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HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

9.2 Ha|nta|n|ng a a|ance

1. Host organ|sms are act|ve |n a ||m|ted temperature range

|dent|fy the ro|e of enzymes |n metabo||sm, descr|be the|r chem|ca| compos|t|on and use a s|mp|e mode| to
descr|be the|r spec|f|c|ty on substrates

Erzyres are o|o|og|ca| cala|ysls, Wr|cr speed up crer|ca| reacl|ors |r ||v|rg orgar|srs.
Erzyres are rade up ol prole|rs, lre oas|c ur|l ol Wr|cr |s lre ar|ro ac|d. Trere are 20 d|llererl ar|ro ac|ds, ard
var|ous coro|ral|ors ra|e up d|llererl prole|rs. lr prole|rs, rary ar|ro ac|ds are jo|red logelrer oy po|ypepl|de
oords lor a po|ypepl|de cra|r. Erzyres are 30, g|oou|ar prole|rs Wrere lre po|ypepl|de cra|r |s lo|ded |rlo a
spec|l|c srape.
Erzyres are r|gr|y spec|l|c |r lre|r acl|or, rear|rg eacr erzyre acls or a parl|cu|ar suoslrale. Tr|s |s oecause
lre srape ol lre erzyre's acl|ve s|le l|ls or|y 1 spec|l|c suoslrale ro|ecu|e.

|dent|fy ph as a way |f descr|b|ng the ac|d|ty of a substance

pl |s a Way ol descr|o|rg lre ac|d|ly/a||a||r|ly ol a suoslarce. ll |s a reasure ol lre corcerlral|or ol rydroger |ors
per ||lre ol so|ul|or.

Exp|a|n why the ma|ntenance of a constant |nterna| env|ronment |s |mportant for opt|ma| metabo||c

Vu|l|ce||u|ar orgar|srs lurcl|or oesl ard al opl|rur relaoo||c ell|c|ercy |l lre |rlerra| erv|rorrerl prov|ded lor
lre|r ce||s |s ra|rla|red al a corslarl |eve|.

0escr|be homeostas|s as the process by wh|ch organ|sms ma|nta|n a re|at|ve|y stab|e |nterna| env|ronment
lor oody ce||s
Eg. 8ody lerperalure, pl ol o|ood ard l|ssues, o|ood pressure, sa|l/Waler oa|arce, o|ood g|ucose corcerlral|or,
corcerlral|or ol C02/02 |r o|ood

Exp|a|n that homeostas|s cons|sts of two stages:
- 0etect|ng changes from the stab|e state carr|ed oul oy receplors. 3erl v|a rerves lo lre corlro| cerlre - lre
- 6ounteract|ng changes from the stab|e state carr|ed oul oy elleclors eg. re|eas|rg rorrores ard rerves.

0ut||ne the ro|e of the nervous system |n detect|ng and respond|ng to env|ronmenta| changes

Tre rervous sysler cors|sls ol lre cerlra| rervous sysler - lre ora|r ard sp|ra| cord. Tr|s acls as a corlro|
cerler lo coord|rale a|| lre orgar|sr's resporses. ll rece|ves |rlorral|or, |rlerprels |l ard |r|l|ales a resporse. Tre
per|prera| rervous sysler |s a sysler ol rerves orarcr|rg lror receplors lo elleclors.
Tre rervous sysler Wor|s W|lr arolrer sysler ca||ed lre EN00CRlNE sysler, Wr|cr produces rorrores |r
resporse lo cerla|r sl|ru||.

|dent|fy the broad range of temperature over wh|ch ||fe |s found compared w|th the narrow ||m|ts of
|nd|v|dua| spec|es

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0rgar|srs ||ve |r erv|rorrerls W|lr aro|erl lerperalure rarg|rg lror |ess lral 0C (eg. 8acler|a |r sroW) lo
100C (eg. 8acler|a |r oo|||rg rol spr|rgs, urdersea verls ard vo|caroes).

lrd|v|dua| orgar|srs carrol surv|ve lr|s Wro|e rarge ol lerperalures (eg. Varra|s gerera||y car or|y surv|ve
lerperalures ol 0C lo 15C ard car rorra||y oe acl|ve |r a rarge ol oody lerperalure oelWeer 30C ard 15C.
3ugar care reeds a Warr ( > 15C) lrosl-lree erv|rorrerl so |l car or|y oe groWr |r lrop|ca| ard suolrop|ca|
6ompare the responses of named Austra||an ectotherm|c and endotherm|c organ|sms to changes |n the
amb|ent temperature and exp|a|n how these responses ass|st temperature regu|at|on

Adaplal|ors ol Ecolrerrs (8ElAvl0uRAL):

Cerlra| Nelled 0ragor
3uroa||rg - ||zards suroa|e |r lre rorr|rg lo Warr lre|r ood|es. L|zards l|aller lre|r ood|es lo aosoro real Wr||e
suroa||rg, lrer rarroW lre|r oody lo reduce lre exposed surlace area Wrer lrey oecore rol.
3rade ard ourroWs - ||zards avo|d r|gr lerperalure oy ourroW|rg or see||rg sre|ler urder roc|s or grasses |r lre
rollesl parl ol lre day.
Crarg|rg co|our - sore deserl ||zards car crarge lror pa|e co|ours or lre|r oac| lo rel|ecl lo dar| co|ours lo
aosoro lre real.
Tre ||zard c||ros |rlo lrees ard ousres lo see| coo|er cord|l|ors oll lre grourd.

8|ac| 3ra|e
3ra|es use araeroo|c resp|ral|or dur|rg ruscu|ar acl|v|l|es.
Trey rove |r ard oul ol srade ard vary lre|r exposure lo lre sur.
Trey l|aller lre|r oody lo expose a grealer surlace area lo lre sur.
Trey |rcrease grealer o|oodl|oW lo lre s||r caus|rg rore real lo oe aosoroed ard lrarsporled lo lre |rrer oody
l|ssues dur|rg oas||rg.
l|oerral|or - lo surv|ve co|d cord|l|ors, sore ar|ra|s rera|r |r a sre|lered spol url|| lre|r relaoo||srs s|oWs, eg
8ogorg Volr
Noclurra| acl|v|ly eg. 8roWr 3ra|es

Adaplal|ors ol Erdolrerrs

Red Kargaroo
lave a oody lerperalure ol 3C, Wr|cr |s a degree or 2 |oWer lrar rosl rarra|s ard car oe |oWered 3-1
dur|rg lre r|grl so lre |rlerra| lerperalure car |rcrease gradua||y dur|rg lre day.
Tre|r relaoo||c rale |s 30 s|oWer lrar rosl p|acerla| rarra|s, Wr|cr rears lrey gererale |ess real oW|rg lo
|rlerra| crer|ca| reacl|ors.
wrer resl|rg, lrey'|| ||c| lre|r lorearrs so lral surlace o|ood vesse|s W||| |ose real as lre evaporal|or ol sa||va
la|es real lror lre|r oody.
Trey d|g aWay lre rol surlace ol so|| ard s|l |r lre coo|er urdersurlace urder lrees.
Trey rave a |arge surlace area lo vo|ure ral|o |r lre|r la||s, Wr|cr rears lrere car oe rore real |osl lrrougr lre

Tre |arge lr|r ears ra|e up a |arge surlace area lral |els real escape lror o|ood vesse|s c|ose lo lre surlace.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre c|aWs or |ls lrorl leel a||oW |l lo ourroW |rlo lre so|| dur|rg lre day.
ll |s roclurra|, so |l escapes lre real ol lre day.
Produces corcerlraled ur|re lo preserve |rlerra| Waler.

|dent|fy some responses of p|ants to temperature change

Rel|ecl|ve |eal surlaces reduce lre arourl ol ||grl lral |s aosoroed. L|grl or s||very co|oured |eaves, Waxy or sr|ry
surlaces, eg. 3a|lorusr
0r|erlale |eaves al r|grl arg|es lol lre sur reduce lre surlace area lral |s exposed lo lre sur ard re|p coo| lre
|eal. Eg. Euca|yplus |eaves rarg verl|ca||y.
0rop lre|r |eaves |l lre lerperalure oecores loo co|d.
urdergrourd slruclures eg. Rools, rr|zores, ou|os or luoers, Wr|cr surv|ve Wrer cord|l|ors are urlavourao|e lor
lre aoovegrourd parls. Tre sproul Wrer lavourao|e cord|l|ors relurr.
0orrarl seeds, W|lr lr|c|, prolecl|ve seed coals ray oe |ell oy p|arls |r resporse lo exlrere real or co|d.
Trarsp|ral|or lror lre |eaves ras a coo||rg ellecl |r rol cord|l|ors. loWever p|arls |r dry cord|l|ors usua||y reduce
lrarsp|ral|or |r lre rollesl parls ol lre day lo corserve Waler.
3eed d|spersa| |r sore Auslra||ar p|arls |s sl|ru|aled oy real ol l|re. Eg, oar|s|as ard sore euca|ypls oear lru|ls
W|lr rard Woody cases lral are dropped lror lre parerl p|arl. Tre real ol l|re sl|ru|ales lrer lo oper.
verra||sal|or |s exposure lo co|d cord|l|ors sore p|arls reed oelore lrey l|oWer.

Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to deve|op a
mode| of a feedback mechan|sm

loreoslas|s |rvo|ves lre delecl|or ol a crarge |r lre |rlerra| erv|rorrerl ard lre resporse lo lral crarge. Tre
recrar|sr oy Wr|cr lr|s occurs |s ca||ed FEE08ACK.
Feedoac| |s lre ellecl ol crarges lo a producl ol a process or lre process |lse|l, |e. Tre resporse a|lers lre

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
2. P|ants and an|ma|s transport d|sso|ved nutr|ents and gases |n a f|u|d med|um

|dent|fy the form(s} |n wh|ch each of the fo||ow|ng |s carr|ed |n mamma||an b|ood:
- carbon d|ox|de
- oxygen
- water
- sa|ts
- ||p|ds
- n|trogenous waste
- other products of d|gest|on

Caroor d|ox|de:
1. Z0 coro|res W|lr Waler lo lorr hydrogen carbonate |ons or b|carbonate Wr|cr are carr|ed |r lre p|asma.
2. 23 coro|res W|lr raerog|oo|r lo lorr carbam|nohaemog|ob|n.
3. Z |s d|sso|ved d|rect|y |n the p|asma.

As oxyhaemog|ob|n |r red b|ood ce||s.

As Waler ro|ecu|es |r p|asra.
Eg. 3od|ur, polass|ur, ragres|ur, cr|or|de, su|prale, prosprale |r p|asma.

As g|ycero| ard fatty ac|ds |r p|asma.

N|lrogerous Wasle:
Vosl|y as urea |r p|asma.

0lrer producls ol d|gesl|or:
As separale ro|ecu|es, eg g|ucose, or ar|ro ac|ds |r p|asma.

Exp|a|n the adapt|ve advantage of haemog|ob|n

0xyger |s rol very so|uo|e |r Waler. 8|ood |s a Walery ||qu|d. ll oxyger Was d|sso|ved |r o|ood p|asra, 100rL cou|d
carry or|y 0.2rL ol oxyger.
lr rarra|s, red o|ood ce||s corla|r lre red p|grerl ca||ed raerog|oo|r. ll ras 1 acl|ve s|les Wrere oxyger
ro|ecu|es car oe allacred.
Tre preserce ol raerog|oo|r |rcreases lre oxyger carry|rg capac|ly ol o|ood 100 l|res - 100rL ol o|ood car
carry 20rL ol oxyger.
Tr|s ao|||ly lo lrarsporl |arge quarl|l|es ol oxyger g|ves rarra|s a cors|derao|e adapl|ve advarlage. ll rears
rore oxyger |s ava||ao|e lor resp|ral|or ard rore erergy car oe re|eased.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy the products extracted from donated b|ood and
d|scuss the uses of these products

Red 8|ood Ce||s
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
used lo |rcrease lre arourl ol oxyger lral car oe carr|ed lo lre oody's l|ssues. 0|ver lo pal|erls W|lr araer|a.
Esserl|a| lor o|ood c|oll|rg. 0|ver lo peop|e Wro rave carcer ol lre o|ood or |yrpr. Eg Leu|aer|a or Lyrprora.

Tre ||qu|d proporl|or ol lre o|ood corla|rs o|ood-c|oll|rg laclors. P|asra |s used lo lreal peop|e W|lr c|oll|rg
d|sorders. used lo adjusl lre osrol|c pressure ol o|ood.

lrrurog|oo|rs or arl|ood|es
lrlecl|or l|grl|rg parls ol lre p|asra. 0|ver lo

wr|le o|ood ce||s
lrlecl|or l|grl|rg corporerl ol lre o|ood, used occas|ora||y lo lreal ||le-lrrealer|rg |rlecl|ors, Wrer lre ce|| courl
|s very |oW or lre rorra| Wr|le o|ood ce||s arer'l Wor||rg proper|y.

Ana|yse and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to report on progress |n the product|on of
art|f|c|a| b|ood and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to propose why such research |s needed

-lso|aled raerog|oo|r Was lr|ed ard exper|rerled W|lr as a suosl|lule lo ralura| o|ood. ll ras a r|gr oxyger
carry|rg capac|ly yel Wrer |so|aled lror red o|ood ce||s, lox|c crarges occur.
-Perl|urocaroor oased suosl|lules carry rore oxyger ard caroor lrar o|ood p|asra, oul sl||| carl lrarsporl
rulr|erls or rave lre ao|||ly lo c|ol ard |r|l|ale |rrure reacl|ors.
laerog|oo|r 8ased 0xyger Carr|ers are rol corla|red |r a rerorare ard lrerelore do rol requ|re o|ood lyp|rg
ard cross-ralcr|rg ol o|ood (A, A8, 8 or 0).
-Tre ca|| lor arl|l|c|a| o|ood resu|led lror lre srorlage ol doraled o|ood lror lre 1
ard 2
wor|d wars ard lre
Auslra||ar 0overrrerl p|ac|rg oars or lre doral|or ol o|ood lror peop|e Wro ||ved |r Europe oelWeer 1980 ard
199 oecause lrere |s a crarce lre|r o|ood ray oe allecled oy 83E ard CJ0.
Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy current techno|og|es that a||ow measurement of
oxygen saturat|on and carbon d|ox|de concentrat|ons |n b|ood and descr|be and exp|a|n the cond|t|ons
under wh|ch these techno|og|es are used

Pu|se 0x|reler
0ev|ce |||e a peg s|ls or lre l|rger ard reasure lre lrarsr|ss|or ol ||grl lrrougr lre l|ssues. ll reasures lre
arourl ol oxyger |r arler|a| o|ood. Trere |s a |arge d|llererce |r ||grl aosoroed oy raerog|oo|r corpared lo
ll |s used lo reasure lre oxyger salural|or ol lre o|ood |r pal|erls urdergo|rg ary procedure lral requ|res
araeslres|a or sedal|or or Wrose orealr|rg or c|rcu|al|or |s aororra|.

Arler|a| 8|ood 0as (A80) ara|ys|s
uses e|eclrocrer|ca| relrods lo reasure lre corcerlral|or ol oxyger ard caroor d|ox|de, lre oxyger salural|or,
lre o|caroorale corlerl ard lre pl ol o|ood. ll eva|uales lre ellecl|veress ol lre |urgs |r de||ver|rg oxyger ard
rerov|rg caroor d|ox|de.
used Wrer a pal|erl sroWs dargerous|y |oW oxyger |eve|s or r|gr |eve|s ol caroor d|ox|de. le|ps doclors |r
ror|lor|rg pal|erls urder araeslrel|c dur|rg operal|ors, elc. Eg Wrer a pal|erl |s |r a cora ard or a resp|ralor,
lre o|ood gases are ara|ysed regu|ar|y.
6ompare the structure of arter|es, cap|||ar|es and ve|ns |n re|at|on to the|r funct|on

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Arler|es rave lr|c| ruscu|ar e|asl|c Wa||s lral car W|lrslard lre r|gr pressure ol o|ood. Tre e|asl|c Wa||s a||oW lre
vesse|s lo expard ard reco|| W|lr eacr rearloeal. Tr|s re|ps ra|rla|r lre pressure ol lre o|ood.

Tre Wa||s ol ve|rs are lr|rrer W|lr |ess rusc|e. Trey do rol rave lo W|lrslard r|gr o|ood pressure. Trey o|ood |s al
a rucr |oWer pressure aller pass|rg lrrougr cap|||ar|es. Tre rave va|ves Wr|cr preverl lre oac|l|oW ol o|ood.

Cap|||ar|es rave a very lr|r Wa|| (ore ce|| or|y). Tr|s a||oWs lre excrarge ol raler|a|s oelWeer lre o|ood ard lre
ce||s. Trey prov|de a very |arge surlace area over Wr|cr lre excrarge ol raler|a|s oelWeer lre o|ood ard lre oody
ce||s car occur.

0escr|be the ma|n changes |n the chem|ca| compos|t|on of the b|ood as |t mov|es around the body and
|dent|fy t|ssues |n wh|ch these changes occur

Tre o|ood |eaves lre rearl r|gr |r oxyger. As lre o|ood passes lrrougr lre |rlesl|res, oxyger |eaves lre o|ood
ard caroor d|ox|de as We|| as d|gesl|ve loods sucr as ar|ro ac|ds ard g|ucose erler lre o|ood. Tre o|ood lrer
passes lrrougr lre ||ver, Wrere rore caroor d|ox|de W||| erler lre o|ood. 0xyger |eaves o|ood ard g|ucose |s
regu|aled (excess g|ucose |eaves lre o|ood). Tre o|ood lrer roves lo lre ||dreys, Wrere r|lrogerous Wasled |r
lre lorr ol urea |eave lre o|ood, sa|l ard Waler are regu|aled as We|| as oxyger |eav|rg lre o|ood ard rore caroor
d|ox|de erler|rg lre o|ood. Tre o|ood lrer goes oac| lo lre rearl lo oe repurped ard lrer goes lo lre |urgs aga|r
lo rave lre caroor d|ox|de reroved ard oxyger added.

0ut||ne the need of oxygen |n ||v|ng ce||s and exp|a|n why remova| of carbon d|ox|de from ce||s |s essent|a|

L|v|rg ce||s reed oxyger lor resp|ral|or ard produce caroor d|ox|de as a Wasle producl. Caroor d|ox|de d|sso|ves
W|lr Waler lo lorr caroor|c ac|d, Wr|cr |oWers lre pl ol lre o|ood. Tre accuru|al|or ol caroor d|ox|de |s lox|c lo
ce||s ard lrerelore rusl oe reroved qu|c||y.

0escr|be current theor|es about the processes respons|b|e for the movement of mater|a|s through p|ants |n
xy|em and ph|oem t|ssue

water car r|se |r xy|er al a rale ol 15 relres per rour, Wr|cr |s aga|rsl grav|ly. ll |s a pass|ve process ard re||es
or lrarsp|ral|or ard lre prys|ca| properl|es ol Waler.
0. Trarsp|ral|or -Waler |s pu||ed lror lre lop. EvAP0RATl0N ol Waler lror |eal ce||s lrrougr slorales |r|l|ales
lre pu|| ol lre lrarsp|ral|or slrear. waler |s draWr lror lre xy|er luoes lo rep|ace Waler |osl.
1. Cores|or - Waler ro|ecu|es sl|c| logelrer lo lorr a corl|ruous co|urr |r xy|er.
2. Adres|or - Waler ro|ecu|es sl|c| lo lre s|des ol lre xy|er luoes (ce||u|ose ce|| Wa||s). Tr|s rovererl ol Waler
lrrougr rarroW luoes |s ca||ed CAPlLLARlTY ard |s due lo lre adres|ve ralure ol Waler.

Vovererl ol organ|c mater|a|s eg. 8ugars, am|no ac|ds and hormones oy pr|oer |s ca||ed TRAN3L0CATl0N.
Valer|a|s are lrarsporled both up and down lre sler. Producls ol prolosyrlres|s rave lo oe roved lror lre
|eaves lo lre parls ol lre p|arl Wrere lrey are reeded. Valer|a|s are d|slr|ouled espec|a||y lo lre groW|rg po|rls
ard reproducl|ve slruclures |rc|ud|rg lru|ls ard seeds.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

30uRCE-PATl-3lNK sysler:
Tre l|oW ol raler|a|s |r lre pr|oer |s ar act|ve process lral requ|res erergy (Tre pr|oer luoes rave a r|gr rale ol
resp|ral|or. Trere's a corre|al|or oelWeer lre spread ol lrars|ocal|or ard lre relaoo||c rale. ll a relaoo||c po|sor
|s used, lrars|ocal|or |s reduced). ll |s lrougrl lo occur oy a recrar|sr ca||ed lre source-palr-s|r| sysler ard |s
dr|ven by a pressure grad|ent gereraled osrol|ca||y.
1. 3ugars ard olrer r|rera| rulr|erls are |oaded |rlo lre pr|oer s|eve luoes ol lre |eaves. 3YVPLA3TlC
L0A0lN0 - sugars ard rulr|erls rove |r lre cylop|asr lror lre resopry|| ce||s lo lre s|eve luoes lrrougr
AP0PLA3TlC L0A0lN0 - sugars ard rulr|erls rove a|org lre ce|| Wa||s lo lre s|eve luoes. Trey lrer cross
lre ce|| rerorare oy acl|ve lrarsporl.
2. As lre sugars erler lre pr|oer, lre corcerlral|or ol pr|oer sap |rcreases, lr|s causes lre erlry ol
Waler oy osros|s lror lre surrourd|rg ce||s. Tr|s resu|l|rg PRE33uRE causes Waler ard d|sso|ved so|ules lo
l|oW loWards a 3lNK.
3. A 3lNK |s a reg|or ol a p|arl Wrere sugars ard rulr|erls are acl|ve|y oe|rg reroved lror lre pr|oer eg. lr
rools, sler l|oWers or slorage areas ol lre p|arl. As sugars rove oul ol lre pr|oer, Waler l|oWs oul W|lr lrer.
Tr|s reduces lre pressure |r lre s|eve luoes al lre 3lNK reg|or.
TlE PlL0EV 3AP FL0w. TlE 0lRECTl0N 0F FL0w 0EPEN03 0N wlERE TlE 3lNK AREA3 0F TlE

3. P|ants and an|ma|s regu|ate the concentrat|on of gases, water and waste products |f metabo||sm |n
|nterst|t|a| f|u|d

Exp|a|n why the concentrat|on of water |n ce||s shou|d be ma|nta|ned w|th|n a narrow range for opt|ma|

L|v|rg ce||s Wor| oesl |r ar |solor|c erv|rorrerl - Wrere lre so|ule corcerlral|or |s lre sare |r ard ouls|de lre
ce||. Trey are very sers|l|ve lo crarges |r lre so|ule corcerlral|or ard ray |ose or la|e |r |arge arourls ol Waler
oy osros|s |l corcerlral|ors |r lre|r exlerra| erv|rorrerl crarge loo rucr. ll lr|s rappers, lre ce|| usua||y d|es.
l|gr Waler corcerlral|or |r lre ce|| |eads lo osros|s Wrere Waler passes oul ol lre ce|| cas|rg srr|r|age ard
dealr. ll lre Waler corcerlral|or |r lre ce|| |s |oW, excess|ve Waler ray erler caus|rg lre ce|| lo oursl. Tr|s
espec|a||y occurs |r ar|ra| ce||s Wrere lrere |s a |ac| ol ce|| Wa|| ur|||e p|arls ard lre ce|| car eas||y oursl.
Exp|a|n why the remova| of wastes |s essent|a| for cont|nued metabo||c act|v|ty

wasle producls are corl|rua||y oe|rg lorred. ll lrey Were a||oWed lo accuru|ale |r ce||s ard l|ssues, lrey Wou|d
s|oW doWr relaoo||sr ard po|sor lre ce||s.

|dent|fy the ro|e of the k|dney |n the excretory system |n f|sh and mamma|s

Tre pr|rary ro|e ol lre ||dreys |r l|sr |s 03V0RE0uLATl0N - lre regu|al|or ol lre Waler ard sa|l corcerlral|ors
|r lre oody. lr l|sr, excrel|or ol r|lrogerous Wasle producls occurs across lre g|||s. Tre ||dreys adjusl lre |eve|s ol
Waler ard r|rera| |ors |r lre l|sr's oody |r order lo ra|rla|r a corslarl corcerlral|or ol |rlerra| l|u|d lor lre ce||s.

