. what happens if we manually crank this rotor around at exactly the synchronous speed of the generator. This induces a very strong current in the rotor bars which offer very little resistance to the current. Thus a 4-pole generator will run idle at 1500 rpm if it is attached to a grid with a 50 Hz current. This means that there will be less tear and wear on the gearbox. we see no induction phenomena in the rotor. which in turn become dragged along by the electromagnetic force from the rotating magnetic field in the stator. is called the generator's slip. Generator Slip : The speed of the asynchronous generator will vary with the turning force (moment. But what if we increase speed above 1500 rpm? In that case the rotor moves faster than the rotating magnetic field from the stator .Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software If we look at the rotor bars from above (in the picture to the right) we have a magnetic field which moves relative to the rotor. about 1 per cent. 1500 rpm (revolutions per minute). Since the magnetic field rotates at exactly the same speed as the rotor.Energy Systems.HUBLI. The rotor then develops its own magnetic poles.Tech. as we saw for the 4-pole synchronous generator on the previous page? The answer is: Nothing. The harder you crank the rotor. Generator Operation : Now. (Lower peak torque). the more power will be transferred as an electromagnetic force to the stator. since they are short circuited by the end rings. the difference between the rotational speed at peak power and at idle is very small.g. and in turn converted to electricity which is fed into the electrical grid.BVBCET. If the generator is producing at its maximum power. In practice.

Changing the Number of Generator Poles : Generators (and motors) are usually made with a very large number of stator magnets anyway. (We have not yet added the stator coil windings on the iron).5 mm) insulated steel sheets which are stacked to form the stator iron. It also requires that there be some remanence in the rotor iron.Tech.e. some leftover magnetism when you start the turbine.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software using an asynchronous generator rather than a synchronous generator on a wind turbine which is directly connected to the electrical grid. At the the same time we need to provide cooling of the magnets. 2010-11 Page 50 . The same rotor can therefore be used with a wide variety of pole numbers. however. because it requires the stator to be magnetised from the grid before it works. This M. Automatic Pole Adjustment of the Rotor : It can be notice that we did not specify the number of poles in the stator when we described the rotor? The clever thing about the cage rotor is that it adapts itself to the number of poles in the stator automatically. if it is provided with capacitors which supply the necessary magnetisation current. The stator iron in reality consists of a large number of thin (0. or a small diesel generator to start the system).Energy Systems. as you see in the picture. Grid Connection Required : An asynchronous generator is different. The reason for this stator arrangement is that we wish to minimise the air gap between the rotor and the stator. You can run an asynchronous generator in a stand alone system.BVBCET. i. Otherwise you will need a battery and power electronics.HUBLI.

Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software layering is done to prevent current eddies in the stator iron from decreasing the efficiency of the generator. The problem of providing more generator poles on an asynchronous cage wound generator then really boils down to connecting the neighbouring magnets differently: Either we take a bunch of magnets at a time, connecting them to the same phase as we move around the stator, or else we change to the next phase every time we get to the next magnet.

Two Speed, Pole Changing Generators :
Some manufacturers fit their turbines with two generators, a small one for periods of low winds, and a large one for periods of high winds. A more common design on newer machines is pole changing generators, i.e. generators which (depending on how their stator magnets are connected) may run with a different number of poles, and thus a different rotational speed. Some electrical generators are custom built as two-in-one, i.e. they are able to run as e.g. either 400 kW or 2000 kW generators, and at two different speeds. This design has become ever more widespread throughout the industry. Whether it is worthwhile to use a double generator or a higher number of poles for low winds depend on the local wind speed distribution, and the extra cost of the pole changing generator compared to the price the turbine owner gets for the electricity. (It should keep in mind that the energy content of low winds is very small). A good reason for having a dual generator system, however, is that you may run your turbine at a lower rotational speed at low wind speeds. This is both more efficient (aerodynamically), and it means less noise from the rotor blades (which is usually only a problem at low wind speeds). Incidentally, you may have a few pole changing motors in your house without even knowing it: Washing machines which can also spin dry clothes usually have M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software pole changing motors which are able to run at low speed for washing and at high speed for spinning. Similarly, exhaust fans in your kitchen may be built for two or three different speeds. (In the latter case with a variable speed fan, you can use what you have learned about the energy in the wind : If you want to move twice as much air out of your house per minute using the same fan, it will cost you eight times as much electricity).

Variable Slip Generators for Wind Turbines :
Manufacturers of electric motors have for many years been faced with the problem that their motors can only run at certain almost fixed speeds determined by the number of poles in the motor. As we learned on the previous page, the motor (or generator) slip in an asynchronous (induction) machine is usually very small for reasons of efficiency, so the rotational speed will vary with around 1 per cent between idle and full load. The slip, however is a function of the (DC) resistance (measured in ohms) in the rotor windings of the generator. The higher resistance,the higher the slip, so one way of varying the slip is to vary the resistance in the rotor. In this way one may increase generator slip to e.g. 10 per cent. On motors, this is usually done by having a wound rotor, i.e. a rotor with copper wire windings which are connected in a star and connected with external variable resistors, plus an electronic control system to operate the resistors. The connection has usually been done with brushes and slip rings, which is a clear drawback over the elegantly simple technical design of an cage wound rotor machine. It also introduces parts which wear down in the generator, and thus the generator requires extra maintenance.

Opti Slip:
An interesting variation of the variable slip induction generator avoids the problem of introducing slip rings, brushes, external resistors, and maintenance altogether. M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software By mounting the external resistors on the rotor itself, and mounting the electronic control system on the rotor as well, you still have the problem of how to communicate the amount of slip you need to the rotor. This communication can be done very elegantly, however, using optical fibre communications, and sending the signal across to the rotor electronics each time it passes a stationary optical fibre.

Running a Pitch Controlled Turbine at Variable Speed :
One good reason for wanting to be able to run a turbine partially at variable speed is the fact that pitch control (controlling the torque in order not to overload the gearbox and generator by pitching the wind turbine blades) is a mechanical process. This means that the reaction time for the pitch mechanism becomes a critical factor in turbine design. If you have a variable slip generator, however, you may start increasing its slip once you are close to the rated power of the turbine. The control strategy applied in a widely used Danish turbine design is to run the generator at half of its maximum slip when the turbine is operating near the rated power. When a wind gust occurs, the control mechanism signals to increase generator slip to allow the rotor to run a bit faster while the pitch mechanism begins to cope with the situation by pitching the blades more out of the wind. Once the pitch mechanism has done its work, the slip is decreased again. In case the wind suddenly drops, the process is applied in reverse. Although these concepts may sound simple, it is quite a technical challenge to ensure that the two power control mechanisms co-operate efficiently.

