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HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan


9.2 Ha|nta|n|ng a a|ance

1. Host organ|sms are act|ve |n a ||m|ted temperature range

|dent|fy the ro|e of enzymes |n metabo||sm, descr|be the|r chem|ca| compos|t|on and use a s|mp|e mode| to
descr|be the|r spec|f|c|ty on substrates

Erzyres are o|o|og|ca| cala|ysls, Wr|cr speed up crer|ca| reacl|ors |r ||v|rg orgar|srs.
Erzyres are rade up ol prole|rs, lre oas|c ur|l ol Wr|cr |s lre ar|ro ac|d. Trere are 20 d|llererl ar|ro ac|ds, ard
var|ous coro|ral|ors ra|e up d|llererl prole|rs. lr prole|rs, rary ar|ro ac|ds are jo|red logelrer oy po|ypepl|de
oords lor a po|ypepl|de cra|r. Erzyres are 30, g|oou|ar prole|rs Wrere lre po|ypepl|de cra|r |s lo|ded |rlo a
spec|l|c srape.
Erzyres are r|gr|y spec|l|c |r lre|r acl|or, rear|rg eacr erzyre acls or a parl|cu|ar suoslrale. Tr|s |s oecause
lre srape ol lre erzyre's acl|ve s|le l|ls or|y 1 spec|l|c suoslrale ro|ecu|e.

|dent|fy ph as a way |f descr|b|ng the ac|d|ty of a substance

pl |s a Way ol descr|o|rg lre ac|d|ly/a||a||r|ly ol a suoslarce. ll |s a reasure ol lre corcerlral|or ol rydroger |ors
per ||lre ol so|ul|or.

Exp|a|n why the ma|ntenance of a constant |nterna| env|ronment |s |mportant for opt|ma| metabo||c
eff|c|ency

Vu|l|ce||u|ar orgar|srs lurcl|or oesl ard al opl|rur relaoo||c ell|c|ercy |l lre |rlerra| erv|rorrerl prov|ded lor
lre|r ce||s |s ra|rla|red al a corslarl |eve|.

0escr|be homeostas|s as the process by wh|ch organ|sms ma|nta|n a re|at|ve|y stab|e |nterna| env|ronment
lor oody ce||s
Eg. 8ody lerperalure, pl ol o|ood ard l|ssues, o|ood pressure, sa|l/Waler oa|arce, o|ood g|ucose corcerlral|or,
corcerlral|or ol C02/02 |r o|ood

Exp|a|n that homeostas|s cons|sts of two stages:
- 0etect|ng changes from the stab|e state carr|ed oul oy receplors. 3erl v|a rerves lo lre corlro| cerlre - lre
ora|r.
- 6ounteract|ng changes from the stab|e state carr|ed oul oy elleclors eg. re|eas|rg rorrores ard rerves.

0ut||ne the ro|e of the nervous system |n detect|ng and respond|ng to env|ronmenta| changes

Tre rervous sysler cors|sls ol lre cerlra| rervous sysler - lre ora|r ard sp|ra| cord. Tr|s acls as a corlro|
cerler lo coord|rale a|| lre orgar|sr's resporses. ll rece|ves |rlorral|or, |rlerprels |l ard |r|l|ales a resporse. Tre
per|prera| rervous sysler |s a sysler ol rerves orarcr|rg lror receplors lo elleclors.
Tre rervous sysler Wor|s W|lr arolrer sysler ca||ed lre EN00CRlNE sysler, Wr|cr produces rorrores |r
resporse lo cerla|r sl|ru||.

|dent|fy the broad range of temperature over wh|ch ||fe |s found compared w|th the narrow ||m|ts of
|nd|v|dua| spec|es

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0rgar|srs ||ve |r erv|rorrerls W|lr aro|erl lerperalure rarg|rg lror |ess lral 0C (eg. 8acler|a |r sroW) lo
100C (eg. 8acler|a |r oo|||rg rol spr|rgs, urdersea verls ard vo|caroes).

lrd|v|dua| orgar|srs carrol surv|ve lr|s Wro|e rarge ol lerperalures (eg. Varra|s gerera||y car or|y surv|ve
lerperalures ol 0C lo 15C ard car rorra||y oe acl|ve |r a rarge ol oody lerperalure oelWeer 30C ard 15C.
3ugar care reeds a Warr ( > 15C) lrosl-lree erv|rorrerl so |l car or|y oe groWr |r lrop|ca| ard suolrop|ca|
reg|ors.
6ompare the responses of named Austra||an ectotherm|c and endotherm|c organ|sms to changes |n the
amb|ent temperature and exp|a|n how these responses ass|st temperature regu|at|on

Adaplal|ors ol Ecolrerrs (8ElAvl0uRAL):

Cerlra| Nelled 0ragor
3uroa||rg - ||zards suroa|e |r lre rorr|rg lo Warr lre|r ood|es. L|zards l|aller lre|r ood|es lo aosoro real Wr||e
suroa||rg, lrer rarroW lre|r oody lo reduce lre exposed surlace area Wrer lrey oecore rol.
3rade ard ourroWs - ||zards avo|d r|gr lerperalure oy ourroW|rg or see||rg sre|ler urder roc|s or grasses |r lre
rollesl parl ol lre day.
Crarg|rg co|our - sore deserl ||zards car crarge lror pa|e co|ours or lre|r oac| lo rel|ecl lo dar| co|ours lo
aosoro lre real.
Tre ||zard c||ros |rlo lrees ard ousres lo see| coo|er cord|l|ors oll lre grourd.

8|ac| 3ra|e
3ra|es use araeroo|c resp|ral|or dur|rg ruscu|ar acl|v|l|es.
Trey rove |r ard oul ol srade ard vary lre|r exposure lo lre sur.
Trey l|aller lre|r oody lo expose a grealer surlace area lo lre sur.
Trey |rcrease grealer o|oodl|oW lo lre s||r caus|rg rore real lo oe aosoroed ard lrarsporled lo lre |rrer oody
l|ssues dur|rg oas||rg.
0lrer
l|oerral|or - lo surv|ve co|d cord|l|ors, sore ar|ra|s rera|r |r a sre|lered spol url|| lre|r relaoo||srs s|oWs, eg
8ogorg Volr
Noclurra| acl|v|ly eg. 8roWr 3ra|es

Adaplal|ors ol Erdolrerrs

Red Kargaroo
lave a oody lerperalure ol 3C, Wr|cr |s a degree or 2 |oWer lrar rosl rarra|s ard car oe |oWered 3-1
dur|rg lre r|grl so lre |rlerra| lerperalure car |rcrease gradua||y dur|rg lre day.
Tre|r relaoo||c rale |s 30 s|oWer lrar rosl p|acerla| rarra|s, Wr|cr rears lrey gererale |ess real oW|rg lo
|rlerra| crer|ca| reacl|ors.
wrer resl|rg, lrey'|| ||c| lre|r lorearrs so lral surlace o|ood vesse|s W||| |ose real as lre evaporal|or ol sa||va
la|es real lror lre|r oody.
Trey d|g aWay lre rol surlace ol so|| ard s|l |r lre coo|er urdersurlace urder lrees.
Trey rave a |arge surlace area lo vo|ure ral|o |r lre|r la||s, Wr|cr rears lrere car oe rore real |osl lrrougr lre
la||.


8||oy
Tre |arge lr|r ears ra|e up a |arge surlace area lral |els real escape lror o|ood vesse|s c|ose lo lre surlace.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre c|aWs or |ls lrorl leel a||oW |l lo ourroW |rlo lre so|| dur|rg lre day.
ll |s roclurra|, so |l escapes lre real ol lre day.
Produces corcerlraled ur|re lo preserve |rlerra| Waler.


|dent|fy some responses of p|ants to temperature change

Rel|ecl|ve |eal surlaces reduce lre arourl ol ||grl lral |s aosoroed. L|grl or s||very co|oured |eaves, Waxy or sr|ry
surlaces, eg. 3a|lorusr
0r|erlale |eaves al r|grl arg|es lol lre sur reduce lre surlace area lral |s exposed lo lre sur ard re|p coo| lre
|eal. Eg. Euca|yplus |eaves rarg verl|ca||y.
0rop lre|r |eaves |l lre lerperalure oecores loo co|d.
urdergrourd slruclures eg. Rools, rr|zores, ou|os or luoers, Wr|cr surv|ve Wrer cord|l|ors are urlavourao|e lor
lre aoovegrourd parls. Tre sproul Wrer lavourao|e cord|l|ors relurr.
0orrarl seeds, W|lr lr|c|, prolecl|ve seed coals ray oe |ell oy p|arls |r resporse lo exlrere real or co|d.
Trarsp|ral|or lror lre |eaves ras a coo||rg ellecl |r rol cord|l|ors. loWever p|arls |r dry cord|l|ors usua||y reduce
lrarsp|ral|or |r lre rollesl parls ol lre day lo corserve Waler.
3eed d|spersa| |r sore Auslra||ar p|arls |s sl|ru|aled oy real ol l|re. Eg, oar|s|as ard sore euca|ypls oear lru|ls
W|lr rard Woody cases lral are dropped lror lre parerl p|arl. Tre real ol l|re sl|ru|ales lrer lo oper.
verra||sal|or |s exposure lo co|d cord|l|ors sore p|arls reed oelore lrey l|oWer.

Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to deve|op a
mode| of a feedback mechan|sm

loreoslas|s |rvo|ves lre delecl|or ol a crarge |r lre |rlerra| erv|rorrerl ard lre resporse lo lral crarge. Tre
recrar|sr oy Wr|cr lr|s occurs |s ca||ed FEE08ACK.
Feedoac| |s lre ellecl ol crarges lo a producl ol a process or lre process |lse|l, |e. Tre resporse a|lers lre
sl|ru|us.




















HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
2. P|ants and an|ma|s transport d|sso|ved nutr|ents and gases |n a f|u|d med|um

|dent|fy the form(s} |n wh|ch each of the fo||ow|ng |s carr|ed |n mamma||an b|ood:
- carbon d|ox|de
- oxygen
- water
- sa|ts
- ||p|ds
- n|trogenous waste
- other products of d|gest|on

Caroor d|ox|de:
1. Z0 coro|res W|lr Waler lo lorr hydrogen carbonate |ons or b|carbonate Wr|cr are carr|ed |r lre p|asma.
2. 23 coro|res W|lr raerog|oo|r lo lorr carbam|nohaemog|ob|n.
3. Z |s d|sso|ved d|rect|y |n the p|asma.

0xyger:
As oxyhaemog|ob|n |r red b|ood ce||s.

waler:
As Waler ro|ecu|es |r p|asra.
3a|ls:
Eg. 3od|ur, polass|ur, ragres|ur, cr|or|de, su|prale, prosprale |r p|asma.

L|p|ds:
As g|ycero| ard fatty ac|ds |r p|asma.

N|lrogerous Wasle:
Vosl|y as urea |r p|asma.

0lrer producls ol d|gesl|or:
As separale ro|ecu|es, eg g|ucose, or ar|ro ac|ds |r p|asma.

Exp|a|n the adapt|ve advantage of haemog|ob|n

0xyger |s rol very so|uo|e |r Waler. 8|ood |s a Walery ||qu|d. ll oxyger Was d|sso|ved |r o|ood p|asra, 100rL cou|d
carry or|y 0.2rL ol oxyger.
lr rarra|s, red o|ood ce||s corla|r lre red p|grerl ca||ed raerog|oo|r. ll ras 1 acl|ve s|les Wrere oxyger
ro|ecu|es car oe allacred.
Tre preserce ol raerog|oo|r |rcreases lre oxyger carry|rg capac|ly ol o|ood 100 l|res - 100rL ol o|ood car
carry 20rL ol oxyger.
Tr|s ao|||ly lo lrarsporl |arge quarl|l|es ol oxyger g|ves rarra|s a cors|derao|e adapl|ve advarlage. ll rears
rore oxyger |s ava||ao|e lor resp|ral|or ard rore erergy car oe re|eased.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy the products extracted from donated b|ood and
d|scuss the uses of these products

Red 8|ood Ce||s
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
used lo |rcrease lre arourl ol oxyger lral car oe carr|ed lo lre oody's l|ssues. 0|ver lo pal|erls W|lr araer|a.
P|ale|els
Esserl|a| lor o|ood c|oll|rg. 0|ver lo peop|e Wro rave carcer ol lre o|ood or |yrpr. Eg Leu|aer|a or Lyrprora.

P|asra
Tre ||qu|d proporl|or ol lre o|ood corla|rs o|ood-c|oll|rg laclors. P|asra |s used lo lreal peop|e W|lr c|oll|rg
d|sorders. used lo adjusl lre osrol|c pressure ol o|ood.

lrrurog|oo|rs or arl|ood|es
lrlecl|or l|grl|rg parls ol lre p|asra. 0|ver lo

wr|le o|ood ce||s
lrlecl|or l|grl|rg corporerl ol lre o|ood, used occas|ora||y lo lreal ||le-lrrealer|rg |rlecl|ors, Wrer lre ce|| courl
|s very |oW or lre rorra| Wr|le o|ood ce||s arer'l Wor||rg proper|y.