Exp|a|n why the processes of d|ffus|on and osmos|s are |nadequate |n remov|ng d|sso|ved n|trogenous
wastes |n some organ|sms

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0|llus|or |s loo s|oW ard |s ror-se|ecl|ve ol so|ules. 0sros|s |s lre rovererl ol Waler or|y, Wr|cr rears lral
Wasles Wou|d slay |r lre oody ard or|y Waler Wou|d |eave. Trese proo|ers are so|ved oy a ||drey lral reroves
everylr|rg lror lre o|ood lrer se|ecl|ve|y reaosoros lre uselu| suoslarces/raler|a|s.

Exp|a|n how the processes of f||trat|on and reabsorpt|on |n the mamma||an nephron regu|ate body f|u|d

F||trat|on (non-se|ect|ve and pass|ve}:
8|ood |s orougrl lo lre ||dreys oy lre rera| arlery. Tr|s d|v|des |rlo sra||er arler|o|es, Wr|cr, Wrer lrey reacr a
8oWrar's Capsu|e, lorr a relWor| ol cap|||ar|es ca||ed a 0L0VERuLu3. l|gr o|ood pressure |r lre g|oreru|us
lorces sore ol lre ||qu|d oul ol lre o|ood, lrrougr lre cap|||ary Wa||s ard |rlo lre 8oWrar's Capsu|e.
Tr|s ||qu|d corla|rs N0 8L000 CELL3 0R PLA3VA PR0TElN3. Trey are T00 8l0 lo pass oul ol lre
g|oreru|us. Tr|s ||qu|d |s ca||ed g|oreru|ar l||lrale ard corla|rs or|y sma|| so|ub|e mo|ecu|es sucr as Waler, sa|l,
urea, o|caroorale |ors, g|ucose, ar|ro ac|ds, |rgesled suoslarces (per|c||||r) ard rorrores.
Reabsorpt|on (se|ect|ve and act|ve}:
3urrourd|rg eacr reprror luou|e |s a |arge cap|||ary relWor|. As lre l||lrale lrave|s doWr lre luou|e, uselu|
raler|a|s are reaosoroed |rlo lre o|ood. Tr|s slep requ|res erergy ard occurs |r lre prox|ra| ard d|sla| parls ol lre
luo|e as We|| as |r lre Loop ol ler|e.

8ecret|on (se|ect|ve and act|ve}:
Trarsporls excess suoslarces lror lre o|ood oac| |rlo lre reprror lo |eep regu|ale lre|r corcerlral|or |r o|ood.
Tr|s occurs |r lre prox|ra| ard d|sla| parls ol lre luou|e.
0|st|ngu|sh between act|ve and pass|ve transport and re|ate these to processes occurr|ng |n the
mamma||an k|dney

0|llus|or ard osros|s are pass|ve lorrs ol lrarsporl lral do rol requ|re erergy. Acl|ve lrarsporl requ|res erergy. lr
lre ||drey, oolr lorrs ol lrarsporl are used.
Pass|ve occurs |r l||lral|or ard osros|s ol Waler.
Acl|ve occurs |r secrel|or, lrarsporl ol rulr|erls oac| |rlo lre o|ood, ard se|ecl|ve reaosorpl|or ol sa|ls.

Prox|ra| luou|e
Reaosorpl|or ol o|caroorale |ors ard secrel|or ol rydroger |ors re|ps ra|rla|r a corslarl pl.
Acl|ve secrel|or ol drugs sucr as per|c||||r ard asp|r|r |rlo lre luou|e.
Acl|ve reaosorpl|or ol rulr|erls sucr as g|ucose ard ar|ro ac|ds |rlo lre o|ood.
Regu|al|or ol sa|ls. 3od|ur |ors are acl|ve|y lrarsporled oac| |rlo lre o|ood, cr|or|re lo||oWs pass|ve|y.

Loop ol ler|e
0escerd|rg L|ro - wa||s are perreao|e lo Waler oul rol lo sa|ls. waler passes oul oy osros|s.
Ascerd|rg L|ro - wa||s are perreao|e lo sa|ls oul rol Waler. 3a|l passes oul pass|ve|y, lrer acl|ve|y.
3a|l pass|rg oul ol lre ascerd|rg ||ro ra|es lre |rlersl|l|a| l|u|d ol lre redu||a very corcerlraled.

0|sla| Tuou|e
3e|ecl|ve reaosorpl|or ard secrel|or adjusl lre pl ol lre o|ood.

Co||ecl|rg 0ucls
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre Wa||s are perreao|e lo Waler ard rol sa|ls. waler passes oul oy osros|s. Tre l|ra| l||lrale |s roW lorred ard
ca||ed ur|re.

Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to compare the processes of rena|
d|a|ys|s w|th the funct|on of the k|dney

8olr processes rerove urea lror lre o|ood ard regu|ale lre Waler ard sa|l corcerlral|ors.
8|ood ce||s ard prole|rs do rol |eave lre o|ood dur|rg e|lrer process oecause lrey are loo o|g.

Rera| 0|a|ys|s: K|drey:
-ra|r process occurr|rg |s s|rp|e d|llus|or - ra|r processes are l||lral|or (pass|ve),
ard osros|s, Wr|cr are oolr pass|ve processes se|ecl|ve reaosorpl|or (acl|ve), secrel|or
(acl|ve), as We|| as osros|s (pass|ve).
-or|y suoslarces |r excess pass oul ol lre o|ood - a|| sra|| so|uo|e ro|ecu|es are l||lered lror
(due lo d|llererce |r corcerlral|or). Eg. 3ugars, lre o|ood. Tre uselu| suoslarces are lrer
rulr|erls do rol |eave lre o|ood. acl|ve|y reaosoroed. 3ugars ard rulr|erls
l||lered lrer reaosoroed.
-d|a|ys|s rerorare |s lre sare perreao|||ly - |r lre reprror luou|e, lre perreao|||ly
a|org |ls erl|re |erglr. var|es, eg. 3ore parls are perreao|e lo Waler ard rol

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to compare and exp|a|n the d|fferences |n ur|ne concentrat|on
of terrestr|a| mamma|s, mar|ne f|sh and freshwater f|sh

Terreslr|a| rarra|s, espec|a||y lrose |r deserl erv|rorrerls, rave |org |oops ol ler|e. Tr|s |s lo a||oW rore
reaosorpl|or ol Waler oac| |rlo lre o|ood lo corserve Waler lral |s rol read||y ava||ao|e |r deserl erv|rorrerls. lr
lrese rarra|s, ur|re |s r|gr|y corcerlraled ard ras ||ll|e Waler re|al|ve lol er so|ules. Terreslr|a| orgar|srs lace
lre proo|er ol corserv|rg Waler ard al lre sare l|re rerov|rg r|lrogerous Wasles.

Var|re l|sr rave |ess We||-deve|oped g|oreru|uses |r order lor |ess l||lral|or lo occur. Trey, lrerelore, produce
corcerlraled ur|re. Aqual|c orgar|srs lace lre proo|er ol osros|s. lr seaWaler, lre corcerlral|ors ol d|sso|ved
suoslarces are usua||y |oWer |r lre oody lrar |r lre seaWaler erv|rorrerl. waler W|||, lrerelore, lerd lo d|lluse oul
ard sa|l W||| d|lluse |r. rar|re orgar|srs excrele excess sa|l lrrougr lre g|||s, very ||ll|e ur|re |s excreled. Var|re
l|sr dr|r| |arge arourls ol seaWaler lo rep|ace Waler |oss.

FresrWaler l|sr rave We||-deve|oped g|oreru|uses lor l||lral|or ard produce d||ule ur|re. lr lresrWaler lre
corcerlral|ors ol d|sso|ved suoslarces |r lre oody are usua||y r|grer |r lre oody lrar |r lre erv|rorrerl. waler
W|||, lrerelore, lerd lo d|lluse |r ard sa|ls d|lluse oul. FresrWaler l|sr rusl r|d lrerse|ves ol lre excess Waler ard
lre Wasle producl |s cop|ous arourls ol d||ule ur|re.

Use ava||ab|e ev|dence to exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between the conservat|on of water and the product|on
and excret|on of concentrated n|trogenous wastes |n a range of Austra||an |nsects and terrestr|a| mamma|s

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lrsecls - rary |rsecls rave so|ved lre proo|er ol corserv|rg Waler ard excrel|rg excess r|lroger lrrougr lre
corvers|or ol r|lrogerous producls |rlo ar a|rosl |rso|uo|e suoslarce ca||ed ur|c ac|d. ll ur|c ac|d |s excreled,
a|rosl ro Waler |s |osl. ur|c ac|d |s excreled lrrougr spec|a| luou|es or ur|c ac|d crysla|s are depos|led |r var|ous
parls ol lre oody. Tre Wr|le sca|es or lre W|rgs ol sore oullerl||es are ur|c ac|d depos|ls. 0lrer exarp|es |rc|ude
lre 8ogorg rolr ard lre grassropper.

Varra|s - deserl rarra|s prov|de good exarp|es ol roW lerreslr|a| rarra|s overcore lre proo|er ol
corserv|rg Waler ard excrel|rg r|lrogerous Wasles. Auslra||ar exarp|es |rc|ude:
-lre Red Kargaroo - lre ||dreys produce r|gr|y corcerlraled ur|re
-lre Vu|gara, a sra|| carr|vorous dasyur|d lral |rrao|ls sardr||| deserls |r cerlra| Auslra||a. ll does rol dr|r|.
Vo|slure |s prov|ded |r lood ard lre |arge arourls ol urea produced oy a carr|vorous d|el are excreled |r r|gr|y
corcerlraled ur|re
-lre Vur|d lopp|rg Vouse ||ves or dry seeds W|lr ro dr|r||rg Waler ard ras lre grealesl ao|||ly lo produce
corcerlraled ur|re.

0ut||ne the ro|e of hormones, a|dostrone and A0h (ant|-d|uret|c hormone} |n the regu|at|on of water and
sa|t |eve|s |n b|ood

A0l (vasopress|r)
Vade |r lre rypolra|arus, slored |r ard re|eased |r lre p|lu|lary g|ard |r lre ora|r. A0l |rcreases lre perreao|||ly
ol lre Wa||s ol lre d|sla| luou|es ard co||ecl|rg ducls lo Waler. lr lre preserce ol A0l, Waler passes lree|y oy
osros|s oul ol lre ducls ard oac| |rlo lre oody. ll very ||ll|e A0l |s re|eased, o|ood corcerlral|or |s |oW.

Are produced oy lre adrera| g|ards (aoove lre ||dreys). ll |rcreases lre reaosorpl|or ol sa|l lror lre ||drey
reprror. lrcreased o|ood vo|ure ard o|ood pressure resu|l lror r|gr sa|l corcerlral|ors.

Present |nformat|on to out||ne the genera| use of hormone rep|ace therapy |n peop|e who cannot secrete

F|udrocorl|sore |s used lo lreal peop|e W|lr Add|sor's d|sease. Add|sor's d|sease |s caused oy lre srr|r||rg ol lre
adrera| corlex, Wr|cr produces corl|so| ard a|doslrore. Tr|s rears lral lre oody carrol ra|rla|r a slao|e sa|l ard
Waler oa|arce. Tr|s resu|ls |r a drop |r o|ood pressure ard severe derydral|or. Tr|s cord|l|or car oe reversed W|lr
lre rorrore rep|acererl lrerapy us|rg a syrlrel|c rorrore ca||ed F|udrocorl|sore.

0ef|ne enant|ostas|s as the ma|ntenance of metabo||c and phys|o|og|ca| funct|ons |n response to var|at|ons
|n the env|ronment and d|scuss |ts |mportance to estuar|ne organ|sms |n ma|nta|n|ng appropr|ate sa|t

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to d|scuss processes
used by d|fferent p|ants for sa|t regu|at|on |n sa||ne env|ronments

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

0escr|be adaptat|ons of a range of terrestr|a| Austra||an p|ants that ass|st |n m|n|m|s|ng water |oss

A xeropryle |s a p|arl adapled lo ar|d cord|l|ors, Wrere very ||ll|e Waler |s ava||ao|e ard lerperalures reacr a r|gr
da||y rax|rur.
3c|eropry|| |eaves are lyp|ca| ol rary Auslra||ar ral|ve p|arls. Trey are covered oy a lr|c| cul|c|e ard Wrer lrey
dry oul, lre ce||s W|lr|r ray co||apse oul lre ouler srape ol lre |eal |s ra|rla|red. Trey do rol W||l |||e olrer
|eaves. lr lr|s Way Wrer ro|sl cord|l|ors relurr, lre |eaves rap|d|y oeg|r lo lurcl|or.

Porcup|re (3p|r|lex)
- |ls |eaves cur| arourd lre urdersurlace |rlo a reed|e srape so lral slorala are erc|osed |r a l|grl area.
- 3lorala are erc|osed |r a sur|er groove.
- Tre urders|de ras l|ry ra|rs lo lrap lre a|r, preverl corvecl|or currerls ard prov|de arolrer recrar|sr lo
reduce Waler |oss.
- Tre upper ep|derr|s |s covered W|lr a Waxy cul|c|e ard a|so ras a sr|ry surlace lo rel|ecl real.

R|ver Red 0ur
- Wrer |ls dry, lrees serd doWr |org rools lo calcr rore Waler.
- Leaves rarg verl|ca||y, lo ||r|l real aosoroed.
- Covered W|lr a lr|c| Waxy cul|c|e.
- 8ecause lrey rarg verl|ca||y, prolosyrlres|s occurs |r lre rorr|rg ard allerroors Wrere lerperalures are rol
al rax|rur, lrerelore, slorala or|y oper al lrose l|res lo reduce lrarsp|ral|or.
- Pa||sade resopry|| ce||s are or oolr s|des ol lre |eal.
- 3lorala ruroers are equa| or oolr s|des ol lre |eal.

Adaplal|or loW |l corserves Waler Exarp|es
Exlers|ve rool syslers Rools car reacr urdergrourd Waler R|ver Red 0ur, V|lcre|| 0rass
Ao|||ly lo c|ose slorales
Wrer lerperalures r|se
lo a cerla|r |eve|.
3lorales oper al coo|er l|res,
lrerelore reduc|rg lrarsp|ral|or.
R|ver Red 0ur
lard |eaves W|lr lr|c| or
Waxy cul|c|e
3r|ry surlace lor rel|ecl|rg ||grl.
Reduces ao|||ly ol Waler lo d|lluse
oul ol lre |eal.
3p|r|lex, R|ver Red 0ur
la|ry |eaves Traps a|r, preverls corvecl|or
currerls ard a recrar|sr lo
reduce Waler |oss
Reduced |eaves Reduces surlace area, lrerelore
rear|rg |ess evaporal|or ol Waler
Casuar|ra, Acac|as (wall|es
ard ru|gas)
Leal cur||rg Leaves cur| up lo lorr a cy||rder.
Tr|s reduces lre surlace area ard
lraps a rur|d |ayer ol a|r, Wr|cr
reduces Waler |oss.

3ur|er slorales 3lorales ||e |r a cav|ly Wr|cr
resu|ls |r rur|d a|r oe|rg
la|eas. Casuar|ras (sre-oa|)
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
corcerlraled aoove lre slorala,
Wr|cr reduce Waler |oss
waler slorage waler |s slored |r lre lrur|, |eaves
or rools.
8aooao lree slores Waler
|r lrur|
Leaves rarg verl|ca||y Reduces lre area lral |s exposed
lo lre sur, |ess real aosorpl|or.
3c|eropry||, r|ver red gur
woody lru|ls Less Waler |oss lrar |r l|esry lru|ls 8ar|s|as, la|eas

9.3 |uepr|nt of L|fe

1. Ev|dence of evo|ut|on suggests that the mechan|sms of |nher|tance, accompan|ed by se|ect|on, a||ow change
over many generat|ons

0ut||ne the |mpact on the evo|ut|on of p|ants and an|ma|s of:
- changes |n phys|ca| cond|t|ons |n the env|ronment
- changes |n chem|ca| cond|t|ons |n the env|ronment
- compet|t|on for resources

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Prys|ca| crarge - Peppered Volr |r Erg|ard
Peppered rolrs are usua||y dar| or pa|e |r co|our. Eacr ol lrese rolrs are We|| caroul|aged |r d|llererl surrourd|rgs
ard are corsp|cuous |r olrer surrourd|rgs. lr po||uled loresls rear |rduslr|a| c|l|es Wrere lre lree lrur|s are o|ac|ered,
dar| rolrs rave ar advarlage |r co|our. wr|le rolrs are rore |||e|y lo oe seer ard ealer oy o|rds. 0ver rary years
ol se|ecl|or, dar| rolrs rave rad a r|grer surv|va| rale |r |ls erv|rorrerl ard rave oecore dor|rarl.

Crer|ca| crarge - Vosqu|loes ard 00T
00T Was |r|l|a||y used lo |||| rosqu|loes, Wrere |oW corcerlral|ors Were ellecl|ve. lr suosequerl spray|rgs, lrey
oecare |rellecl|ve as lre leW rosqu|loes lral surv|ved lre l|rsl spray|rgs rad a res|slarce lo 00T ard passed |l or lo
lre|r ollspr|rg. Tr|s crealed a popu|al|or res|slarl lo 00T.
Arl|o|ol|cs ard 8acler|a
Tre use ol arl|o|ol|cs lo lreal oacler|a| d|sease ras oecore |ess ellecl|ve as oacler|a rave oecore res|slarl. Trerelore
excess use ol arl|o|ol|cs |s roW d|scouraged |r red|ca| pracl|ce.

Corpel|l|or lor Resources - Leader ard Resl|ess F|ycalcrer
Trey leed or s|r||ar |rsecls oul |r d|llererl Ways. Tre |eader calcres l|y|rg |rsecls or co||ecls |rsecls lror lrees. Tre
resl|ess rovers aoove lre grourd ard er|ls a ca|| lral d|sluros |rsecls. ll lrer pources or lre |rsecl. 0ver l|re lrese
d|llererl spec|es ol l|ycalcrer are lrougrl lo rave evo|ved lo occupy s||grl|y d|llererl r|cres as a resu|l ol corpel|l|or
lor lood.

0escr|be, us|ng spec|f|c examp|es, how the theory of evo|ut|on |s supported by the fo||ow|ng areas of
- pa|aeonto|ogy, |nc|ud|ng foss||s that have been cons|dered as trans|t|ona| forms
- b|ogeography
- comparat|ve embryo|ogy
- comparat|ve anatomy
- b|ochem|stry

Pa|aeorlo|ogy - lre sludy ol loss||s lral prov|des ev|derce lor evo|ul|or. ll sroWs roW lre lype ard aourdarce ol
orgar|srs rave crarged over l|re. NeW loss||s sroW crarges |r lre pasl erv|rorrerls ol lre earlr. Trars|l|ora|
lorrs lral sroW lealures ol rore lrar 1 group ol orgar|srs |rc|ude:
1. Crossopleryg|ar (|ooe-l|rred) l|sr. ll |s lrougrl lral arpr|o|ars are oorr lror l|sr. Tre crossopleryg|ar l|sr
rad oores |r |ls l|rs lral suggesl |l cou|d Wa||. ll rad sca|es, l|rs, g|||s, |urgs ard |ooe-l|rs lral are uselu| or
2. Trerasp|ds (rarra|-|||e repl||es). Trey rad a jaW oore oelWeer lral ol rarra|s ard repl||es ard Were
Warr-o|ooded. Trey prov|de ev|derce lral rarra|s deve|oped lror repl||es. Preserl day rorolreres a|so
supporl lr|s lreory.
3. Arcraeopleryx. Tr|s d|rosaur rad lealrers ard srared olrer lealures W|lr o|rds ard repl||es. Tr|s ex|slerce
supporls lre lreory lral o|rds deve|oped lror repl||es. ll rad a |org la||, c|aWs, ro |ee|, so||d oores ard leelr
|||e repl||es ard rad a Wr|sr oore ard lealrers |||e o|rds.

8|ogeograpry - lre d|slr|oul|or ol ||v|rg lr|rgs. Cerla|r lypes ol p|arls ard ar|ra|s are lourd |r cerla|r corl|rerls
ard rol |r olrers. ll |s oe||eved Auslra||a's ur|que rarra|s ard arg|osperrs resu|l lror per|ods ol evo|ul|or |r
|so|al|or. 8y |oo||rg al pallerrs ol d|slr|oul|or ol ar orgar|sr loday, p|us lre loss|| d|slr|oul|or |r lre oeasl, We are
ao|e lo corslrucl |ls evo|ul|orary r|slory. Eg:
waralars - lrere are lrree gerera ol waralars W|lr a d|slr|oul|or sparr|rg lre 3oulrerr Pac|l|c 0cear.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Corparal|ve Eroryo|ogy - lre sludy ol eroryos ol d|llererl orgar|srs. Tre s|r||ar|ly oelWeer eroryos ol d|llererl
verleorale spec|es suggesls a corror arceslry. A|| crordales possess praryrgea| (lrroal) g||| poucres al sore
slage ol deve|oprerl.

Corparal|ve Aralory - lre sludy ol d|llererces ard s|r||ar|l|es |r slruclure ol d|llererl orgar|srs. Voderr day
verleorales rave slruclures |r corror Wr|cr are ev|derce ol s|r||ar geres lral rave oeer |rrer|led lror corror
arceslors. Eg:
Tre Perladacly| ||ro
Vosl |ard verleorales sroW a s|r||ar oas|c pallerr |r lre oores ol lre|r arrs ard |egs. Eacr cors|sls ol a s|rg|e
upper oore, lWo |oWer oores, Wr|sl oores ard 5 d|g|ls. ll |s oe||eved lrey |rrer|led lr|s lror lre|r aqual|c arceslors,
lre |ooe l|rred l|sr.

8|ocrer|slry -

Ar|ro ac|d sequerc|rg
Tre sequerces ol ar|ro ac|ds |r prole|rs rave revea|ed greal s|r||ar|l|es ard spec|l|c d|llererces oelWeer d|llererl
spec|es. C|ose|y re|aled spec|es rave prole|rs W|lr s|r||ar ar|ro ac|d sequerces. Ar|ro ac|d sequerces are
delerr|red oy |rrer|led geres ard d|llererces are due lo rulal|ors. Tre degree ol s|r||ar|ly oelWeer lrese
prole|rs |s delerr|red oy lre ruroer ol rulal|ors lral rave occurred.

Exp|a|n how 0arw|n|wa||ace's theory of evo|ut|on by natura| se|ect|on and |so|at|on accounts for d|vergent
and convergent evo|ut|on

Arl|c|es or evo|ul|or Were puo||sred |r 1858. Tre Dr|g|n ol $pec|es Wasr'l puo||sred l||| 1859. 0arW|r Was ao|e lo
prov|de rore corprerers|ve ard dec|s|ve ev|derce lor lre lreory.

Tre lreory ol evo|ul|or oy ralura| se|ecl|or
8y crarce sore orgar|srs possess craracler|sl|cs rore su|led lo lre|r erv|rorrerls lrar olrers. Trese
orgar|srs are rore |||e|y lo surv|ve ard pass or lre|r craracler|sl|cs lo lre|r ollspr|rg. 0radua||y, reW orgar|srs
oeller adapled lo lre|r erv|rorrerl Wou|d evo|ve.

For a reW spec|es lo evo|ve, groups ol orgar|srs reed lo oe |so|aled lror eacrolrer, usua||y oy sore prys|ca|
oarr|er. w|lr|r eacr separale popu|al|or, d|llererl rulal|ors occur ard lrerelore d|llererl var|al|ors are produced.
Nalura| se|ecl|or acls or lre d|llererl popu|al|ors |r d|llererl Ways oecause eacr ras d|llererl craracler|sl|cs ard
d|llererl erv|rorrerla| pressures. Everlua||y lrey oecore so d|llererl, lrey carl |rleroreed.