Improving Power Quality :
The running a generator at high slip releases more heat from the generator, which runs less efficiently. That is not a problem in itself, however, since the M.Tech,Energy Systems,BVBCET,HUBLI. 2010-11
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With indirect grid connection. 2010-11 Page 54 . This grid is controlled electronically (using an inverter). Thus the turbine will generate alternating current at exactly the variable frequency applied to the stator.HUBLI.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software only alternative is to waste the excess wind energy by pitching the rotor blades out of the wind.2. however. Indirect Grid Connection of Wind Turbines: Fig 2. so that the frequency of the alternating current in the stator of the generator may be varied. since the fluctuations in power output are "eaten up" or "topped up" by varying the generator slip and storing or releasing part of the energy as rotational energy in the wind turbine rotor. Conversion to Direct Current (DC) : M. the wind turbine generator runs in its own. One of the real benefits of using the control strategy mentioned here is that you get a better power quality.Energy Systems.BVBCET.2 Indirect grid connection of wind turbines Generating Alternating Current (AC) at Variable Frequency : Most wind turbines run at almost constant speed with direct grid connection. separate mini AC-grid. and the turbine may have a gearbox or run without a gearbox if the generator has many poles. The generator may be either a synchronous generator or an asynchronous generator. In this way it is possible to run the turbine at variable rotational speed.Tech. as illustrated in the graphic.

as you saw in the animation above. Obviously. however.nothing like the smooth sinusoidal curve we learned about when studying alternating current. as explained below. Filtering the AC : The rectangular shaped waves can be smoothed out.e. i. 2010-11 Page 55 . The kind of alternating current one gets out of an inverter looks quite ugly at first sight . in a so-called AC filter mechanism. The primary advantage is that gusts of wind can be allowed to make the rotor turn faster. The somewhat jagged appearance of the voltage does not disappear completely. Instead. we get a series of sudden jumps in the voltage and current. The conversion from variable frequency AC to DC can be done using thyristors or large power transistors. We therefore start by rectifying it.Tech. This conversion to AC in the inverter can also be done using either thyristors or transistors. DC.BVBCET. Thyristors or power transistors are large semiconductor switches that operate without mechanical parts.HUBLI.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software AC current with a variable frequency cannot be handled by the public electrical grid. however. using appropriate inductances and capacitors. thus storing part of the excess energy as rotational energy until the gust is over.Energy Systems. Advantages of Indirect Grid Connection: Variable Speed : The advantage of indirect grid connection is that it is possible to run the wind turbine at variable speed. we convert it into direct current. Conversion to Fixed Frequency AC : The (fluctuating) direct current is converted to an alternating current (using an inverter) with exactly the same frequency as the public electrical grid. since we have to be able to differentiate between gusts and higher wind speed in general. this requires an intelligent control strategy. M.

Disadvantages of Indirect Grid Connection : The basic disadvantage of indirect grid connection is cost. The secondary advantage is that with power electronics one may control reactive power (i. and the fact that power electronics may introduce harmonic distortion of the alternating current in the electrical grid. The problem of harmonic distortion arises because the filtering process mentioned above is not perfect. From an economic point of view that advantage is so small. This may be useful. it also seems that availability rates for these machines tend to be somewhat lower than conventional machines. and we may also reduce the fatigue loads on the tower and rotor blades. particularly if a turbine is running on a weak electrical grid. 2010-11 Page 56 . Theoretically. and it may leave some "overtones" (multiples of the grid frequency) in the output current. Looking at operating statistics from wind turbines using power electronics (published by the the German ISET Institute). As we just learned. and another to generate the output current.HUBLI.Tech. Other disadvantages are the energy lost in the AC-DC-AC conversion process. the turbine will need a rectifier and two inverters.e. but that may change as the cost of power electronics decreases. depending on the wind speed. Presently.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Thus it is possible to reduce the peak torque (reducing wear on the gearbox and generator).Energy Systems.BVBCET. so as to improve the power quality in the electrical grid. however. the phase shifting of current relative to voltage in the AC grid). that it is hardly worth mentioning. variable speed may also give a slight advantage in terms of annual production. since it is possible to run the machine at an optimal rotational speed. Gearboxes for Wind Turbines : M. one to control the stator current. it seems that the cost of power electronics exceeds the gains to be made in building lighter turbines. thus reducing power quality. due to failures in the power electronics.

Energy Systems. But if you wanted to connect the generator directly to the grid.e.Tech. which is used in the opposite direction in lots of industrial machinery. With a M. Less Torque.3 Figure of gearbox arrangement The power from the rotation of the wind turbine rotor is transferred to the generator through the power train.BVBCET.HUBLI.e.2.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Why Use a Gearbox? Fig 2. four. Another problem is. and in connection with car engines is to use a gearbox. the gearbox and the high speed shaft. Another possibility is to build a slow-moving AC generator with many poles. 300 magnets) to arrive at a reasonable rotational speed of 30 rpm. More Speed : The practical solution. directly connected to a 50 Hz AC ( alternating current ) three phase grid with two. or six poles. i. But why use a gearbox? Couldn't we just drive the generator directly with the power from the main shaft? If we used an ordinary generator. that the mass of the rotor of the generator has to be roughly proportional to the amount of torque (moment. you would end up with a 200 pole generator (i. through the main shaft. So a directly driven generator will be very heavy (and expensive) in any case. 2010-11 Page 57 . or turning force) it has to handle. we would have to have an extremely high speed turbine with between 1000 and 3000 revolutions per minute (rpm). as we saw on the page with the Components of a Wind Turbine.

and high speed.2. since it has flanges for two generators on the high speed side (to the right).5 MW gearbox for a wind turbine. which you use for the generator. high torque power which you get from the wind turbine rotor . The picture below shows a 1.BVBCET.5 MW rating Mechanical Sources of Sound Emission: Mechanical noise. metal components moving or knocking against each other may originate in the gearbox. Machines from the early 1980s or before do emit some mechanical noise. The orange gadgets just below the generator attachments to the right are the hydraulically operated emergency disc brakes.5 MW turbine.Tech.) M.HUBLI. in the drive train (the shafts). low torque power. The gearbox in a wind turbine does not "change gears". This particular gearbox is somewhat unusual. which may be heard in the immediate surroundings of the turbine. For a 600 or 750 kW machine. 2010-11 Page 58 .Energy Systems. the gear ratio is typically approximately 1 to 50.4 Gearbox of a wind turbine of 1. i.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software gearbox you convert between slowly rotating. in the worst cases even up to a distance of 200 m (600 ft.e. It normally has a single gear ratio between the rotation of the rotor and the generator. Fig 2. and in the generator of a wind turbine. In the background you see the lower part of a nacelle for a 1.

This ensures a high carbon content and high durability in the surface of the metal. but a hard surface to ensure strength and long time wear.BVBCET.Tech.HUBLI. The Electronic Wind Turbine Controller : M. while the steel alloy in the interior remains softer and more flexible. 2010-11 Page 59 . that within three years noise emissions had dropped to half their previous level due to better engineering practices. The way this is done is basically to heat the gear wheels after their teeth have been ground. however. Quieting Wind Turbine Gearboxes: Gearboxes for wind turbines are no longer standard industrial gearboxes. flexible core. and therefore no further research in the area was considered necessary. One way of doing this is to ensure that the steel wheels of the gearbox have a semi soft.Energy Systems. showed that no manufacturer considered mechanical noise as a problem any longer. but they have been adapted specifically for quiet operation of wind turbines. The reason was. The carbon will then migrate into the surface of the metal. and then let them cool off slowly while they are packed in a special high carbon-content powder.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software A survey on research and development priorities of wind turbine manufacturers conducted in 1995.

valves.g.2. 2010-11 Page 60 . Communicating with the Outside World : The controller communicates with the owner or operator of the wind turbine via a communications link.Energy Systems. e.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 2. hydraulic pumps. As the name implies. the controller also controls a large number of switches. In wind parks one of the turbines will usually be equipped M. It is also possible to call the wind turbine to collect statistics. it becomes even more important that they have a high availability rate.HUBLI. that they function reliably all the time.Tech.5 Picture of a wind turbine controller box The wind turbine controller consists of a number of computers which continuously monitor the condition of the wind turbine and collect statistics on its operation. As wind turbine sizes increase to megawatt machines. i.e. sending alarms or requests for service over the telephone or a radio link. and motors within the wind turbine.BVBCET. and check its present status.