Ana|yse and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to report on progress |n the product|on of
art|f|c|a| b|ood and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to propose why such research |s needed

-lso|aled raerog|oo|r Was lr|ed ard exper|rerled W|lr as a suosl|lule lo ralura| o|ood. ll ras a r|gr oxyger
carry|rg capac|ly yel Wrer |so|aled lror red o|ood ce||s, lox|c crarges occur.
-Perl|urocaroor oased suosl|lules carry rore oxyger ard caroor lrar o|ood p|asra, oul sl||| carl lrarsporl
rulr|erls or rave lre ao|||ly lo c|ol ard |r|l|ale |rrure reacl|ors.
laerog|oo|r 8ased 0xyger Carr|ers are rol corla|red |r a rerorare ard lrerelore do rol requ|re o|ood lyp|rg
ard cross-ralcr|rg ol o|ood (A, A8, 8 or 0).
-Tre ca|| lor arl|l|c|a| o|ood resu|led lror lre srorlage ol doraled o|ood lror lre 1
sl
ard 2
rd
wor|d wars ard lre
Auslra||ar 0overrrerl p|ac|rg oars or lre doral|or ol o|ood lror peop|e Wro ||ved |r Europe oelWeer 1980 ard
199 oecause lrere |s a crarce lre|r o|ood ray oe allecled oy 83E ard CJ0.
Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy current techno|og|es that a||ow measurement of
oxygen saturat|on and carbon d|ox|de concentrat|ons |n b|ood and descr|be and exp|a|n the cond|t|ons
under wh|ch these techno|og|es are used

Pu|se 0x|reler
0ev|ce |||e a peg s|ls or lre l|rger ard reasure lre lrarsr|ss|or ol ||grl lrrougr lre l|ssues. ll reasures lre
arourl ol oxyger |r arler|a| o|ood. Trere |s a |arge d|llererce |r ||grl aosoroed oy raerog|oo|r corpared lo
oxyraerog|oo|r.
ll |s used lo reasure lre oxyger salural|or ol lre o|ood |r pal|erls urdergo|rg ary procedure lral requ|res
araeslres|a or sedal|or or Wrose orealr|rg or c|rcu|al|or |s aororra|.

Arler|a| 8|ood 0as (A80) ara|ys|s
uses e|eclrocrer|ca| relrods lo reasure lre corcerlral|or ol oxyger ard caroor d|ox|de, lre oxyger salural|or,
lre o|caroorale corlerl ard lre pl ol o|ood. ll eva|uales lre ellecl|veress ol lre |urgs |r de||ver|rg oxyger ard
rerov|rg caroor d|ox|de.
used Wrer a pal|erl sroWs dargerous|y |oW oxyger |eve|s or r|gr |eve|s ol caroor d|ox|de. le|ps doclors |r
ror|lor|rg pal|erls urder araeslrel|c dur|rg operal|ors, elc. Eg Wrer a pal|erl |s |r a cora ard or a resp|ralor,
lre o|ood gases are ara|ysed regu|ar|y.
6ompare the structure of arter|es, cap|||ar|es and ve|ns |n re|at|on to the|r funct|on

Arler|es
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Arler|es rave lr|c| ruscu|ar e|asl|c Wa||s lral car W|lrslard lre r|gr pressure ol o|ood. Tre e|asl|c Wa||s a||oW lre
vesse|s lo expard ard reco|| W|lr eacr rearloeal. Tr|s re|ps ra|rla|r lre pressure ol lre o|ood.

ve|rs
Tre Wa||s ol ve|rs are lr|rrer W|lr |ess rusc|e. Trey do rol rave lo W|lrslard r|gr o|ood pressure. Trey o|ood |s al
a rucr |oWer pressure aller pass|rg lrrougr cap|||ar|es. Tre rave va|ves Wr|cr preverl lre oac|l|oW ol o|ood.

Cap|||ar|es
Cap|||ar|es rave a very lr|r Wa|| (ore ce|| or|y). Tr|s a||oWs lre excrarge ol raler|a|s oelWeer lre o|ood ard lre
ce||s. Trey prov|de a very |arge surlace area over Wr|cr lre excrarge ol raler|a|s oelWeer lre o|ood ard lre oody
ce||s car occur.

0escr|be the ma|n changes |n the chem|ca| compos|t|on of the b|ood as |t mov|es around the body and
|dent|fy t|ssues |n wh|ch these changes occur

Tre o|ood |eaves lre rearl r|gr |r oxyger. As lre o|ood passes lrrougr lre |rlesl|res, oxyger |eaves lre o|ood
ard caroor d|ox|de as We|| as d|gesl|ve loods sucr as ar|ro ac|ds ard g|ucose erler lre o|ood. Tre o|ood lrer
passes lrrougr lre ||ver, Wrere rore caroor d|ox|de W||| erler lre o|ood. 0xyger |eaves o|ood ard g|ucose |s
regu|aled (excess g|ucose |eaves lre o|ood). Tre o|ood lrer roves lo lre ||dreys, Wrere r|lrogerous Wasled |r
lre lorr ol urea |eave lre o|ood, sa|l ard Waler are regu|aled as We|| as oxyger |eav|rg lre o|ood ard rore caroor
d|ox|de erler|rg lre o|ood. Tre o|ood lrer goes oac| lo lre rearl lo oe repurped ard lrer goes lo lre |urgs aga|r
lo rave lre caroor d|ox|de reroved ard oxyger added.

0ut||ne the need of oxygen |n ||v|ng ce||s and exp|a|n why remova| of carbon d|ox|de from ce||s |s essent|a|

L|v|rg ce||s reed oxyger lor resp|ral|or ard produce caroor d|ox|de as a Wasle producl. Caroor d|ox|de d|sso|ves
W|lr Waler lo lorr caroor|c ac|d, Wr|cr |oWers lre pl ol lre o|ood. Tre accuru|al|or ol caroor d|ox|de |s lox|c lo
ce||s ard lrerelore rusl oe reroved qu|c||y.

0escr|be current theor|es about the processes respons|b|e for the movement of mater|a|s through p|ants |n
xy|em and ph|oem t|ssue

Xy|er:
water car r|se |r xy|er al a rale ol 15 relres per rour, Wr|cr |s aga|rsl grav|ly. ll |s a pass|ve process ard re||es
or lrarsp|ral|or ard lre prys|ca| properl|es ol Waler.
0. Trarsp|ral|or -Waler |s pu||ed lror lre lop. EvAP0RATl0N ol Waler lror |eal ce||s lrrougr slorales |r|l|ales
lre pu|| ol lre lrarsp|ral|or slrear. waler |s draWr lror lre xy|er luoes lo rep|ace Waler |osl.
1. Cores|or - Waler ro|ecu|es sl|c| logelrer lo lorr a corl|ruous co|urr |r xy|er.
2. Adres|or - Waler ro|ecu|es sl|c| lo lre s|des ol lre xy|er luoes (ce||u|ose ce|| Wa||s). Tr|s rovererl ol Waler
lrrougr rarroW luoes |s ca||ed CAPlLLARlTY ard |s due lo lre adres|ve ralure ol Waler.



Pr|oer:
Vovererl ol organ|c mater|a|s eg. 8ugars, am|no ac|ds and hormones oy pr|oer |s ca||ed TRAN3L0CATl0N.
Valer|a|s are lrarsporled both up and down lre sler. Producls ol prolosyrlres|s rave lo oe roved lror lre
|eaves lo lre parls ol lre p|arl Wrere lrey are reeded. Valer|a|s are d|slr|ouled espec|a||y lo lre groW|rg po|rls
ard reproducl|ve slruclures |rc|ud|rg lru|ls ard seeds.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

30uRCE-PATl-3lNK sysler:
Tre l|oW ol raler|a|s |r lre pr|oer |s ar act|ve process lral requ|res erergy (Tre pr|oer luoes rave a r|gr rale ol
resp|ral|or. Trere's a corre|al|or oelWeer lre spread ol lrars|ocal|or ard lre relaoo||c rale. ll a relaoo||c po|sor
|s used, lrars|ocal|or |s reduced). ll |s lrougrl lo occur oy a recrar|sr ca||ed lre source-palr-s|r| sysler ard |s
dr|ven by a pressure grad|ent gereraled osrol|ca||y.
1. 3ugars ard olrer r|rera| rulr|erls are |oaded |rlo lre pr|oer s|eve luoes ol lre |eaves. 3YVPLA3TlC
L0A0lN0 - sugars ard rulr|erls rove |r lre cylop|asr lror lre resopry|| ce||s lo lre s|eve luoes lrrougr
PLA3V00E3VATA.
AP0PLA3TlC L0A0lN0 - sugars ard rulr|erls rove a|org lre ce|| Wa||s lo lre s|eve luoes. Trey lrer cross
lre ce|| rerorare oy acl|ve lrarsporl.
2. As lre sugars erler lre pr|oer, lre corcerlral|or ol pr|oer sap |rcreases, lr|s causes lre erlry ol
Waler oy osros|s lror lre surrourd|rg ce||s. Tr|s resu|l|rg PRE33uRE causes Waler ard d|sso|ved so|ules lo
l|oW loWards a 3lNK.
3. A 3lNK |s a reg|or ol a p|arl Wrere sugars ard rulr|erls are acl|ve|y oe|rg reroved lror lre pr|oer eg. lr
rools, sler l|oWers or slorage areas ol lre p|arl. As sugars rove oul ol lre pr|oer, Waler l|oWs oul W|lr lrer.
Tr|s reduces lre pressure |r lre s|eve luoes al lre 3lNK reg|or.
TlE PRE33uRE 0lFFERENCE 8ETwEEN TlE 30uRCE AN0 3lNK EN03 0F TlE PlL0EV Tu8E3 0RlvE3
TlE PlL0EV 3AP FL0w. TlE 0lRECTl0N 0F FL0w 0EPEN03 0N wlERE TlE 3lNK AREA3 0F TlE
PLANT ARE 0PERATlN0.

3. P|ants and an|ma|s regu|ate the concentrat|on of gases, water and waste products |f metabo||sm |n
|nterst|t|a| f|u|d

Exp|a|n why the concentrat|on of water |n ce||s shou|d be ma|nta|ned w|th|n a narrow range for opt|ma|
funct|on

L|v|rg ce||s Wor| oesl |r ar |solor|c erv|rorrerl - Wrere lre so|ule corcerlral|or |s lre sare |r ard ouls|de lre
ce||. Trey are very sers|l|ve lo crarges |r lre so|ule corcerlral|or ard ray |ose or la|e |r |arge arourls ol Waler
oy osros|s |l corcerlral|ors |r lre|r exlerra| erv|rorrerl crarge loo rucr. ll lr|s rappers, lre ce|| usua||y d|es.
l|gr Waler corcerlral|or |r lre ce|| |eads lo osros|s Wrere Waler passes oul ol lre ce|| cas|rg srr|r|age ard
dealr. ll lre Waler corcerlral|or |r lre ce|| |s |oW, excess|ve Waler ray erler caus|rg lre ce|| lo oursl. Tr|s
espec|a||y occurs |r ar|ra| ce||s Wrere lrere |s a |ac| ol ce|| Wa|| ur|||e p|arls ard lre ce|| car eas||y oursl.
Exp|a|n why the remova| of wastes |s essent|a| for cont|nued metabo||c act|v|ty

wasle producls are corl|rua||y oe|rg lorred. ll lrey Were a||oWed lo accuru|ale |r ce||s ard l|ssues, lrey Wou|d
s|oW doWr relaoo||sr ard po|sor lre ce||s.

|dent|fy the ro|e of the k|dney |n the excretory system |n f|sh and mamma|s

Tre pr|rary ro|e ol lre ||dreys |r l|sr |s 03V0RE0uLATl0N - lre regu|al|or ol lre Waler ard sa|l corcerlral|ors
|r lre oody. lr l|sr, excrel|or ol r|lrogerous Wasle producls occurs across lre g|||s. Tre ||dreys adjusl lre |eve|s ol
Waler ard r|rera| |ors |r lre l|sr's oody |r order lo ra|rla|r a corslarl corcerlral|or ol |rlerra| l|u|d lor lre ce||s.

Exp|a|n why the processes of d|ffus|on and osmos|s are |nadequate |n remov|ng d|sso|ved n|trogenous
wastes |n some organ|sms

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0|llus|or |s loo s|oW ard |s ror-se|ecl|ve ol so|ules. 0sros|s |s lre rovererl ol Waler or|y, Wr|cr rears lral
Wasles Wou|d slay |r lre oody ard or|y Waler Wou|d |eave. Trese proo|ers are so|ved oy a ||drey lral reroves
everylr|rg lror lre o|ood lrer se|ecl|ve|y reaosoros lre uselu| suoslarces/raler|a|s.