0eograpr|ca| |so|al|or - eg1 lre orea|up ol 0ordWara|ard. Aooul 100 r||||or years ago, lre soulrerr corl|rerls
separaled, |so|al|rg a|| lre spec|es lrey corla|red lror olrer corl|rerls. As lre corl|rerls dr|lled aparl, eacr
corl|rerl exper|erced d|llererl erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors ard reW orgar|srs evo|ved oy ralura| se|ecl|or.
Eg2 Easlerr ard weslerr Auslra||ar spec|es. Al ore l|re, Auslra||ar spec|es Were W|de|y d|slr|ouled lror lre easl
coasl lo lre Wesl. Tre lorral|or ol lre deserl |r cerlra| Auslra||a |so|aled lre easlerr ard Weslerr popu|al|ors.
0|sl|rcl|ve spec|es lrer evo|ved |r |so|al|or due lo d|llererl erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors.

0|vergerl Evo|ul|or:
0rgar|srs or|g|rale lror a corror arceslor. Tre arceslor spreads |rlo d|llererl erv|rorrerls. 0|llererl se|ecl|or
pressures operale. Tr|s resu|ls |r d|llererl crarges |r lre craracler|sl|cs ol popu|al|ors al d|llererl |ocal|ors.
Everlua||y, due lo |so|al|or, lrey d|verge |rlo d|llererl spec|es. Eg:
0arW|r's F|rcres
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre l|rcres or lre 0a|apagos ard Cocos |s|ards a|| rad gray|sr oroWr lo o|ac| lealrers ard rad s|r||ar ca||s,
resls, eggs ard courlsr|p d|sp|ays. loWever, lre|r rao|lals ard d|els Were d|llererl. Trey rad d|llererl oody s|zes
ard lre|r oea|s var|ed |r s|ze ard srape.
Auslra||ar Varsup|a|s
A possur-|||e arceslor spread |rlo d|llererl erv|rorrerls |r Auslra||a. w|lr|r lre d|llererl erv|rorrerls, d|llererl
lealures Were se|ecled. 0ue lo |so|al|or, popu|al|ors oecare so d|llererl lrey everlua||y lorred reW spec|es.

3lruclures lral orgar|srs rave |r corror are relerred lo as roro|ogous slruclures oecause lrey or|g|rale lror a
corror arceslor.

Corvergerl Evo|ul|or:
Eg1 - 3rar| ard porpo|se. 0re |s a carl||ag|rous l|sr ard lre olrer a rarra|. Tre s|r||ar|ly |r lre|r srapes |s lre
resu|l ol corvergerl evo|ul|or. Tr|s |s Wrer corp|ele orgar|srs (or lre|r parls) core lo resero|e eacr olrer rore
c|ose|y lrar lre|r arceslors d|d, as a resu|l ol lre|r srar|rg s|r||ar erv|rorrerls.
Eg2 - Ecr|dra ard 0realer Arlealer. Trey oolr evo|ved a |org lorgue, Wr|cr prov|ded lrer W|lr ar evo|ul|orary
advarlage lor lre|r d|el ol arls.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to prepare a case study to show how an env|ronmenta|
change can |ead to changes |n a spec|es

Use ava||ab|e ev|dence to ana|yse, us|ng a named examp|e, how advances |n techno|ogy have changed
sc|ent|f|c th|nk|ng about evo|ut|onary re|at|onsh|ps

0NA lyor|d|sal|or uses real lo separale lre 0NA slrards ol d|llererl spec|es. Tre 0NA slrards lror d|llererl
spec|es are lrer coo|ed ard r|xed logelrer lo a||oW rydroger oord|rg. Tre grealer lre degree ol oord|rg oelWeer
lre slrards, lre grealer lre gerel|c s|r||ar|ly oelWeer spec|es. Tr|s lecrr|que ras oeer used 2 sroW lre gerel|c
re|al|orsr|p oelWeer rurars ard olrer pr|rales. ll sroWs cr|rparzees lo oe rosl c|ose|y re|aled. Trere |s |ess
lrar 2 d|llererce |r lre|r 0NA.

8|ocrer|ca| ara|ys|s ol raerog|oo|r sroWs a c|ose evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|p oelWeer rurars ard cr|rparzees
(ro d|llererce |r ar|ro ac|d sequerce) ard rurars ard gor|||as (1 d|llererce |r ar|ro ac|d sequerce). Ar|ro ac|d
sequerces are delerr|red oy |rrer|led geres ard d|llererces are due lo rulal|ors. Tre degree ol s|r||ar|ly
oelWeer lrese prole|rs |s delerr|red oy lre ruroer ol rulal|ors lral rave occurred.

Advarces sucr as 0NA lyor|d|sal|or ard Ar|ro Ac|d 3equerc|rg rave sroWr c|oser evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps
oelWeer rurars ard olrer pr|rales lrar prev|ous|y lrougrl, parl|cu|ar|y lre rurar ard lre cr|rp.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources on the h|stor|ca| deve|opment of theor|es of evo|ut|on and
use ava||ab|e ev|dence to assess soc|a| and po||t|ca| |nf|uences on these deve|opments

'. Dur||ne rne n|sror|ca| oeve|opmenr ol rne rneor, ol evo|ur|on.

1Z35 L|rraeus puo||sred lre c|ass|l|cal|or sysler |r Wr|cr re c|ass|l|ed rurars ard apes logelrer.

Lale 1Z00s Erasrus 0arW|r (grardlalrer ol Crar|es 0arW|r) l|rsl suggesled lral a|| ||le care lror s|rg|e source.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
1Z98 Troras Va|lrus puo||sred r|s Essa, on Popu|ar|on. le oe||eved lral popu|al|ors |rcreased |r s|zed url||
crec|ed oy lre erv|rorrerl, ca||ed lre 'slrugg|e lor ex|slerce'.

1809 Jear 8apl|sle de Larar| pul lorWard lre l|rsl lreory ol evo|ul|or - var|al|or |r spec|es ras deve|oped due
lo lre 'use' or 'd|suse' ol oody parls. Trese crarges are passed or lo ollspr|rg. l|s lreory Was proved
|rcorrecl, oul r|s Wor| cra||erged |r lre oe||el |r creal|or|sr ard re|ped ra|e 0arW|r's |deas rore

1833 Crar|es Lye|| deve|oped r|s geo|og|ca| lreory ol ur|lorr|lar|ar|sr ard puo||sred r|s Pr|nc|p|es ol Seo|og,
- re oe||eved lral lre prys|ca| lealures ol lre earlr Were lre resu|l ol s|oW geo|og|ca| processes lral sl|||
occur loday.

Ear|y 1800s leroerl 3percer |rlroduced lre corcepl ol 'surv|va| ol lre l|llesl'.

1859 0arW|r puo||sred lre ooo| Dn rne Dr|g|ns ol $pec|es o, Veans ol harura| $e|ecr|on.

Ear|y 1900 3c|erl|sl rel|red 0arW|r's lreory.

Preserl Tre roderr lreory ol Evo|ul|or coro|res 0arW|r's lreory ol lre or|g|r ol spec|es oy ralura| se|ecl|or W|lr
ar urderslard|rg ol:
0erel|cs (0regor Verde|)
Crrorosores ard rered|ly (Augusl we|srarr)
Furlrer gerel|cs ard eroryo|ogy (Ju||ar lux|ey)
Valreral|ca| aspecls ol evo|ul|or ard gerel|cs (R.A. F|srer, J.8.3. la|dare ard 3eWa|| wr|grl)
2. Dur||ne some ol rne soc|a| ano po||r|ca| |nl|uences on rnese oeve|opmenrs.

Tre rad|ca| |deas |rlroduced oy lre ear|y evo|ul|orar|sl Were a sroc| lo lre ra|rslrear oe||el ol creal|or|sr. 0arW|r's
lreor|es Were espec|a||y cr|l|c|zed oy sore, rol a||, re||g|ous l|gures al lral l|re. 0arW|r's lreory re||rd|ed lre
oversradoW|rg deoale oelWeer sc|erce ard re||g|or.
A|lrougr 0arW|r app||ed r|s |deas or|y lo o|o|ogy, olrers used r|s |deas |r po||l|ca| ard soc|a| areras. 0arW|r
|rl|uerced lre deve|oprerl ol corrur|sr lrougr re rever app||ed r|s |deas lo rurar soc|el|es. Kar| Varx rad read
0arW|r's Wor| ard Was |rl|uerced oy r|s Wr|l|rg. le lrer Werl or lo descr|oe lre c|ass slrugg|e oelWeer lre r|cr ard lre
poor ard lre apparerl c|ass War. le jusl|l|ed r|s argurerls, |r parl, |r lerrs ol lre 'slrugg|e lor ex|slerce'. Tr|s |dea Was
s|r||ar lo popu|ar v|eW ol 0arW|r|sr as 'lre surv|va| ol lre l|llesl'.
0arW|r a|so |rl|uerced po||l|cs ard ecoror|cs. lr parl|cu|ar, rear-sp|r|led all|ludes loWards lre d|sadvarlaged
Were sorel|res jusl|l|ed |r lerrs ol ralura| se|ecl|or. As a resu|l, |l cou|d oe argued lral rurar progress requ|red lre
e||r|ral|or ol lre url|l. Tr|s Was ore ol lre laclors lral |rl|uerced l|l|er's dr|ve lo produce a pure, super|or Aryar race.
0arW|r|sr Was a|so used as a jusl|l|cal|or lor War. l|s v|eW Was oe|rg app||ed lo corpel|l|or W|lr|r soc|el|es ard
ral|ors. Exp|o|lal|or ol lre poor Was a|so jusl|l|ed lrrougr 0arW|r|sr. 0arW|r r|rse|l avo|ded app||cal|ors ol r|s lreory
ouls|de o|o|ogy ard relused lo ergage |r re||g|ous deoales lrrougroul r|s ||le.

J. l|sr rne oara sources useo.

l3C 8|o|ogy (A|lord ard l|||)
8|o|ogy |r Corlexl (Auoussor ard Kerredy)
Tulor CourseWare
Year 12 8|o|ogy (A||ar ard 0reerWood)

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
2. Cregor Hende|'s exper|ments he|ped advance our know|edge of the |nher|tance of character|st|cs

0ut||ne the exper|ment carr|ed out by Cregor Hende|

0regor Verde|, |r lre 180s, lorru|aled lre pr|rc|p|es ol gerel|cs oy carelu| ard relrod|ca|
exper|rerlal|or W|lr garder peas, P|sum sar|vum. Verde| crose garder peas oecause lrey
Were easy lo groW, produced reW gereral|ors qu|c||y ard rad eas||y d|sl|rgu|srao|e
craracler|sl|cs. le Was a|so ao|e lo slr|cl|y corlro| lre oreed|rg pallerrs ol r|s peas.

Verde| exar|red lre lo||oW|rg sever craracler|sl|cs lourd |r peas:
- F|oWer co|our, purp|e or Wr|le
- F|oWer pos|l|or, ax|a| or lerr|ra|
- 3eed co|our, ye||oW or greer
- 3eed srape, rourd or Wr|r||ed
- Pod srape, |rl|aled or corslr|cled
- Pod co|our, greer or ye||oW
- 3ler re|grl, la|| or srorl.

Verde| reeded lo corlro| lerl|||zal|or. 3e|l-lerl|||zal|or Was ersured oy p|ac|rg a oag over lre l|oWers lo ra|e sure
po||er lror lre slarers |ards or lre carpe| ol lre sare l|oWer. Cross-lerl|||zal|or Was ersured oy cull|rg oll
slarers lror a l|oWer oelore po||er Was produced, lrer dusl|rg lre carpe| ol lre l|oWer W|lr po||er lror arolrer
p|arl. To ersure re||ao|||ly, Verde| used lrousards ol p|arls |r eacr exper|rerl.

Verde| Wor|ed W|lr lrue-oreed|rg p|arls: se|l-lerl|||zed p|arls Wr|cr produced a|| ollspr|rg |derl|ca| lo lre parerls.

Verde| l|rsl cross-lerl|||zed lWo lrue-oreed|rg p|arls lor ore craracler|sl|c, lor exarp|e la|| p|arls Were crossed W|lr
srorl p|arls (Verde| ca||ed lrese p|arls a P' parerl gereral|or).
Tre ollspr|rg produced are ca||ed F' (1
l|||a|) gereral|or.
Tre F' gereral|or Were lrer se|l-lerl|||zed or cross-lerl|||zed lo produce a secord gereral|or, F2.

Eacr ol lre sever lra|ls lral Verde| slud|ed rad a dor|rarl ard a recess|ve laclor. wrer lWo lrue-oreed|rg p|arls
Were crossed, or|y lre dor|rarl laclor appeared |r lre l|rsl gereral|or. Tre recess|ve laclor appeared |r lre
secord gereral|or |r a 3:1 (dor|rarl : recess|ve) re|al|orsr|p.

0escr|be the aspects of the exper|menta| techn|ques used by Hende| that |ed to h|s success

1. le slud|ed a |arge ruroer ol craraclers.
2. le carr|ed oul a |arge ruroer ol crosses.
3. le used pure-oreed|rg ||res.
1. le rade exacl courls ol craracler|sl|cs Wr|cr produced quarl|lal|ve dala lral cou|d oe ara|ysed s|rp|y.
5. le slud|ed separale, |derl|l|ao|e craracler|sl|cs ore al a l|re, so lral lre ellecls ol eacr Were rol corlused.
. Tre p|arl re crose - lre garder pea - sroWs eas||y a|lerrale lorrs (W|lrer dor|rarl or recess|ve).

0escr|be outcomes of monohybr|d crosses |nvo|v|ng s|mp|e dom|nance us|ng Hende|'s exp|anat|ons

Vororyor|d crosses |rvo|ve ore laclor or|y. For exarp|e, a cross ray rave a lrue oreed|rg la|| pea p|arl ard a
lrue oreed|rg srorl pea p|arl. Tr|s Wou|d produce a l|rsl gereral|or a|| la||. Verde| descr|oed lre 1
gereral|or lra|l
lo oe dor|rarl.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

0|st|ngu|sh between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes |n monohybr|d crosses

lorozygous gerolypes are Wrer lre laclors lor lre sare craracler|sl|c are lre sare eg. TT ard ll.
lelerozygous gerolypes are Wrer lre laclors are d|llererl eg. Tl

0|st|ngu|sh between the terms a||e|e and gene, us|ng examp|es

A||e|es are a|lerral|ve lorrs ol a gere s|lualed or lre sare pos|l|or or |ocus or a pa|r ol roro|ogous
crrorosores. Eg la|| ard srorl are a||e|es lor re|grl ol pea p|arls.

A gere |s a secl|or ol 0NA |r a crrorosore lral corla|rs lre |rslrucl|ors lor ra||rg a po|ypepl|de cra|r. Trey
code lor lre craracler|sl|cs ard are passed or lror ore gereral|or lo lre rexl. Eg srorl or la|| geres.

Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between dom|nant and recess|ve a||e|es and phenotype us|ng examp|es
Taj|eet.. (bu||sh|t}
- dor|rarl: gere |s a|Ways expressed |r lre prerolype.
Eg. 8roWr eye co|our |s dor|rarl lo o|ue, o|ue eye co|our preserled '8
- recess|ve: gere |s or|y expressed |r prerolype Wrer dor|rarl gere |s aoserl eg. 8|uW eye co|our |s recess|ve

0ut||ne the reasons why the |mportance of Hende|'s work was not recogn|zed unt|| some t|me after |t was

Verde| puo||sred r|s Wor| or |rrer|larce |r 18. lls |rporlarce, roWever, Was rol recogr|zed lor rore lrar 30
years. Tr|s Was oecause:
le or|y preserled r|s paper lo a sra|| group ol sc|erl|sls. Trey ray rol rave urderslood |l or recogr|zed |ls
Verde| Was rol a We||-|roWr sc|erl|sl ard Was rol Wor||rg al a researcr cerlre W|lr olrer sc|erl|sls, re Was
Wor||rg |r r|s roraslery.
Al lre l|re, ||ll|e Was |roWr aooul lre ce||, lre processes ol r|los|s or re|os|s. Tr|s cou|d oe Wry Verde|'s Wor|
Was rol lu||y urderslood or lrougrl lo oe re|evarl.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be an examp|e of hybr|d|zat|on w|th|n a spec|es and
exp|a|n the purpose of th|s hybr|d|sat|on.

A ryor|d |s produced oy oreed|rg lWo d|llererl spec|es or slra|rs (var|el|es ol spec|es).
A ru|e |s a cross oelWeer lWo spec|es ol equ|re: lre rorse or pory ard lre doresl|c dor|ey.
Vu|es, rav|rg ryor|d v|gor, car groW la||er lrar oolr parerls. we|grl-lor-We|grl, lrey are rucr slrorger lrar
rorses, ard are rucr |orger-||ved W|lr rucr |orger Wor||rg ||ves. Trey rare|y oecore ||| or suller Wourds, car
W|lrslard exlreres ol lerperalure, car ||ve or lruga| ral|ors, rave lrererdous slar|ra ard res|||erce ard are
excepl|ora||y sure-looled.

3. 6hromosoma| structure prov|des the key to |nher|tance

0ut||ne the ro|es of 8utton and over| |n |dent|fy|ng the |mportance of chromosomes

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lr 1902, a yourg Arer|car gerec|sl, wa|ler 3ullor, proposed a crrorosora| lreory ol |rrer|larce. le suggesled
lral Verde|'s |rrer|larce laclors (geres) Were carr|ed or crrorosores. le ooserved re|os|s |r grassroppers ard
1. 0ur|rg re|os|s, lre crrorosores |r eacr ce|| ||red up |r pa|rs, ard eacr pa|r ol crrorosores Was lre
sare s|ze ard srape.
2. loro|ogous pa|rs ol crrorosores segregale dur|rg re|os|s so lral eacr garele rece|ves ore
crrorosore lror eacr pa|r.
3. Aller lerl|||zal|or, lre resu|l|rg zygole rad a lu|| sel ol roro|ogous crrorosores.
Treodor 8over| sroWed lral crrorosores Were lrarslerred lror ore gereral|or lo lre rexl. le suggesled
crrorosores r|grl oe lre rears ol |rrer|larce. le a|so suggesled eacr crrorosore carr|ed a ruroer ol
laclors. Tre a|so argues crrorosores cou|d excrarge laclors W|lr eacr olrer dur|rg ce|| d|v|s|or.
3ullor ard 8over| prov|ded lre l|rsl corc|us|ve ev|derce lral crrorosores carry lre ur|ls ol |rrer|larce ard occur
|r d|sl|rcl pa|rs.

0escr|be the chem|ca| nature of chromosomes and genes

Eacr crrorosore |s rade up ol 0 prole|r ard 10 0NA. 0NA |s co||ed arourd prole|rs ca||ed r|slores.
0NA slards lor 0eoxyr|ooruc|e|c Ac|d. Tre lola| 0NA |r ore ce|| Wou|d reasure lWo relres |r |erglr.
0NA |s a douo|e slrarded re||x ro|ecu|e or douo|e re||x. ll |s rade up ol suour|ls ca||ed ruc|eol|des.
0re ruc|eol|de cors|sls ol a sugar, prosprale ard a oase. Tre sugar |s 0eoxyr|oose. Trere are 1 oases,
(A)der|re, (0)uar|re, (C)ylos|re, ard (T)ryr|re.
lr 0NA, ruc|eol|des are jo|red logelrer lo lorr a po|yruc|eol|de. Trere are lWo po|yruc|eol|de cra|rs rurr|rg |r
oppos|le d|recl|ors. Tre oases are jo|red logelrer |r a corp|ererlary Way oy rydroger oords.

A gere |s a |erglr ol 0NA lral corla|rs lre |rlorral|or lror lre syrlres|s ol ore po|y-pepl|de (parl ol a gere). Tre
|rlorral|or |s slored |r lre sequerce ol oases a|org lre 0NA ro|ecu|e. A gere, lrerelore, cors|sls ol a parl|cu|ar
sequerce ol oases

|dent|fy that 0NA |s a doub|e-stranded mo|ecu|e tw|sted |nto a he||x w|th each strand compr|sed of a sugar-
phosphate backbone and attached bases - A, T, C and 6 - connected to a comp|ementary strand by pa|r|ng
the bases, A-T and C-6.

Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between the structure and behav|our of chromosomes dur|ng me|os|s and the
|nher|tance of genes

Crrorosores are rade ol 0NA Wr|cr lorrs geres. 0ur|rg d|v|s|or eacr crrorosore ra|es a corp|ele copy ol
|lse|l. Tre reW crrorosore |s allacred lo lre or|g|ra| crrorosore oy a cerlrorere. lr lre |r|l|a| d|v|s|or ol
re|os|s lre roro|ogous crrorosores ||re up W|lr lre ralcr|rg pa|r ard ore ol eacr pa|r ol roro|ogous
crrorosores roves |rlo a reW ce||. Nexl lre dup||caled crrorosores separale resu|l|rg |r lour sex ce||s lral
corla|r ra|l lre crrorosore ruroer.

Tre geres are |ocaled or lre crrorosores. Trey are dup||caled dur|rg lre l|rsl slage ol re|os|s ard are lrer
rardor|y assorled deperd|rg or Wr|cr crrorosores erlers Wr|cr reW rap|o|d ce|| dur|rg lre l|rsl ard secord

Exp|a|n the ro|e of gamete format|on and sexua| reproduct|on |n var|ab|||ty of offspr|ng

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0arele lorral|or resu|ls |r lre ra|v|rg ol lre crrorosore ruroer (rap|o|d) ard sexua| reproducl|or resu|ls |r
coro|r|rg gareles lo produce a d|p|o|d orgar|sr (2r). Tre processes |rvo|ved |r lr|s resu|l |r var|ao|||ly ol lre

0areles are lorred dur|rg lre process ol re|os|s. lr re|os|s lrere are lWo slages lral |ead lo var|ao|||ly. Trese
are lre rardor segregal|or ol geres ard lre process ol cross|rg over.

lr sexua| reproducl|or eacr lera|e or ra|e ce|| produces 1 sex ce||s lror lre process ol re|os|s. Eacr ol lrese
sex ce||s ras ra|l lre rorra| crrorosore ruroer ard ras a rardor assorlrerl ol geres lror lre parerl. Tre
a||e|es are separaled ard lre sex ce||s rave a rardor assorlrerl ol dor|rarl ard recess|ve geres. Vore
var|ao|||ly |s |rlroduced deperd|rg or Wr|cr sex ce|| |s successlu| |r lerl|||zal|or. Tre resu|l|rg eroryo ras a
corp|ele|y d|llererl sel ol geres lror e|lrer ol lre parerls.

0escr|be the |nher|tance of sex-||nked genes, and a||e|es that exh|b|t co-dom|nance and exp|a|n why these
do not produce s|mp|e Hende||an rat|os

Co-dor|rarce |s Wrere 2 a||e|es are expressed as separale uro|erded prerolypes. Trey are oolr expressed |r
eacr olrer's preserce. lr lre 2
ollspr|rg gereral|or, Verde|'s 3:1 ral|o |sr'l produced, ralrer |l |s 1:2:1.
8|aa o|aa ou||sr|l ou||sr|l lor sex-||r|age.. jusl ou||sr|l a o|l lor lr|s po|rl
0escr|be the work of Horgan that |ed to the understand|ng of sex ||nkage

lr 1910, Troras lurl Vorgar carr|ed oul oreed|rg exper|rerls or dr|sopr||a (lru|l l||es). le slud|ed crosses
oelWeer red-eyed ard Wr|le-eyed ra|e ard lera|e lru|l l||es ard lourd lral lre ollspr|rg cou|d rol oe exp|a|r |r
lerrs ol Verde|'s ral|os. le rol|ced ra|e dr|sopr||a W|lr Wr|le eyes arorg lre ollspr|rg ol rorra| red eyed
parerls. le ored:
1. Wr|le eyed ra|e X red eyed lera|e. A|| lre ollspr|rg (l1) rad red eyes.
2. a||oWed lre l1 lo |rleroreed ard sore ol lre l2 rad Wr|le eyes lral Were a|| ra|es.
Vorgar rypolres|zed lral lre Wr|le eyed craracler|sl|c Was sex ||r|led ard Was |ocaled or lre X crrorosore ard
lral lre Y crrorosore rad ro gere lor eye co|our.

Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the resu|t|ng phenotypes
|n examp|es of co-dom|nance

wrere 2 a||e|es are expressed |r eacr olrers preserce.
Eg1 3rorlrorr call|e R=red w=Wr|le
Red coal X wr|le coal = A|| Roar
RR X ww = A|| Rw
Eg2 lurar A80 o|ood group
A X A = AA= A 0 X 0 = 00= 0
8 X 8 = 88= 8 A X 8 = A8= A8
A X 0 = A0= A
8 X 0 = 80= 8 Trerelore poss|o|e prerolypes = A, 8, A8, or 0

0ut||ne ways |n wh|ch the env|ronment may affect the express|on of a gene |n an |nd|v|dua|

Tre erv|rorrerl |rc|udes surrourd|rg lorces lral acl or orgar|srs or |ls ce||s.
Tre erv|rorrerl ray allecl lre express|or ol a gere |r ar |rd|v|dua|.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lderl|ca| |rrer|led craracler|sl|cs do rol a|Ways resu|l |r |derl|ca| orgar|srs oecause ol lre ellecl ol lre
Eg. F|oWer co|our |r lydrargea P|arls. Tre l|oWers are 8|ue |r Ac|d|c so|| or P|r| |r A||a||re.
lderl|ca| lW|rs resu|l lror ore lerl|||zed ovur ard rave |derl|ca| gerolypes , yel oecause ol lre erv|rorrerl |r
Wr|cr lrey ||ve ray lurr oul d|llererl lo ore arolrer.

4. The structure of 0NA can be changed and such changes may be ref|ected |n the phenotype of the affected

0escr|be the process of 0NA rep||cat|on and exp|a|n |ts s|gn|f|cance

Rep||cal|or |s lre producl|or ol a secord ro|ecu|e ol 0NA exacl|y |||e lre l|rsl ro|ecu|e. Tre parerl ro|ecu|e acls
as lre lerp|ale.
1. lre lWo slrards ol 0NA separale |r rucr lre sare Way as urz|pp|rg a z|p
2. lre reW ruc|eol|des are added lror lre surrourd|rg cylop|asr. Tr|s requ|res lre erzyre 0NA po|yrerase.
3. s|rce ader|re car pa|r or|y W|lr lryr|re, ard 0 W|lr C, lre reW|y lorred slrard W||| oe exacl|y corp|ererlary
lo lre parerl slrard (Wr|cr acls as a lerp|ale) ard |l lrerelore lorrs ar exacl rep||cale ol lre or|g|ra| 0NA.

Tre s|gr|l|carce |s lral |derl|ca| cop|es ol lre geres are rade. Trese car lrer oe passed orlo daugrler ce||s
dur|rg ce|| d|v|s|or.

0ut||ne, us|ng a s|mp|e mode|, the process by wh|ch 0NA contro|s the product|on of po|ypept|des

ll you dor'l |roW lr|s ur gorra la|| lr|s exarllll
TRAN3CRlPTl0N ard lrer TRAN3LATl0N
- Trarscr|pl|or: lre syrlres|s ol rRNA lror 0NA: lre |rlorral|or |r 0NA |s lrarscr|oed |rlo a slrard ol rRNA
- Trars|al|or: lre syrlres|s ol po|ypepl|des lror rRNA : sel ol 3 oases ca||ed codors or lre rRNA slrard
Tre ar|ro ac|d sequerce |s delerr|red oy lre oase sequerce or lre rRNA slrards Wr|cr |s l|srl delerr|red oy lre
oase sequerce or lre 0NA slrard.

Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between prote|ns and po|ypept|des

A prole|r |s rade up ol ore or rore po|ypepl|de cra|rs. A po|ypepl|de |s a sequerce ol ar|ro ac|ds jo|red oy a
po|y pepl|de oord, lrey car oe ore cra|r or car jo|r W|lr olrer cra|rs lo lorr a prole|r eg. laerog|oo|r, or lo|d
|rlo a spec|l|c srape eg erzyre.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to out||ne the ev|dence that |ed to ead|e and Tatum's 'one
gene - one prote|n' hypothes|s to exp|a|n why th|s was a|tered to the 'one gene - one po|ypept|de'

Ev|derce care lror researcr ol lre oread rou|d. Trey greW lre rou|d or a r|r|ra| red|ur corla|r|rg sugar,
sa|ls ard lre v|lar|r 8|ol|r. Trey reasored lral lrese suoslarces rusl oe corverled oy lre rou|d |rlo ar|ro ac|ds
ard lral erzyres Were respors|o|e lor lr|s relaoo||sr. Trey lrer suojecled lre spores ol lre rou|d lo x-rays lo
cause rulal|ors. Trey lrer greW lre rou|d produced or lre r|r|ra| red|ur, |l |l la||ed lo groW, lrey lr|ed lo groW
|l or a var|ely ol red|urs a|org W|lr a d|llererl ar|ro ac|d eacr l|re. Trey lourd eacr rularl Wou|d groW or|y or
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
ore red|ur W|lr ore parl|cu|ar ar|ro ac|d added. Tr|s suggesled lre rularls rad |osl lre ao|||ly lo produce
parl|cu|ar ar|ro ac|ds.
0eres code lror rary prole|rs lal are rol erzyres. Vary prole|rs are rade up ol rore lrar ore po|ypepl|de ard
eacr gere codes lor 1 po|ypepl|de.

Exp|a|n how mutat|ons |n 0NA may |ead to the generat|on of new a||e|es

A rulal|or |s ary crarge |r lre 0NA ol a crrorosore. Vulal|ors are a source ol reW a||e|es |r ar orgar|sr. ll lre
0NA sequerces are crarged oy a rulal|or, prole|r producl|or W||| crarge. ll ro prole|r or a d|llererl prole|r |s
rade, lrer a ca||'s slruclure or acl|v|l|es ray a|so crarge. lr lr|s Way, ary var|al|or |r gerel|c raler|a| W||| oe
expressed oy lre ce||.

0|scuss the ev|dence for the mutagen|c nature of rad|at|on

Tre darger ol |or|z|rg rad|al|or oecare apparerl aller lre d|scovery ol x-rays |r 1895. r|sl ol lre 1
gereral|or ol
rad|al|or lrerap|sls |r lre ear|y 1900's d|ed ol carcer.
Tre ellecls ol u|lrav|o|el rad|al|or rave a|so oeer |roWr lor sore l|re. lr 1905, cases ol s||r carer Was recorded
or lre rec|s ol grape p|c|ers Wro Were exposed lo lre sur lor |org per|ods ol l|re.
Furlrer ev|derce lor lre rulager|c ralure ol |or|z|rg rad|al|or care W|lr lre deve|oprerl ol ruc|ear Weapors
(alor ooro or l|rosr|ra) ard ruc|ear reaclors (Crerrooy| d|sasler). lr oolr lrese areas, lrere ras oeer ar
|rcrease |r lre lrequercy ol carcers, eg Leu|aer|a.

Exp|a|n how an understand|ng of the source of var|at|on |n organ|sms has prov|ded support for 0arw|n's
theory of evo|ut|on by natura| se|ect|on

0ue lo researcr |rlo 0NA, sc|erl|sls rave oeer ao|e lo so|ve lWo proo|ers lral 0arW|r rad |r deve|op|rg lre
lreory ol evo|ul|or:
1. 0arW|r |reW lral craracler|sl|cs Were passed or lror ore gereral|or lo lre rexl oul d|d rol |roW lre

Verde| sroWed roW craracler|sl|cs Were |rrer|led as 'laclors' (geres).
8over| ard 3ullor recogr|zed lral lre oerav|our ol crrorosores exp|a|red roW geres cou|d oe
0NA proved lo oe lre raler|a| lral coded lor eacr gere.
2. 0arW|r |reW lral var|al|or W|lr|r a popu|al|or Was esserl|a| ol ralura| se|ecl|or lo operale oul d|d rol |roW lre
source ol lr|s var|al|or. we roW |roW lral lre source ol var|al|or W|lr|r a popu|al|or cores lror:
|. rardor lus|or ol gareles |r sexua| reproducl|or
||. cross|rg over ol p|eces ol roro|ogous crrorosores dur|rg re|os|s
|||. rardor assorlrerl ol crrorosore pa|rs |r re|os|s
|v. rulal|ors ol crrorosores ard geres

Tr|s gerel|c var|al|or |s expressed |r lre prerolype ol lre orgar|sr. lr ary popu|al|or |r a g|ver erv|rorrerl,
sore prerolypes surv|ve ard reproduce oeller lrar olrers. 0ver l|re, ralura| se|ecl|or W||| operale lo crarge lre
proporl|ors ol cerla|r geres |r a popu|al|or.

0escr|be the concept of punctuated equ|||br|um |n evo|ut|on and how |t d|ffers from the gradua| process
proposed by 0arw|n

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0arW|r's lreory ol evo|ul|or oy ralura| se|ecl|or proposes lral popu|al|ors crarge s|oW|y ard gradua||y over l|re.
lr lre loss|| record, We srou|d lrerelore expecl lo see a r|slory ol ary ore group ol orgar|srs ol a |org sequerce
|rc|ud|rg |rlerred|ale lorrs, record|rg lre gradua| crarge lror arceslors lo descerdarls.
lr 19Z2, N||es E|dr|dge ard 3leprer 0ou|d proposed a lreory ol purclualed equ|||or|ur. ll proposed lral, |rslead ol
a gradua| lrars|l|or over r||||ors ol years, lrere rave oeer per|ods ol rap|d evo|ul|orary crarge lo||oWed oy a |org
per|od ol slao|||ly or equ|||or|ur.
0ou|d ard E|dr|dge's proposa| suggesls lral Wrer rap|d crarge occurs |r ar erv|rorrerl, orgar|srs e|lrer rove
oul ol lre area or d|e oul.

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to exp|a|n a modern examp|e of 'natura|'

Vosqu|loes ard 00T
Tre 00T Was lre erv|rorrerla| pressure. Tre lavourao|e craracler|sl|c Was lre res|slarce lo 00T. Tre
rosqu|loes lral rad lre craracler|sl|c surv|ved lre spray|rgs ard produced ollspr|rg lral Were a|so res|slarl lo
00T. 0ver l|re, ralura| se|ecl|or occurred, Wrere lre rosqu|loes W|lroul lre res|slarce lo 00T d|ed oul ard lrose
W|lr lre lavourao|e craracler|sl|c surv|ved, ard roW rosl rosqu|loes are res|slarl lo 00T.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be and ana|yse the re|at|ve |mportance of the work
- James watson
- Franc|s 6r|ck
- Rosa||nd Frank||n
- Haur|ce w||k|ns
|n determ|n|ng the structure of 0NA and the |mpact of the qua||ty of co||aborat|on and commun|cat|on on
the|r research


5. 6urrent reproduct|ve techno|og|es and genet|c eng|neer|ng have the potent|a| to a|ter the path of evo|ut|on

|dent|fy how the fo||ow|ng current reproduct|ve techn|ques may a|ter the genet|c compos|t|on of a
- art|f|c|a| |nsem|nat|on
- art|f|c|a| po|||nat|on
- c|on|ng

3e|ecl|ve oreed|rg |s de||oerale|y ra||rg or cross|rg |rd|v|dua|s ol lre sare spec|es W|lr lre craracler|sl|cs
requ|red. Tre a|r ol se|ecl|ve oreed|rg ras oeer lo |rprove lre craracler|sl|cs ol lre spec|es lor rurar use ard

1. Arl|l|c|a| lrser|ral|or:
- Tre |rjecl|or ol ra|e serer |rlo a lera|e
- Ar|ra| oreeders ol coWs, sreep ard rorses use lrese lecrr|ques.
- Tre sperr |s co||ecled lror a ra|e W|lr des|rao|e craracler|sl|cs.
1. Vary lera|es car oe lerl|||zed ard rore ollspr|rg car oe produced.
2. 3perr car oe lrozer ard lrarsporled over |org d|slarces.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Reduces gerel|c var|ao|||ly |r lre popu|al|or.

2. Arl|l|c|a| Po|||ral|or
- P|arl oreeders carry oul arl|l|c|a| po|||ral|or lo oreed p|arls W|lr se|ecled craracler|sl|cs.
- Po||er lror lre ra|e arlrer |s dusled orlo lre lera|e sl|gra. Tre po|||raled l|oWer |s lrer covered lo preverl
po|||ral|or lror olrer l|oWers.
Parl|cu|ar|y uselu| ard easy Way ol oreed|rg reW var|el|es ol p|arls. No expers|ve equ|prerl requ|red.
Reduces gerel|c var|al|or |r lre spec|es.

3. C|or|rg:
- se|ecl|ve oreed|rg car produce popu|al|ors W|lr des|rao|e craracler|sl|cs oul oecause |l re||es or sexua|
reproducl|or, sore sorl ol gerel|c var|ao|||ly |s a|Ways |||e|y (rardor segregal|or, re|os|s ard cross|rg over)
- c|or|rg |s a relrod ol produc|rg gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| orgar|srs.
1. |r agr|cu|lure, c|ored p|arls rave |derl|ca| requ|rererls ard groW |r s|r||ar Ways lo produce s|r||ar
y|e|ds al lre sare l|re.
2. |r p|arls ard ar|ra|s, |derl|ca| cop|es ol des|rao|e var|el|es car oe produced.
1. |r crop p|arls, a|| are suscepl|o|e lo lre sare d|sease. ll d|sease orea|s oul, |l spread rap|d|y
deslroy|rg lre Wro|e popu|al|or.
2. c|or|rg |s ar expers|ve process W|lr ||r|led advarlages over olrer reproducl|ve lecrr|ques.
3. c|or|rg ol ar|ra|s ras ra|sed elr|ca| quesl|ors aooul lre poss|o|||ly ol c|or|rg ol rurars.
Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be a methodo|ogy used |n c|on|ng

P|arl c|or|rg: T|ssue Cu|lure -
1. A secl|or ol lre rool l|p |s cul oul.
2. lre ce||s are oro|er lree |r a o|erder
3. lre ce||s are groWr or a rulr|erl red|ur
1. lrey are lrer |rcuoaled urder corlro||ed cord|l|ors so lral urd|llererl|aled ce|| groWlr occurs
5. gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| p|arls lrer resu|l.
Ar|ra| c|or|rg: Nuc|ear Trarsler Tecrro|ogy lor sreep -
Tre l|rsl successlu| c|or|rg ol ar ar|ra| Was 0o||y lre 3reep al lre Ros||r lrsl|lule |r Ed|roorougr, 3col|ard.
1. adu|l sreep rarrary l|ssue Was cu|lured |r lre |ao lo ra|e lrer dorrarl.
2. lre ruc|eus Was reroved lror ore ol lrese ce||s ard lrarslerred lo ar eruc|ealed egg ce||
lror arolrer sreep.
3. a gerl|e e|eclr|c pu|se caused lre ce||s lo luse. A secord e|eclr|c pu|se lr|ggered ce|| d|v|s|or
ard eroryo lorral|or.
1. lre eroryo Was |rp|arled |rlo a surrogale lera|e sreep Wrere |l greW |rlo a |aro.
- A|| lre ce||s ol lre |aro Were gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| lo lre sreep lral prov|ded lre rarrary l|ssue.

0ut||ne the processes used to produce transgen|c spec|es and |nc|ude examp|es of th|s process and
reasons for |ts use

Trarsger|c spec|es rave gerel|c raler|a| lror a d|llererl spec|es lrarslerred |rlo lre|r crrorosores, |e. 0eres
are la|er lror ore orgar|srs ard lrarslerred |rlo arolrer.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre lrarslerred gere |rslrucls lre lrarsger|c orgar|sr lo produce lral des|red lra|l or producl. Tre lra|l ray oe
passed or lo lulure gereral|ors.
Processes used:
1. 0erel|c Erg|reer|rg -
a) A uselu| gere ard lre crrorosore |l |s or are |derl|l|ed.
o) Tre gere |s |so|aled or 'cul oul' ol |ls 0NA slrard.
c) 3eparale 0NA sequerces lor regu|al|or ray rave lo oe added lo ersure lre gere W||| Wor|.
d) lr sore c|rcurslarces, ru|l|p|e cop|es ol lre gere ray oe rade.
e) Tre gere |s |rserled |rlo lre ce|| ol arolrer orgar|sr. 3orel|res a veclor |s used lo do lr|s. Tre
relrod ol |rserl|or lral |s used deperds or lre lype ol ce||.

2. Reslr|cl|or Erzyres -
a) 0rce a uselu| gere |s |derl|l|ed, reslr|cl|or erzyres are used lo |so|ale ard cul oul lrese geres.
o) Trere are 80 d|llererl lypes, Wr|cr are lourd |r oacler|a.
c) Eacr lype culs oul al a spec|l|c po|rl |r a sequerce ol ruc|eol|des.

3. Va||rg Recoro|rarl RNA -
0NA slrards ol lWo d|llererl orgar|srs are cul oul us|rg lre sare erzyre ard p|eces are r|xed logelrer

1. lrserl|rg 0eres |rlo 8acler|a -
a) Vosl oacler|a corla|r sra|| c|rcu|ar p|eces ol 0NA ca||ed p|asr|ds.
o) P|asr|ds car oe used as veclors or carr|ers lo lrarsler lrarsgeres |rlo oacler|a.

5. lrserl|rg 0eres |rlo P|arl Ce||s -
A so|| oacler|ur |s used Wr|cr |rserls a p|asr|d |r a p|arl ce||, ca||ed lrarslorral|or.

. lrserl|rg 0eres |rlo Ar|ra| Ce||s: V|cro-|rjecl|or -
0eres car oe lrarslerred |rlo ar|ra| ce||s oy us|rg very l|re g|ass r|crop|pelles.

Z. Trarslerr|rg 0eres us|rg a Parl|c|e 0ur -
Parl|c|e gurs car oe used lo srool 0NA-coaled r|croscop|c go|d or lurgsler pa||eles d|recl|y |rlo p|arl ard
ar|ra| ce||s.

Trese processes a||oW sc|erl|sls lo coro|re lre qua||l|es ol d|llererl spec|es.
Trarsger|c spec|es are oe|rg deve|oped:
a) To |rcrease lre res|slarce ol p|arl ard ar|ra|s lo d|seases, pesls ard exlrere
erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors.
o) For red|c|res ard vacc|res
c) To |rprove lre producl|v|ly lor crops ard ar|ra|s lor agr|cu|lure
d) To |rprove lre qua||ly ol lood ard lre ell|c|ercy ol lood process|rg.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy examp|es of the use transgen|c spec|es and use
ava||ab|e ev|dence to debate the eth|ca| |ssues ar|s|ng from the deve|opment and use of transgen|c spec|es

Trarsger|c spec|es are oe|rg deve|oped lo |rcrease lre res|slarce ol p|arls ard ar|ra|s lo d|sease, pesl ard
exlrere erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors, lor red|c|res ard vacc|res, lo |rprove lre qua||ly ol crops ard ar|ra|s lor
agr|cu|lure ard lo |rprove lre qua||ly ol lood ard lre ell|c|ercy ol lood lor process|rg.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Eg1 - 8T Erg|reered Crops
- 8T lox|rs are crer|ca|s produced oy a cerla|r oacler|a ard |||| rary |rsecls
- Pesl|c|de sprays corla|r|rg dead 8T oacler|a rave oeer used or crops.
- Recerl|y, lre 8T geres lral ra|e lre 8T lox|r rave oeer |rserled d|recl|y |rlo p|arls.
- Eg polaloes, loraloes ard collor. Trese p|arls produce lre lox|r corl|ruous|y, are rore res|slarl lo |rsecl
allac| ard reed |ess spray|rg W|lr |rsecl|c|des.
Eg2 - Trarsger|c 3reep
- lr Auslra||a, lrarsger|c sreep rave oeer deve|oped oy lre |rjecl|or ol a gere respors|o|e lor produc|rg a
o|ood c|oll|rg laclor.
- Tre laclor |s oola|red lror a sreep's r|||, ard car oe used lo lreal raeropr|||a |r rurars.
Eg3 - Trarsger|c 3lraWoerr|es
- Trarsger|c slraWoerr|es rave oeer deve|oped |r 3card|rav|a lor lre d|ll|cu|ly |r groW|rg lrer ralura||y.
- Tre slraWoerry ras 0NA lral ras oeer exlracled lror sa|ror.
- Tre lrarsger|c slraWoerry W|lr lre sa|ror gere car groW oeller |r co|d cord|l|ors lrar lrad|l|ora| slra|rs ol lre

Elr|ca| lssues:
- Corcerrs lral gerel|c erg|reer|rg ol lrarsger|c spec|es ras lre capac|ly lo d|srupl lre rale ol gere lrarsler
oelWeer orgar|srs ard lre Way geres are lrarslerred, ard lrerelore d|srupl evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps
oelWeer orgar|srs.
- Corcerrs lral gerel|ca||y erg|reered orgar|srs re|eased |rlo lre erv|rorrerl ray cause reW d|seases or
ercourage lre deve|oprerl ol slra|rs res|slarl lo drugs.
- Corcerrs aooul po||ul|or ol gere poo|s. Eg. Cross-po|||ral|or lror a gerel|ca||y erg|reered crop lo a ror-
erg|reered crop.
- Fears lral acc|derls cou|d resu|l |r lre re|ease ol carcer ce||s, oacler|a or v|ruses lror gerel|c erg|reer|rg
- lea|lr r|s|s assoc|aled W|lr eal|rg gerel|ca||y rod|l|ed loods or la||rg gerel|ca||y erg|reered drugs. Trere |s
groW|rg corsurer oppos|l|or lo gerel|ca||y rod|l|ed lood ard a groW|rg corcerr lor erg|reered loods lo oe

0|scuss the potent|a| |mpact of the use of reproduct|on techno|og|es on the genet|c d|vers|ty of spec|es
us|ng a named p|ant and an|ma| examp|e that have been genet|ca||y a|tered

- Tre lear lral ar|ses lror lre use ol reproducl|ve lecrro|og|es ard gerel|c erg|reer|rg |s lral lre ralura|
d|vers|ly ol orgar|srs |s oe|rg decreased.
- ll rore ard rore larrers p|arl gerel|ca||y rod|l|ed crops oola|red lror a g|ooa| corpary, lrer |oca| var|el|es
W||| d|e oul al ar |rcreas|rg rale.
- ll 8T collor oecores a slardard collor crop lrrougroul lre Wor|d, lrer rol or|y W||| olrer var|el|es oe |osl, oul
lre spec|es |lse|l ray oecore vu|rerao|e |l erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors crarge. A ser|ous corcerr |s lral lre
largel |rsecls ray oecore res|slarl lo lre 8T crer|ca|s.
- C|or|rg lecrr|ques ol doresl|c ar|ra|s, sucr as lrose used lo produce 0o||y, cou|d resu|l |r ru|l|p|e gerel|c
cop|es oecor|rg W|despread |r lre popu|al|or, W|lr a suosequerl |oss ol ralura| var|al|or. Tre c|ored ar|ra|s
ray oe rore suscepl|o|e lo erv|rorrerla| crarges ard/or reW d|seases.
- A|lrougr lrese lecrr|ques speed up lre |rlroducl|or ol lavourao|e craracler|sl|cs |rlo a popu|al|or, lrey do so
al ar experse ol a W|der poo| ol gerel|c d|vers|ly.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

9.4 - The 8earch for etter hea|th

1. what |s a hea|thy organ|sm?

0|scuss the d|ff|cu|t|es |n def|n|ng the terms 'hea|th' and 'd|sease'

ll |s d|ll|cu|l lo del|re rea|lr oecause |l ras rary corporerls ard sore ol lrese are very suojecl|ve. lea|lr |s a
slale ol corp|ele prys|ca|, rerla|, ard soc|a| We||-oe|rg ard rol rere|y lre aoserce ol d|sease or |rl|rr|ly.
ll |s d|ll|cu|l lo del|re d|sease oecause |l |s a slale ol |rpa|red lurcl|or|rg ard poor rea|lr. ll preverls proper
prys|ca| lurcl|or|rg oy |rlerler|rg W|lr lre slruclure ol orgars, l|ssues or ce||s oy a|ler|rg rorra| relaoo||sr.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0ut||ne how the funct|on of genes, m|tos|s, ce|| d|fferent|at|on and spec|a||zat|on ass|st |n the ma|ntenance
of hea|th

Tre ra|rlerarce ol ar orgar|sr |s ass|sled oy lre ra|rlerarce ard repa|r ol lre oody's ce||s ard l|ssues.
Tre lurcl|or ol geres |s lo ersure lral correcl prole|rs are produced |r a ce|| lo erao|e ce||u|ar processes lo
Tre lurcl|or ol r|los|s |s lo erao|e lre gerel|c raler|a| lo oe cop|ed correcl|y Wrer reW ce||s are lorred.
0|llererl lypes ol ce||s oecore spec|a||zed lor d|llererl lurcl|ors |r a ru|l|ce||u|ar orgar|sr. 0ur|rg d|llererl|al|or,
or|y lre geres recessary lor lre lurcl|or|rg ol lre spec|a||zed ce|| are lurred or. Eg |r red o|ood ce||s lre geres
lor ra||rg raerog|oo|r are lurred or.