6 Figure of a internal communication circuit There is usually a controller both at the bottom of the tower and in the nacelle. On some recent models. there is a third controller placed in the hub of the rotor. The controller continuously compares M. The image to the right shows a fibre optics communications unit.2.HUBLI.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software with a PC from which it is possible to control and collect data from the rest of the wind turbines in the park.BVBCET. On recent wind turbine models. large machines. Fig 2. Fail Safe Mechanisms and Redundancy : Computers and sensors are usually duplicated (redundant) in all safety or operation sensitive areas of newer. the communication between the controllers is usually done using fibre optics. This PC can be called over a telephone line or a radio link. Internal Communications : . 2010-11 Page 61 . That unit usually communicates with the nacelle unit using serial communications through a cable connected with slip rings and brushes on the main shaft.Tech.

the thickness of the brake linings. Improved control strategies are responsible for an important part of the increase in wind turbine productivity in recent years. temperature in the electronic cabinets. The picture at the top of the page shows the controller of a megawatt machine. the pitch angle of each rotor blade (for pitch controlled or active stall controlled machines).HUBLI. In addition. The controller may e. wind speed from the anemometer.BVBCET. check the rotational speed of the rotor. the temperature of the generator windings. the size and frequency of vibrations in the nacelle and the rotor blades. whether the tower door is open or closed (alarm system). the generator. wind direction. Control Strategies : Many of the business secrets of the wind turbine manufacturers are to be found in the way the controller interacts with the wind turbine components. the yaw angle (by counting the number of teeth on yaw wheel). Other factors Monitored : It is possible to monitor or set somewhere between 100 and 500 parameter values in a modern wind turbine. lightning strikes and their charge may be registered.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software the readings from measurements throughout the wind turbine to ensure that both the sensors and the computers themselves are OK. Furthermore measurements may be made of outside air temperature. hydraulic pressure. An interesting strategy pursued by some manufacturers is to adapt the operational strategy to the local wind climate. oil temperature in the gearbox. and has two central computers. 2010-11 Page 62 . its voltage and current. M.Tech.g. In this way it may e. be possible to minimise uneconomic tear and wear on the machine during (rare) periods of rough weather. the temperature in the gearbox bearings.Energy Systems.g. (We removed the cover on one of the two computers to show the electronics). the number of power cable twists.

Tech.HUBLI. Grid Connection and Power Quality : In the section about power quality you will learn how electricity companies require that wind turbines connect "softly" to the grid.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Controlling Power Quality from Wind Turbines : Fig 2.Energy Systems. checks that the safety systems are OK. and how they have M.BVBCET.7 Power quality controller box Most people think of the controller as the unit which runs the wind turbine. for example yaws it against the wind.2. but it also looks after the power quality of the current generated by the wind turbine. The controller does indeed do all these things. 2010-11 Page 63 . and starts the turbine.

BVBCET.g. In order to ensure the proper power quality. (The reactive power component is basically a question of whether the voltage and the current are in phase or not). On this basis. depending on the electrical grid frequency). M. (i. 2010-11 Page 64 .2. 50 x 128 times per second or 60 x 128 times per second.Tech. the phase angle between the voltage and the current).HUBLI. the controller may switch on or switch off a large number of electrical capacitors which adjust the reactive power.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software certain requirements that the alternating current and voltage move in step with one another.e. This part of the controller operates e.8 Reactive power control box Voltage and current are typically measured 128 times per alternating current cycle. Reactive Power Control : Fig 2. a so called DSP processor calculates the stability of the grid frequency and the active and reactive power of the turbine. the thyristors which ensure soft coupling to the electrical grid.e. (i. The image to the right shows the high voltage section of a controller for a megawatt machine.

Conversely. M.BVBCET. The equipment in the room is used to measure electromagnetic emissions from the components of the controllers. the electronics should not emit electromagnetic radiation which can inhibit the functioning of other electronic equipment. The image to the left shows a radiation free room with metal walls in the laboratory of one of the largest wind turbine controller manufacturers.9 Electromagnetic compatibility equipment There are very powerful electromagnetic fields around power cables and generators in a wind turbine.2.HUBLI.Tech. This means that the electronics in the controller system has to be insensitive to electromagnetic fields.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) : Fig 2.Energy Systems. 2010-11 Page 65 .

Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software CHAPTER 3 PREREQUISITES FOR THE PROJECT 3.0 Prerequisites and Progress in Meeting the Prerequisites: 3.5. 2010-11 Page 66 .1 :SCILAB .HUBLI.BVBCET.Tech.3. Developed since M.Energy Systems.0: Scilab is a scientific software package for numerical computations providing a powerful open computing environment for engineering and scientific applications.

fr/english/int_index. http://www.BVBCET. it is now maintained and developed by Scilab Consortium (http://scilabsoft.Energy Systems.. sparse matrices • Polynomials and rational functions • Simulation: ODE solver and DAE solver • Scicos: a hybrid dynamic systems modeler and simulator • Classic and robust control. Scilab has been designed to be an open system where the user can define new data types and operations on these data types by using overloading. 2010-11 Page 67 .). polynomials. http://www.inria. rational functions. an interpreter and a high level programming language..enpc. A number of toolboxes are available with the system: • 2-D and 3-D graphics.htm).HUBLI.html) and ENPC (National School of Bridges and Roads. animation • Linear algebra. MuPAD) • Interface with Tcl/Tk • And a large number of contributions for various domains. M.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 1990 by researchers from INRIA (French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control..Tech.inria.fr/consortium/consortium.). linear systems. Scilab works on most Unix systems including GNU/Linux and on Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP.en. Fortran. Distributed freely and open source through the Internet since 1994.. It comes with source code. LMI optimization • Differentiable and non-differentiable optimization • Signal processing • Metanet: graphs and networks • Parallel Scilab using PVM • Statistics • Interface with Computer Algebra (Maple.fr/index. Scilab is currently being used in educational and industrial environments around the world. It has sophisticated data structures (including lists. Scilab includes hundreds of mathematical functions with the possibility to add interactively programs from various languages (C. on-line help and English user manuals.html) since its creation in May 2003.

The program includes a complex terrain flow model.2 Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. There are currently more than 3000 users in over 110 countries and territories who use WAsP for: • • Wind farm production Wind farm efficiency Micro-siting of wind turbines Power production of WTG’s Wind resource mapping Wind climate estimation Wind atlas generation Wind data analysis Map digitisation & editing Power and thrust curve editing • • • • • • • • M. 2010-11 Page 68 . The predictions are based on wind data measured at stations in the same region.19: WAsP is a PC program for predicting wind climates. wind resources and power productions from wind turbines and wind farms.0.3. a roughness change model and a model for sheltering obstacles.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 3. WAsP is developed and distributed by the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU.Energy Systems. WAsP Turbine Editor Version 9. Denmark.HUBLI.Tech.BVBCET.

Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software CHAPTER 4 ABOUT ENERCON 4.Tech.0 About Enercon: M. 2010-11 Page 69 .1.HUBLI.BVBCET.

operating and maintenance costs are reduced. Research and development. It significantly increases revenue. ENERCON systems still featured gearboxes. With more than 16. providing customers with state-of-the-art products. as well as production and sales are M.Energy Systems. 2010-11 Page 70 .000 wind turbines installed in over 30 countries. Mechanical stress. new system generations have evolved through constant sophistication of existing components. Over the past years. A small team of engineers developed the first E-15 / 16 wind turbine with a rated power of 55 kW.Tech. all ENERCON wind energy converters are based on the company’s tried and tested turbine concept. All ENERCON systems feature a grid connection system which fulfils current grid connection requirements and can thus be easily integrated in any supply and distribution structure. the changeover to gearless technology came about with the first ENERCON E-40 / 500 kW.HUBLI.1 Introduction about the company: ENERCON began its road to economical / ecological success when graduate engineer Aloys Wobben founded the company in 1984. This innovative drive system with few rotating components ensures nearly friction-free energy flow providing outstanding performance and reliability.1. ENERCON has been setting new standards in technological design for more than 25 years now. However in 1992.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 4. and the system’s service life is increased.BVBCET. ENERCON’s concept not only offers solutions for normal operation such as reactive power management and voltage control but also for critical situations resulting from network short-circuits or bottlenecks. Today. ENERCON is also recognized as one of the leading manufacturers at the international level. minimises noise emission while considerably reducing load impact on the wind energy converter. One example of the latest technological innovation is the new rotor blade geometry introduced in 2004. To start with.