Exp|a|n how the processes of f||trat|on and reabsorpt|on |n the mamma||an nephron regu|ate body f|u|d
compos|t|on

F||trat|on (non-se|ect|ve and pass|ve}:
8|ood |s orougrl lo lre ||dreys oy lre rera| arlery. Tr|s d|v|des |rlo sra||er arler|o|es, Wr|cr, Wrer lrey reacr a
8oWrar's Capsu|e, lorr a relWor| ol cap|||ar|es ca||ed a 0L0VERuLu3. l|gr o|ood pressure |r lre g|oreru|us
lorces sore ol lre ||qu|d oul ol lre o|ood, lrrougr lre cap|||ary Wa||s ard |rlo lre 8oWrar's Capsu|e.
Tr|s ||qu|d corla|rs N0 8L000 CELL3 0R PLA3VA PR0TElN3. Trey are T00 8l0 lo pass oul ol lre
g|oreru|us. Tr|s ||qu|d |s ca||ed g|oreru|ar l||lrale ard corla|rs or|y sma|| so|ub|e mo|ecu|es sucr as Waler, sa|l,
urea, o|caroorale |ors, g|ucose, ar|ro ac|ds, |rgesled suoslarces (per|c||||r) ard rorrores.
Reabsorpt|on (se|ect|ve and act|ve}:
3urrourd|rg eacr reprror luou|e |s a |arge cap|||ary relWor|. As lre l||lrale lrave|s doWr lre luou|e, uselu|
raler|a|s are reaosoroed |rlo lre o|ood. Tr|s slep requ|res erergy ard occurs |r lre prox|ra| ard d|sla| parls ol lre
luo|e as We|| as |r lre Loop ol ler|e.

8ecret|on (se|ect|ve and act|ve}:
Trarsporls excess suoslarces lror lre o|ood oac| |rlo lre reprror lo |eep regu|ale lre|r corcerlral|or |r o|ood.
Tr|s occurs |r lre prox|ra| ard d|sla| parls ol lre luou|e.
0|st|ngu|sh between act|ve and pass|ve transport and re|ate these to processes occurr|ng |n the
mamma||an k|dney

0|llus|or ard osros|s are pass|ve lorrs ol lrarsporl lral do rol requ|re erergy. Acl|ve lrarsporl requ|res erergy. lr
lre ||drey, oolr lorrs ol lrarsporl are used.
Pass|ve occurs |r l||lral|or ard osros|s ol Waler.
Acl|ve occurs |r secrel|or, lrarsporl ol rulr|erls oac| |rlo lre o|ood, ard se|ecl|ve reaosorpl|or ol sa|ls.

Prox|ra| luou|e
Reaosorpl|or ol o|caroorale |ors ard secrel|or ol rydroger |ors re|ps ra|rla|r a corslarl pl.
Acl|ve secrel|or ol drugs sucr as per|c||||r ard asp|r|r |rlo lre luou|e.
Acl|ve reaosorpl|or ol rulr|erls sucr as g|ucose ard ar|ro ac|ds |rlo lre o|ood.
Regu|al|or ol sa|ls. 3od|ur |ors are acl|ve|y lrarsporled oac| |rlo lre o|ood, cr|or|re lo||oWs pass|ve|y.




Loop ol ler|e
0escerd|rg L|ro - wa||s are perreao|e lo Waler oul rol lo sa|ls. waler passes oul oy osros|s.
Ascerd|rg L|ro - wa||s are perreao|e lo sa|ls oul rol Waler. 3a|l passes oul pass|ve|y, lrer acl|ve|y.
3a|l pass|rg oul ol lre ascerd|rg ||ro ra|es lre |rlersl|l|a| l|u|d ol lre redu||a very corcerlraled.

0|sla| Tuou|e
3e|ecl|ve reaosorpl|or ard secrel|or adjusl lre pl ol lre o|ood.

Co||ecl|rg 0ucls
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre Wa||s are perreao|e lo Waler ard rol sa|ls. waler passes oul oy osros|s. Tre l|ra| l||lrale |s roW lorred ard
ca||ed ur|re.

Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to compare the processes of rena|
d|a|ys|s w|th the funct|on of the k|dney

3|r||ar|l|es
8olr processes rerove urea lror lre o|ood ard regu|ale lre Waler ard sa|l corcerlral|ors.
8|ood ce||s ard prole|rs do rol |eave lre o|ood dur|rg e|lrer process oecause lrey are loo o|g.

0|llererces
Rera| 0|a|ys|s: K|drey:
-ra|r process occurr|rg |s s|rp|e d|llus|or - ra|r processes are l||lral|or (pass|ve),
ard osros|s, Wr|cr are oolr pass|ve processes se|ecl|ve reaosorpl|or (acl|ve), secrel|or
(acl|ve), as We|| as osros|s (pass|ve).
-or|y suoslarces |r excess pass oul ol lre o|ood - a|| sra|| so|uo|e ro|ecu|es are l||lered lror
(due lo d|llererce |r corcerlral|or). Eg. 3ugars, lre o|ood. Tre uselu| suoslarces are lrer
rulr|erls do rol |eave lre o|ood. acl|ve|y reaosoroed. 3ugars ard rulr|erls
l||lered lrer reaosoroed.
-d|a|ys|s rerorare |s lre sare perreao|||ly - |r lre reprror luou|e, lre perreao|||ly
a|org |ls erl|re |erglr. var|es, eg. 3ore parls are perreao|e lo Waler ard rol
sa|l.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to compare and exp|a|n the d|fferences |n ur|ne concentrat|on
of terrestr|a| mamma|s, mar|ne f|sh and freshwater f|sh

Terreslr|a| rarra|s, espec|a||y lrose |r deserl erv|rorrerls, rave |org |oops ol ler|e. Tr|s |s lo a||oW rore
reaosorpl|or ol Waler oac| |rlo lre o|ood lo corserve Waler lral |s rol read||y ava||ao|e |r deserl erv|rorrerls. lr
lrese rarra|s, ur|re |s r|gr|y corcerlraled ard ras ||ll|e Waler re|al|ve lol er so|ules. Terreslr|a| orgar|srs lace
lre proo|er ol corserv|rg Waler ard al lre sare l|re rerov|rg r|lrogerous Wasles.

Var|re l|sr rave |ess We||-deve|oped g|oreru|uses |r order lor |ess l||lral|or lo occur. Trey, lrerelore, produce
corcerlraled ur|re. Aqual|c orgar|srs lace lre proo|er ol osros|s. lr seaWaler, lre corcerlral|ors ol d|sso|ved
suoslarces are usua||y |oWer |r lre oody lrar |r lre seaWaler erv|rorrerl. waler W|||, lrerelore, lerd lo d|lluse oul
ard sa|l W||| d|lluse |r. rar|re orgar|srs excrele excess sa|l lrrougr lre g|||s, very ||ll|e ur|re |s excreled. Var|re
l|sr dr|r| |arge arourls ol seaWaler lo rep|ace Waler |oss.

FresrWaler l|sr rave We||-deve|oped g|oreru|uses lor l||lral|or ard produce d||ule ur|re. lr lresrWaler lre
corcerlral|ors ol d|sso|ved suoslarces |r lre oody are usua||y r|grer |r lre oody lrar |r lre erv|rorrerl. waler
W|||, lrerelore, lerd lo d|lluse |r ard sa|ls d|lluse oul. FresrWaler l|sr rusl r|d lrerse|ves ol lre excess Waler ard
lre Wasle producl |s cop|ous arourls ol d||ule ur|re.



Use ava||ab|e ev|dence to exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between the conservat|on of water and the product|on
and excret|on of concentrated n|trogenous wastes |n a range of Austra||an |nsects and terrestr|a| mamma|s

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lrsecls - rary |rsecls rave so|ved lre proo|er ol corserv|rg Waler ard excrel|rg excess r|lroger lrrougr lre
corvers|or ol r|lrogerous producls |rlo ar a|rosl |rso|uo|e suoslarce ca||ed ur|c ac|d. ll ur|c ac|d |s excreled,
a|rosl ro Waler |s |osl. ur|c ac|d |s excreled lrrougr spec|a| luou|es or ur|c ac|d crysla|s are depos|led |r var|ous
parls ol lre oody. Tre Wr|le sca|es or lre W|rgs ol sore oullerl||es are ur|c ac|d depos|ls. 0lrer exarp|es |rc|ude
lre 8ogorg rolr ard lre grassropper.

Varra|s - deserl rarra|s prov|de good exarp|es ol roW lerreslr|a| rarra|s overcore lre proo|er ol
corserv|rg Waler ard excrel|rg r|lrogerous Wasles. Auslra||ar exarp|es |rc|ude:
-lre Red Kargaroo - lre ||dreys produce r|gr|y corcerlraled ur|re
-lre Vu|gara, a sra|| carr|vorous dasyur|d lral |rrao|ls sardr||| deserls |r cerlra| Auslra||a. ll does rol dr|r|.
Vo|slure |s prov|ded |r lood ard lre |arge arourls ol urea produced oy a carr|vorous d|el are excreled |r r|gr|y
corcerlraled ur|re
-lre Vur|d lopp|rg Vouse ||ves or dry seeds W|lr ro dr|r||rg Waler ard ras lre grealesl ao|||ly lo produce
corcerlraled ur|re.

0ut||ne the ro|e of hormones, a|dostrone and A0h (ant|-d|uret|c hormone} |n the regu|at|on of water and
sa|t |eve|s |n b|ood

A0l (vasopress|r)
Vade |r lre rypolra|arus, slored |r ard re|eased |r lre p|lu|lary g|ard |r lre ora|r. A0l |rcreases lre perreao|||ly
ol lre Wa||s ol lre d|sla| luou|es ard co||ecl|rg ducls lo Waler. lr lre preserce ol A0l, Waler passes lree|y oy
osros|s oul ol lre ducls ard oac| |rlo lre oody. ll very ||ll|e A0l |s re|eased, o|ood corcerlral|or |s |oW.

A|doslrore
Are produced oy lre adrera| g|ards (aoove lre ||dreys). ll |rcreases lre reaosorpl|or ol sa|l lror lre ||drey
reprror. lrcreased o|ood vo|ure ard o|ood pressure resu|l lror r|gr sa|l corcerlral|ors.

Present |nformat|on to out||ne the genera| use of hormone rep|ace therapy |n peop|e who cannot secrete
a|dostrone

F|udrocorl|sore |s used lo lreal peop|e W|lr Add|sor's d|sease. Add|sor's d|sease |s caused oy lre srr|r||rg ol lre
adrera| corlex, Wr|cr produces corl|so| ard a|doslrore. Tr|s rears lral lre oody carrol ra|rla|r a slao|e sa|l ard
Waler oa|arce. Tr|s resu|ls |r a drop |r o|ood pressure ard severe derydral|or. Tr|s cord|l|or car oe reversed W|lr
lre rorrore rep|acererl lrerapy us|rg a syrlrel|c rorrore ca||ed F|udrocorl|sore.

0ef|ne enant|ostas|s as the ma|ntenance of metabo||c and phys|o|og|ca| funct|ons |n response to var|at|ons
|n the env|ronment and d|scuss |ts |mportance to estuar|ne organ|sms |n ma|nta|n|ng appropr|ate sa|t
concentrat|ons






Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to d|scuss processes
used by d|fferent p|ants for sa|t regu|at|on |n sa||ne env|ronments


HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan




0escr|be adaptat|ons of a range of terrestr|a| Austra||an p|ants that ass|st |n m|n|m|s|ng water |oss

A xeropryle |s a p|arl adapled lo ar|d cord|l|ors, Wrere very ||ll|e Waler |s ava||ao|e ard lerperalures reacr a r|gr
da||y rax|rur.
3c|eropry|| |eaves are lyp|ca| ol rary Auslra||ar ral|ve p|arls. Trey are covered oy a lr|c| cul|c|e ard Wrer lrey
dry oul, lre ce||s W|lr|r ray co||apse oul lre ouler srape ol lre |eal |s ra|rla|red. Trey do rol W||l |||e olrer
|eaves. lr lr|s Way Wrer ro|sl cord|l|ors relurr, lre |eaves rap|d|y oeg|r lo lurcl|or.

Eg.
Porcup|re (3p|r|lex)
- |ls |eaves cur| arourd lre urdersurlace |rlo a reed|e srape so lral slorala are erc|osed |r a l|grl area.
- 3lorala are erc|osed |r a sur|er groove.
- Tre urders|de ras l|ry ra|rs lo lrap lre a|r, preverl corvecl|or currerls ard prov|de arolrer recrar|sr lo
reduce Waler |oss.
- Tre upper ep|derr|s |s covered W|lr a Waxy cul|c|e ard a|so ras a sr|ry surlace lo rel|ecl real.

R|ver Red 0ur
- Wrer |ls dry, lrees serd doWr |org rools lo calcr rore Waler.
- Leaves rarg verl|ca||y, lo ||r|l real aosoroed.
- Covered W|lr a lr|c| Waxy cul|c|e.
- 8ecause lrey rarg verl|ca||y, prolosyrlres|s occurs |r lre rorr|rg ard allerroors Wrere lerperalures are rol
al rax|rur, lrerelore, slorala or|y oper al lrose l|res lo reduce lrarsp|ral|or.
- Pa||sade resopry|| ce||s are or oolr s|des ol lre |eal.
- 3lorala ruroers are equa| or oolr s|des ol lre |eal.