A rea|lry orgar|sr |s lre resu|l ol lre correcl lurcl|or|rg ol lre geres, lre producl|or ol perlecl cop|es ol gerel|c
raler|a| oy r|los|s, ard lre express|or ol geres |r lre processes ol ce|| d|llererl|al|or ard spec|a||zal|or.

Use ava||ab|e ev|dence to ana|yse the ||nks between gene express|on and ma|ntenance and repa|r of body

lea|lry ce||s rave lre|r cyc|e regu|aled oy prole|rs produced oy d|llererl lypes ol geres.
0NA repa|r geres ersure lral 0NA |s correcl|y cop|ed. Prolo-orco geres produce prole|rs lral sl|ru|ale ce||
groWlr ard d|v|s|or. Turor suppressor geres produce prole|rs lral s|oW or slop ce|| d|v|s|or.
wrer oody l|ssues reed lo oe repa|red, lre suosequerl geres slarl Wor||rg.

2. 0ver 3000 years ago the 6h|nese and hebrews were advocat|ng c|ean||ness |n food, water and persona| hyg|ene

0|st|ngu|sh between |nfect|ous and non-|nfect|ous d|sease

lrlecl|ous d|sease |s ar |rvas|or ol lre oody oy d|sease caus|rg orgar|srs ca||ed palrogers. 8ecause palrogers
car oe lrarslerred lror ore orgar|sr lo arolrer, lre d|sease |s sa|d lo oe |rlecl|ous. Eg Al0s, lelarus, ra|ar|a.
A ror-|rlecl|ous d|sease |rvo|ves ro palrogers. Trere |s ro lrarsler ol d|sease lror ore orgar|sr lo arolrer. Eg
raeropr|||a, scurvy, s||r carcer.

Exp|a|n why c|ean||ness |n food, water and persona| hyg|ene pract|ces ass|st |n contro| of d|sease

0ver 3000 years ago, lre Cr|rese ard leoreWs advocaled c|ear||ress as a rears ol corlro|||rg d|sease. Peop|e
|epl c|ear |r ar ellorl lo preverl d|sease ard |so|aled lre s|c| lo avo|d spread|rg |||resses. loWever, rurars rave
oeer ||v|rg |r urryg|er|c cord|l|or lor rosl ol lre|r ex|slerce. Ep|der|cs ||||ed lrousards ol peop|e ever lrougr |l
Was |roW lrar c|ose corlacl passed or lre d|sease.
Today, We |roW lral sler||e cord|l|ors rear lral ro r|crooes are preserl. 3ore r|crooes use rurar Wasle as a
source ol rulr|erls. Palroger|c r|crooes ||ve |r lood lral ras oeer |ell |r a Warr p|ace, |r Waler supp||es lral rave
oeer corlar|raled oy Wasle ard |r rurar laeces.
8ecause lood, Waler ard persora| ryg|ere rao|ls are polerl|a| sources ol |rlecl|or oy palrogers, |l |s |rporlarl
lrey are |epl sler||e or d|sposed ol |r a ryg|er|c rarrer.
leal, delergerls ard Waler are used lo acr|eve c|ear||ress, |||| ol rerove palrogers.

|dent|fy the cond|t|ons under wh|ch an organ|sm |s descr|bed as a pathogen

0rgar|srs are ca||ed palrogers Wrer lrey cause d|sease. To cause a d|sease, |l rusl:
1. oe preserl |r sull|c|erl ruroers |e. lave erougr v|ru|erce
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
2. erler lre rosl lrrougr a cerla|r parl ol lre oody W|lroul oe|rg deslroyed oy lrey oody's ralura| delerces.
3. escape lror ore rosl lo arolrer
1. surv|ve lrarsr|ss|or lror ore rosl lo arolrer.

Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be ways |n wh|ch dr|nk|ng water
can be treated and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to exp|a|n how these methods reduce the r|sk of |nfect|on from

Pr|rary Trealrerl:
3creer|rg - lre l||ler|rg ol |arge deor|s oy us|rg oars ard screers
0egr|ll|rg - lre rerova| ol |arge gr|l parl|c|es
F|occu|al|or - lre gerl|e r|x|rg ol Waler W|lr crer|ca|s lo lorr susperded parl|c|es lral corla|r rary r|crooes
3ed|rerlal|or - lre sell||rg ol susperded parl|c|es |r sell||rg lar|s

3ecordary Trealrerl:
F||lral|or - lre rerova| ol rear|y a|| rera|r|rg r|crooes ard l|re rud oy pass|rg lre Waler lrrougr sard oeds or

Terl|ary Trealrerl:
Cr|or|ral|or - lre add|l|or ol cr|or|re lo |||| oll rera|r|rg rarrlu| r|crooes, eg cr|or|re |s rore ellecl|ve or
oacler|a lrar v|ruses ard prolozoa
F|uor|dal|or - lre add|l|or ol l|uor|de lo reduce loolr decay.

Trese relrods rerove rary r|crooes lror lre Waler lo reduce |rlecl|or.

3. 0ur|ng the second ha|f of the n|neteenth century, the work of Pasteur and Koch and other sc|ent|sts st|mu|ated
the search for m|crobes as causes of d|sease

0escr|be the contr|but|on of Pasteur and Koch to our understand|ng of |nfect|ous d|seases

url|| lre r|d 19
cerlury, peop|e lrougrl lral ||v|rg lr|rgs Were produced oy sporlareous gereral|or.
Lou|s Pasleur (1825-1895)
- 0|scovered rosl |rlecl|ous d|seases are caused oy r|cro-orgar|srs/gerrs. Tr|s oecare |roWr as lre 0ERV
TlE0RY 0F 0l3EA3E
- lr r|s researcr or lerrerlal|or, re exar|red sarp|es lror lerrerl|rg W|res, re lourd yeasls ard oacler|a -
lral Were corverl|rg sugars lo |acl|c ac|d ra||rg lre W|re lurr sour ard ac|d|c. 8y real|rg lre W|re lo 55C lor
a leW r|rules cou|d |||| lre r|crooes lral spo||ed lre W|re. Tr|s lecrr|que oecare |roWr as
- le derorslraled arlrrax Was caused oy a oacler|a. le deve|oped lre lecrr|que ol us|rg a Wea|ered slra|r ol
a d|sease ard |rocu|al|rg orgar|srs W|lr |l ca||ed vACClNATl0N. le deve|oped vacc|res aga|rsl cr|c|er
cro|era ard sW|re e|ys|pe|as.
- Pasleur used ar 3-sraped l|as| Wr|cr a||oWed a|r lo erler ard rol dusl ard spores. w|lr lr|s c|ass|c
exper|rerl re d|sproved lre lreory ol sporlareous gereral|or.

Rooerl Kocr (1813-1910)
le slud|ed lre d|sease arlrrax.
le oola|red |rlecled raller lror sreep suller|rg lror arlrrax, p|aced |l or a s||de ard |derl|l|ed rod-sraped ce||s
ard resl|rg spores. le lrer |rlecled rea|lry sreep W|lr lre ce||s ard spores ard lourd lral lrey, loo, deve|oped
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lre sare syrplors. le lrer slud|ed lre |rlecled raller lror lre reW|y |rlecled sreep ard derorslraled lral |l
Was lre oacler|ur ard ro olrer corporerl ol lre o|ood lral Was caus|rg lre d|sease.
Kocr's poslu|ales |s used lo eslao||sr lral a parl|cu|ar r|crooe causes a d|sease.
1. lre r|cro-orgar|sr rusl oe preserl |r every rosl W|lr lre d|sease.
2. lre r|cro-orgar|sr rusl oe |so|aled lror lre rosl ard cu|lured.
3. a polerl|a| rosl, Wrer |rocu|aled rusl deve|op lre sare syrplors as lre rosl.
1. a r|cro-orgar|sr rusl oe |so|aled lror lre secord rosl ard |derl|l|ed as lre sare spec|es as
or|g|ra||y cu|lured.

0|st|ngu|sh between:
- pr|ons
- v|ruses
- bacter|a
- protozoans
- fung|
- macro-paras|tes
and name one examp|e of a d|sease cased by each type of pathogen

Pr|ors - Prole|rs lral rave oeer a|lered lror lre|r rorra| srape. Case oroWr d|sease |r ar|ra|s. Car corverl
rorra| prole|rs lo aororra| prole|rs. Eg Creulzle|dl Jacoo d|sease, 83E

v|ruses - 100rr W|de. Are ruc|ear raler|a| erc|osed |r a prole|r coal. Reproduce or|y |rs|de a rosl ce||. use
cylop|asr ol rosl lo reproduce, lrer |||| |l. Eg Al0s repal|l|s

8acler|a - Procaryol|c (ro ruc|eus or rerorare-oourd orgare||es). Eg luoercu|os|s cro|era
Prolozoa - s|rg|e ce||ed ar|ra|s. Eucaryol|c. Vosl are lree ||v|rg oul sore are |rlerra| paras|les lral cause
d|sease. Eg aroeo|c d|serlry

Furg| - eucaryol|c. Corposed ol luou|ar l||arerls Wr|cr lorr ryce||ur. Vyce||ur produces lru|l|rg ood|es Wr|cr
corla|r lrousards ol spores oy Wr|cr lurgus reproduces. Eg l|rea. lrrusr

Vacro-paras|les - |arge paras|les lral car oe seer W|lr lre ra|ed eye. Eg ||ce r|les l|c|s.

Cather and process |nformat|on to trace the h|stor|ca| deve|opment of our understand|ng of the cause and
prevent|on of ma|ar|a

8elore 56 - 3yrplors |roWr (|r l|rdu ard Cr|rese Wr|l|rgs), oul rol cause

46 - 0ree|s lrougrl lral lre dr|r||rg ol slagrarl Waler, lrrougr orealr|rg rarsr vapours
caused lre d|sease.

1880- A|prorse Lavarar saW lre ra|ar|a paras|le l|rsl. 3uggesled lral ra|ar|a Was caused oy lr|s r|cro-

1885-1898 - 3c|erl|sls suggesled ra|ar|a Was lrarsr|lled oy lre Aropre|es rosqu|lo ard lral ra|ar|a
cou|d oe lrarsr|lled lror rurar lo rurar oy |rlecled o|ood.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
1897-1899 - Rora|d Ross corl|rred Varsor's lreory ard eslao||sred lral lre prolozoar P|asrod|ur Was
lre cause ol ra|ar|a. le a|so corp|eled lre ||le cyc|e ol lre ra|ar|a paras|le.

|dent|fy data sources, gather processes and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be one
named |nfect|ous d|sease |n terms of |ts:
- cause
- transm|ss|on
- host response
- major symptoms
- treatment
- prevent|on
- contro|


Cause - prolozoar ca||ed PLA3V00luV

Trarsr|ss|or - lre aropre|es rosqu|loes are lre l|ra| rosls ard lrarsr|l lre paras|le lo rurars. Tre lera|e
rosqu|lo acls as a veclor ard lrarsr|ls |l |r lre o|le.

losl Resporse - al eacr slage ol lre paras|le's ||le cyc|e, |l ras |ls oWr sel ol arl|gers. Tre rosls |rrure sysler
produces arl|ood|es lo l|grl lrer oy arl|gers car oe a|lered.

Vajor 3yrplors - P|asrod|ur paras|les oursl oul ol red o|ood ce||s every 18-Z2 rours, re|eas|rg lox|rs. Trese
lox|rs cause readacre, lever, sr|ver|rg, rausea. 0|s|rlegral|or ol red o|ood ce||s causes araer|a.

Trealrerl - adu|l rurars car produce res|slarce lo ra|ar|a oul very s|oW|y. Arl|-ra|ar|a| drugs ard lrose
corla|r|rg qu|r|re car oe used.

Preverl|or - Arl|-ra|ar|a| drugs srou|d oe la|er oelore v|s|l|rg erder|c areas. Nels, |rsecl|c|des, repe||arls car
oe used.

Corlro| - use ol |rsecl|c|des sucr as 00T lo |||| rosqu|loes, oul rosqu|loes oecare res|slarl. 0ra|r|rg ol sWarps
or sl||| Waler ood|es lo preverl oreed|rg. use ol predalors sucr as l|sr lo leed or rosqu|lo |arvae. 0|| or surlace ol
Waler lo |||| |arvae. Trere |s ro vacc|re. 0erel|c erg|reer|rg ol rosqu|loes lo res|sl lre paras|le are oe|rg

|dent|fy the ro|e of ant|b|ot|cs |n the management of |nfect|ous d|sease

Arl|o|ol|cs are suoslarce capao|e ol deslroy|rg or |rr|o|l|rg lre groWlr ol r|cro-orgar|srs lral cause d|sease.
Trey are crer|ca|s or drugs lral se|ecl|ve|y |||| lre palroger ard rol lre rosl. Trey |rlerlere, deslroy or darage
lre ce||s ol lre gerr.
loWard F|orey ard A|exarder F|er|rg d|scovered lre l|rsl arl|o|ol|c - per|c||||r - lourd |r lre Perec||||ur rou|d.
3ore arl|o|ol|cs acl or lre slruclure ol lre gerr, eg. Per|c||||r deslroys lre ce|| Wa||s ard arproler|c|r deslroys
ce|| rerorares. 0lrers |rlerlere W|lr lre ce|| processes, eg slreploryc|r d|srupls prole|r syrlres|s.
Res|slarce ras evo|ved |r rary slra|rs ol oacler|a W|lr lre|r W|despread use. Trey are or|y ellecl|ve aga|rsl
oacler|a| |rlecl|ors ard rave ro ellecl or v|ruses.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to d|scuss prob|ems re|at|on to ant|b|ot|c res|stance

Tre overuse ol arl|o|ol|cs ras |ed lo lre se|ecl|or ol v|ru|erl oacler|a lral are res|slarl lo arl|o|ol|cs. wrer
arl|o|ol|cs Were l|rsl re|eased, lrey rad a draral|c ellecl or oacler|a. 0ver l|re |l oecare apparerl lral lr|s ellecl
Was oecor|rg |ess polerl. Tr|s Was oecause ol lre deve|oprerl ol drug res|slarce |r lre palroger. Eacr l|re ar
arl|o|ol|c |s used, lrere ray oe sore |rd|v|dua| palrogers lral rave a ralura| res|slarce lo lre drug. Trese
ralura||y res|slarl |rd|v|dua|s are |ell lo oreed lre rexl gereral|or ard pass or lre gerel|c |rlorral|or lral rade
lrer res|slarl. Tre rexl l|re lre drug |s used, |l W||| rave ro ellecl. 0veruse ol arl|o|ol|cs ras resu|led |r
superougs. Trese slra|rs are res|slarl lo arl|o|ol|cs ard |rc|ude varcoryc|r res|slarl go|oen srapn
($rapn,|ococcus aureus). Trese orgar|srs are rol deslroyed oy our slrorgesl arl|o|ol|cs. Vary rousero|d
c|ear|rg producls a|so corla|r arl|o|ol|cs. Tr|s |s ar exarp|e, logelrer W|lr lre use ol arl|o|ol|cs or ar|ra|s or
larrs, ol lre overuse ol arl|o|ol|cs lral are |rcreas|rg lre ruroer ol arl|o|ol|c res|slarl oacler|a.

4. we often recogn|ze an |nfect|on by the symptoms |s causes. The response |s not so obv|ous, unt|| we recover

|dent|fy defence barr|ers to prevent entry of pathogens |n humans:
- sk|n
- mucous membranes
- c|||a
- chem|ca| barr|ers
- other body secret|ons

Tre l|rsl ||re ol delerce prolecls lre oody al poss|o|e erlry po|rls. Prolecl|or |s N0N-3PEClFlC.
- lorrs a lougr ouler surlace/oarr|er cover|rg lre oody
- ouler |ayers ol s||r corla|r |eral|r Wr|cr r|cro-orgar|srs carl perelrale ur|ess |l |s prole|r.
- 3||r ras |ls oWr popu|al|or ol rarr|ess oacler|a. Tre preserce ol lrese re|p preverl |rvad|rg oacler|a lror
- 3eoaceous g|ards |r lre s||r secrele seour. L|p|ds |r lre seour are oro|er doWr oy lre s||r's oacler|a lo
produce ac|ds lral |rr|o|l groWlr ol |rvad|rg palrogers.

Vucous Verorares:
- ||re lre d|gesl|ve, resp|ralory, reproducl|ve ard ur|rary lracls W|lr lr|c| rucous Wr|cr |s sl|c|y ard lraps dusl
parl|c|es ard palrogers.
- Vucous corla|rs lgA Wr|cr reacls W|lr palrogers preverl|rg lrer lror |rvad|rg.
- F|u|ds sucr as sa||va, lears ard rasa| secrel|or Wasr over rucous rerorares ard corla|r |ysozyres lral
orea| doWr lre ce|| Wa||s ol sore oacler|a.

- are r|rule ra|rs Wr|cr projecl lror ce||s ||r|rg lre rose, lracrea ad ororcr|a| luoes.
- C|||a oeal ard sWeep lre rucous loWards lre rose oper|rg or lrroal Wrere lrey are cougred oul or

Crer|ca| 8arr|ers:
- lre ac|d erv|rorrerl |r lre sloracr deslroys palrogers |r lood/dr|r|.
- A|so lre a||a||re erv|rorrerl |r lre |rlesl|res
- larr|ess r|cro-orgar|srs |r lre vag|ra acl or lre ce||s sred lror lre Wa||s lo creale ac|d erv|rorrerls Wr|cr
|rr|o|l lre groWlr ol sore oacler|a or lurg|.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- ur|re |s a sler||e ac|d l|u|d Wr|cr l|usres lre urelers o|adder ard urelrra lo preverl groWlr ol r|cro-orgar|srs.

|dent|fy ant|gens as mo|ecu|es that tr|gger an |mmune response

Exp|a|n why organ transp|ants shou|d tr|gger an |mmune response

Ar |rlroduced orgar corla|rs prole|rs Wr|cr are recogr|zed lore|gr. Tr|s sl|ru|ales lre producl|or ol arl|ood|es
lral allac| ard poss|o|y deslroy lre reW l|ssue.

|dent|fy defence adaptat|ons, |nc|ud|ng:
- |nf|ammat|on response
- phagocytos|s
- |ymph system
- ce|| death to sea| off pathogen

Tre secord ||re ol delerce |s N0N-3PEClFlC, Wr|cr rears lrey acl aga|rsl a|| palrogers regard|ess ol lre|r

lrl|arral|or resporse:
- Wrer lre oody l|ssue |s daraged, lre area oecores red, rol, sWo||er ard pa|rlu|.
- 8|ood c|rcu|al|or lo lral parl |s |rcreased, o|ood vesse|s d||ale ard oecore |ea|y.
- Tr|s re|ps corl|re lre palroger. Ar |rcreased ruroer ol Wr|le o|ood ce||s re|p lo deslroy |l.
- Tre |rl|arral|or resporse |s lr|ggered oy lre crer|ca|s r|slar|re ard proslag|ard|rs re|eased lror lre
daraged l|ssue. Tre ce||s lral re|ease r|slar|res are ca||ed rasl ce||s.

- |s lre ergu|l|rg ard deslrucl|or ol |rvad|rg palrogers oy reulropr||s ard racroprages.
- Pragocyles (reulropr||s ard racroprages) car crarge srape ard surrourd lre palroger. wrer lre palroger
|s |rs|de lre pragocyle, |l |s oro|er doWr oy deslrucl|ve erzyres eg |ysozyres.
- Neulropr||s are srorl acl|rg ard acl |r o|ood ard l|ssue
- Vacroprages acl ra|r|y |r lre l|ssues ard are lre ra|r 'garoage co||eclors' |r lre oody.
- Pragocyles a|so rop up ce|| deor|s aller lre spec|l|c resporse ras deslroyed palrogers.

Lyrpr 3ysler:
- cors|sls ol |yrpr cap|||ar|es Wr|cr jo|r lo |arger vesse|s s|r||ar lo ve|rs.
- Trese vesse|s lrarsporl a l|u|d ca||ed |yrpr aWay lror lre ce||s.
- Lyrpr rodes are preserl |r |yrpr vesse|s ard slore |yrprocyles ard racroprages.

Ce|| 0ealr lo 3ea| oll Palroger
- sorel|res lre oody sea|s oll palrogers |r a cysl or W|lr|r a group ol ce||s. Trese ce||s d|e so lral lre
palroger car ro |orger surv|ve
- |l |s as |l lrese ce||s are oe|rg sacr|l|ced lor lre oerel|l ol lre orgar|sr as a Wro|e.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Arl|-r|croo|a| Prole|rs:
- Lysozyres - lre erzyres corla|red |r |ysozores lral orea| doWr ard deslroy palrogers.
- lrlerlerors - a group ol prole|rs produced oy ce||s |rvaded oy v|ruses. Trey cause rearoy ce||s lo lorr lre|r
oWr arl|v|ra| crer|ca|s, lo preverl lre spread ol lre v|rus.
- Corp|ererl Prole|rs - are a group ol 20 prole|rs lral ass|sl lre secord ||re ol delerce:
8y sl|c||rg lo |rvad|rg r|crooes ra||rg lrer rore |derl|l|ao|e as lore|gr
3ore sl|ru|ale pragocyles lo oecore rore acl|ve
3ore deslroy lre rerorares ol |rvad|rg r|crooes

Cather, process and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to show how a named d|sease resu|ts
from an |mba|ance of m|crof|ora |n humans

V|crol|ora are r|cro-orgar|srs lral ||ve or lre oody W|lroul caus|rg d|sease. Trey |rr|o|l lre groWlr ol lre
palroger rol or|y oy occupy|rg ce|| space ard us|rg lood, oy secrele suoslarces sucr as lox|rs.
Card|d|as|s |s a d|sease caused oy Card|da A|o|cars lral occur |r lre roulr, resp|ralory, lera|e ger|la| ard
gaslro|rlesl|ra| lracls.
Card|d|as|s occurs Wrer lrere |s ar |roa|arce ol Card|da A|o|cars ce||s. Tre |rcrease car oe orougrl aooul oy
la||rg arl|o|ol|cs or slero|ds, corlracepl|ves ard d|aoeles re|||lus.

5. HcFar|ane urnet's work |n the m|dd|e of the twent|eth century contr|buted to a better understand|ng of the
|mmune response and the effect|veness of |mmun|zat|on programs

|dent|fy the components of the |mmune response:
- ant|bod|es
- T ce||s
- ce||s

Tre lr|rd ||re ol delerce |s a|so |roWr as acqu|red or spec|l|c |rrur|ly ard |rc|udes a|| lre delerce recrar|srs
lral deve|op dur|rg lre ||lel|re ol ar |rd|v|dua| as a resu|l ol exposure lo |rlecl|or. ll |s spec|l|c ard ras a rerory.

- are produced oy lre oody |r resporse lo lre preserce ol spec|l|c arl|gers.
- Are prole|rs ca||ed lVVuN00L08lN3
- C|rcu|ale |r lre o|ood p|asra ard coro|re W|lr ard deslroy arl|gers.
- Arl|ger-arl|oody corp|ex a|so acl|vales lre producl|or ol a ser|es ol prole|rs ca||ed corp|ererl prole|rs,
Wr|cr resu|ls |r arl|gers oe|rg |rgesled ard deslroyed.

8 Lyrprocyles:
- ralure |r lre oore rarroW ard corlro| lre rurora| (o|ood) resporse or arl|oody red|aled resporse.
- 8 ce||s preserl |r lre o|ood ard |yrpr are acl|valed oy lre preserce ol arl|gers.
- Acl|valed 8 ce||s c|ore lrerse|ves ard d|llererl|ale |rlo:
a) p|asra 8 ce||s lral produce arl|ood|es
o) rerory 8 ce||s
- lrey are parl|cu|ar|y ellecl|ve aga|rsl oacler|a ard v|ruses |r oody l|u|d (rol W|lr|r oody ce||s).