BVBCET. Turbulence at the blade tips due to overpressure and underpressure is effectively eliminated in the rotor plane. The blades’ high efficiency is reflected in power curves taken on all ENERCON wind turbines where power coefficients (Cp) of more than 0. The entire length of the blade is therefore utilised without any loss of energy caused by turbulence. The new rotor blades are also less susceptible to turbulence and provide an even flow along the entire length of the blade profile. as well as erosion and bending loads. the blades not only draw energy from the outer edges but also use the inner radius of the swept area. gradually increasing over the years to come. In addition to the new design.Tech. M. 2010-11 Page 71 . particularly in extreme wind locations with considerable stress fluctuations. ENERCON’s rotor blade concept sets new standards in the wind energy sector. the rotor blades’ protective finish is composed of gel coat. To efficiently withstand wind loads over the entire usage period. the blade tips have also been improved to reduce noise emission and increase power output.1. edge protection and top coat using only solvent-free two-component polyurethane compounds in the entire system. considerably increasing power output.2 Rotor blade concept: When it comes to yield.Energy Systems. 4. noise emission and stress minimisation.HUBLI. ENERCON rotor blades have an extremely large flange diameter.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software constantly evolving. UV radiation. This is an important factor. filler. In order to efficiently protect the rotor blade surface against weather elements such as wind and water. The double-row bolt connection specially developed by ENERCON for large wind turbines also provides additional strength by creating even load distribution. Because of their modified shape. The company’s objective for 2010 is an export share of more than 60 %.5 are achieved.

A few years ago only the rotor hub was made of cast steel. with the use of modern spheroidal graphite cast iron.BVBCET. The rotor hub and annular generator are directly interconnected to form one gearless unit. During the entire prototype phase.1.Energy Systems. All cast components are drawn with a 3D CAD system and calculated using the finite element method to check for strain increases at critical points. Compared to conventional geared systems with a large number of bearing points in a moving drive train. Cast components are only released to the next stages in ENERCON’s manufacturing process once comprehensive quality testing has taken place. each part is given its own specific barcode from which the serial number can be obtained in the event of quality issues for example.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 4. the so-called axle pin. it is possible to manufacture other major components such as blade adapters. ENERCON carries out advanced development of its cast components in close collaboration with the foundries. no gear oil change. the designer tests and optimises performance. etc.Tech. ENERCON’s drive system only requires two slow-moving roller bearings due to its low direct drive speed. thus M. axle pins and main carriers with this process. 2010-11 Page 72 .) and operating expenses lowered. However. This rotor unit is then mounted on a fixed axis. Wind turbine maintenance and service costs are reduced (fewer wearing parts. In order to guarantee the identification and traceability of each cast component when the goods are received at ENERCON. today.HUBLI.3 Direct drive: The drive system for ENERCON wind energy converters is based on a simple principle: fewer rotating components reduce mechanical stress while at the same time increasing the equipment’s technical service life.

ENERCON has had its own exclusive manufacturing facilities for the cast components of its wind turbines. the mobile part of the ENERCON annular generator. while a smaller number of moving components assure minimal material wear.HUBLI.Tech. The magnetic field of the stator winding is excited via so-called pole shoes. Since mid-2009. making it ideal for particularly heavy loads and a long service life. ENERCON’s annular generator is subjected to little technical wear. These are located on the rotor. Combined with the rotor hub. Since the shape and position of the pole shoes have a decisive influence on the generator’s noise emission. ENERCON’s quality testing procedures for cast components • Structural inspection on component • Ultrasonic testing • X-ray test 4. ENERCON’s Research & Development department has devoted particular attention to this aspect. the annular generator is a key component in ENERCON’s gearless wind generator design.Energy Systems. ENERCON’s annular generator is a low-speed synchronous generator with no direct grid coupling.4 Annular generator: Amongst other features.BVBCET. Advantages of ENERCON’s annular generator: M. Output voltage and frequency vary with the speed and are converted for output to the grid via a DC link and an inverter which allow for high speed variability. 2010-11 Page 73 . Unlike conventional fast-running generators. The result is that the pole shoes are ideally adapted to the slow rotation of ENERCON’s annular generator making it completely silent.1.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software guaranteeing high ENERCON quality standards in the cast component supply sector. it provides an almost frictionless flow of energy.

5 Stator and rotor: According to ENERCON’s service life requirements. the copper winding in the stator (the stationary part of the annular generator) known as closed.1. 2010-11 Page 74 .BVBCET. At ENERCON. a special work process allows continuous windings to be produced. Advantages of continuous winding: ~ Eliminates errors when making electrical connections ~ Maintains high-quality copper wire insulating system ~ No contact resistance ~ No weak points susceptible to corrosion or material fatigue 4. The sensors activation temperature is considerably lower than the temperature resistance of the insulating materials used in the generator.6 Temperature behaviour: ENERCON’s annular generator features optimised temperature control. M. the copper winding is exclusively done manually. single-layer basket winding is produced in insulation class F (155 °C).Energy Systems.Tech.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software ~ No gear ~ Low wear due to slow machine rotation ~ Low machine stress due to high level of speed variability ~ Yield-optimised control ~ High power quality 4. This prevents temperature overload.1. It consists of individual round wires gathered in bundles and varnish insulated.HUBLI. in this case preference has been given to manual labour for good reason. It ensures that all materials used are fully inspected. In spite of increasing automation in other manufacturing areas. Furthermore. Each wire strand is continuous from start to end. The hottest areas in the generator are constantly monitored by numerous temperature sensors.

~ Tower and generator monitoring by means of vibration and acceleration sensors to check tower oscillation. ~ Temperature and air gap sensors between rotor and stator ensure dependable annular generator operation. 2010-11 Page 75 . while surge voltage tests are performed on the pole shoes and chokes and then documented in the computer system. all annular generators are manufactured in the company’s own production facilities. ~ ENERCON brake system for maximum turbine reliability by means of three independently operated pitch mechanisms with standby power supply (batteries) in case of a mains failure.1.Energy Systems. the central element of ENERCON’s control system. Superior quality materials are always used.HUBLI. M. the varnished copper wires are subjected to more testing than is specified in the standard and samples are archived. For example. such as the yaw control and active pitch control systems. constantly registers information from the peripheral control elements.Tech.1. The MPU (main processing unit). ~ Active pitch control system to obtain ideal angle of flow on the rotor blades ensures maximum output and stress reduction on the entire wind turbine. Control system ENERCON wind turbines are equipped with stateof-the-art microelectronic control technology developed in house.BVBCET. Its function is to adjust the individual system parameters to ensure that ENERCON wind turbines achieve maximum output under all weather conditions.8 ENERCON control system: ~ Constant evaluation of measurement data from wind sensor to adapt nacelle yaw control ~ Variable speed for maximum wind turbine efficiency at all wind speeds.7 Quality assurance: In order to guarantee ENERCON’s high quality.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 4. Close collaboration with supplier companies has proven to be the most reliable way of providing maximum material quality. and elimination of undesirable output peaks and high operating load. 4.