Adaplal|or loW |l corserves Waler Exarp|es
Exlers|ve rool syslers Rools car reacr urdergrourd Waler R|ver Red 0ur, V|lcre|| 0rass
Ao|||ly lo c|ose slorales
Wrer lerperalures r|se
lo a cerla|r |eve|.
3lorales oper al coo|er l|res,
lrerelore reduc|rg lrarsp|ral|or.
R|ver Red 0ur
lard |eaves W|lr lr|c| or
Waxy cul|c|e
3r|ry surlace lor rel|ecl|rg ||grl.
Reduces ao|||ly ol Waler lo d|lluse
oul ol lre |eal.
3p|r|lex, R|ver Red 0ur
la|ry |eaves Traps a|r, preverls corvecl|or
currerls ard a recrar|sr lo
reduce Waler |oss
8ar|s|as
Reduced |eaves Reduces surlace area, lrerelore
rear|rg |ess evaporal|or ol Waler
Casuar|ra, Acac|as (wall|es
ard ru|gas)
Leal cur||rg Leaves cur| up lo lorr a cy||rder.
Tr|s reduces lre surlace area ard
lraps a rur|d |ayer ol a|r, Wr|cr
reduces Waler |oss.
3p|r|lex

3ur|er slorales 3lorales ||e |r a cav|ly Wr|cr
resu|ls |r rur|d a|r oe|rg
la|eas. Casuar|ras (sre-oa|)
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
corcerlraled aoove lre slorala,
Wr|cr reduce Waler |oss
waler slorage waler |s slored |r lre lrur|, |eaves
or rools.
8aooao lree slores Waler
|r lrur|
Leaves rarg verl|ca||y Reduces lre area lral |s exposed
lo lre sur, |ess real aosorpl|or.
3c|eropry||, r|ver red gur
woody lru|ls Less Waler |oss lrar |r l|esry lru|ls 8ar|s|as, la|eas































9.3 |uepr|nt of L|fe

1. Ev|dence of evo|ut|on suggests that the mechan|sms of |nher|tance, accompan|ed by se|ect|on, a||ow change
over many generat|ons

0ut||ne the |mpact on the evo|ut|on of p|ants and an|ma|s of:
- changes |n phys|ca| cond|t|ons |n the env|ronment
- changes |n chem|ca| cond|t|ons |n the env|ronment
- compet|t|on for resources

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Prys|ca| crarge - Peppered Volr |r Erg|ard
Peppered rolrs are usua||y dar| or pa|e |r co|our. Eacr ol lrese rolrs are We|| caroul|aged |r d|llererl surrourd|rgs
ard are corsp|cuous |r olrer surrourd|rgs. lr po||uled loresls rear |rduslr|a| c|l|es Wrere lre lree lrur|s are o|ac|ered,
dar| rolrs rave ar advarlage |r co|our. wr|le rolrs are rore |||e|y lo oe seer ard ealer oy o|rds. 0ver rary years
ol se|ecl|or, dar| rolrs rave rad a r|grer surv|va| rale |r |ls erv|rorrerl ard rave oecore dor|rarl.

Crer|ca| crarge - Vosqu|loes ard 00T
00T Was |r|l|a||y used lo |||| rosqu|loes, Wrere |oW corcerlral|ors Were ellecl|ve. lr suosequerl spray|rgs, lrey
oecare |rellecl|ve as lre leW rosqu|loes lral surv|ved lre l|rsl spray|rgs rad a res|slarce lo 00T ard passed |l or lo
lre|r ollspr|rg. Tr|s crealed a popu|al|or res|slarl lo 00T.
Arl|o|ol|cs ard 8acler|a
Tre use ol arl|o|ol|cs lo lreal oacler|a| d|sease ras oecore |ess ellecl|ve as oacler|a rave oecore res|slarl. Trerelore
excess use ol arl|o|ol|cs |s roW d|scouraged |r red|ca| pracl|ce.

Corpel|l|or lor Resources - Leader ard Resl|ess F|ycalcrer
Trey leed or s|r||ar |rsecls oul |r d|llererl Ways. Tre |eader calcres l|y|rg |rsecls or co||ecls |rsecls lror lrees. Tre
resl|ess rovers aoove lre grourd ard er|ls a ca|| lral d|sluros |rsecls. ll lrer pources or lre |rsecl. 0ver l|re lrese
d|llererl spec|es ol l|ycalcrer are lrougrl lo rave evo|ved lo occupy s||grl|y d|llererl r|cres as a resu|l ol corpel|l|or
lor lood.

0escr|be, us|ng spec|f|c examp|es, how the theory of evo|ut|on |s supported by the fo||ow|ng areas of
study:
- pa|aeonto|ogy, |nc|ud|ng foss||s that have been cons|dered as trans|t|ona| forms
- b|ogeography
- comparat|ve embryo|ogy
- comparat|ve anatomy
- b|ochem|stry

Pa|aeorlo|ogy - lre sludy ol loss||s lral prov|des ev|derce lor evo|ul|or. ll sroWs roW lre lype ard aourdarce ol
orgar|srs rave crarged over l|re. NeW loss||s sroW crarges |r lre pasl erv|rorrerls ol lre earlr. Trars|l|ora|
lorrs lral sroW lealures ol rore lrar 1 group ol orgar|srs |rc|ude:
1. Crossopleryg|ar (|ooe-l|rred) l|sr. ll |s lrougrl lral arpr|o|ars are oorr lror l|sr. Tre crossopleryg|ar l|sr
rad oores |r |ls l|rs lral suggesl |l cou|d Wa||. ll rad sca|es, l|rs, g|||s, |urgs ard |ooe-l|rs lral are uselu| or
|ard.
2. Trerasp|ds (rarra|-|||e repl||es). Trey rad a jaW oore oelWeer lral ol rarra|s ard repl||es ard Were
Warr-o|ooded. Trey prov|de ev|derce lral rarra|s deve|oped lror repl||es. Preserl day rorolreres a|so
supporl lr|s lreory.
3. Arcraeopleryx. Tr|s d|rosaur rad lealrers ard srared olrer lealures W|lr o|rds ard repl||es. Tr|s ex|slerce
supporls lre lreory lral o|rds deve|oped lror repl||es. ll rad a |org la||, c|aWs, ro |ee|, so||d oores ard leelr
|||e repl||es ard rad a Wr|sr oore ard lealrers |||e o|rds.

8|ogeograpry - lre d|slr|oul|or ol ||v|rg lr|rgs. Cerla|r lypes ol p|arls ard ar|ra|s are lourd |r cerla|r corl|rerls
ard rol |r olrers. ll |s oe||eved Auslra||a's ur|que rarra|s ard arg|osperrs resu|l lror per|ods ol evo|ul|or |r
|so|al|or. 8y |oo||rg al pallerrs ol d|slr|oul|or ol ar orgar|sr loday, p|us lre loss|| d|slr|oul|or |r lre oeasl, We are
ao|e lo corslrucl |ls evo|ul|orary r|slory. Eg:
waralars - lrere are lrree gerera ol waralars W|lr a d|slr|oul|or sparr|rg lre 3oulrerr Pac|l|c 0cear.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Corparal|ve Eroryo|ogy - lre sludy ol eroryos ol d|llererl orgar|srs. Tre s|r||ar|ly oelWeer eroryos ol d|llererl
verleorale spec|es suggesls a corror arceslry. A|| crordales possess praryrgea| (lrroal) g||| poucres al sore
slage ol deve|oprerl.

Corparal|ve Aralory - lre sludy ol d|llererces ard s|r||ar|l|es |r slruclure ol d|llererl orgar|srs. Voderr day
verleorales rave slruclures |r corror Wr|cr are ev|derce ol s|r||ar geres lral rave oeer |rrer|led lror corror
arceslors. Eg:
Tre Perladacly| ||ro
Vosl |ard verleorales sroW a s|r||ar oas|c pallerr |r lre oores ol lre|r arrs ard |egs. Eacr cors|sls ol a s|rg|e
upper oore, lWo |oWer oores, Wr|sl oores ard 5 d|g|ls. ll |s oe||eved lrey |rrer|led lr|s lror lre|r aqual|c arceslors,
lre |ooe l|rred l|sr.

8|ocrer|slry -

Ar|ro ac|d sequerc|rg
Tre sequerces ol ar|ro ac|ds |r prole|rs rave revea|ed greal s|r||ar|l|es ard spec|l|c d|llererces oelWeer d|llererl
spec|es. C|ose|y re|aled spec|es rave prole|rs W|lr s|r||ar ar|ro ac|d sequerces. Ar|ro ac|d sequerces are
delerr|red oy |rrer|led geres ard d|llererces are due lo rulal|ors. Tre degree ol s|r||ar|ly oelWeer lrese
prole|rs |s delerr|red oy lre ruroer ol rulal|ors lral rave occurred.

Exp|a|n how 0arw|n|wa||ace's theory of evo|ut|on by natura| se|ect|on and |so|at|on accounts for d|vergent
and convergent evo|ut|on

Arl|c|es or evo|ul|or Were puo||sred |r 1858. Tre Dr|g|n ol $pec|es Wasr'l puo||sred l||| 1859. 0arW|r Was ao|e lo
prov|de rore corprerers|ve ard dec|s|ve ev|derce lor lre lreory.

Tre lreory ol evo|ul|or oy ralura| se|ecl|or
8y crarce sore orgar|srs possess craracler|sl|cs rore su|led lo lre|r erv|rorrerls lrar olrers. Trese
orgar|srs are rore |||e|y lo surv|ve ard pass or lre|r craracler|sl|cs lo lre|r ollspr|rg. 0radua||y, reW orgar|srs
oeller adapled lo lre|r erv|rorrerl Wou|d evo|ve.

For a reW spec|es lo evo|ve, groups ol orgar|srs reed lo oe |so|aled lror eacrolrer, usua||y oy sore prys|ca|
oarr|er. w|lr|r eacr separale popu|al|or, d|llererl rulal|ors occur ard lrerelore d|llererl var|al|ors are produced.
Nalura| se|ecl|or acls or lre d|llererl popu|al|ors |r d|llererl Ways oecause eacr ras d|llererl craracler|sl|cs ard
d|llererl erv|rorrerla| pressures. Everlua||y lrey oecore so d|llererl, lrey carl |rleroreed.

0eograpr|ca| |so|al|or - eg1 lre orea|up ol 0ordWara|ard. Aooul 100 r||||or years ago, lre soulrerr corl|rerls
separaled, |so|al|rg a|| lre spec|es lrey corla|red lror olrer corl|rerls. As lre corl|rerls dr|lled aparl, eacr
corl|rerl exper|erced d|llererl erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors ard reW orgar|srs evo|ved oy ralura| se|ecl|or.
Eg2 Easlerr ard weslerr Auslra||ar spec|es. Al ore l|re, Auslra||ar spec|es Were W|de|y d|slr|ouled lror lre easl
coasl lo lre Wesl. Tre lorral|or ol lre deserl |r cerlra| Auslra||a |so|aled lre easlerr ard Weslerr popu|al|ors.
0|sl|rcl|ve spec|es lrer evo|ved |r |so|al|or due lo d|llererl erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors.

0|vergerl Evo|ul|or:
0rgar|srs or|g|rale lror a corror arceslor. Tre arceslor spreads |rlo d|llererl erv|rorrerls. 0|llererl se|ecl|or
pressures operale. Tr|s resu|ls |r d|llererl crarges |r lre craracler|sl|cs ol popu|al|ors al d|llererl |ocal|ors.
Everlua||y, due lo |so|al|or, lrey d|verge |rlo d|llererl spec|es. Eg:
0arW|r's F|rcres
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre l|rcres or lre 0a|apagos ard Cocos |s|ards a|| rad gray|sr oroWr lo o|ac| lealrers ard rad s|r||ar ca||s,
resls, eggs ard courlsr|p d|sp|ays. loWever, lre|r rao|lals ard d|els Were d|llererl. Trey rad d|llererl oody s|zes
ard lre|r oea|s var|ed |r s|ze ard srape.
Auslra||ar Varsup|a|s
A possur-|||e arceslor spread |rlo d|llererl erv|rorrerls |r Auslra||a. w|lr|r lre d|llererl erv|rorrerls, d|llererl
lealures Were se|ecled. 0ue lo |so|al|or, popu|al|ors oecare so d|llererl lrey everlua||y lorred reW spec|es.

3lruclures lral orgar|srs rave |r corror are relerred lo as roro|ogous slruclures oecause lrey or|g|rale lror a
corror arceslor.

Corvergerl Evo|ul|or:
Eg1 - 3rar| ard porpo|se. 0re |s a carl||ag|rous l|sr ard lre olrer a rarra|. Tre s|r||ar|ly |r lre|r srapes |s lre
resu|l ol corvergerl evo|ul|or. Tr|s |s Wrer corp|ele orgar|srs (or lre|r parls) core lo resero|e eacr olrer rore
c|ose|y lrar lre|r arceslors d|d, as a resu|l ol lre|r srar|rg s|r||ar erv|rorrerls.
Eg2 - Ecr|dra ard 0realer Arlealer. Trey oolr evo|ved a |org lorgue, Wr|cr prov|ded lrer W|lr ar evo|ul|orary
advarlage lor lre|r d|el ol arls.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to prepare a case study to show how an env|ronmenta|
change can |ead to changes |n a spec|es


Use ava||ab|e ev|dence to ana|yse, us|ng a named examp|e, how advances |n techno|ogy have changed
sc|ent|f|c th|nk|ng about evo|ut|onary re|at|onsh|ps

0NA lyor|d|sal|or uses real lo separale lre 0NA slrards ol d|llererl spec|es. Tre 0NA slrards lror d|llererl
spec|es are lrer coo|ed ard r|xed logelrer lo a||oW rydroger oord|rg. Tre grealer lre degree ol oord|rg oelWeer
lre slrards, lre grealer lre gerel|c s|r||ar|ly oelWeer spec|es. Tr|s lecrr|que ras oeer used 2 sroW lre gerel|c
re|al|orsr|p oelWeer rurars ard olrer pr|rales. ll sroWs cr|rparzees lo oe rosl c|ose|y re|aled. Trere |s |ess
lrar 2 d|llererce |r lre|r 0NA.