T Lyrprocyles:
- ralure |r lre lryrus g|ard
- are a|so acl|valed oy arl|gers.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Corlro| lre ce|| red|aled resporse. Trey coro|re W|lr arl|gers/palrogers or W|lr ce||s |rlecled W|lr lre

0escr|be and exp|a|n the |mmune response |n the human body |n terms of:
- |nteract|on between and T |ymphocytes
- the mechan|sms that a||ow |nteract|on between and T |ymphocytes
- the range of T |ymphocytes and the d|fference |n the|r ro|es

lrleracl|or -
Ar arl|ger lral erlers lre oody lrave|s |r lre o|ood lo a |yrpro|d l|ssue (|yrpr rode or sp|eer) Wrere |l |s |rgesled
ard processed oy a racroprage.
Tre racroprage lrer d|sp|ays lragrerls ol lre arl|ger or |ls ouler rerorare, ard lrese are recogr|zed oy
re|per T ard 8 ce||s.
le|per T ce||s lrer, lrrougr lre c|ora| se|ecl|or lreory, d|llererl|ale |rlo cylolox|c T ce||s ard rerory T ce||s. 8
ce||s d|llererl|ale |rlo p|asra 8 ce||s. Tre palroger |s lrer processed ard deslroyed.

Vecrar|srs -
Tre d|llererl ce||s are ao|e lo co||aoorale oecause lrey are c|ose lo eacr olrer ard oecause lrey are regu|aled oy
crer|ca|s ca||ed cylo||res ard |rler|eu||r.
Cylo||res are prole|rs secreled oy T ce||s ard racroprages lral s|gra| olrer ce||s lo |r|l|ale ar |rrure resporse
eg 8 ce||s lo lrarslorr |rlo a p|asra 8 ce||.
lrler|eu||r are se|ecled oy re|per T ce||s ard regu|ale cylolox|c T ce||s ard 8 ce|| producl|or.

T Lyrprocyles:
1. re|per T ce||s - acl|vale 8 ce||s ard K|||er T ce||s
2. ||||er (cylolox|c) T ce||s - produce crer|ca|s (perlor|r) lral deslroy palrogers
3. suppressor T ce||s - suppress 8 ard T ce||s, |e reduce lre |rrure resporse.
1. rerory T ce||s - rera|r |r lre oody ard corler |org lerr |rrur|ly.

0ut||ne the way |n wh|ch vacc|nat|ons prevent |nfect|on

vacc|ral|or/|rrur|zal|or |s lre process ol ra||rg peop|e res|slarl lo |rlecl|or caused oy a palroger.
vacc|res are preparal|ors ol ||ve, allerualed or dead |rellecl|ve gerrs lral are |rjecled |rlo lre oody W|lr lre
|rlerl|or ol provo||rg |rrur|ly lo a d|sease W|lroul produc|rg lre syrplors.
Acl|ve |rrur|zal|or |rvo|ves lre |rjecl|or ol ar arl|ger. (use your ora|r lo exp|a|r lre resl)
Pass|ve |rrur|ly |rvo|ves lre |rjecl|or ol arl|ood|es lral arolrer orgar|sr ras produced. ll does rol prov|de |org
lerr prolecl|or ard carr|es lre r|s| ol sl|ru|al|rg reacl|ors aga|rsl olrer o|ood prole|rs preserl |r lre vacc|re.

0ut||ne the reasons for the suppress|on of the |mmune response |n organ transp|ant pat|ents

8ecause o|ood dra|rs lror lrarsp|arled orgars |rlo lre rec|p|erl's c|rcu|al|or, lre oody recogr|zes lore|gr l|ssue
ce||s ard produces arl|ood|es |r resporse.
Cylolox|c T-ce||s, ralura| ||||er ce||s, racroprages ard 8 ce||s car a|| oe |rvo|ved ard cause a ruroer ol ser|ous
reacl|ors lral deslroy lre l|ssue.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Rejecl|or |s reduced oy ralcr|rg lre lrarsp|arled l|ssue prole|rs lo lre rec|p|erl's oody as c|ose|y as poss|o|e, ard
oy g|v|rg drugs lral suppress lre |rrure resporse.

Process, ana|yse and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to eva|uate the effect|veness of
vacc|nat|on programs |n prevent|ng the spread and occurrence of once common d|seases, |nc|ud|ng
sma||pox, d|pther|a and po||o.

- A v|rus lral erlers lre lrroal ard |urgs ard everlua||y spreads lo lre s||r. 3yrplors |rc|ude oov|ous ves|c|es
or lre s||r, readacre, oac|acre ard lever.
- ll l|rsl appeared |r As|a or Alr|ca 10,000 8C. lr lre 1100's r||||ors ol Arer|cars Were ||||ed oy lre d|sease. ll
Was respors|o|e lor 1/10
dealrs |r Europe |r lre 19
- EdWard Jerrer |rproved or a vacc|re lor sra||pox. wl0 oegar a vacc|ral|or prograr |r 19Z. lr 1980, wl0
dec|ared lre Wor|d lree ol sra||pox.
- Erad|cal|or Was acr|eved oy roul|re |rrur|zal|ors, supp|ererlary doses ol lre vacc|re Was g|ver or spec|a|
|rrur|zal|or days, rop|rg up acl|v|l|es or lrose Wro r|ssed oul ard carelu| surve|||arce ol sra||pox cases.
- Tre prograr Was vERY 3uCCE33FuL.

- A oacler|a| |rlecl|or lrarsr|lled |r lre a|r oy c|ose corlacl. Car cause d|ll|cu|ly |r orealr|rg ard dealr.
- 100 years ago, uplo 50 ol lrose |rlecled, d|ed, rosl aged urder 1. lrere Were |arge ep|der|c |r Europe aller
- lr 1923, a vacc|re, 0TP, Was re|eased. ll loo| l||| lre 10's ard 50's lor lre d|sease lo sr|ll lror cyc||c ep|der|cs
lo occas|ora| oulorea|s ol |oW |rlers|ly. lr 1990, wl0 slaled 80 ol cr||drer rad oeer vacc|raled. Trere
corl|rues lo oe oulorea|s |r A|ger|a, Cr|ra, ard lre V|dd|e Easl, yel |s ro |orger a rajor cr||d ||||er. Tr|s
prograr rasr'l oeer very successlu|.

- |s caused oy allac| ol po||o v|ruses or lre rolor reurors ol lre sp|ra| cord ard ora|r. 3yrplors |rc|ude oac|
pa|r, lever, rusc|e pa|rs.
- Tre d|sease ex|sled |r arc|erl Egypl ard ||||ed rurdreds ol lrousards |r lre 19
cerlury. Tre ruroer ol
cases pea|ed |r lre r|d 20
- lr 1988, wl0 oegar a po||o erad|cal|or carpa|gr. Ever lrougr |l ras oeer erad|caled |r sore courlr|es |l |s
sl||| |r c|rcu|al|or |r rore lrar Z0r courlr|es. Tre ruroer ol cases ras dropped 80. Tr|s sroWs lre prograr
ras rol oeer very ellecl|ve.

. Ep|dem|o|og|ca| stud|es |nvo|ve the co||ect|on and carefu| stat|st|ca| ana|ys|s of |arge quant|t|es of data. 8uch
stud|es ass|st the causa| |dent|f|cat|on of non-|nfect|ous d|seases

|dent|fy and descr|be the ma|n features of ep|dem|o|ogy us|ng |ung cancer as an examp|e

lrc|derce - ruroer ol reW cases |r a per|od
Preva|erce - ruroer ol peop|e allecled al a l|re
Voro|d|ly rale - ruroer ol cases as proporl|or ol a popu|al|or
Vorla||ly rale - ruroer ol dealrs as proporl|or ol popu|al|or al a sel per|od
Lurg Carcer:
0escr|pl|ve slud|es - lrequercy; parl ol a popu|al|or allecled ard |ocal|or ard l|re ol per|od ard lrose allecled.
Ara|yl|ca| slud|es - l|rd a cause ard ellecl re|al|orsr|p |r occurrerce.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Exper|rerla| - lesl ellecl|veress ol lrealrerl, relerred lo as c||r|ca| lr|a|s.

Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on to |dent|fy the cause and effect re|at|onsh|p of |ung cancer

3lud|es rave sroWr a corre|al|or W|lr lre ruroer ol c|garelles sro|ed per day ard lre ear||er age al Wr|cr
sro||rg Was slarled lo lre r|s| ol gell|rg |urg carcer.
Ep|der|o|og|sls rave rad greal success |r delerr|r|rg lral peop|e Wro deve|op |urg carcer are rucr rore |||e|y
lo rave sro|ed lrar lrose Wro do rol - 83.
Pass|ve sro||rg ras oeer ||r|ed lo 3000 peop|e gell|rg |urg carer per year.
l|gr |eve|s ol rad|al|or, po||ul|or ard asoeslos exposure rave a|so oeer ||r|ed lo |rc|derces ol |urg carcer.
Ear|y delecl|or |rcreases surv|va| rales.
ll |s lre |ead|rg dealr |r rer ard Worer, pea||rg oelWeer 55-5. 0ccurs |r 1/1000 peop|e. 0ealr rales are

|dent|fy causes of non-|nfect|ous d|sease us|ng an examp|e from each of the fo||ow|ng categor|es:
- |nher|ted d|seases
- nutr|t|ona| def|c|enc|es
- env|ronmenta| d|seases

Nor-|rlecl|ous d|seases are rol caused oy palrogers; lrey are rol lrarslerao|e lror ore orgar|srs lo arolrer;
lrey rave a W|de var|ely ol causes ard; ard lrey |rc|ude a W|de var|ely ol lypes ol d|sease.

- lrrer|led: eg. 0oWr 3yrdrore |s caused oy ore exlra crrorosore. Trey rave 1Z crrorosores caused oy
|rcorp|ele separal|or ol a spec|l|c crrorosore pa|r dur|rg re|os|s.
- Nulr|l|ora|: eg. Arorex|a Nervosa |s a prsycr|alr|c d|sease caused oy de||oerale urder-eal|rg. 3er|ous d|sease
lral car rave dargerous |org lerr ellecls or rea|lr.
- Erv|rorrerla|: Card|ovascu|ar 0|sease occurs Wrer lre sysler ol lre rearl ard o|ood vesse|s |s urao|e lo
|eep up W|lr lre derards ol lre resl ol lre oody lor oxygeraled o|ood.

7. |ncreased understand|ng has |ed to the deve|opment of a w|de range of strateg|es to prevent and contro|

0|scuss the ro|e of quarant|ne |n prevent|ng the spread of d|sease and p|ants and an|ma|s |nto Austra||a or
across reg|ons of Austra||a

- Prolecls lre rea|lr ol lre rurar, ar|ra| ard p|arl popu|al|ors ol Auslra||a.
- Preverls lre erlry ol lore|gr pesls ard corlag|ous d|seases |rlo Auslra||a.
- 0uararl|re |aWs pror|o|l lre erlry ol |lers cors|dered a r|s|.
- lrporled ar|ra|s lace a l|re |r |so|al|or lo ersure ro d|sease |s preserl. L|v|rg p|arls are a|so quararl|red lo
ra|e sure lrey are rol carry|rg pesls or suller|rg lror d|seases.
- P|arl seeds are exar|red lo crec| lral ro Weed seeds are preserl.
- used ver|c|es ard agr|cu|lura| racr|rery are |rspecled ard c|eared lo ersure lral ro so||/p|arl raller erlers
lre courlry.

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to eva|uate the effect|veness of quarant|ne |n
prevent|ng the spread of a p|ant and an|ma| d|sease |nto Austra||a or across reg|ons of Austra||a

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
8ecause ol Auslra||a's slr|cl quararl|re |aWs, Auslra||ar p|arls ard ar|ra|s do rol rave sore ol lre ser|ous
d|seases lourd |r olrer courlr|es, eg:

Tre ellecl|veress ol quararl|re car oe seer |r Fool ard Voulr 0|sease Wr|cr ras rol perelraled Auslra||a's
oorders. ll |s a r|gr|y corlag|ous d|sease, ard |s carr|ed rol or|y oy ||ve ar|ra|s oy a|so lrrougr real producls ard
equ|prerl. lrporls lror |rlecled courlr|es are or|y a||oWed lo erler |l ro d|sease |s preserl. ll |l d|d erler lre
courlry |l Wou|d deslroy lre real |rduslry cosl|rg o||||ors ol do||ars.

Tre |rellecl|veress ol quararl|re car oe seer |r lre perelral|or ol lre Ved|lerrarear Fru|l F|y, Wr|cr causes
ser|ous darage lo lru|l, |rlo Auslra||a. Tre ellecl|veress ol |rlerslale quararl|re car oe seer |r lre Ved|lerrarear
Fru|l F|y Wr|cr |s |r weslerr Auslra||a ard ras rol spread lo ary olrer slales.

Exp|a|n how one of the fo||ow|ng strateg|es has contro||ed and|or prevented d|sease:
- pub||c hea|th programs
- pest|c|des
- genet|c eng|neer|ng to produce d|sease res|stant p|ants and an|ma|s

Puo||c lea|lr Progrars

- Ass|sl |r prolecl|rg peop|e lror d|sease.
- LaWs del|re sore reasures; cerla|r d|seases are c|ass|l|ed as rol|l|ao|e, eg Al03, wroop|rg Cougr ard
Cro|era. 0lrer d|seases, eg. Cr|c|er Pox, are goverred oy |aWs lral requ|re a quararl|re per|od.
- 0ccupal|ora| rea|lr ard salely |aWs ard po||ul|or |aWs re|ale lo rea|lr cord|l|ors ol Wor|ers.
- lrrur|zal|or progrars |rc|ude cr||drood lr|p|e arl|ger ard Po||orye||l|s ard lrl|uerza prograr lor lre e|der|y.
- Progrars sucr as '0u|l' lor sro||rg, '3||p 3|op 3|ap' lor s||r carcer ard dr|r| dr|v|rg carpa|grs are |r p|ace.
- 3creer|rg progrars rave oeer |rlroduced, eg pap srears lor cerv|ca| carcer, cresl X-rays lor oreasl carcer.
- Puo||c progrars lral re|p |eep lre erv|rorrerl c|ear a|so reduce lre |rc|derce ol d|sease, eg. 3eWage
lrealrerl Wor|s, garoage co||ecl|or ard quararl|re corlro|s.

Cather and process |nformat|on and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to d|scuss the chang|ng methods of dea||ng
w|th p|ant and an|ma| d|seases, |nc|ud|ng the sh|ft |n emphas|s from treatment and contro| to management
or prevent|on of d|sease

lr lre pasl, relrods ol dea||rg W|lr p|arl ard ar|ra| d|seases rad erpras|s or lrealrerl ard corlro| ralrer lrar
raragererl ard preverl|or. For exarp|e, lre use ol ant|b|ot|cs or ar|ra|s Was or|g|ra||y deve|oped |r lre
1910's. Trey Were used lo lreal oacler|a| |rlecl|ors. lr|l|a||y, lrey Were very successlu| |r lreal|rg lre palroger. Yel
W|lr lre |rcreased use ol arl|o|ol|cs over l|re, lre palroger oecare res|slarl Wr|cr rade lre arl|o|ol|cs v|rlua||y
use|ess, eg per|c||||r.
Transp|ant surgery, a|so, |s used |r pal|erls Wrose orgars rave la||ed. Yel lrere Was a proo|er W|lr lr|s relrod
oecause lre oody rejecled lre lore|gr ce||s lror lre doraled orgar. Tr|s proo|er Was so|ved lo sore exlerl W|lr
lre use ol arl|-rejecl|or drugs, eg AL0, yel lrese rad sore s|de ellecls lor exarp|e lral Wea|ered lre |rrure
lr add|l|or, drugs Were used aga|rsl |rlecl|ous d|sease. For exarp|e |r lre lrealrerl ol ra|ar|a, qu|r|re Was used.
A|lrougr |l ard olrer drugs are rol 100 successlu| oecause qu|r|re or|y slops lre ra|ar|a| paras|le are ore slage
ol |ls reproducl|ve ||le cyc|e, ard lrerelore car reproduce |r olrer p|ace. Pa|n k|||ers a|so re||eve syrplors.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lr add|l|or, gene therapy, a recerl deve|oprerl, oas|ca||y a|rs or lre rep|acererl ol a d|sease caus|rg gere W|lr
a rea|lry ore. 8ul, lr|s relrod |s rol successlu| al preserl.
For p|arls, |nsect|c|des rave oeer used lo |||| |rsecl pesls ol crops. For exarp|e lre use ol 00T ras oeer
successlu| oul over l|re, lre pesl oecare res|slarl, Wr|cr rade |l v|rlua||y |rellecl|ve.
Fung|c|des are used lo lreal lurga| d|seases ol p|arls. Trese rad lre sare ellecl as pesl|c|des ard lurg|
everlua||y oecare res|slarl.

As l|re ras progressed, relrods ol dea||rg W|lr d|seases |r p|arls ard ar|ra|s ras crarged lo lre raragererl
ard preverl|or ol d|sease. For exarp|e, vacc|nat|ons are oe|rg used ard adverl|sed. Trey preverl lre occurrerce
ol |rlecl|ous d|sease. Tr|s relrod ras oeer very successlu| as vacc|ral|ors lor sra||pox lor exarp|e rave r|d lre
Wor|d ol lre d|sease as wl0 ras dec|ared.
A|so, slr|cl quarant|ne |aWs are |r p|ace. 0uararl|re preverls lre erlry ard spread ol d|sease oolr srorl ard |org
lerr. 8y ra||rg peop|e dec|are Wral |s oe|rg orougrl |rlo Auslra||a, rary ol lre d|seases preserl |r lre Wor|d are
rol lourd |r Auslra||a.
lr add|l|or, genet|c eng|neer|ng |s used lo produce d|sease res|slarl p|arls ard ar|ra|s Wr|cr |rc|udes lrarsger|c
spec|es sucr as 8T collor ard lre lrarsger|c sreep lor rurar o|ood c|ol la||ure. Tr|s a|so |rc|udes se|ecl|ve
oreed|rg Wrere se|ecled craracler|sl|cs are oola|red lorr lWo orgar|srs.
A|so, pub||c hea|th programs are |r p|ace ard are rore corror roWadays. Trey educale peop|e aooul lre r|s|s
ol cerla|r laclors ard d|sease. For exarp|e lre '0u|l' carpa|gr lor sro||rg lo |rlorr lre puo||c ol lre dargers ol
sro||rg Wr|cr causes |urg carcer ard a|so '3||p, 3|op, 3|ap' lor s||r carcer. C|ear||ress |r persora| ryg|ere,
oeller lrealrerl ol dr|r||rg Waler ard ryg|er|c preparal|or ard slorage ol lood rave a|so oeer |rproved.

9.7 - 0pt|on - Cenet|cs: The 6ode roken?

1. The structure of a gene prov|des the code for a po|ypept|de

0escr|be the processes |nvo|ved |n the transfer of |nformat|on from 0NA through RNA to the product|on of
a sequence of am|no ac|ds |n a po|ypept|de

Po|ypepl|de syrlres|s |rvo|ves a lype ol ruc|e|c ac|d, ca||ed Rh/ (r|ooruc|e|c ac|d). RNA |s lre |rlerred|ary
oelWeer 0NA ard po|ypepl|de syrlres|s. ll |s a s|rg|e slrard ol ruc|eol|de oases. ll ras r|oose sugar ard lre
r|lroger oase, rn,m|ne, |s rep|aced oy urac|| Wr|cr oords W|lr aoen|ne.
Trere are lWo lypes ol RNA lral are |rvo|ved |r po|ypepl|de syrlres|s, resserger RNA (rRNA) ard lrarsler RNA
Trarscr|pl|or - lr lre ruc|eus, lre douo|e slrarded 0NA ro|ecu|es urz|p ard lre 0NA code |s lrarscr|oed |rlo lre
s|rg|e slrarded rRNA ro|ecu|e. Tre rRNA roves oul ol lre ruc|eus |rlo lre cylop|asr ard allacres lo a
r|oosore. lr lre cylop|asr, lre rRNA |s lrars|aled |rlo ar|ro ac|ds.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Trars|al|or - Al lre r|oosore, lre resserger RNA ||res up lorr|rg a lerp|ale. A group ol lrree oases, ca||ed a
cooon, codes lor a spec|l|c ar|ro ac|d. Trere are codes lral slarl ard slop lre cra|r lorral|or. Au0 |s lre slarl|rg
po|rl lor lrars|al|or.
lRNA ras ar arl|codor (a ror-ar|ro ac|d lorr|rg codor) or ore erd ard ar ar|ro ac|d or lre olrer. A
po|ypepl|de |s lorred as eacr ar|ro ac|d |s added lror lRNA lo a cra|r lo||oW|rg lre sequerce or lre rRNA.

Process |nformat|on from secondary data to out||ne the current understand|ng of gene express|on

lr lre rurar oody, every soral|c (oody) ce|| corla|rs lre sare ruroer ol crrorosores ard lre sare |rlorral|or
or eacr crrorosore. loWever, aller lerl|||zal|or, lre rurar zygole produces ce||s Wr|cr deve|op d|llererl|y lror
eacr olrer, eg o|ood ce||s, oore ce||s, rusc|e ce||s, elc.
Tr|s occurs oecause rol a|| lre gerel|c |rlorral|or preserl |r eacr ce|| |s expressed.
0r|y lre geres supp|y|rg |rlorral|or lor lre lurcl|or|rg ol lre ce|| are expressed. Tre olrer geres are 'srul doWr.'

0peron theory of Cene Act|on |n Procaryotes
- Tr|s exp|a|rs roW geres car oe lerporar||y sW|lcred or ard oll accord|rg lo lre reeds ol lre ce||.
- Accord|rg lo lre lreory, sore geres lurcl|or as |rslrucl|or ur|ls, acl|val|rg ard deacl|val|rg olrer geres.
1. A|org lre slrard ol 0NA |roWr as lre operor, lrere |s ar operalor gere ard slruclura| geres.
2. Tre operalor gere |rslrucls lre slruclura| gere lo produce erzyres.
3. Tre erzyres cala|yze a reacl|or corverl|rg lre suoslrale |rlo a producl.
1. Tre preserce ol lre suoslrale resu|ls |r deacl|val|or ol a prole|r |roWr as lre repressor prole|r.
5. wrer acl|valed, lr|s prole|r o|rds lo lre operalor gere, preverl|rg |l lror acl|val|rg lre slruclura| geres.
N0TE: lre operalor e|lrer a||oWs lre RNA po|yrerase erzyre access lo lre geres so lral rRNA car oe
syrlres|zed or preverls |l.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

Tre recrar|sr operales as a leedoac| |oop. Tre grealer lre arourl ol suoslrale lre grealer lre |racl|val|or ol
lre repressor prole|r Wr|cr rear |ess |racl|val|or ol lre operalor gere ard lrerelore slruclura| geres are sW|lcred

E01 - Velaoo||sr ol |aclose |r oacler|a, LAC-0peror
lr lr|s case, lre geres are rorra||y off ard rave lo oe lurred on.
- ll lrere |s a |arge arourl ol |aclose, |l o|rds W|lr lre repressor prole|r so lral |l ro |org |rr|o|ls lre producl|or
ol lre erzyre.
- ll lrere |s very ||ll|e |aclose preserl, |l W||| rol o|rd W|lr lre repressor prole|r, |l W||| allacr lo lre operalor Wr|cr
|rr|o|ls lre producl|or ol erzyres.

E02 - 3yrlres|s ol lre ar|ro ac|d Tryploprar - TRP-0peror
lr lr|s case, lre geres are rorra||y on ard rave lo oe lurred off.
- For lre syrlres|s ol lryploprar, severa| erzyres are requ|red.
- wrer lrere are |arge arourls ol lryploprar, |l o|rds W|lr lre repressor prole|r Wr|cr crarges |ls srape. Tre
repressor car lrer o|rd W|lr lre operalor lo slop lre producl|or ol erzyres.
- ll lrere |s ||ll|e lryploprar preserl, lre repressor ro|ecu|e |s urao|e lo o|rd W|lr lre operalor. Tr|s a||oWs lor
lre producl|or ol erzyres Wr|cr produce lryploprar.