In wind turbines without storm control. The wind turbine usually stops at a defined cut-out wind speed . ENERCON wind turbines work on a different principle.1. The measured values are continuously transmitted to the control system. which means that considerable yield losses are incurred. at a wind speed of 25 m / s within a 20second mean.2. enabling the turbine to react immediately to changes in grid voltage or frequency. the turbine is automatically started up again. At high wind speeds.Energy Systems. current and frequency are measured on the low-voltage side between the ENERCON inverter and the system transformer. this occurs.Tech.HUBLI. 2010-11 Page 76 .BVBCET. The wind turbine only starts up again when the average wind speed drops below the cut-out wind speed or an even lower restart speed. the wind turbine is safely shut down and the service teams are informed. and prevents typical shutdowns which cause considerable yield losses. Grid parameters such as voltage. If the defined limit values for system or grid protection are exceeded.9 Monitoring grid connection: Ensuring proper power feed from ENERCON wind turbines into the grid requires grid connection monitoring. 4. They are equipped with special storm control software which prevents unnecessary abrupt shutdowns. The power curve diagram showing operation with M. The reason is that a specified maximum wind speed has been exceeded. for example.0 ENERCON storm control: ENERCON wind turbines run with a special storm control feature. As soon as voltage and frequency return within the permissible tolerance range. In gusty wind conditions there may be a longer delay. Prolonged downtimes are thus avoided. Storm control enables reduced wind turbine operation in the event of extremely high wind speeds.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 4.

This is achieved by slightly pitching the rotor blades out of the wind. Here in the inverter system. The inverter system defines the essential performance characteristics for output to the grid and ensures that the power output corresponds to grid specifications. This allows rotational speed control to be optimised. Once the wind speed drops. By adjusting or ‘pitching’ the blades and through electrical excitation via the turbine control system.2. 2010-11 Page 77 . The electrical power produced by the annular generator passes into the ENERCON Grid Management System which comprises a rectifier. the so-called DC Link and a modular inverter system.1 ENERCON annular generator and grid management system: Amongst other features. frequency and M. the blades turn back into the wind and the turbine immediately resumes operation at full power.BVBCET.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software ENERCON storm control demonstrates clearly that the wind turbine does not shut down automatically when a certain wind speed Vstorm is exceeded. ENERCON’s storm control feature also offers the grid substantial security benefits.HUBLI. the annular generator is a key component in ENERCON’s gearless wind generator design. 4. At extremely high wind speeds there is no risk of major disturbances caused by longer feed-in interruptions which could have the same effect as simultaneous shutdowns of several conventional power plants.Tech. the annular generator is thus perfectly independent of the grid. rotational speed and power output are constantly monitored and optimised. but merely reduces power output by slowing down the rotational speed. This low-speed synchronous generator is directly connected to the rotor. Generator output voltage and frequency vary with the speed and are converted via the ENERCON Grid Management System to be fed into the grid.Energy Systems. voltage. This prevents yield-reducing shutdown and start-up procedures.

4. ENERCON is the first manufacturer worldwide to have received certification confirming these power plant properties. Via the transformer. ENERCON wind turbines are equipped with a Grid Management System designed to meet the latest grid connection requirements.2. The idea behind the Grid Management System is to control and regulate power feed without power peaks. reactive power management and optimum contribution to maintaining voltage levels. 4. our wind turbines offer maximum power quality.Energy Systems. g.HUBLI. The Grid Management System offers numerous performance features e. inverter voltage (400 V) is stepped up to the appropriate medium voltage required by the grid or the wind farm network. the Grid M.2.BVBCET. This facilitates integration in any transmission and distribution network.3 Wide voltage and frequency ranges: ENERCON’s Grid Management System allows the wind turbine to have a very wide operating range. During normal operation. Due to the Grid Management System’s power electronics there is no inrush current. Certificates from independent institutes confirm these qualities according to IEC Standards and FGW guidelines.Tech. the wind turbine actually requires no reactive power.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software power are converted accordingly. Flickers and harmonic oscillations are negligible. 2010-11 Page 78 . Essentially. ENERCON wind farms behave very much like power stations or in some aspects even exceed their performance. Depending on the grid. These product and unit certificates as well as validated simulation models will in future be used as a basis for the wind farm certificates required by the German Association of Energy and Water Industries guidelines and the latest Renewable Energy Sources Act.2 Electrical grid compatibility: Due to their control and operating mode.

This feature is not only necessary to compensate transmission equipment such as cables and transformers but also to maintain voltage stability. 4.Energy Systems. power feedin timing has to be regulated. even at full rated power. 4. ENERCON wind turbines have a vast operating range for M. variable setpoint values for maximum permitted power gradients can be specified for the ENERCON Grid Management System. the Grid Management System’s stability provides for reliable and continuous operation.4 Co-ordinated grid feed in network: In order to provide reliable economical grid operation. For example. This allows the grid operator to optimise load flow and grid voltage stability as well as to enhance the interaction between utilities and consumers.6 Reactive power management: In order to maintain reliable and efficient transmission and distribution grids. power feed can be controlled according to grid operator requirements.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Management System can be flexibly parameterised for 50 Hz or 60 Hz rated grid frequency. As soon as grid frequency has been stabilised. If a grid fault leads to temporary overfrequency in the grid. ENERCON wind turbines can contribute to the stabilisation of the grid by adapting power feed-in according to the actual grid frequency. 2010-11 Page 79 .BVBCET.Tech. ENERCON WECs reduce their output according to the grid operator’s specifications. ENERCON WECs continue normal power feed-in. The characteristics of this control system can be easily adapted to different specifications.2.2.5 Power frequency control: Grid frequency control is essential to ensure reliable and stable grid operation as well as to attain the necessary power supply quality.HUBLI. 4. when the wind turbine or wind farm is started up. To ensure that this takes place.2. In grid systems with heavily fluctuating voltage or frequency. reactive power regulation is indispensable.

conventional power plants alone do not suffice to meet highly complex requirements for stable grid operation. 2010-11 Page 80 .2. Irrespective of the active power feed-in. No matter what type of short circuit occurs. wind turbines are not allowed to suddenly disconnect from the grid during voltage dips or overvoltage caused by grid problems.BVBCET. 4. This is also possible if the wind turbine voltage completely breaks down as a result of a power system failure. As an option. In these cases.Energy Systems. an ENERCON wind turbine combines power plant properties with STATCOM properties. With the STATCOM option.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software reactive power exchange which can be provided to the grid as a highly flexible system service.7 Staying connected when grid problems occur: Most transmission networks and ever more distribution grids require wind energy converters to remain connected to the grid in the event of grid short circuits. These STATCOM properties are essential to provide the grid with an efficient means of connecting weak and heavily loaded networks operating at the limit of stability. the entire reactive power range is at the disposal of the grid operator even if active power is not being fed into the grid.Tech. ENERCON wind turbines can ‘ride through’ faults for several seconds. ENERCON wind turbines are able to provide the grid performance properties of a STATCOM. dynamic reactive power sources such as SVC or STATCOM (Static Compensator) must be integrated into the grid to guarantee adequate power supply quality to the consumer. ENERCON wind turbines with the optional ENERCON UVRT feature have this capacity. even if they were operating at rated power before the fault. Like conventional power plants. These outstanding power plant properties have been certified by independent institutes during actual grid fault testing. wind farm projects can be optimised to suit the particular requirements. Flexible setting M. Since turbine configuration is flexible. In many regions around the world.HUBLI.

If desired or required. the wind turbine can feed in either mainly active or reactive power to maintain grid voltage. After the grid problem has been resolved and grid voltage has been restored. Depending on the selected parameters. 4. ENERCON SCADA has been a proven system for many years and is also an important element of ENERCON’s service and maintenance program.Tech.2. 4. Thus the ENERCON Undervoltage Ride-Through feature facilitates adaptable settings in order to meet grid standards (e. fault ride-through is also possible without power feed-in.8 ENERCON SCADA: For remote wind farm control and monitoring.Energy Systems. 2010-11 Page 81 . this current can be maximum rated current as stipulated by the latest German grid code.BVBCET. The ENERCON wind turbine remains in operation during the fault. voltagedependent reactive current can even be supplied to the grid.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software options offer maximum performance according to the respective grid operator’s specifications or to the project’s framework conditions. If necessary.9 Generation management – power regulation for maximum yield: M.specific applications. g. of the German Association of Energy and Water Industries) and to maximise the amount of installable wind farm power.HUBLI.2. the wind turbine can immediately resume power feed-in. It offers a number of optional functions and communication interfaces to connect ENERCON wind farms to the grid while meeting stringent grid connection regulations. Due to its modular design ENERCON SCADA is flexible and can be easily adapted or expanded to customer.