8|ocrer|ca| ara|ys|s ol raerog|oo|r sroWs a c|ose evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|p oelWeer rurars ard cr|rparzees
(ro d|llererce |r ar|ro ac|d sequerce) ard rurars ard gor|||as (1 d|llererce |r ar|ro ac|d sequerce). Ar|ro ac|d
sequerces are delerr|red oy |rrer|led geres ard d|llererces are due lo rulal|ors. Tre degree ol s|r||ar|ly
oelWeer lrese prole|rs |s delerr|red oy lre ruroer ol rulal|ors lral rave occurred.

Advarces sucr as 0NA lyor|d|sal|or ard Ar|ro Ac|d 3equerc|rg rave sroWr c|oser evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps
oelWeer rurars ard olrer pr|rales lrar prev|ous|y lrougrl, parl|cu|ar|y lre rurar ard lre cr|rp.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources on the h|stor|ca| deve|opment of theor|es of evo|ut|on and
use ava||ab|e ev|dence to assess soc|a| and po||t|ca| |nf|uences on these deve|opments

'. Dur||ne rne n|sror|ca| oeve|opmenr ol rne rneor, ol evo|ur|on.

1Z35 L|rraeus puo||sred lre c|ass|l|cal|or sysler |r Wr|cr re c|ass|l|ed rurars ard apes logelrer.

Lale 1Z00s Erasrus 0arW|r (grardlalrer ol Crar|es 0arW|r) l|rsl suggesled lral a|| ||le care lror s|rg|e source.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
1Z98 Troras Va|lrus puo||sred r|s Essa, on Popu|ar|on. le oe||eved lral popu|al|ors |rcreased |r s|zed url||
crec|ed oy lre erv|rorrerl, ca||ed lre 'slrugg|e lor ex|slerce'.

1809 Jear 8apl|sle de Larar| pul lorWard lre l|rsl lreory ol evo|ul|or - var|al|or |r spec|es ras deve|oped due
lo lre 'use' or 'd|suse' ol oody parls. Trese crarges are passed or lo ollspr|rg. l|s lreory Was proved
|rcorrecl, oul r|s Wor| cra||erged |r lre oe||el |r creal|or|sr ard re|ped ra|e 0arW|r's |deas rore
acceplao|e.

1833 Crar|es Lye|| deve|oped r|s geo|og|ca| lreory ol ur|lorr|lar|ar|sr ard puo||sred r|s Pr|nc|p|es ol Seo|og,
- re oe||eved lral lre prys|ca| lealures ol lre earlr Were lre resu|l ol s|oW geo|og|ca| processes lral sl|||
occur loday.

Ear|y 1800s leroerl 3percer |rlroduced lre corcepl ol 'surv|va| ol lre l|llesl'.

1859 0arW|r puo||sred lre ooo| Dn rne Dr|g|ns ol $pec|es o, Veans ol harura| $e|ecr|on.

Ear|y 1900 3c|erl|sl rel|red 0arW|r's lreory.

Preserl Tre roderr lreory ol Evo|ul|or coro|res 0arW|r's lreory ol lre or|g|r ol spec|es oy ralura| se|ecl|or W|lr
ar urderslard|rg ol:
0erel|cs (0regor Verde|)
Crrorosores ard rered|ly (Augusl we|srarr)
Furlrer gerel|cs ard eroryo|ogy (Ju||ar lux|ey)
Valreral|ca| aspecls ol evo|ul|or ard gerel|cs (R.A. F|srer, J.8.3. la|dare ard 3eWa|| wr|grl)
2. Dur||ne some ol rne soc|a| ano po||r|ca| |nl|uences on rnese oeve|opmenrs.

Tre rad|ca| |deas |rlroduced oy lre ear|y evo|ul|orar|sl Were a sroc| lo lre ra|rslrear oe||el ol creal|or|sr. 0arW|r's
lreor|es Were espec|a||y cr|l|c|zed oy sore, rol a||, re||g|ous l|gures al lral l|re. 0arW|r's lreory re||rd|ed lre
oversradoW|rg deoale oelWeer sc|erce ard re||g|or.
A|lrougr 0arW|r app||ed r|s |deas or|y lo o|o|ogy, olrers used r|s |deas |r po||l|ca| ard soc|a| areras. 0arW|r
|rl|uerced lre deve|oprerl ol corrur|sr lrougr re rever app||ed r|s |deas lo rurar soc|el|es. Kar| Varx rad read
0arW|r's Wor| ard Was |rl|uerced oy r|s Wr|l|rg. le lrer Werl or lo descr|oe lre c|ass slrugg|e oelWeer lre r|cr ard lre
poor ard lre apparerl c|ass War. le jusl|l|ed r|s argurerls, |r parl, |r lerrs ol lre 'slrugg|e lor ex|slerce'. Tr|s |dea Was
s|r||ar lo popu|ar v|eW ol 0arW|r|sr as 'lre surv|va| ol lre l|llesl'.
0arW|r a|so |rl|uerced po||l|cs ard ecoror|cs. lr parl|cu|ar, rear-sp|r|led all|ludes loWards lre d|sadvarlaged
Were sorel|res jusl|l|ed |r lerrs ol ralura| se|ecl|or. As a resu|l, |l cou|d oe argued lral rurar progress requ|red lre
e||r|ral|or ol lre url|l. Tr|s Was ore ol lre laclors lral |rl|uerced l|l|er's dr|ve lo produce a pure, super|or Aryar race.
0arW|r|sr Was a|so used as a jusl|l|cal|or lor War. l|s v|eW Was oe|rg app||ed lo corpel|l|or W|lr|r soc|el|es ard
ral|ors. Exp|o|lal|or ol lre poor Was a|so jusl|l|ed lrrougr 0arW|r|sr. 0arW|r r|rse|l avo|ded app||cal|ors ol r|s lreory
ouls|de o|o|ogy ard relused lo ergage |r re||g|ous deoales lrrougroul r|s ||le.

J. l|sr rne oara sources useo.

l3C 8|o|ogy (A|lord ard l|||)
8|o|ogy |r Corlexl (Auoussor ard Kerredy)
Tulor CourseWare
Year 12 8|o|ogy (A||ar ard 0reerWood)

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
2. Cregor Hende|'s exper|ments he|ped advance our know|edge of the |nher|tance of character|st|cs

0ut||ne the exper|ment carr|ed out by Cregor Hende|

0regor Verde|, |r lre 180s, lorru|aled lre pr|rc|p|es ol gerel|cs oy carelu| ard relrod|ca|
exper|rerlal|or W|lr garder peas, P|sum sar|vum. Verde| crose garder peas oecause lrey
Were easy lo groW, produced reW gereral|ors qu|c||y ard rad eas||y d|sl|rgu|srao|e
craracler|sl|cs. le Was a|so ao|e lo slr|cl|y corlro| lre oreed|rg pallerrs ol r|s peas.

Verde| exar|red lre lo||oW|rg sever craracler|sl|cs lourd |r peas:
- F|oWer co|our, purp|e or Wr|le
- F|oWer pos|l|or, ax|a| or lerr|ra|
- 3eed co|our, ye||oW or greer
- 3eed srape, rourd or Wr|r||ed
- Pod srape, |rl|aled or corslr|cled
- Pod co|our, greer or ye||oW
- 3ler re|grl, la|| or srorl.

Verde| reeded lo corlro| lerl|||zal|or. 3e|l-lerl|||zal|or Was ersured oy p|ac|rg a oag over lre l|oWers lo ra|e sure
po||er lror lre slarers |ards or lre carpe| ol lre sare l|oWer. Cross-lerl|||zal|or Was ersured oy cull|rg oll
slarers lror a l|oWer oelore po||er Was produced, lrer dusl|rg lre carpe| ol lre l|oWer W|lr po||er lror arolrer
p|arl. To ersure re||ao|||ly, Verde| used lrousards ol p|arls |r eacr exper|rerl.

Verde| Wor|ed W|lr lrue-oreed|rg p|arls: se|l-lerl|||zed p|arls Wr|cr produced a|| ollspr|rg |derl|ca| lo lre parerls.

Verde| l|rsl cross-lerl|||zed lWo lrue-oreed|rg p|arls lor ore craracler|sl|c, lor exarp|e la|| p|arls Were crossed W|lr
srorl p|arls (Verde| ca||ed lrese p|arls a P' parerl gereral|or).
Tre ollspr|rg produced are ca||ed F' (1
sl
l|||a|) gereral|or.
Tre F' gereral|or Were lrer se|l-lerl|||zed or cross-lerl|||zed lo produce a secord gereral|or, F2.

Eacr ol lre sever lra|ls lral Verde| slud|ed rad a dor|rarl ard a recess|ve laclor. wrer lWo lrue-oreed|rg p|arls
Were crossed, or|y lre dor|rarl laclor appeared |r lre l|rsl gereral|or. Tre recess|ve laclor appeared |r lre
secord gereral|or |r a 3:1 (dor|rarl : recess|ve) re|al|orsr|p.

0escr|be the aspects of the exper|menta| techn|ques used by Hende| that |ed to h|s success

1. le slud|ed a |arge ruroer ol craraclers.
2. le carr|ed oul a |arge ruroer ol crosses.
3. le used pure-oreed|rg ||res.
1. le rade exacl courls ol craracler|sl|cs Wr|cr produced quarl|lal|ve dala lral cou|d oe ara|ysed s|rp|y.
5. le slud|ed separale, |derl|l|ao|e craracler|sl|cs ore al a l|re, so lral lre ellecls ol eacr Were rol corlused.
. Tre p|arl re crose - lre garder pea - sroWs eas||y a|lerrale lorrs (W|lrer dor|rarl or recess|ve).

0escr|be outcomes of monohybr|d crosses |nvo|v|ng s|mp|e dom|nance us|ng Hende|'s exp|anat|ons

Vororyor|d crosses |rvo|ve ore laclor or|y. For exarp|e, a cross ray rave a lrue oreed|rg la|| pea p|arl ard a
lrue oreed|rg srorl pea p|arl. Tr|s Wou|d produce a l|rsl gereral|or a|| la||. Verde| descr|oed lre 1
sl
gereral|or lra|l
lo oe dor|rarl.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

0|st|ngu|sh between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes |n monohybr|d crosses

lorozygous gerolypes are Wrer lre laclors lor lre sare craracler|sl|c are lre sare eg. TT ard ll.
lelerozygous gerolypes are Wrer lre laclors are d|llererl eg. Tl

0|st|ngu|sh between the terms a||e|e and gene, us|ng examp|es

A||e|es are a|lerral|ve lorrs ol a gere s|lualed or lre sare pos|l|or or |ocus or a pa|r ol roro|ogous
crrorosores. Eg la|| ard srorl are a||e|es lor re|grl ol pea p|arls.

A gere |s a secl|or ol 0NA |r a crrorosore lral corla|rs lre |rslrucl|ors lor ra||rg a po|ypepl|de cra|r. Trey
code lor lre craracler|sl|cs ard are passed or lror ore gereral|or lo lre rexl. Eg srorl or la|| geres.

Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between dom|nant and recess|ve a||e|es and phenotype us|ng examp|es
Taj|eet.. (bu||sh|t}
- dor|rarl: gere |s a|Ways expressed |r lre prerolype.
Eg. 8roWr eye co|our |s dor|rarl lo o|ue, o|ue eye co|our preserled '8
- recess|ve: gere |s or|y expressed |r prerolype Wrer dor|rarl gere |s aoserl eg. 8|uW eye co|our |s recess|ve
'oo


0ut||ne the reasons why the |mportance of Hende|'s work was not recogn|zed unt|| some t|me after |t was
pub||shed

Verde| puo||sred r|s Wor| or |rrer|larce |r 18. lls |rporlarce, roWever, Was rol recogr|zed lor rore lrar 30
years. Tr|s Was oecause:
le or|y preserled r|s paper lo a sra|| group ol sc|erl|sls. Trey ray rol rave urderslood |l or recogr|zed |ls
s|gr|l|carce.
Verde| Was rol a We||-|roWr sc|erl|sl ard Was rol Wor||rg al a researcr cerlre W|lr olrer sc|erl|sls, re Was
Wor||rg |r r|s roraslery.
Al lre l|re, ||ll|e Was |roWr aooul lre ce||, lre processes ol r|los|s or re|os|s. Tr|s cou|d oe Wry Verde|'s Wor|
Was rol lu||y urderslood or lrougrl lo oe re|evarl.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be an examp|e of hybr|d|zat|on w|th|n a spec|es and
exp|a|n the purpose of th|s hybr|d|sat|on.