Cene Express|on |n Eucaryotes

1. 0NA urpac||rg
- lr lre ruc|eus, 0NA |s Wourd arourd lre r|slore prole|rs lo lorr ruc|eosores.
- 0eres lral are perrarerl|y sW|lcred oll ray oe pac|ed very l|grl|y.
- Tre add|l|or ol relry| groups a|so o|oc|s 0NA express|or
- Tre add|l|or ol acely| groups ras lre oppos|le ellecl.

2. 0NA Trarscr|pl|or
- Eacr gere ras |ls oWr proroler. RNA po|yrerase car or|y o|rd W|lr 0NA Wrer severa| prole|rs rave a|ready
allacred lo lre proroler.
- Eacr gere ras corlro| e|ererls (p|eces ol ror-cod|rg 0NA) lral o|rd lo lrarscr|pl|or laclors ard lre proroler
lo |r|l|ale lre acl|v|ly ol RNA po|yrerase (RNA po|yrerase corlro|s lrarscr|pl|or).
- Tre Wro|e group ol regu|alory prole|rs ard RNA po|yrerase |s ca||ed a Trarscr|pl|or Corp|ex.

3. Regu|al|or ol rRNA (RNA process|rg)
- F|rsl, lre RNA |s capped ard la||ed (adds ore or rore ruc|eol|des). Tr|s preverls lre ro|ecu|e oe|rg degraded
oy olrer erzyres |r lre cylop|asr.
- lr a gere, a |arge arourl ol 0NA ard corsequerl|y rRNA |s rol coded |rlo a prole|r.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Tre ror-cod|rg parls are ca||ed |rlrors.
- Tre cod|rg parls (expressed) are ca||ed exors.
- Tre |rlrors are cul oul oelore lre rRNA |eaves lre ruc|eus. Tre exors are sluc| logelrer (sp||ced).
Regu|alory prole|rs corlro| lr|s sp||c|rg ard ray oe d|llererl |r d|llererl ce||s.

1. Corlro| ol lrars|al|or
- Trars|al|or ol rRNA car oe o|oc|ed |l spec|l|c prole|rs o|rd lo |l ard preverl |l lror allacr|rg lo lre

5. Prole|r process|rg ard degradal|or
- usua||y po|ypepl|des rusl oe processed lo produce a lurcl|ora| prole|r. Tr|s ray |rvo|ve lo|d|rg, c|evage, or
lre add|l|or ol ror-cod|rg secl|ors. Regu|al|or ray occur |l ary ol lrese sleps |s |rr|o|led.
- Prole|rs ray oe degraded perrarerl|y oy 'garoage o|rs' ca||ed pro|easores.

2. Hu|t|p|e a||e|es and po|ygen|c |nher|tance prov|de further var|ab|||ty w|th|n a tra|t

C|ve examp|es of character|st|cs determ|ned by mu|t|p|e a||e|es |n an organ|sm other than humans

Vu|l|p|e a||e|es: wrer rore lrar lWo lorrs ol a gere ex|sl lor lre sare craracler|sl|c. 0r|y lWo ol lrese a||e|es
ray oe preserl |r ore |rd|v|dua|.
Trey are |||e|y lo ar|se lror rardor rulal|ors ol or|g|ra| lorrs ol a gere over a per|od ol l|re. Trere ray oe ore
a||e|e Wr|cr produces lre oas|c lra|l ca||ed lre W||d lype. 0lrer a||e|es are ca||ed rularl a||e|es ard produce
var|al|ors |r lre prerolype.

Eg wr|le C|over Leal:
- Trere are sever a||e|es lor lre pallerrs or lre |eaves ol Wr|le c|oves.
- Tr|s g|ves 22 poss|o|e prerolypes Wrer lre Z a||e|es are coro|red |r d|llererl groups ol 2.
- Tre W||d lype g|ves a p|a|r greer c|over |eal.
- Tre olrer coro|ral|ors ol a||e|es produce |eaves W|lr crerrors.

6ompare the |nher|tance of the A0 and Rhesus b|ood groups

- Trere are 1 o|ood lypes A, A8, 8, 0.
- Trese are caused oy lre preserce ol lWo caroorydrales or lre surlace ol red o|ood ce||s - lre A ard 8
- lrd|v|dua|s ray rave ore ol lrese suoslarces (A or 8), oolr (A8) or rore (0).
- Tre rec|parl's |rrure sysler recogr|zes surlace arl|gers or lre red o|ood ce||s as lore|gr.
- ll |l |s d|llererl lorr |ls oWr ce||s, agg|ul|ral|or or c|urp|rg W||| occur.
- Vu|l|p|e a||e|es occur |r lre gere lor syrlres|s ol lre red o|ood ce|| arl|ger.
- Tre Rresus laclor |s corp|ele|y |rdeperderl lo A80 arl|gers. ll |s corlro||ed oy a d|llererl gere.
- Tre rresus laclor |s e|lrer preserl (Rr) or rol (Rr-).
- Ar |rd|v|dua| W|lr Rl- o|ood W||| lorr arl|ood|es aga|rsl lre Rr laclor |r Rr o|ood.

A80 |s ar exarp|e ol ru|l|p|e a||e|es Wrere lrere are lrree a||e|es. Rresus |s rol, lrere are or|y lWo a||e|es.
Tre A80 o|ood group ras lour d|llererl prerolypes Wrereas Rresus laclor or|y ras lWo.
A80 ras ar exarp|e ol co-dor|rarce Wrereas Rr |s dor|rarl/recess|ve.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

0ef|ne what |s meant by po|ygen|c |nher|tance |n humans or another organ|sm

Po|yger|c |rrer|larce: craracler|sl|cs lral are corlro||ed oy rore lrar ore pa|r ol geres.

3||r co|our |r rurars:
3||r co|our |r rurars |s corlro||ed oy al |easl lrree geres (or pa|rs ol a||e|es) ard poss|o|y rore. we car
syroo||ze lrese lrree pa|rs ol a||e|es as a ard a`, o ard o` ard c ard c`. we car assure lral eacr ror-dasred
a||e|e (a, o ard c) corlr|oules ||grl s||r p|grerl. we car a|so assure lral eacr ol lre s|x a||e|es are |rcorp|ele|y
dor|rarl. TWo red|ur s||rred |rd|v|dua|s cou|d lrer rave a prerolype aa` oo` cc` a|lrougr lrere are olrer
prerolypes lor red|ur s||r.

0ut||ne the use of h|gh|y var|ab|e genes for 0NA f|ngerpr|nt|ng of forens|c samp|es, patern|ty test|ng and
for determ|n|ng the ped|gree of an|ma|s

- A|| orgar|srs produced oy sexua| reproducl|or rave ur|que 0NA cod|rg ard every oody ce|| carr|es a sel ol
lr|s 0NA.
- A|lrougr lre cod|rg reg|ors ol lre 0NA (exors) produce lre |rd|v|dua| prole|rs, |l |s lre ror-- cod|rg parls
(|rlrors) lral sc|erl|sls use lo ur|que|y gerel|ca||y |derl|ly ar |rd|v|dua| (0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg).
- Tre ror-cod|rg 0NA cors|sls ol |erglrs ol oase sequerces oller repealed rary l|res.
- 3c|erl|sls use aooul 10 |roWr 0NA reg|ors lo creale a 0NA prol||e or l|rgerpr|rl ol ar |rd|v|dua|. Tre crarce
ol arolrer |rd|v|dua| rav|rg exacl|y lre sare sequerces |s exlrere|y sra||.
- Forers|c sc|erce uses 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg lo ralcr lre 0NA lord |r sarp|es ol o|ood, olrer oody l|u|ds or
l|ssues |ell al a cr|re scere W|lr lral ol a suspecl. Tr|s ev|derce |s adr|ss|o|e |r courls.
- Palerr|ly lesl|rg |r rurars s|r||ar|y re||es or ara|yz|rg lre 0NA ol lre cr||d ard lre a||eged lalrer. Ce||s lror
s||r, ra|r or o|ood are usua||y used.
- 8reeders ol ped|greed ar|ra|s, sucr as call|e ard rorses, reed lo |roW lre s|re ard dar (rolrer ard lalrer)
ol lre ar|ra|s lrey oreed. 8|ood sarp|es car oe used.
N0TE: 2 advarlages ol 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg over prev|ous relrods ol |derl|l|cal|or:
1. 0NA |s a rore accurale rar|er ol ar |rd|v|dua|'s l|ssue or o|ood sarp|e lrar o|ood or l|ssue lype. Trere |s a
grealer crarce lral |rd|v|dua|s rave sare o|ood or l|ssue lypes lrar lral lre|r 0NA |s |derl|ca|.
2. T|ry arourls ol o|ood or l|ssue are sull|c|erl lo oola|r resu|ls W|lr 0NA lecrro|ogy. ll lre sarp|e |s loo sra||,
lre 0NA car oe ru|l|p||ed oy us|rg 'po|yrerase cra|r reacl|or.'

3. 8tud|es of offspr|ng ref|ect the |nher|tance of genes on d|fferent chromosomes and genes on the same

Use the terms 'd|p|o|d' and 'hap|o|d' to descr|be somat|c and gamet|c ce||s

- lr sexua||y reproduc|rg spec|es, lrere are 3 lypes ol ce||s:
1. 8ody ce||s or 3oral|c ce||s
2. 3ex ce||s or 0areles
3. 0err-||re ce||s Wr|cr are desl|red lo oecore 0areles

- 3oral|c ce||s are d|p|o|d, Wrere:
1. crrorosores are |r pa|rs
2. lrere are 1 sels ol crrorosores
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
3. lre ruroer ol crrorosores = 2r

- 0arel|c ce||s are rap|o|d, Wrere:
1. crrorosores are s|rg|e
2. lrere |s 23 sels ol crrorosores
3. lre ruroer ol crrorosores = r

0escr|be outcomes of d|hybr|d crosses |nvo|v|ng s|mp|e dom|nance us|ng Hende|'s exp|anat|ons

Verde| |rvesl|galed lre |rrer|larce ol lWo craraclers - seed srape (rourd or Wr|r||ed) ard seed co|our (ye||oW or
Fror lre rororyor|d cross re |reW:
- Rourd seeds Were dor|rarl lo Wr|r||ed
- Ye||oW seeds Were dor|rarl lo greer
A p|arl W|lr rourd, ye||oW seeds Was crossed W|lr a p|arl W|lr Wr|r||ed greer seeds ard lre ollspr|rg Were a||
rourd ye||oW.
le |rlerored lrose ollspr|rg ard lourd lral lre l2 Were |r lre ral|o ol 9:3:3:1 - Rourd ye||oW : rourd greer :
Wr|r||ed ye||oW : Wr|r||ed greer.

lealures ol seed srape ard co|our rad eacr produced a 3:1 ral|o ol dor|rarl:recess|ve.
lre lWo lealures rad oeraved |rdeperderl|y ol eacr olrer. Tre preserce ol or rad rol allecled lre oerav|our ol
lre olrer.
0r lre oas|s ol lrese l|rd|rgs, Verde| lorru|aled r|s secord |aW :
'E|lrer a||e|e ol a gere pa|r ray oe coro|red W|lr e|lrer ol lre olrer pa|r.

Pred|ct the d|fference |n |nher|tance patterns |f two genes are ||nked

Ary lWo geres Wr|cr occur or lre sare crrorosore are sa|d lo oe ||r|ed. A|| lre geres or a s|rg|e crrorosore
lorr a ||r|age group.
urder rorra| c|rcurslarces, a|| lre ||r|ed geres rera|r logelrer dur|rg ce|| d|v|s|or ard so pass |rlo lre garele,
ard rerce lre ollspr|rg logelrer. Trey do ro lrerelore segregale |r accordarce lo Verde|'s LaW ol lrdeperderl

lr ||r|ed geres lrere are 2 prerolypes expecled oul lrere are 1 prerolypes. wral lrer |s lre exp|aral|or? Cou|d
|l oe lral lre lWo craraclers are rol ||r|ed, oul occur or d|llererl crrorosores? ll lr|s Were so, |l Wou|d oe a
rorra| d|ryor|d cross, ard a 9:3:3:1 ral|o srou|d oe lourd, oul lr|s |s rol lre case.

wrer lre grealer lre proporl|or ol prerolypes |r a popu|al|or corlorrs lo lre expecled prerolyp|c ral|o due lo
||r|age ol geres ard a sra|| proporl|or does rol corlorr W|lr lre pallerr, lrer a poss|o|e exp|aral|or |s cross|rg-
over ol geres or lre roro|ogous crrorosores. Tre recoro|rarls ol sucr cross-overs W||| produce gareles
corla|r|rg excrarged geres.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to ana|yse the outcome of d|hybr|d crosses when both tra|ts
are |nher|ted |ndependent|y and when they are ||nked

F|ower co|our and po||en shape |n sweet peas
Ral|os |l geres are rol ||r|ed: Ral|os ol lre geres are ||r|ed:
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
100 Purp|e, Lorg (a|| PpL|) 100 Purp|e, Lorg (a|| PpL|)

0areles ol F1: 0areles ol F1:
PL, pL, P|, p| PL, PL, p|, p|

Forral ol purell square lor F1 x F1 cross: Forral ol purell square lor F1 x F1 cross:
PL P| pL p| PL p|
P| p|

F2 Prerolypes: F2 Prerolypes:
Purp|e,Lorg:Purp|e,3rorl:Red,Lorg:Red,3rorl Purp|e,Lorg:Red,3rorl
9 : 3 : 3 : 1 3 : 1

Exp|a|n how cross-breed|ng exper|ment can |dent|fy the re|at|ve pos|t|on of ||nked genes

L|r|ed geres - geres Wr|cr occur or lre sare crrorosore.
- L|r|ed geres are usua||y |rrer|led logelrer. loWever, lrey car oecore separaled dur|rg re|os|s Wrer
cross|rg-over occurs. Tr|s |rvo|ves porl|ors ol eacr crrorosore oe|rg excrarged ard resu|ls |r reW
coro|ral|ors ol geres oe|rg preserl |r lre gareles.
- Tre degree ol cross|rg over |s delerr|red oy lre d|slarce oelWeer ||r|ed geres
- Tre sra||er lre d|slarce oelWeer geres, lre |ess crarce lrey rave ol cross|rg over ard lre sra||er lre
percerlage ol recoro|rarl lypes |r lre ollspr|rg.
- Trey grealer lre d|slarce oelWeer ||r|ed geres, lre rore crarce lrey rave ol cross|rg over ard lre |arger lre
percerlage ol recoro|rarl lypes.
- Tre percerlage ol ollspr|rg Wr|cr sroW recoro|ral|or represerls lre d|slarce oelWeer lre lWo geres (a|so
ca||ed crossover lrequercy).
Exarp|e - A recoro|ral|or rale oelWeer geres A ard 8 ol 15 represerls a d|slarce ol 15 ur|ls or a
- Tre re|al|orsr|p car oe used lo |ocale lre pos|l|or ol cerla|r geres re|al|ve lo eacrolrer or a crrorosore.
- Tr|s |rlorral|or car oe used lo ra|e a crrorosore rap.
- Crrorosore raps g|ve us a p|clure ol lre arrargererl ol ar orgar|sr's geres or |ls crrorosores.
- 3ludy|rg lre lrequercy ol recoro|ral|or ol craracler|sl|cs |r leslcross oreed|rg exper|rerls ras a||oWed
gerec|sls lo produce raps ol lre geres or crrorosores.
- Tre lorru|a lor esl|ral|rg lre d|slarce oelWeer lWo geres or a crrorosore |s:
Vap 0|slarce = Nuroer ol recoro|rarl ollspr|rg X 100
(|r ur|ls) lola| ruroer ol ollspr|rg

0|scuss the ro|e of chromosome mapp|ng |n |dent|fy|ng re|at|onsh|ps between spec|es

- 0rgar|srs ol lre sare spec|es srare a corror gere poo| ard rave s|r||ar crrorosore raps.
- Tre rore c|ose|y re|aled, lre rore geres lrey rave |r corror.
- Tre |derl|l|cal|or ol ||r|age groups |r d|llererl orgar|srs |s a relrod ol ara|yz|rg re|al|orsr|ps oelWeer
- Ev|derce ol s|r||ar|l|es |r ||r|age groups oelWeer spec|es suggesls lral |r lre pasl lrey srared a corror
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lurar Cal
X Crrorosore X Crrorosore
0P0---j j---0P0 0erel|c Loc|
lPRT---j j---lPRT

4. The human Cenome Project |s attempt|ng to |dent|fy the pos|t|on of genes on chromosomes through who|e
genome sequenc|ng

0|scuss the benef|ts of the human Cenome Project

Tre rurar gerore projecl |s ar |rlerral|ora| projecl lral a|rs lo |derl|ly a|| lre rurar geres ard lo delerr|re
lre sequerces ol 3 o||||or oases |r rurar 0NA

1. 0realer urderslard|rg ol gerel|c
- 3c|erl|sls W||| exp|a|r rore c|ear|y roW geres are expressed, roW lrey rulale ard are |rrer|led.
- ll W||| re|p exp|a|r roW geres |rleracl W|lr eacr olrer.
- Trere are sore geres lre lurcl|ors ol Wr|cr rave rera|red a corp|ele ryslery. KroW|edge ol lre rurar
gerore ray re|p lo urrave| lre lurcl|ors ol lrese geres.

2. lurar evo|ul|or
- Tre gerores ol olrer spec|es car oe corpared W|lr lre rurar gerore. Tr|s W||| g|ve |rs|grls |rlo lre
s|r||ar|ly or d|llererces ol lre evo|ul|orary palrWays oy Wr|cr a|| lrese spec|es, |rc|ud|rg rurars, evo|ved |rlo
lre|r preserl slales.

3. 0elecl|or ol d|sease ard |rprovererl |r rurar rea|lr
- Fau|ly geres Wr|cr cause d|sease car oe delecled oelore lre d|sease deve|ops.
- Tr|s car |ead lo reW d|agrosl|c lesls ard/or lre prov|s|or ol gerel|c course||rg lor lrose |rd|v|dua|s Wro are
lourd lo oe carry|rg a delecl|ve gere.
- NeW|y sequerced rorra| geres ray oe c|ored ard lre producls ol lre express|or ol lrese geres us|rg |r lre
lrealrerl ol d|sease |r olrer |rd|v|dua|s.
- 0ere lrerapy |rvo|ves lre adr|r|slral|or ol a gere lo ar |rd|v|dua| Wro ras a delecl|ve copy ol |l.

0escr|be and exp|a|n some the ||m|tat|ons of data obta|ned from the human Cenome Project

- KroW|rg lre oase sequerces ol 0NA or a crrorosore does rol exp|a|r a|| lre o|ocrer|ca| lurcl|ors |r a
rurar - |l does rol delerr|re lre lurcl|or ol every gere.
- Trere |s groW|rg oe||el lral sore corp|ex processes |||e lre ora|r lurcl|or, W||| rever oe lu||y urderslood ever
W|lr lre |roW|edge ol lre rurar gerore.
- Trere are corcerrs lral lre rurar gerore cou|d oe r|sused ard |ead lo d|scr|r|ral|or oelWeer peop|e ol
d|llererl gerolypes, eg lrose W|lr a gerel|c pred|spos|l|or lo cerla|r d|seases ray oe relused |rsurarce
po||c|es or erp|oyrerl.
- Trere are a|so olrer elr|ca| |ssues, eg Wro corlro|s access lo lre gerel|c |rlorral|or re|al|rg lo ar |rd|v|dua|.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to assess the reasons why the human Cenome Project cou|d
not be ach|eved by study|ng ||nkage maps
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

- Ear|y rapp|rg lecrr|ques sucr as lrose used lor lru|l l||es Were oased or recoro|ral|or lrequerc|es oola|red
lror lesl crosses. Trese ear|y ||r|age raps revea|ed lre re|al|ve pos|l|or ol geres ralrer lrar lre aoso|ule
pos|l|ors. 8ecause rurar oreed|rg exper|rerls are urelr|ca|, dala cou|d rol oe oola|red |r lre sare Way as
lre lru|l l||es/o|oW l||es. lrslead, ooserval|ors ol a lra|l over a ruroer ol gereral|ors Were used lo rarroW doWr
lre pos|l|or ol a parl|cu|ar gere or a crrorosore, eg lre co|our-o||rdress gere or lre X-crrorosore.
- lurar 0NA ras a very |arge arourl ol |rlorral|or pac|ed |rlo a very sra|| space. Cerla|r segrerls ol 0NA
sroW greal var|ao|||ly as We|| as over|ap ard repel|l|or. Trerelore lre process ol |derl|ly|rg geres |s loo
corp|ex lo oe acr|eved oy sludy|rg ||r|age raps.

0ut||ne the procedure to produce recomb|nant 0NA

1. A gere |s cul oul ol lre crrorosore ol ore spec|es, eg gere lor ra||rg |rsu||r |s cul oul ol lre rurar
parcreas ce||, us|rg a reslr|cl|or erzyre.
2. A c|rcu|ar p|ece ol 0NA (p|asr|d) |s reroved lror oacler|a| ce||s ard cul oper W|lr lre sare reslr|cl|or
erzyre. Escrer|a Co|| |s corror|y used as lre source ol p|asr|d.
3. Tre cul-oul gere |s r|xed W|lr oacler|a| p|asr|ds |r a lesl luoe. 8ecause lrey've oeer cul W|lr lre sare
reslr|cl|or erzyre, lre erds ralcr. Trerelore a gere recoro|res W|lr a gere sp||ced |rlo |l. Tr|s |s cala|ysed
oy ||gase.
1. Tre p|asr|d |s re-|rserled |rlo lre oacler|a oy r|x|rg ca|c|ur cr|or|de - ca||ed lrarslorral|or |rlo oacler|a.
5. 0rce |rs|de lre oacler|a| ce||s, lre p|asrs|ds are reproduced Wrer lre ce|| reproduces.
. Tre |rlroduced gere W||| roW oe expressed.

Exp|a|n how the use of recomb|nant 0NA techno|ogy can |dent|fy the pos|t|on of a gene on a chromosome

1. A gere |s c|ored oy ra||rg recoro|rarl 0NA. Tre gere car oe |derl|l|ed oy:
a) us|rg a probe (|l lre gere's sequerce |s |roWr), or
o) |derl|ly|rg lre producl ol lre gere (eg rurar |rsu||r).
2. C|ored geres car oe used lo l|rd |ls pos|l|or or a crrorosore oy ruc|e|c ac|d ryor|d|zal|or:
a) A rad|oact|ve probe ol lre gere |s rade (|l lre producl ol lre gere |s |roWr. Tre ar|ro
ac|d sequerce car oe oola|red ard lrer, Wor||rg oac|Wards - lre 0NA sequerce car oe
o) Tre rad|oacl|ve prooe |s a||oWed lo oase pa|r W|lr sore s|rg|e slrarded, 0eralured 0NA
ro|ecu|es or a r|croscope s||de.
c) Tre o|rd|rg s|le car oe revea|ed oy autorad|ography.