Optional generation management in the ENERCON SCADA system handles this automatically.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software If the cumulative (rated) output of a wind farm is greater than the grid connection capacity at the point of common coupling. If one turbine in the wind farm generates less power.0 Bottleneck management – maximum output during bottlenecks: Not all regions have sufficient transmission capacity available to manage each low-load and strong wind situation. Yield loss.Energy Systems. Constant online data exchange between the wind farm and the grid operator ensures that the highest possible amount of wind farm output is adapted to the transmission capacity. M. the other turbines are accordingly adjusted to run at a higher capacity. along with complicated re-dispatches for load distribution within the wind farm is minimised.Tech.BVBCET.3. ENERCON wind farm power regulation ensures that the grid connection capacity is always used to the fullest.HUBLI. 4. with ENERCON’s bottleneck management it is possible to connect wind farms to this type of grid. However. 2010-11 Page 82 .

0 Methodology: DUE to wind speed variability. Therefore.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY 5.HUBLI.BVBCET. CF models are used by manufacturers and wind power project developers for optimum turbine-site matching. the capacity factor (CF) of a turbine is commonly used to estimate the average energy production. a wind turbine is rarely operating at its rated output.1.Tech. The amount of energy produced by a turbine depends on the characteristics of both wind speed at the site and the turbine’s power performance curve. M. which in turn can be used for the economic appraisal of wind power projects. 2010-11 Page 83 .Energy Systems. Moreover.

is rated wind speed.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Wind speed at potential wind project sites is characterized by the parameters of the Weibull probability distribution function (pdf). and cut-out speeds. Vr. rated. The turbine’s power performance curve can be described by three parameters: the cut-in. 2010-11 Page 84 . Cp. (5.1) Where Vc. is furling wind speed. is the mechanical efficiency of transmission gear Ƞg.Energy Systems.1.Tech.HUBLI. is the sweep area in m2 5. Vf.BVBCET. A typical method for obtaining the power of wind turbine : Pe = 0 (v < Vc) (5. is the coefficient of performance. Ƞm.1.2) M. is cut-in speed . The power output developed by the turbine for wind speed `v’.1. Cubic mean of wind speeds and Weibull statistical model parameterize the continuously changing wind speed distributions. is the air density in kg/m3 A.1 Methodology for calculating power output and power coefficient : I. is the electrical generator efficiency ρ.

1.8) Using above equations for calculating power and power coefficient for VESTAS (V82) 1650 kw the below figures show the same obtained using scilab.2 Power curve and power coefficient curve: M. a = (Per * Vck ) / (Vck .HUBLI.6) b = (Per) / (Vrk .3) Pe = Per (Vr < v ≤ Vf) (5.BVBCET.Vck) (5.7) II.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Pe = a + ( b*vk ) (Vc ≤ v ≤ Vr) (5.Tech.Energy Systems.4) Pe = 0 (v > Vf) ( where . 2010-11 Page 85 . 5.5 * ρ * A * V3) ( ) (5.1. Power Coefficient : Cp= Pe / (0.

and variations of speed as a function of time. f(v) is Probability distribution function.3 Average power output of a turbine: The average power produced by a wind turbine can then be calculated by integrating the power curve multiplied by the probability density function. (5.65MW turbine 5. It is imperative to be able to quantify the relationship of power output as a function of speed.1. The power output as a function of wind speed going through the rotor can be seen in a power curve. The most important issue effecting wind power availability in a certain area is the variability of wind. M.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 5.HUBLI. 2010-11 Page 86 .1 Power curve and power coefficient curve for Vestas 1.Tech.9) Where .1.1.BVBCET.

The transversal components of Land D create torsion on the propeller axis which needs to be balanced. increases the aoa and increasing the forward speed decreases the aoa.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 5. which is inclined with a pitch angle to a plane of rotation and with a certain angle of attack ‘aoa’ to the apparent direction of the incoming flow (relative wind). M. which depends on the rotational velocity of the propeller and the forward speed. The lift/drag ratio L/D is crucial for the performance of the propeller. since L is crucial for thrust and D for turbulent losses.4 Wind thrust: The blade of a propeller acts like a wing.1.2 Power and coefficient curve of ENERCON [E-126-7500KW] 5. The component of L in the forward direction (minus a component from drag D) gives thrust.Energy Systems. Increasing the rotational velocity with the same pitch. 2010-11 Page 87 .BVBCET. A propeller blade acting like a wing gives lift L counted perpendicular to the incoming flow and drag D in the direction of the incoming flow as indicated in the figure below.Tech.1.HUBLI.

Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 5. Here.2.Energy Systems. L.1.BVBCET. Ct = Cp / λ Where ‘λ’ is tip speed ratio & ‘ Cp’is the power coefficient. H -high. The coefficient of reaction force which is also known as thrust force is the “Thrust coefficient”.low pressure 5.3 Wind passing through blades indicating lift and drag force Where. (5. Generally the thrust coefficient values will be higher than 1 at wind speeds near the cut in speed of the wind turbine.1.Tech. 2010-11 Page 88 .0) M. These values should be normalized to limit within value of unity. the expression used for obtaining thrust coefficient will be as shown below.5 Thrust coeffecient curves: Thrust is generally a reaction force.HUBLI.

1 Thrust coefficient (Ct) Fig 5.1.BVBCET.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 5.Tech.HUBLI.1.6 Wind-Speed Statistics: M.4 Power and power coefficient values and curves observed in Wasp software Table5.0 5.3.Energy Systems.1.1. 2010-11 Page 89 .5 E82 thrust curve obtained using scilab 5.

2.1. The wind speed frequency curve is modelled by continuous mathematical function.HUBLI. (5.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Monthly means and standard deviations of wind speed distributions are computed using the following equations. fi = the numbers of observations of a specific wind speed vi n = 3 for cubic mean cube root.BVBCET. N = number of different values of wind speeds observed. called the probability density function f (v).Energy Systems.2) 5.1) Where.7 Weibull distribution function: M.Tech. • = mean wind velocity. The mean value of the wind speed is given by: (5. i = actual wind speed in m/s. 2010-11 Page 90 .2.

This is not a serious problem because a wind turbine’s output would be zero below some cut-in speed anyway.Energy Systems. Periods of an hour or two or even a day or two may have wind data which are not well fitted by a Weibull or any other statistical function. The Weibull density function thus cannot fit a wind speed frequency curve at zero speed because the frequency of calms is always greater than zero.Tech. The Weibull density function is a suitable curve for this task. What is needed is a curve which will fit the observed data above some minimum speed. This distribution function includes two parameters namely scale factor ‘c’ and shape factor ‘k’. The scale parameter c can scale the curves to fit different wind speed regimes.BVBCET. Scale factor is expressed in metre per second whereas shape factor is dimensionless. f(v) becomes zero at zero wind speed. Wind speed variations can be described by the 2-parameter Weibull distribution function shown in the following formula: (5.3) M. But for periods of several weeks to a year or more. the Weibull usually fits the observed data reasonably well. For k greater than unity.HUBLI.2. The scale factor decides the value of the most occurring wind velocity and also its magnitude. Data collected at many locations around the world can be reasonably well described by the Weibull density function if the time period is not too short. 2010-11 Page 91 .Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software A function which describes the variation of the wind velocity at a location .