A ryor|d |s produced oy oreed|rg lWo d|llererl spec|es or slra|rs (var|el|es ol spec|es).
A ru|e |s a cross oelWeer lWo spec|es ol equ|re: lre rorse or pory ard lre doresl|c dor|ey.
Vu|es, rav|rg ryor|d v|gor, car groW la||er lrar oolr parerls. we|grl-lor-We|grl, lrey are rucr slrorger lrar
rorses, ard are rucr |orger-||ved W|lr rucr |orger Wor||rg ||ves. Trey rare|y oecore ||| or suller Wourds, car
W|lrslard exlreres ol lerperalure, car ||ve or lruga| ral|ors, rave lrererdous slar|ra ard res|||erce ard are
excepl|ora||y sure-looled.

3. 6hromosoma| structure prov|des the key to |nher|tance

0ut||ne the ro|es of 8utton and over| |n |dent|fy|ng the |mportance of chromosomes

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lr 1902, a yourg Arer|car gerec|sl, wa|ler 3ullor, proposed a crrorosora| lreory ol |rrer|larce. le suggesled
lral Verde|'s |rrer|larce laclors (geres) Were carr|ed or crrorosores. le ooserved re|os|s |r grassroppers ard
roled:
1. 0ur|rg re|os|s, lre crrorosores |r eacr ce|| ||red up |r pa|rs, ard eacr pa|r ol crrorosores Was lre
sare s|ze ard srape.
2. loro|ogous pa|rs ol crrorosores segregale dur|rg re|os|s so lral eacr garele rece|ves ore
crrorosore lror eacr pa|r.
3. Aller lerl|||zal|or, lre resu|l|rg zygole rad a lu|| sel ol roro|ogous crrorosores.
Treodor 8over| sroWed lral crrorosores Were lrarslerred lror ore gereral|or lo lre rexl. le suggesled
crrorosores r|grl oe lre rears ol |rrer|larce. le a|so suggesled eacr crrorosore carr|ed a ruroer ol
laclors. Tre a|so argues crrorosores cou|d excrarge laclors W|lr eacr olrer dur|rg ce|| d|v|s|or.
3ullor ard 8over| prov|ded lre l|rsl corc|us|ve ev|derce lral crrorosores carry lre ur|ls ol |rrer|larce ard occur
|r d|sl|rcl pa|rs.

0escr|be the chem|ca| nature of chromosomes and genes

Eacr crrorosore |s rade up ol 0 prole|r ard 10 0NA. 0NA |s co||ed arourd prole|rs ca||ed r|slores.
0NA slards lor 0eoxyr|ooruc|e|c Ac|d. Tre lola| 0NA |r ore ce|| Wou|d reasure lWo relres |r |erglr.
0NA |s a douo|e slrarded re||x ro|ecu|e or douo|e re||x. ll |s rade up ol suour|ls ca||ed ruc|eol|des.
0re ruc|eol|de cors|sls ol a sugar, prosprale ard a oase. Tre sugar |s 0eoxyr|oose. Trere are 1 oases,
(A)der|re, (0)uar|re, (C)ylos|re, ard (T)ryr|re.
lr 0NA, ruc|eol|des are jo|red logelrer lo lorr a po|yruc|eol|de. Trere are lWo po|yruc|eol|de cra|rs rurr|rg |r
oppos|le d|recl|ors. Tre oases are jo|red logelrer |r a corp|ererlary Way oy rydroger oords.

A gere |s a |erglr ol 0NA lral corla|rs lre |rlorral|or lror lre syrlres|s ol ore po|y-pepl|de (parl ol a gere). Tre
|rlorral|or |s slored |r lre sequerce ol oases a|org lre 0NA ro|ecu|e. A gere, lrerelore, cors|sls ol a parl|cu|ar
sequerce ol oases

|dent|fy that 0NA |s a doub|e-stranded mo|ecu|e tw|sted |nto a he||x w|th each strand compr|sed of a sugar-
phosphate backbone and attached bases - A, T, C and 6 - connected to a comp|ementary strand by pa|r|ng
the bases, A-T and C-6.

Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between the structure and behav|our of chromosomes dur|ng me|os|s and the
|nher|tance of genes

Crrorosores are rade ol 0NA Wr|cr lorrs geres. 0ur|rg d|v|s|or eacr crrorosore ra|es a corp|ele copy ol
|lse|l. Tre reW crrorosore |s allacred lo lre or|g|ra| crrorosore oy a cerlrorere. lr lre |r|l|a| d|v|s|or ol
re|os|s lre roro|ogous crrorosores ||re up W|lr lre ralcr|rg pa|r ard ore ol eacr pa|r ol roro|ogous
crrorosores roves |rlo a reW ce||. Nexl lre dup||caled crrorosores separale resu|l|rg |r lour sex ce||s lral
corla|r ra|l lre crrorosore ruroer.

Tre geres are |ocaled or lre crrorosores. Trey are dup||caled dur|rg lre l|rsl slage ol re|os|s ard are lrer
rardor|y assorled deperd|rg or Wr|cr crrorosores erlers Wr|cr reW rap|o|d ce|| dur|rg lre l|rsl ard secord
d|v|s|or.

Exp|a|n the ro|e of gamete format|on and sexua| reproduct|on |n var|ab|||ty of offspr|ng

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0arele lorral|or resu|ls |r lre ra|v|rg ol lre crrorosore ruroer (rap|o|d) ard sexua| reproducl|or resu|ls |r
coro|r|rg gareles lo produce a d|p|o|d orgar|sr (2r). Tre processes |rvo|ved |r lr|s resu|l |r var|ao|||ly ol lre
ollspr|rg.

0areles are lorred dur|rg lre process ol re|os|s. lr re|os|s lrere are lWo slages lral |ead lo var|ao|||ly. Trese
are lre rardor segregal|or ol geres ard lre process ol cross|rg over.

lr sexua| reproducl|or eacr lera|e or ra|e ce|| produces 1 sex ce||s lror lre process ol re|os|s. Eacr ol lrese
sex ce||s ras ra|l lre rorra| crrorosore ruroer ard ras a rardor assorlrerl ol geres lror lre parerl. Tre
a||e|es are separaled ard lre sex ce||s rave a rardor assorlrerl ol dor|rarl ard recess|ve geres. Vore
var|ao|||ly |s |rlroduced deperd|rg or Wr|cr sex ce|| |s successlu| |r lerl|||zal|or. Tre resu|l|rg eroryo ras a
corp|ele|y d|llererl sel ol geres lror e|lrer ol lre parerls.

0escr|be the |nher|tance of sex-||nked genes, and a||e|es that exh|b|t co-dom|nance and exp|a|n why these
do not produce s|mp|e Hende||an rat|os

Co-dor|rarce |s Wrere 2 a||e|es are expressed as separale uro|erded prerolypes. Trey are oolr expressed |r
eacr olrer's preserce. lr lre 2
rd
ollspr|rg gereral|or, Verde|'s 3:1 ral|o |sr'l produced, ralrer |l |s 1:2:1.
8|aa o|aa ou||sr|l ou||sr|l lor sex-||r|age.. jusl ou||sr|l a o|l lor lr|s po|rl
0escr|be the work of Horgan that |ed to the understand|ng of sex ||nkage

lr 1910, Troras lurl Vorgar carr|ed oul oreed|rg exper|rerls or dr|sopr||a (lru|l l||es). le slud|ed crosses
oelWeer red-eyed ard Wr|le-eyed ra|e ard lera|e lru|l l||es ard lourd lral lre ollspr|rg cou|d rol oe exp|a|r |r
lerrs ol Verde|'s ral|os. le rol|ced ra|e dr|sopr||a W|lr Wr|le eyes arorg lre ollspr|rg ol rorra| red eyed
parerls. le ored:
1. Wr|le eyed ra|e X red eyed lera|e. A|| lre ollspr|rg (l1) rad red eyes.
2. a||oWed lre l1 lo |rleroreed ard sore ol lre l2 rad Wr|le eyes lral Were a|| ra|es.
Vorgar rypolres|zed lral lre Wr|le eyed craracler|sl|c Was sex ||r|led ard Was |ocaled or lre X crrorosore ard
lral lre Y crrorosore rad ro gere lor eye co|our.

Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the resu|t|ng phenotypes
|n examp|es of co-dom|nance

wrere 2 a||e|es are expressed |r eacr olrers preserce.
Eg1 3rorlrorr call|e R=red w=Wr|le
Red coal X wr|le coal = A|| Roar
RR X ww = A|| Rw
Eg2 lurar A80 o|ood group
A X A = AA= A 0 X 0 = 00= 0
8 X 8 = 88= 8 A X 8 = A8= A8
A X 0 = A0= A
8 X 0 = 80= 8 Trerelore poss|o|e prerolypes = A, 8, A8, or 0

0ut||ne ways |n wh|ch the env|ronment may affect the express|on of a gene |n an |nd|v|dua|

Tre erv|rorrerl |rc|udes surrourd|rg lorces lral acl or orgar|srs or |ls ce||s.
Tre erv|rorrerl ray allecl lre express|or ol a gere |r ar |rd|v|dua|.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lderl|ca| |rrer|led craracler|sl|cs do rol a|Ways resu|l |r |derl|ca| orgar|srs oecause ol lre ellecl ol lre
erv|rorrerl.
Eg. F|oWer co|our |r lydrargea P|arls. Tre l|oWers are 8|ue |r Ac|d|c so|| or P|r| |r A||a||re.
lderl|ca| lW|rs resu|l lror ore lerl|||zed ovur ard rave |derl|ca| gerolypes , yel oecause ol lre erv|rorrerl |r
Wr|cr lrey ||ve ray lurr oul d|llererl lo ore arolrer.


4. The structure of 0NA can be changed and such changes may be ref|ected |n the phenotype of the affected
organ|sm

0escr|be the process of 0NA rep||cat|on and exp|a|n |ts s|gn|f|cance

Rep||cal|or |s lre producl|or ol a secord ro|ecu|e ol 0NA exacl|y |||e lre l|rsl ro|ecu|e. Tre parerl ro|ecu|e acls
as lre lerp|ale.
1. lre lWo slrards ol 0NA separale |r rucr lre sare Way as urz|pp|rg a z|p
2. lre reW ruc|eol|des are added lror lre surrourd|rg cylop|asr. Tr|s requ|res lre erzyre 0NA po|yrerase.
3. s|rce ader|re car pa|r or|y W|lr lryr|re, ard 0 W|lr C, lre reW|y lorred slrard W||| oe exacl|y corp|ererlary
lo lre parerl slrard (Wr|cr acls as a lerp|ale) ard |l lrerelore lorrs ar exacl rep||cale ol lre or|g|ra| 0NA.

Tre s|gr|l|carce |s lral |derl|ca| cop|es ol lre geres are rade. Trese car lrer oe passed orlo daugrler ce||s
dur|rg ce|| d|v|s|or.

0ut||ne, us|ng a s|mp|e mode|, the process by wh|ch 0NA contro|s the product|on of po|ypept|des

ll you dor'l |roW lr|s ur gorra la|| lr|s exarllll
TRAN3CRlPTl0N ard lrer TRAN3LATl0N
- Trarscr|pl|or: lre syrlres|s ol rRNA lror 0NA: lre |rlorral|or |r 0NA |s lrarscr|oed |rlo a slrard ol rRNA
- Trars|al|or: lre syrlres|s ol po|ypepl|des lror rRNA : sel ol 3 oases ca||ed codors or lre rRNA slrard
Tre ar|ro ac|d sequerce |s delerr|red oy lre oase sequerce or lre rRNA slrards Wr|cr |s l|srl delerr|red oy lre
oase sequerce or lre 0NA slrard.


Exp|a|n the re|at|onsh|p between prote|ns and po|ypept|des

A prole|r |s rade up ol ore or rore po|ypepl|de cra|rs. A po|ypepl|de |s a sequerce ol ar|ro ac|ds jo|red oy a
po|y pepl|de oord, lrey car oe ore cra|r or car jo|r W|lr olrer cra|rs lo lorr a prole|r eg. laerog|oo|r, or lo|d
|rlo a spec|l|c srape eg erzyre.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to out||ne the ev|dence that |ed to ead|e and Tatum's 'one
gene - one prote|n' hypothes|s to exp|a|n why th|s was a|tered to the 'one gene - one po|ypept|de'
hypothes|s

Ev|derce care lror researcr ol lre oread rou|d. Trey greW lre rou|d or a r|r|ra| red|ur corla|r|rg sugar,
sa|ls ard lre v|lar|r 8|ol|r. Trey reasored lral lrese suoslarces rusl oe corverled oy lre rou|d |rlo ar|ro ac|ds
ard lral erzyres Were respors|o|e lor lr|s relaoo||sr. Trey lrer suojecled lre spores ol lre rou|d lo x-rays lo
cause rulal|ors. Trey lrer greW lre rou|d produced or lre r|r|ra| red|ur, |l |l la||ed lo groW, lrey lr|ed lo groW
|l or a var|ely ol red|urs a|org W|lr a d|llererl ar|ro ac|d eacr l|re. Trey lourd eacr rularl Wou|d groW or|y or
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
ore red|ur W|lr ore parl|cu|ar ar|ro ac|d added. Tr|s suggesled lre rularls rad |osl lre ao|||ly lo produce
parl|cu|ar ar|ro ac|ds.
0eres code lror rary prole|rs lal are rol erzyres. Vary prole|rs are rade up ol rore lrar ore po|ypepl|de ard
eacr gere codes lor 1 po|ypepl|de.