5. Cene therapy |s poss|b|e one the genes respons|b|e for harmfu| cond|t|ons are |dent|f|ed

0escr|be current use of gene therapy for an |dent|f|ed d|sease

Tecrr|ques used lo rep|ace delecl|ve geres W|lr rorra| ores |s ca||ed 0ere Trerapy
ll Wor|s oy cull|rg geres lror lre 0NA ol rea|lry ce||s ard |rserl|rg lrer |rlo lre 0NA ol delecl|ve l|ssue

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0ere Trerapy |r lre lrealrerl ol Cysl|c F|oros|s
- Cysl|c l|oros|s |s a gerel|c d|sorder caused oy a recess|ve gere lral |ac| lre 0NA sequerce lral codes lor
1. 0ere c|or|rg lecrr|ques are used lo c|ore lre rea|lry gere.
2. Tre rea|lry gere |s |rserled |rlo a rarr|ess v|rus adere-assoc|aled-v|rus (AAv)
3. Tre rod|l|ed v|rus |s lrer p|aced |rlo a so|ul|or ard dr|pped |r lrrougr lre rose ard doWr a lr|r luoe |rlo a
|urg l|ssue.
1. 0rce |r lre |urg, lre v|rus ru|l|p||es ard |rserls |lse|l |rlo olrer ce||s. Ce||s W|lr lre reW 0NA srou|d lurcl|or

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy a current use of gene therapy to
manage a genet|c d|sease, a named for of cancer or A|08

????? |s d|s cyst|c f|bros|s.aga|n??? No |dea

. Hechan|sms of genet|c change

0|st|ngu|sh between mutat|ons of chromosomes |nc|ud|ng:
- rearrangements
- changes |n chromosome number, |nc|ud|ng tr|somy, po|ypo|dy and mutat|ons of genes
- base subst|tut|on
- framesh|ft

1. ClR0V030VE VuTATl0N3 (2 lypes)
a) Crarges |r crrorosore ruroer
- due lo lre ror-d|sjurcl|or ol crrorosores
- crrorosore pa|rs do rol separale dur|rg re|os|s
- sore ol lre gareles produced corla|r add|l|ora| crrorosores ard olrers corla|r leWer:
eg 0oWr 3yrdrore
resu|ls lror ror-d|sjurcl|or ol crrorosore 21
Wrer a garele corla|r|rg ar exlra crrorosore 21 |s lerl|||zed oy a rorra| garele, lre zygole ras 3
cop|es ol crrorosore 21 |rslead ol 2
rav|rg 3 roro|ogous crrorosores |s ca||ed lr|sory.
- Tr|sory car occur lror lre ror-d|sjurcl|or ol a|| lre pa|rs ol roro|ogous crrorosores. wrer lr|s occurs, |l
resu|ls |r or garele W|lr a|| lre crrorosores (2r) ard ore W|lr rore.
- ll a 2r garele luses W|lr a rorra| rap||d garele (r) |l lorrs a lr|po|d ce|| (3r)
- Tre occurrerce ol orgar|srs W|lr exlra sels ol crrorosores |s ca||ed po|yp|o|dy.
- Tre lus|or ol 2 d|p|o|d gareles car a|so occur produc|rg a ce|| lral |s lelrap|o|d (1r).
- Po|ypo|dy |s rore corror |r p|arls. Reproducl|or |r ryor|d p|arls sorel|res produces po|yp|o|d ce||s.
Po|yp|o|dy |s usua||y lre resu|l ol reproducl|or arorg ryor|ds ralrer lrar lre ror-d|sjurcl|or ol Wro|e sels ol
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Po|yp|o|d p|arl spec|es ra|r|y reproduce asexua||y oecause re|ol|c d|v|s|or |s a proo|er lor orgar|srs W|lr
rore lrar 2 sels ol crrorosores.

o) Crarges |r lre arrargererl ol geres or crrorosores
- occurs dur|rg cross|rg over ol crroral|ds dur|rg re|os|s.
- 3orel|res Wrer crrorosores orea| ard rejo|r lre sequerce ol geres |s a|lered.
- Trere are 1 lypes ol crrorosore rearrargererls:
1. 0e|el|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore |s |osl (aocde acde)
Eg Cr|-du-cral syrdrore |s lre de|el|or ol ore ol lre crrorosores ruroer 5. Tre allecled cr||d ras a
roor-|||e lace, ullers a cry |||e a reW|rg cal ard |s oolr rerla||y ard prys|ca||y rard|capped.
2. dup||cal|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore |s repealed (aocde aaocde). 0ller |elra| |r rurars.
3. lrars|ocal|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore roves lo a d|llererl (ror-roro|ogous) crrorosore
(aocde, Wxy cde, aoWxy)
Eg Trars|ocal|or 0oWr 3yrdrore (parl ol crrorosore 21 |s allacred lo crrorosore 15) lre
suoslarce ol lrree crrorosore 21s- lWo rorra| ard ore allacred lo crrorosore 15 - causes doWr
1. |rvers|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore lurrs ups|de doWr (aocde coade). Are lre |easl rarrlu|.
Tre ra|r ellecl ol |rvers|ors |s lo crarge lre order ol lre geres or a crrorosore.

2. 0ENE (P0lNT) VuTATl0N3 (2 lypes)
a) 8ase 3uos|lul|or - lre rosl corror lype ol gere rulal|or
- occurs Wrer ore oase |r lre 0NA |s suosl|luled lor arolrer. Trerelore ore codor |s a|lered.
- Tr|s |eads lo ar a|leral|or |r lre correspord|rg slrard ol rRNA ard a d|llererl ar|ro ac|d |r lre po|ypepl|de
Eg 3|c||e ce|| Araer|a. Norra| raerog|oo|r 0NA (CTT), rRNA (0AA) 0Lu. Vularl raerog|oo|r 0NA
(CAT), rRNA (0uA) vAL. Tr|s causes lre raerog|oo|r ro|ecu|e lo lorr l|orous slruclure Wr|cr a|lers sre
srape ol red o|ood ce||s.
Tre crescerl-sraped 's|c||e-ce||s' rove aW|Ward|y lrrougr o|ood vesse|s reduc|rg lre l|oW ol oxyger. Tr|s
resu|ls |r pa|r ard darage lo a|| orgars ol lre oody.

o) Fraresr|ll rulal|or
- A oase |s de|eled or added |r lre 0NA
- Tr|s crarges a|| lre codors lror lr|s po|rl orWards.
- Tre |rpacl ol lraresr|ll rulal|ors |s grealer lrar oase suosl|lul|ors oecause lre code sequerce lor rary
ar|ro ac|ds |r rary po|ypepl|des |s a|lered.
E0 ruscu|ar 0yslropry. ll |s a sex-||r|ed d|sease. Peop|e W|lr lr|s d|sease suller a gradua| degereral|or ol
lre rusc|es, lo||oWed oy dealr. Trere are lWo lorrs ol ruscu|ar dyslropry: 8V0 ard 0V0.
8V0 |s caused oy a suosl|lul|or rulal|or.
0V0 resu|ls ol a de|el|or or dup||cal|or ol oases.
Tre gere Wr|cr |s a|lered, |r lre case ol 8V0, or rol ever produced, |r 0V0, |s respors|o|e lor lre producl|or
ol a prole|r ca||ed 0yslropry|r.

0ut||ne the ab|||ty of 0NA to repa|r |tse|f

- Va|rlerarce ol urdaraged 0NA |s |rporlarl lor ce|| lurcl|or|rg.
- Ce||s corla|r ralura| 0NA repa|r recrar|srs.
- Copy|rg errors car oe repa|red oy erzyres eg 0NA po|ymerase. Tre 0NA repa|r erzyre uses lre
urdaraged slrard as a lerp|ale lo rep|ace lre oase sequerce |r lre daraged 0NA.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Nuc|eot|de ex|s|on repa|r |rvo|ves recogr|l|or ol darage, (ar exlra ruc|eol|de) cull|rg ol lre 0NA slrard ard
- Tre oody |s corslarl|y ooroarded oy rad|al|or ard crer|ca|s lral car cause errors |r 0NA. For exarp|e,
surourr |s ev|derce lral darage cou|d cause sucr errors |r 0NA. Repa|r erzyres rove corslarl|y a|org
0NA |r ce||s lo crec| lral oase pa|rs are correcl|y ralcred.
- (l|rsl a ruc|ease erzyre culs lre daraged 0NA slrard al lWo po|rls, repa|r syrlres|s oy 0NA po|yrerase l|||s
lre gap ard 0NA ||gase sea|s lre rera|r|rg r|c|.)

0escr|be the way |n wh|ch transposab|e e|ements operate and d|scuss the|r |mpact on the genome

0NA segrerls lral car rove lror ore pos|l|or lo arolrer |r lre crrorosores ol a ce|| are ca||ed transposab|e
genet|c e|ements or transposons. Trey are sorel|res relerred lo as 'jurp|rg geres.'
Trey car e|lrer rove lrerse|ves lo reW |ocal|ors or dup||cale lrerse|ves lor |rserl|or e|seWrere or ary ol lre
Trey are lourd |r a|| ce||s ard lre|r ro|e |s or|y roW cor|rg |rlo ||grl. Trey Were lourd |r lre 1910's oy 8aroara

lrpacl or lre 0erore:
- 0re lurcl|or ol lrarsposors seers lo oe regu|at|on, lurr|rg geres or or oll. 8aroara VcC||rloc| saW lr|s |r
ra|ze W|lr lre 0s go|rg |r lo lurr oll p|grerl gere ard Ac gere oe|rg cop|ed lral ra|es lre 0s gere jurp
oac| oul, lurr|rg lre gere oac| or.
- Trarsposao|e gerel|c e|ererls lrarsler a gere or groups ol geres lo a slruclura||y urre|aled 0NA ro|ecu|e.
- Tr|s creales new nuc|eot|de sequences ard chromosoma| rearrangements (mutat|ons}, crarg|rg lre Way
geres are expressed.
- Trarsposors car a|so lrarsler 0NA lror ce|| lo ce||. ll |s roW urderslood lral lrarspos|l|or |s ore ol lre
processes respors|o|e lor lre rap|d spread ol ant|b|ot|c res|stance |r oacler|a.
- 8acler|a ray lrarsler 'res|slarl geres' |rlo p|asr|d 0NA. Tre p|asr|ds ray lrer oe lrarslerred ever arorg
d|llererl spec|es ol oacler|a.

0|st|ngu|sh between germ-||ne and somat|c mutat|ons |n terms of the|r effect on spec|es

- 0err ||re ce||s produce gareles.
- Vulal|ors |r gerr ||re ce||s car oe passed orlo lre rexl gereral|or.
- wrer a rularl garele luses W|lr arolrer garele lre ollspr|rg's ce||s corla|r lre rulal|or.
- lr lr|s Way rulal|ors |r gerr ||re ce||s oecore parl ol lre |rrer|led gere poo| ard |rl|uerce lre Wro|e
popu|al|ors ol orgar|srs.
- Tr|s |rcreases lre polerl|a| lor evo|ul|or.
- 3oral|c ce||s do ro produce gareles. Vosl ce||s |r lre oody ol ar orgar|sr are soral|c ce||s.
- wrer rulal|ors occur |r lrese ce||s lre 0NA |s a|lered ard as a resu|l lre lurcl|or ol lre ce|| |s a|so a|lered.
Exarp|e uv ||grl car cause rulal|ors |r s||r ce||s caus|rg carcer. 0lrer carcers are caused oy rulal|ors |r
soral|c ce||s.
- Trese rulal|ors carrol oe passed orlo lre rexl gereral|or.
- Tre rulal|or rera|rs W|lr|r lre |rd|v|dua| |r lre popu|al|or. 3pec|es are rol a|lered oy soral|c ce|| rulal|ors.

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be the effect of one named and
descr|bed genet|c mutat|on on human hea|th

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
7. 8e|ect|ve breed|ng |s d|fferent to gene c|on|ng but both processes may change the genet|c nature of spec|es

Exp|a|n, us|ng an appropr|ate examp|e from agr|cu|ture, why se|ect|ve breed|ng has been pract|sed

3e|ecl|ve oreed|rg |s lre pracl|ce ol croos|rg |rd|v|dua|s |r a popu|al|or ol a spec|es lor ral|rg, lo oola|r ollspr|rg
W|lr cerla|r requ|red craracler|sl|cs.
Repealed se|ecl|or ol |rd|v|dua|s W|lr lre des|red craracler|sl|cs lor ral|rg W||| |rcrease lre lrequercy ol lre
craracler|sl|cs |r lre popu|al|or, so lral everlua||y lre popu|al|or W||| oe crarged perrarerl|y.

Eg wreal 8reed|rg |r Auslra||a
- lr|s ras oeer oreacl|sed |r Auslra||a s|rce lre ear|y sell|ers lourd lral Europear Wreal d|d rol groW We|| urder
Auslra||ar cord|l|ors ard Was parl|cu|ar|y suscepl|o|e lo d|sease.
- Craracler|sl|cs requ|red lor Wreal p|arls lo oe successlu| |r Auslra||a ard lo produce rax|rur y|e|d |rc|ude:
- rap|d progress|or lrrougr lre ||le cyc|e so ralural|or occurs oelore r|gr surrer lerperalures
- |rcreased gra|r y|e|d
|rcreased lo|erarce or res|slarce lo lrosl, drougrl ard ac|d|c so||s
|rproved l|our qua||ly lor oa||rg

Ana|yse and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to trace the h|story of the se|ect|ve breed|ng of
one spec|es for agr|cu|tura| purposes and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to descr|be the ser|es of changes that
have occurred |n the spec|es as a resu|t of th|s se|ect|ve breed|ng

8rass|ca 0|eracea - exarp|e ol roW 3|rp|e 3e|ecl|or oy peop|e groW|rg a p|arl over severa| lrousard years |ed
lo lre deve|oprerl ol d|llererl vegelao|es.

w||d form - rass|ca 0|eracea |s ral|ve lo lre Ved|lerrarear.

3oor aller lre doresl|cal|or ol p|arls - 8rass|ca Was groWr as a |ealy vegelao|e. Trose p|arls W|lr lre |argesl
|eaves Were se|ecl|ve|y propagaled. Tr|s resu|led |r p|arls W|lr |arger |eaves.

6erlury 8C - corl|rued se|ecl|or ol |arge |ealed p|arls |ed lo lre deve|oprerl ol Ka|e
6erlury A0 - se|ecl|or ol p|arls W|lr a l|grl c|usler ol lerder yourg |eaves al lre cerlre |ed lo lre deve|oprerl
ol cabbage.
3are l|re - Ka|e p|arls W|lr srorl l|esry slers se|ecled. Tr|s resu|led |r p|arls W|lr laller slers, ca||ed koh|rab|.
8y 15
6erlury - prelererce deve|oped |r soulrerr Europe lor eal|rg |rralure l|oWer ouds. 3e|ecl|or lavour|rg
p|arls W|lr |arge lerder l|oWer|rg reads resu|led |r lre deve|oprerl ol cau||f|ower.
100 years |ater - rocco|| deve|oped |r lla|y
6erlury - se|ecl|or ol caooage p|arls produc|rg |arge l|grl|y pac|ed ouds |r 8e|g|ur - russe| 8prouts.

0escr|be what |s meant by 'gene c|on|ng' and g|ve examp|es of the uses of gene c|on|ng

- A c|ore |s ar exacl gerel|c copy.
- 0NA, ce||s ard Wro|e orgar|srs ray oe c|ores.
- 0ere c|or|rg uses gerel|c erg|reer|rg lecrr|ques lo produce ur||r|led ruroers ol |derl|ca| cop|es ol geres.
- wrer rary cop|es are rade, a gere |s sa|d lo oe c|ored or arp||l|ed.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
A ruroer ol recoro|rarl 0NA lecrro|og|es ray oe used |r c|or|rg, eg:
- KroWr geres or lragrerls ol 0NA car oe |rserled |rlo oacler|a| p|asr|ds. Trese recoro|rarl 0NA ro|ecu|es
are re|rserled |rlo lre oacler|a Wrere rep||cal|or occurs, c|or|rg lre recoro|rarl 0NA. ll produces 10*12
cop|es |r |ess lrar a day.
- Po|ymerase 6ha|n React|on (P6R} |s lre reWesl ard laslesl lorr ol gere c|or|rg. ll occurs ouls|de ce||s,
arp||ly|rg spec|l|c 0NA sequerces oy ru|l|p|e cyc|es ol po|yrer|zal|or ard real separal|or.

- produc|rg ru|l|p|e cop|es ol a gere lor lurlrer ara|ys|s or researcr, eg lorers|c |rvesl|gal|ors.
- Produc|rg uselu| prole|r producls sucr as rurar groWlr rorrore ard |rsu||r.
- Produc|rg lrarsger|c orgar|srs W|lr spec|l|c craracler|sl|cs, sucr as |rproved pesl res|slarce or gra|r y|e|d.
- lr gere lrerapy, ru|l|p|e cop|es ol a des|red gere |s requ|red.

0|st|ngu|sh between gene c|on|ng and who|e organ|sm c|on|ng |n terms of processes and products

0ere c|or|rg wro|e orgar|sr c|or|rg
Vu|l|p|e cop|es ol a 3lN0LE gere are produced 0erel|ca||y |derl|ca| 0R0ANl3V3 are produced lror a
s|rg|e parerl. A|| ce||s |r lre c|ore rave lre sare
gerel|c raler|a| ard are exacl cop|es ol lre or|g|ra|.
0r|y PART ol a ce||'s 0NA |s exlracled. ll |s oller
|rserled |rlo arolrer spec|es, Eg oacler|ur. Tre
oacler|ur lrer ra|es cop|es ol lre gere lrrougr ce||
ALL lre 0NA lror lre or|g|ra| parerl ce||(s) |s
lrarslerred lo lre c|ore.
Ar|ra| c|ores- are der|ved lorr ore ce||. Tecrr|que
P|arl c|ores- car oe der|ved lror ore ce|| or a ruroer
ol ce||s/l|ssues. Tecrr|que ca||ed Tl33uE CuLTuRE
0r|y lre lrarslerred gere |s |derl|ca| lo lre or|g|ra|
Tola| gerel|c ra|e up, |e a|| lre 0NA, |s |derl|ca| lo lre
orgar|sr lror Wr|cr |l Was c|ored.
Tre purpose |s lo TRAN3FER C0PEl3 0F 0ENE3
lror ore orgar|sr lo arolrer. lerce lre gerel|c
ra|eup ol lre rec|p|erl orgar|sr |s crarged. NeW
geres are |rlroduced |rlo a spec|es.
Tre purpose |s lo produce 0ENETlCALLY l0ENTlCAL
P0PuLATl0N3 ol orgar|srs.

|dent|fy data sources, choose equ|pment or resources, gather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from
secondary sources to descr|be the processes used |n the c|on|ng of an an|ma| and ana|yse the
methodo|ogy to |dent|fy was |n wh|ch sc|ent|sts cou|d ver|fy that the an|ma| produced was a c|one

Nuc|ear Trarsler Tecrro|ogy lor C|or|rg 3reep:
1. Adu|l sreep rarrary l|ssue Was cu|lured |r lre |ao lo ra|e lrer dorrarl.
2. Tre ruc|eus Was reroved lror ore ol lrese ce||s ard lrarslerred lo ar eruc|ealed egg ce|| lror
arolrer sreep.
3. A gerl|e e|eclr|c pu|se caused lre ce||s lo luse. A secord e|eclr|c pu|se lr|ggered ce|| d|v|s|or
ard eroryo lorral|or.
1. Tre eroryo Was |rp|arled |rlo a surrogale lera|e sreep Wrere |l greW |rlo a |aro.
- A|| lre ce||s ol lre |aro Were gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| lo lre sreep lral prov|ded lre rarrary l|ssue.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Velrodo|ogy ard roW sc|erl|sls car ver|ly lral lre ar|ra| produced Was a c|ore:
- 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg:
1. 0NA |s cul |rlo lragrerls oy reslr|cl|or erzyres
2. 0e| E|eclroprores|s |s carr|ed oul Wrere lragrerls are separaled oy r|gral|or |r ar e|eclr|c l|e|d a|org a ge|.
3ra||er lragrerls lrave| lurlrer. Eacr sarp|e lorrs a pallerr ol oards.
3. 3oulrerr 8|oll|rg - 0NA lragrerls are lrarslerred lror ge| lo paper
1. 0NA ryor|d|zal|or - Rad|oacl|ve prooes added lral o|rd lo sore ol lre lragrerls.
5. Aulorad|ograpry - paper |s over|ayed W|lr prolograpr|c l||r. Rad|oacl|v|ly |r prooes exposes lre l||r ard
prooes W|lr corp|ererlary 0NA lragrerls appear as dar| oards.

- 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg/prol|||rg Wou|d oe carr|ed oul lo corpare lre gerel|c ra|eup ol lre doror ar|ra|, lre
ar|ra| lral doraled lre egg, lre surrogale rolrer ard lre ollspr|rg. 0NA lror lre ollspr|rg ard lre doror
(ar|ra| lral doraled lre ruc|eus) srou|d oe |derl|ca|.

0|scuss a use of c|on|ng |n an|ma|s or p|ants that has poss|b|e benef|ts to humans

1. P|arls:
- Trarsger|c p|arls, res|slarl lo allac| oy |rsecls, rave oeer produced lrer c|ores
- v|rus-lree p|arls rave oeer produced oy l|ssue cu|lure
- P|arl c|or|rg ersures lral larrers rave a ur|lorr crop W|lr s|r||ar rulr|erl requ|rererls, groWlr rale, d|sease
res|slarce, l|avour, elc.
2. Ar|ra|s:
- 0erera||y, lre polerl|a| oerel|l ol ar|ra| c|or|rg |s lral ar|ra|s W|lr lre requ|red craracler|sl|cs car oe
produced rore qu|c||y lrar oy lrad|l|ora| relrods.
- Trarsger|c sreep rave oeer produced lral secrele a prole|r |rporlarl |r lre lrealrerl ol raeropr|||a. Tr|s
prole|r |s a laclor requ|red lo c|ol o|ood, ard car oe oola|red lror lre sreep's r|||. Trese lrarsger|c sreep
car oe c|ored lo oola|r rary |derl|ca| ar|ra|s.
- 0lrer uses proposed lor c|ored ar|ra|s |rc|ude lre use ol lre|r orgars lor rurar lrarsp|arls. For exarp|er
p|gs are cors|dered good polerl|a| sources ol orgars, lrey are s|r||ar |r s|ze lo lrose ol rurars. ll c|ored p|gs
are gerel|ca||y erg|reered lo produce rurar orgars, lre proo|ers ol rejecl|or assoc|aled W|lr lrarsp|arls
cou|d oe overcore.

8. The t|m|ng of gene express|on |s |mportant |n the deve|opmenta| process

|dent|fy the ro|e of genes |n embryon|c deve|opment

8ummar|se the ro|e of gene cascades determ|n|ng ||mb format|on |n b|rds and mamma|s

0escr|be the ev|dence wh|ch |nd|cated the presence of ancestra| vertebrae gene homo|ogues |n |ower
an|ma| c|asses

0|scuss the ev|dence ava||ab|e from current research about the evo|ut|on of genes and the|r act|ons

A|| arsWers lo lrese po|rls are |r lre sreel l|l|ed 'Tre l|r|rg ol gere express|or ard |l's |rporlarce |r

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
|dent|fy, gather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to
assess the ev|dence that ana|ys|s of genes prov|des for evo|ut|onary re|at|onsh|ps

- 0NA sequerc|rg lecrr|ques rave |derl|l|ed roro|ogous geres |r d|llererl orgar|srs.
- For exarp|e:1. ll ras oeer sroWr lral lre ruc|eol|de sequerces |r geres lral code lror cerla|r resp|ralory
erzyres |r oacler|a are s|r||ar lo lrose |r rurars. 2 slud|es ol lre ruc|eol|de sequerces ol geres Wr|cr code
lor r|oosora| RNA |r d|llererl orgar|srs rave oeer used lo suggesl evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps.
- A sludy ol gere sequerces |r d|llererl spec|es ard lre|r roro|og|es car revea| lre evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps
oelWeer lrer.
- Currerl researcr suggesls lral rary geres corla|r ruc|eol|de sequerces lral rave crarged or|y s||grl|y
dur|rg lre evo|ul|or ol ||le or earlr. 3equerces lral do rol crarge are used lo reasure lre degree ol
re|aledress ol orgar|srs.
- Exarp|e, oecause lre roreooox sequerce |s s|r||ar |r lox geres, |l |s lrougrl lral lrey are roro|ogous
geres ard lral a|| srare a corror arceslra| gere. ll seers |||e|y lral a|| ar|ra| spec|es |rrer|led lre|r lox
c|uslers lror a corror arceslor.
- Researcr |rlo lox geres |s prov|d|rg reW ev|derce aooul evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps. A rulal|or |r a roreol|c
gere car cause ore parl ol lre oody lo deve|op |rlo arolrer parl. lr 0r|sopr||a l||es, lor exarp|e, ore parl|cu|ar
roreol|c rulal|or resu|ls |r e|gs, ralrer lrar arlerrae or lre read ol lre l|y.
- Trese slud|es ol rulal|ors |r roreol|c geres sroW lral a sra|| rulal|or car resu|l |r a draral|c ard sudder
crarge |r ar orgar|sr as lre deve|oprerla| cascade |s a|lered. Tr|s suggesls recrar|srs lor lre evo|ul|or ol
lre d|vers|ly ol ||v|rg orgar|srs ard adds supporl lo lre purclualed equ|||or|ur lreory ol evo|ul|or.