At first glance.BVBCET. The mean wind speed of Weibull density function. then from above equations it can be solved for c and k directly.4) Where ‘ɼ’ is the Gamma function.2. 2010-11 Page 92 . However. is a shape factor.HUBLI. is a scale factor. is the wind speed in m/s. f(v) = Weibull density function . k . is given by: (5.2. after simplification.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Where. If the mean and variance of the wind speed are known. c. There are several methods available for determining the Weibull parameters c and k . this would seem impossible because k is buried in the argument of a gamma function. researchers have determined that an acceptable approximation for k to obtain the shape parameter is: (5.Tech.5) M.

it also can be solved for c: (5. and d1 determined from the slope of the line. 2010-11 Page 93 . Once k has been determined.73 and 1.05 for 80 % of the sites. The constant d1 is between 0. k = d1√ ̄ u (5. a line drawn through the points. Some researchers examined the wind speed distributions at 140 sites across the continental United States measured at heights near 10 m. Whether the result is satisfactory or not has to be judged by the agreement between the Weibull curve and the raw data. several months of wind data can be collected and analyzed in more detail to compute c and k.BVBCET.Tech. The process is somewhat of an art and there may be more than one procedure which will yield a satisfactory result.2. The method can even be used when the variance is not known.6) The variance of a histogram of wind speeds is not difficult to find from equations.HUBLI. M. and found that k appears to be proportional to the square root of the mean wind speed. by simply estimating k.94 when the mean wind speed u is given in meters per second. particularly as it is used in wind power computations. so this method yields the parameters c and k rather easily. The average value of d1 is normally adequate for wind power calculations. These values of k can be plotted versus√ ̄u on log-log paper.2.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software This is a reasonably good approximation over the range 1 ≤ k ≤ 10.7) The proportionality constant d1 is a site specific constant with an average value of 0. but if more accuracy is desired.

Energy Systems.1.Tech.7 Graph of Weibull distribution function for varying ‘k’ versus wind speed M.1.6 Graph of Weibull distribution function versus wind speed The weibull probability distribution function is explained by the parameters ‘k’ and ‘c’ for increasing value of ‘k’ and a given value of ‘c’ the peak of the curve shifts towards the right as shown in the figure below : Fig 5.BVBCET.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 5.HUBLI. 2010-11 Page 94 .

9) Graph of (Vc/Vr).1.Energy Systems.(Vf/Vr) ratios versus capacity factor: Fig 5.8) Also.8 Estimation of Capacity Factor: Capacity factor is defined as.Tech.Vr. which a wind turbine generator can generate from the available wind at a site. the ratio of average output power to the rated power output. 2010-11 Page 95 . It implies the percentage of electrical power. The capacity factors are computed using: (5.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 5.8 Turbine parameters (Vc.HUBLI.Vf) ratios vs Capacity factor M. (

Fe (u) = exp (− (u / β)^ (5.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 5.0) (− ɼ ) ) 5.2.0 Probability of extreme wind speed: Fe (u) is the probability of the annual fastest mile of wind speed being less than u.It is given by the expression as shown below.Tech. The parameters ‘ɼ’ and ‘β’ are characteristics of the site that must be estimated from the observed data . Mr (5.9 Distribution of extreme wind: Extreme winds are high velocity winds which pose problem to the operation of wind turbine. 2010-11 Page 96 .1) = 1 / (1. They are sometimes referred as annual fastest wind speed and are used for deciding the structural requirements of wind turbines.1 Recurrence Period (Mr): Recurrence period is defined as the time duration in years during which an extreme wind velocity occurs.3.2. 5.Fe (u)) M.1.Energy Systems.BVBCET.3. It is given by the expression as shown below.HUBLI.

Tech.BVBCET.Energy Systems.HUBLI. 2010-11 Page 97 .Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software CHAPTER 6 SITE VISIT AND STUDY M.

1. Table 6. These turbines operate up to wind speed of 25-30 m/s and then pitch out and then finally stop if wind speed exists still more than cut-off wind speed.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 6.BVBCET. This section of the site has a very good wind speed availability to give an average annual Capacity factor of 16% .45 kilometre by road from Chitradurga city. 2010-11 Page 98 . All the 17 E-40 wind turbines installed are of 600 KW rating with cut-in speed of 3m/s . Road-03.HUBLI. Normally the overspeed limit given is between 46.0 . Already .Energy Systems. The turbines are expected to generate annually 10-13 lakh KW. The name of the section of the chitradurga site visited is EP-2.47.1 Specifications for Enercon E-40 wind turbine Company Type Rated power (KW) ENERCON E-40 600 Rotor diameter (m) 44 Tower type /Height(m) Tubular / Grid connection (Hz) 50 / 60 Variable 18 Generator Rpm (initial) M.till now the the turbines have generated more than 1 crore KW till now.20%. This section of the site has totally 17 number of Enercon: E-40 wind turbines which have been installed in the year 2002.0 rpm.rated wind speed of 13m/s and cut-off wind speed of 25-30 m/s and having below mentioned parameters and specifications.Tech.0 Chitradurga Site visit: The site visited (where Enercon turbines are installed) as a part of partial completion of the project is nearly 40 .

1 Line diagram of the section EP-2 ROAD-3: Fig 6.Tech.HUBLI.Energy Systems.1.BVBCET.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 44 6.1 EP-2 ROAD-3 Line diagram ---------Turbine M.1. 2010-11 Page 99 .

1.BVBCET. 2010-11 Page 100 .2 General plan of wind turbine power and control: M.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software --------Main VCB Yard & Metering Yard ---------House/Office 6.HUBLI.Tech.

3 Wind vane & wind anemometer: M.Tech.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 6.1.1.HUBLI.2 Power and Control general plan of wind turbine 6.Energy Systems.BVBCET. 2010-11 Page 101 .

have been designed in great variety.Tech. 2010-11 Page 102 .3 Figure of a wind vane and wind anemometer Anemometers. while the others basically have no moving parts. hot wire. on which it turns freely. and laser.1. Basically. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. The wind vane requires a minimum normal or perpendicular wind speed to initiate a turn. The end offering the greatest resistance to the wind goes downwind or to the leeward. Doppler acoustic radar.5 and 1 m/s. cup.BVBCET. Anemometer types include the propeller. instruments that measure wind speed.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 6. The propeller and cup anemometers depend on rotation of a small turbine for their output. and is typically between 0. This minimum is called the starting threshold. pressure plate. M.HUBLI. a wind vane is a body mounted unsymmetrical about a vertical axis. as we shall see. pressure tube. Wind vane used for indicating wind direction is one of the oldest meteorological instruments.

5 Terrain and Topography: M.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Some initial factors that are considered while selecting and deciding a site are discussed below.HUBLI. gradient and any weight restrictions on approach roads.Tech. The ground conditions at the site also need to be investigated to ensure that the turbine foundations.1. ship yard or railways. 2010-11 Page 103 . in writing. The planning application will require the preparation of an Environmental Statement and the scope of this is generally agreed. It includes a careful assessment of existing land use and how best the wind farm may be integrated with. agricultural operations.1. for example. access roads and construction areas can be provided at reasonable cost. width. Discussions are also likely to continue with the local electricity utility concerning the connection to the distribution network and the export of the wind farm power. Local ground conditions may influence the position of turbines in order to reduce foundation costs. 2) Is the site well connected by road or other means to the nearby city.BVBCET. It may also be important to undertake a hydrological study to determine whether spring water supplies are taken from the wind farm site and if the proposed foundations or cable trenches will cause disruption of the ground-water flow. More detailed investigations of the site access requirements will include assessment of bend radii. 6. 3) Nearest airport. with the civic authorities during the Project Feasibility Assessment.Energy Systems.4 The site: 1) Where actually is the proposed site situated. 6.