Exp|a|n how mutat|ons |n 0NA may |ead to the generat|on of new a||e|es

A rulal|or |s ary crarge |r lre 0NA ol a crrorosore. Vulal|ors are a source ol reW a||e|es |r ar orgar|sr. ll lre
0NA sequerces are crarged oy a rulal|or, prole|r producl|or W||| crarge. ll ro prole|r or a d|llererl prole|r |s
rade, lrer a ca||'s slruclure or acl|v|l|es ray a|so crarge. lr lr|s Way, ary var|al|or |r gerel|c raler|a| W||| oe
expressed oy lre ce||.

0|scuss the ev|dence for the mutagen|c nature of rad|at|on

Tre darger ol |or|z|rg rad|al|or oecare apparerl aller lre d|scovery ol x-rays |r 1895. r|sl ol lre 1
sl
gereral|or ol
rad|al|or lrerap|sls |r lre ear|y 1900's d|ed ol carcer.
Tre ellecls ol u|lrav|o|el rad|al|or rave a|so oeer |roWr lor sore l|re. lr 1905, cases ol s||r carer Was recorded
or lre rec|s ol grape p|c|ers Wro Were exposed lo lre sur lor |org per|ods ol l|re.
Furlrer ev|derce lor lre rulager|c ralure ol |or|z|rg rad|al|or care W|lr lre deve|oprerl ol ruc|ear Weapors
(alor ooro or l|rosr|ra) ard ruc|ear reaclors (Crerrooy| d|sasler). lr oolr lrese areas, lrere ras oeer ar
|rcrease |r lre lrequercy ol carcers, eg Leu|aer|a.

Exp|a|n how an understand|ng of the source of var|at|on |n organ|sms has prov|ded support for 0arw|n's
theory of evo|ut|on by natura| se|ect|on

0ue lo researcr |rlo 0NA, sc|erl|sls rave oeer ao|e lo so|ve lWo proo|ers lral 0arW|r rad |r deve|op|rg lre
lreory ol evo|ul|or:
1. 0arW|r |reW lral craracler|sl|cs Were passed or lror ore gereral|or lo lre rexl oul d|d rol |roW lre
recrar|sr.

Verde| sroWed roW craracler|sl|cs Were |rrer|led as 'laclors' (geres).
8over| ard 3ullor recogr|zed lral lre oerav|our ol crrorosores exp|a|red roW geres cou|d oe
|rrer|led.
0NA proved lo oe lre raler|a| lral coded lor eacr gere.
2. 0arW|r |reW lral var|al|or W|lr|r a popu|al|or Was esserl|a| ol ralura| se|ecl|or lo operale oul d|d rol |roW lre
source ol lr|s var|al|or. we roW |roW lral lre source ol var|al|or W|lr|r a popu|al|or cores lror:
|. rardor lus|or ol gareles |r sexua| reproducl|or
||. cross|rg over ol p|eces ol roro|ogous crrorosores dur|rg re|os|s
|||. rardor assorlrerl ol crrorosore pa|rs |r re|os|s
|v. rulal|ors ol crrorosores ard geres

Tr|s gerel|c var|al|or |s expressed |r lre prerolype ol lre orgar|sr. lr ary popu|al|or |r a g|ver erv|rorrerl,
sore prerolypes surv|ve ard reproduce oeller lrar olrers. 0ver l|re, ralura| se|ecl|or W||| operale lo crarge lre
proporl|ors ol cerla|r geres |r a popu|al|or.

0escr|be the concept of punctuated equ|||br|um |n evo|ut|on and how |t d|ffers from the gradua| process
proposed by 0arw|n

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0arW|r's lreory ol evo|ul|or oy ralura| se|ecl|or proposes lral popu|al|ors crarge s|oW|y ard gradua||y over l|re.
lr lre loss|| record, We srou|d lrerelore expecl lo see a r|slory ol ary ore group ol orgar|srs ol a |org sequerce
|rc|ud|rg |rlerred|ale lorrs, record|rg lre gradua| crarge lror arceslors lo descerdarls.
lr 19Z2, N||es E|dr|dge ard 3leprer 0ou|d proposed a lreory ol purclualed equ|||or|ur. ll proposed lral, |rslead ol
a gradua| lrars|l|or over r||||ors ol years, lrere rave oeer per|ods ol rap|d evo|ul|orary crarge lo||oWed oy a |org
per|od ol slao|||ly or equ|||or|ur.
0ou|d ard E|dr|dge's proposa| suggesls lral Wrer rap|d crarge occurs |r ar erv|rorrerl, orgar|srs e|lrer rove
oul ol lre area or d|e oul.

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to exp|a|n a modern examp|e of 'natura|'
se|ect|on

Vosqu|loes ard 00T
Tre 00T Was lre erv|rorrerla| pressure. Tre lavourao|e craracler|sl|c Was lre res|slarce lo 00T. Tre
rosqu|loes lral rad lre craracler|sl|c surv|ved lre spray|rgs ard produced ollspr|rg lral Were a|so res|slarl lo
00T. 0ver l|re, ralura| se|ecl|or occurred, Wrere lre rosqu|loes W|lroul lre res|slarce lo 00T d|ed oul ard lrose
W|lr lre lavourao|e craracler|sl|c surv|ved, ard roW rosl rosqu|loes are res|slarl lo 00T.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be and ana|yse the re|at|ve |mportance of the work
of:
- James watson
- Franc|s 6r|ck
- Rosa||nd Frank||n
- Haur|ce w||k|ns
|n determ|n|ng the structure of 0NA and the |mpact of the qua||ty of co||aborat|on and commun|cat|on on
the|r research

REFER T0 N0TE 00K

5. 6urrent reproduct|ve techno|og|es and genet|c eng|neer|ng have the potent|a| to a|ter the path of evo|ut|on

|dent|fy how the fo||ow|ng current reproduct|ve techn|ques may a|ter the genet|c compos|t|on of a
popu|at|on:
- art|f|c|a| |nsem|nat|on
- art|f|c|a| po|||nat|on
- c|on|ng

3e|ecl|ve oreed|rg |s de||oerale|y ra||rg or cross|rg |rd|v|dua|s ol lre sare spec|es W|lr lre craracler|sl|cs
requ|red. Tre a|r ol se|ecl|ve oreed|rg ras oeer lo |rprove lre craracler|sl|cs ol lre spec|es lor rurar use ard
purposes.

1. Arl|l|c|a| lrser|ral|or:
- Tre |rjecl|or ol ra|e serer |rlo a lera|e
- Ar|ra| oreeders ol coWs, sreep ard rorses use lrese lecrr|ques.
- Tre sperr |s co||ecled lror a ra|e W|lr des|rao|e craracler|sl|cs.
Advarlages:
1. Vary lera|es car oe lerl|||zed ard rore ollspr|rg car oe produced.
2. 3perr car oe lrozer ard lrarsporled over |org d|slarces.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0|sadvarlages:
Reduces gerel|c var|ao|||ly |r lre popu|al|or.

2. Arl|l|c|a| Po|||ral|or
- P|arl oreeders carry oul arl|l|c|a| po|||ral|or lo oreed p|arls W|lr se|ecled craracler|sl|cs.
- Po||er lror lre ra|e arlrer |s dusled orlo lre lera|e sl|gra. Tre po|||raled l|oWer |s lrer covered lo preverl
po|||ral|or lror olrer l|oWers.
Advarlages:
Parl|cu|ar|y uselu| ard easy Way ol oreed|rg reW var|el|es ol p|arls. No expers|ve equ|prerl requ|red.
0|sadvarlages:
Reduces gerel|c var|al|or |r lre spec|es.

3. C|or|rg:
- se|ecl|ve oreed|rg car produce popu|al|ors W|lr des|rao|e craracler|sl|cs oul oecause |l re||es or sexua|
reproducl|or, sore sorl ol gerel|c var|ao|||ly |s a|Ways |||e|y (rardor segregal|or, re|os|s ard cross|rg over)
- c|or|rg |s a relrod ol produc|rg gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| orgar|srs.
Advarlages:
1. |r agr|cu|lure, c|ored p|arls rave |derl|ca| requ|rererls ard groW |r s|r||ar Ways lo produce s|r||ar
y|e|ds al lre sare l|re.
2. |r p|arls ard ar|ra|s, |derl|ca| cop|es ol des|rao|e var|el|es car oe produced.
0|sadvarlages:
1. |r crop p|arls, a|| are suscepl|o|e lo lre sare d|sease. ll d|sease orea|s oul, |l spread rap|d|y
deslroy|rg lre Wro|e popu|al|or.
2. c|or|rg |s ar expers|ve process W|lr ||r|led advarlages over olrer reproducl|ve lecrr|ques.
3. c|or|rg ol ar|ra|s ras ra|sed elr|ca| quesl|ors aooul lre poss|o|||ly ol c|or|rg ol rurars.
Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be a methodo|ogy used |n c|on|ng

P|arl c|or|rg: T|ssue Cu|lure -
1. A secl|or ol lre rool l|p |s cul oul.
2. lre ce||s are oro|er lree |r a o|erder
3. lre ce||s are groWr or a rulr|erl red|ur
1. lrey are lrer |rcuoaled urder corlro||ed cord|l|ors so lral urd|llererl|aled ce|| groWlr occurs
5. gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| p|arls lrer resu|l.
Ar|ra| c|or|rg: Nuc|ear Trarsler Tecrro|ogy lor sreep -
Tre l|rsl successlu| c|or|rg ol ar ar|ra| Was 0o||y lre 3reep al lre Ros||r lrsl|lule |r Ed|roorougr, 3col|ard.
1. adu|l sreep rarrary l|ssue Was cu|lured |r lre |ao lo ra|e lrer dorrarl.
2. lre ruc|eus Was reroved lror ore ol lrese ce||s ard lrarslerred lo ar eruc|ealed egg ce||
lror arolrer sreep.
3. a gerl|e e|eclr|c pu|se caused lre ce||s lo luse. A secord e|eclr|c pu|se lr|ggered ce|| d|v|s|or
ard eroryo lorral|or.
1. lre eroryo Was |rp|arled |rlo a surrogale lera|e sreep Wrere |l greW |rlo a |aro.
- A|| lre ce||s ol lre |aro Were gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| lo lre sreep lral prov|ded lre rarrary l|ssue.

0ut||ne the processes used to produce transgen|c spec|es and |nc|ude examp|es of th|s process and
reasons for |ts use

Trarsger|c spec|es rave gerel|c raler|a| lror a d|llererl spec|es lrarslerred |rlo lre|r crrorosores, |e. 0eres
are la|er lror ore orgar|srs ard lrarslerred |rlo arolrer.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tre lrarslerred gere |rslrucls lre lrarsger|c orgar|sr lo produce lral des|red lra|l or producl. Tre lra|l ray oe
passed or lo lulure gereral|ors.
Processes used:
1. 0erel|c Erg|reer|rg -
a) A uselu| gere ard lre crrorosore |l |s or are |derl|l|ed.
o) Tre gere |s |so|aled or 'cul oul' ol |ls 0NA slrard.
c) 3eparale 0NA sequerces lor regu|al|or ray rave lo oe added lo ersure lre gere W||| Wor|.
d) lr sore c|rcurslarces, ru|l|p|e cop|es ol lre gere ray oe rade.
e) Tre gere |s |rserled |rlo lre ce|| ol arolrer orgar|sr. 3orel|res a veclor |s used lo do lr|s. Tre
relrod ol |rserl|or lral |s used deperds or lre lype ol ce||.

2. Reslr|cl|or Erzyres -
a) 0rce a uselu| gere |s |derl|l|ed, reslr|cl|or erzyres are used lo |so|ale ard cul oul lrese geres.
o) Trere are 80 d|llererl lypes, Wr|cr are lourd |r oacler|a.
c) Eacr lype culs oul al a spec|l|c po|rl |r a sequerce ol ruc|eol|des.

3. Va||rg Recoro|rarl RNA -
0NA slrards ol lWo d|llererl orgar|srs are cul oul us|rg lre sare erzyre ard p|eces are r|xed logelrer

1. lrserl|rg 0eres |rlo 8acler|a -
a) Vosl oacler|a corla|r sra|| c|rcu|ar p|eces ol 0NA ca||ed p|asr|ds.
o) P|asr|ds car oe used as veclors or carr|ers lo lrarsler lrarsgeres |rlo oacler|a.

5. lrserl|rg 0eres |rlo P|arl Ce||s -
A so|| oacler|ur |s used Wr|cr |rserls a p|asr|d |r a p|arl ce||, ca||ed lrarslorral|or.


. lrserl|rg 0eres |rlo Ar|ra| Ce||s: V|cro-|rjecl|or -
0eres car oe lrarslerred |rlo ar|ra| ce||s oy us|rg very l|re g|ass r|crop|pelles.

Z. Trarslerr|rg 0eres us|rg a Parl|c|e 0ur -
Parl|c|e gurs car oe used lo srool 0NA-coaled r|croscop|c go|d or lurgsler pa||eles d|recl|y |rlo p|arl ard
ar|ra| ce||s.