M.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 1) The actual elevation range of the proposed site.Tech.Energy Systems.BVBCET. 2) The elevation of the site of nearby plain .which can help in predicting the wind condition on the proposed site. 2010-11 Page 104 . The main wind season happens to be the southwest monsoon period and it begins to get momentum from the month of May and peaks in the month of July. In India the general wind flow is governed by the monsoon season. which can generally bring some impact in wind conditions. atmospheric pressure and rainfall are obtained. 6.8 Wind Profile: Figure below shows the monthly average wind speed recorded at 50m above ground level.6 Climate: Based on data collected the monthly average temperature. 2) The data from wind mast for specified time are used for calculations. The effect of the monsoon can be seen in the month of May to September.1. 6. relative humidity. 3) What type of vegetation is present near the site . 6. The monsoon retreat from the northeast shows its effect in the month of November and December.HUBLI. It shows the general profile of wind pattern in this region.1. It may be noticed that from the month of May to September the site is experiencing high wind.1.7 Wind Regime: 1) A wind mast at the proposed site is installed at specified height.

The program will be then then validated based on the recorded wind data and then run to generate the “Wind Power Density (WPD)” map for the proposed site.1.HUBLI. The wind rose and wind speed distribution graph clearly indicates the available intensity of wind speed and also the direction from which good wind is received by the site.Tech. The roughness of the site is assigned based on the surface features and some reference guidelines.Energy Systems.2. M.0 WAsP: All the wind data is collected and somehow processed to a format which can generally be taken as input to WAsP. 2010-11 Page 105 .1. 6.4 Monthly wind profile at chitradurga 6.9 Wind speed distribution and Wind rose: The wind data recorded will be used for calculations of wind speed distribution and Wind rose. which is done using Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP).Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 6.BVBCET.

BVBCET. M.Tech.Energy Systems.1 Micrositing: In order to have a optimum wind turbine positioning.2.HUBLI. WPD map and the technical details of the wind turbine will be loaded. 2010-11 Page 106 . any of the optimization tool will be used in which the topographical features.2 Estimation Of Generation: After the completion of optimization process.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 6. the estimation of annual generation is calculated. The optimization process will then be carried out for achieving the maximum wind farm output. 6.2.

Energy Systems.Tech. 2010-11 Page 107 .Shape factor (k) are results obtained and are shown below. Scale factor (c) .1 Wind parameters Average annual mean wind Shape factor (k) Scale factor (c in m/s) M. Table 7.0 Results and discussion: A sample annual wind speed data of ‘Central Asia Plains’ location is obtained from NREL website and Average annual mean wind speed (Vmean) .1.BVBCET.HUBLI.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software CHAPTER 7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 7.

2010-11 Page 108 .1.75 7.11 1.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software speed (Vmean.F in %) 11.Tech.Energy Systems.1.208 Furling wind speed (Vf) 25 M.BVBCET.HUBLI.2 E40 wind turbine specifications Cut-in wind speed (Vc) 3 Rated wind speed (Vr) 13 Table 7.1 Weibull distribution curve for Cental Asia Plain: Fig 7. m/s) 5.3 Annual capacity factor and energy production Annual Capacity Factor (C.878 5. Table 7.1 Weibull distribution function versus wind speed for Central Asia Plain The annual capacity factor of chosen site for E-40 (600 KW) with turbine parameters are shown below.20.9 Annual Energy Production ( E in KWh) 6.

Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software 7.HUBLI.1.1.2 Power curve and power coefficient curve for E-40 turbine: Fig 7.2 Power curve and Power coefficient curve for E-40 7.3 Thrust coefficient curve for the calculated values : M.Tech.Energy Systems.1. 2010-11 Page 109 .BVBCET.

Energy Systems.BVBCET.3 Thrust coefficient curve for obtained for E-40 Graph of Probability of extreme wind and recurrence period versus wind speed M.4 Probability of extreme wind speed (Fe(u)) and Recurrence period ( Mr ): Fig 7.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Fig 7. 2010-11 Page 110 .HUBLI.Tech.

HUBLI. 2010-11 Page 111 .1 Conclusion: M.Tech.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION 8.BVBCET.Energy Systems.

Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software • The Shape factor and scale factor is calculated for annual wind speed data of Central Asia Plain and based on this the calculation of capacity factor for a E-40 turbine is obtained and annual energy generation is calculated. 2010-11 Page 112 . • The thrust coefficient values for E-40 for different operating wind speeds are calculated and respective graphs are obtained. thrust coefficient curve much clear and smooth curves than generally provided curves for all other general wind turbines.Energy Systems.so that.1 m/s which provides Weibull distribution curve. These calculations provide a clear thinking about what type of wind turbine should be used for a specific site .HUBLI. section turbines (E-40) is done for three days. EP2 - ROAD 3 of the site is visited and some general study on grid issues and wind The main factor included in the analysis and calculation work is the interval of the wind speed being considered for 0.BVBCET.Tech. • The power output and power coefficient values of E-40 based on the annual wind speed data of Central Asia Plain is calculated and respective graphs are obtained. Chitradurga. power output curve. • A study on probability of distribution of extreme wind speeds and Recurrence period of these extreme wind speeds is done and for wind speed from 1-50 m/s the calculations are calculated and respective graphs are obtained. • As a part of partial completion of the project. M. it gives maximum annual energy generation and thus improves quality of wind power generation.

2010-11 Page 113 . and Sherief F.Tech.Energy Systems. Optimization of Wind Farm Power Generation Using New Unit M. Abu Adma. Abdel Samed .1 References: [1] Radwan .Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES 9.HUBLI. Ashraf A.BVBCET. Maged A. Fahmy.H Abdel-Hamid.

Gary Johnson. 2010-11 Page 114 . VOL.BVBCET.D. Guruprasada Rau. 3. 2 (1) pp.C.N. . [9] Rajat Gupta* and Agnimitra Biswas . VOL. VOL. Some of the design and methodology considerations in wind resource assessment. 010-024. 24.R. El-Saadany. 2001. “Wind Energy Systems” . MARCH 2001. 1. Jangamshetti.L . Wind Energy Course. Sauturaga. Enhancement of Matching Turbine Generators With Wind Regime Using Capacity Factor Curves Strategy . Vol. JUNE 2009.R. India) by Rayleigh’s and Weibull methods . “WIND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS”.M . NO. AUGUST 2009. Annexure: M. IET Renewable Power Generation Received on 12th June 2007 Revised on 1st August 2008.Tech. [7] Jake Badger .Oxford university press.M.V.F. Electronic Edition. [2] Prasad.2009 7th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2009). NO. Optimum Siting Of Wind Turbine Generators. 24. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONSERVATION. February 2010. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research. Kastha.H. [3] Suresh H. Banerjee. Phuket. [8] Bhadra.E.HUBLI. NO. Bansal. [6] Dr.Estimating annual wind farm energy Production. [4] Albadi.Wind data analysis of Silchar (Assam.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Matching Technique.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION. November 21. 16. [5] Shyh-Jier Huang and Hsing-Ho Wan . IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS. Wind Turbines Capacity Factor Modeling—A Novel Approach. 2 11-15 Sept 2006. 2.S .D.S.

Energy Systems.HUBLI.BVBCET.65MW M.Tech.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Table 1: Calculated Power output and power coefficient values for Vestas-1. 2010-11 Page 115 .

HUBLI.BVBCET.Energy Systems.Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software Table 11: Power output & Power coefficient values of the E-40 turbine of 600 KW rating Table 12: Calculated thrust coefficient values foe E-40 Wind turbine M. 2010-11 Page 116 .Tech.

HUBLI. 2010-11 Page 117 .Optimum siting of wind turbine generators –Using a simulation software M.Tech.Energy Systems.BVBCET.

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