Trese processes a||oW sc|erl|sls lo coro|re lre qua||l|es ol d|llererl spec|es.
Trarsger|c spec|es are oe|rg deve|oped:
a) To |rcrease lre res|slarce ol p|arl ard ar|ra|s lo d|seases, pesls ard exlrere
erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors.
o) For red|c|res ard vacc|res
c) To |rprove lre producl|v|ly lor crops ard ar|ra|s lor agr|cu|lure
d) To |rprove lre qua||ly ol lood ard lre ell|c|ercy ol lood process|rg.

Ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy examp|es of the use transgen|c spec|es and use
ava||ab|e ev|dence to debate the eth|ca| |ssues ar|s|ng from the deve|opment and use of transgen|c spec|es

Trarsger|c spec|es are oe|rg deve|oped lo |rcrease lre res|slarce ol p|arls ard ar|ra|s lo d|sease, pesl ard
exlrere erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors, lor red|c|res ard vacc|res, lo |rprove lre qua||ly ol crops ard ar|ra|s lor
agr|cu|lure ard lo |rprove lre qua||ly ol lood ard lre ell|c|ercy ol lood lor process|rg.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Eg1 - 8T Erg|reered Crops
- 8T lox|rs are crer|ca|s produced oy a cerla|r oacler|a ard |||| rary |rsecls
- Pesl|c|de sprays corla|r|rg dead 8T oacler|a rave oeer used or crops.
- Recerl|y, lre 8T geres lral ra|e lre 8T lox|r rave oeer |rserled d|recl|y |rlo p|arls.
- Eg polaloes, loraloes ard collor. Trese p|arls produce lre lox|r corl|ruous|y, are rore res|slarl lo |rsecl
allac| ard reed |ess spray|rg W|lr |rsecl|c|des.
Eg2 - Trarsger|c 3reep
- lr Auslra||a, lrarsger|c sreep rave oeer deve|oped oy lre |rjecl|or ol a gere respors|o|e lor produc|rg a
o|ood c|oll|rg laclor.
- Tre laclor |s oola|red lror a sreep's r|||, ard car oe used lo lreal raeropr|||a |r rurars.
Eg3 - Trarsger|c 3lraWoerr|es
- Trarsger|c slraWoerr|es rave oeer deve|oped |r 3card|rav|a lor lre d|ll|cu|ly |r groW|rg lrer ralura||y.
- Tre slraWoerry ras 0NA lral ras oeer exlracled lror sa|ror.
- Tre lrarsger|c slraWoerry W|lr lre sa|ror gere car groW oeller |r co|d cord|l|ors lrar lrad|l|ora| slra|rs ol lre
slraWoerry.

Elr|ca| lssues:
- Corcerrs lral gerel|c erg|reer|rg ol lrarsger|c spec|es ras lre capac|ly lo d|srupl lre rale ol gere lrarsler
oelWeer orgar|srs ard lre Way geres are lrarslerred, ard lrerelore d|srupl evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps
oelWeer orgar|srs.
- Corcerrs lral gerel|ca||y erg|reered orgar|srs re|eased |rlo lre erv|rorrerl ray cause reW d|seases or
ercourage lre deve|oprerl ol slra|rs res|slarl lo drugs.
- Corcerrs aooul po||ul|or ol gere poo|s. Eg. Cross-po|||ral|or lror a gerel|ca||y erg|reered crop lo a ror-
erg|reered crop.
- Fears lral acc|derls cou|d resu|l |r lre re|ease ol carcer ce||s, oacler|a or v|ruses lror gerel|c erg|reer|rg
|aooralor|es.
- lea|lr r|s|s assoc|aled W|lr eal|rg gerel|ca||y rod|l|ed loods or la||rg gerel|ca||y erg|reered drugs. Trere |s
groW|rg corsurer oppos|l|or lo gerel|ca||y rod|l|ed lood ard a groW|rg corcerr lor erg|reered loods lo oe
|aoe|ed.





0|scuss the potent|a| |mpact of the use of reproduct|on techno|og|es on the genet|c d|vers|ty of spec|es
us|ng a named p|ant and an|ma| examp|e that have been genet|ca||y a|tered

- Tre lear lral ar|ses lror lre use ol reproducl|ve lecrro|og|es ard gerel|c erg|reer|rg |s lral lre ralura|
d|vers|ly ol orgar|srs |s oe|rg decreased.
- ll rore ard rore larrers p|arl gerel|ca||y rod|l|ed crops oola|red lror a g|ooa| corpary, lrer |oca| var|el|es
W||| d|e oul al ar |rcreas|rg rale.
- ll 8T collor oecores a slardard collor crop lrrougroul lre Wor|d, lrer rol or|y W||| olrer var|el|es oe |osl, oul
lre spec|es |lse|l ray oecore vu|rerao|e |l erv|rorrerla| cord|l|ors crarge. A ser|ous corcerr |s lral lre
largel |rsecls ray oecore res|slarl lo lre 8T crer|ca|s.
- C|or|rg lecrr|ques ol doresl|c ar|ra|s, sucr as lrose used lo produce 0o||y, cou|d resu|l |r ru|l|p|e gerel|c
cop|es oecor|rg W|despread |r lre popu|al|or, W|lr a suosequerl |oss ol ralura| var|al|or. Tre c|ored ar|ra|s
ray oe rore suscepl|o|e lo erv|rorrerla| crarges ard/or reW d|seases.
- A|lrougr lrese lecrr|ques speed up lre |rlroducl|or ol lavourao|e craracler|sl|cs |rlo a popu|al|or, lrey do so
al ar experse ol a W|der poo| ol gerel|c d|vers|ly.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

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9.4 - The 8earch for etter hea|th

1. what |s a hea|thy organ|sm?

0|scuss the d|ff|cu|t|es |n def|n|ng the terms 'hea|th' and 'd|sease'

ll |s d|ll|cu|l lo del|re rea|lr oecause |l ras rary corporerls ard sore ol lrese are very suojecl|ve. lea|lr |s a
slale ol corp|ele prys|ca|, rerla|, ard soc|a| We||-oe|rg ard rol rere|y lre aoserce ol d|sease or |rl|rr|ly.
ll |s d|ll|cu|l lo del|re d|sease oecause |l |s a slale ol |rpa|red lurcl|or|rg ard poor rea|lr. ll preverls proper
prys|ca| lurcl|or|rg oy |rlerler|rg W|lr lre slruclure ol orgars, l|ssues or ce||s oy a|ler|rg rorra| relaoo||sr.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0ut||ne how the funct|on of genes, m|tos|s, ce|| d|fferent|at|on and spec|a||zat|on ass|st |n the ma|ntenance
of hea|th

Tre ra|rlerarce ol ar orgar|sr |s ass|sled oy lre ra|rlerarce ard repa|r ol lre oody's ce||s ard l|ssues.
Tre lurcl|or ol geres |s lo ersure lral correcl prole|rs are produced |r a ce|| lo erao|e ce||u|ar processes lo
corl|rue.
Tre lurcl|or ol r|los|s |s lo erao|e lre gerel|c raler|a| lo oe cop|ed correcl|y Wrer reW ce||s are lorred.
0|llererl lypes ol ce||s oecore spec|a||zed lor d|llererl lurcl|ors |r a ru|l|ce||u|ar orgar|sr. 0ur|rg d|llererl|al|or,
or|y lre geres recessary lor lre lurcl|or|rg ol lre spec|a||zed ce|| are lurred or. Eg |r red o|ood ce||s lre geres
lor ra||rg raerog|oo|r are lurred or.

A rea|lry orgar|sr |s lre resu|l ol lre correcl lurcl|or|rg ol lre geres, lre producl|or ol perlecl cop|es ol gerel|c
raler|a| oy r|los|s, ard lre express|or ol geres |r lre processes ol ce|| d|llererl|al|or ard spec|a||zal|or.

Use ava||ab|e ev|dence to ana|yse the ||nks between gene express|on and ma|ntenance and repa|r of body
t|ssues

lea|lry ce||s rave lre|r cyc|e regu|aled oy prole|rs produced oy d|llererl lypes ol geres.
0NA repa|r geres ersure lral 0NA |s correcl|y cop|ed. Prolo-orco geres produce prole|rs lral sl|ru|ale ce||
groWlr ard d|v|s|or. Turor suppressor geres produce prole|rs lral s|oW or slop ce|| d|v|s|or.
wrer oody l|ssues reed lo oe repa|red, lre suosequerl geres slarl Wor||rg.

2. 0ver 3000 years ago the 6h|nese and hebrews were advocat|ng c|ean||ness |n food, water and persona| hyg|ene

0|st|ngu|sh between |nfect|ous and non-|nfect|ous d|sease

lrlecl|ous d|sease |s ar |rvas|or ol lre oody oy d|sease caus|rg orgar|srs ca||ed palrogers. 8ecause palrogers
car oe lrarslerred lror ore orgar|sr lo arolrer, lre d|sease |s sa|d lo oe |rlecl|ous. Eg Al0s, lelarus, ra|ar|a.
A ror-|rlecl|ous d|sease |rvo|ves ro palrogers. Trere |s ro lrarsler ol d|sease lror ore orgar|sr lo arolrer. Eg
raeropr|||a, scurvy, s||r carcer.

Exp|a|n why c|ean||ness |n food, water and persona| hyg|ene pract|ces ass|st |n contro| of d|sease

0ver 3000 years ago, lre Cr|rese ard leoreWs advocaled c|ear||ress as a rears ol corlro|||rg d|sease. Peop|e
|epl c|ear |r ar ellorl lo preverl d|sease ard |so|aled lre s|c| lo avo|d spread|rg |||resses. loWever, rurars rave
oeer ||v|rg |r urryg|er|c cord|l|or lor rosl ol lre|r ex|slerce. Ep|der|cs ||||ed lrousards ol peop|e ever lrougr |l
Was |roW lrar c|ose corlacl passed or lre d|sease.
Today, We |roW lral sler||e cord|l|ors rear lral ro r|crooes are preserl. 3ore r|crooes use rurar Wasle as a
source ol rulr|erls. Palroger|c r|crooes ||ve |r lood lral ras oeer |ell |r a Warr p|ace, |r Waler supp||es lral rave
oeer corlar|raled oy Wasle ard |r rurar laeces.
8ecause lood, Waler ard persora| ryg|ere rao|ls are polerl|a| sources ol |rlecl|or oy palrogers, |l |s |rporlarl
lrey are |epl sler||e or d|sposed ol |r a ryg|er|c rarrer.
leal, delergerls ard Waler are used lo acr|eve c|ear||ress, |||| ol rerove palrogers.

|dent|fy the cond|t|ons under wh|ch an organ|sm |s descr|bed as a pathogen

0rgar|srs are ca||ed palrogers Wrer lrey cause d|sease. To cause a d|sease, |l rusl:
1. oe preserl |r sull|c|erl ruroers |e. lave erougr v|ru|erce
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
2. erler lre rosl lrrougr a cerla|r parl ol lre oody W|lroul oe|rg deslroyed oy lrey oody's ralura| delerces.
3. escape lror ore rosl lo arolrer
1. surv|ve lrarsr|ss|or lror ore rosl lo arolrer.

Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be ways |n wh|ch dr|nk|ng water
can be treated and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to exp|a|n how these methods reduce the r|sk of |nfect|on from
pathogens

Pr|rary Trealrerl:
3creer|rg - lre l||ler|rg ol |arge deor|s oy us|rg oars ard screers
0egr|ll|rg - lre rerova| ol |arge gr|l parl|c|es
F|occu|al|or - lre gerl|e r|x|rg ol Waler W|lr crer|ca|s lo lorr susperded parl|c|es lral corla|r rary r|crooes
3ed|rerlal|or - lre sell||rg ol susperded parl|c|es |r sell||rg lar|s

3ecordary Trealrerl:
F||lral|or - lre rerova| ol rear|y a|| rera|r|rg r|crooes ard l|re rud oy pass|rg lre Waler lrrougr sard oeds or
crarcoa|

Terl|ary Trealrerl:
Cr|or|ral|or - lre add|l|or ol cr|or|re lo |||| oll rera|r|rg rarrlu| r|crooes, eg cr|or|re |s rore ellecl|ve or
oacler|a lrar v|ruses ard prolozoa
F|uor|dal|or - lre add|l|or ol l|uor|de lo reduce loolr decay.

Trese relrods rerove rary r|crooes lror lre Waler lo reduce |rlecl|or.

3. 0ur|ng the second ha|f of the n|neteenth century, the work of Pasteur and Koch and other sc|ent|sts st|mu|ated
the search for m|crobes as causes of d|sease

0escr|be the contr|but|on of Pasteur and Koch to our understand|ng of |nfect|ous d|seases

url|| lre r|d 19
lr
cerlury, peop|e lrougrl lral ||v|rg lr|rgs Were produced oy sporlareous gereral|or.
Lou|s Pasleur (1825-1895)
- 0|scovered rosl |rlecl|ous d|seases are caused oy r|cro-orgar|srs/gerrs. Tr|s oecare |roWr as lre 0ERV
TlE0RY 0F 0l3EA3E
- lr r|s researcr or lerrerlal|or, re exar|red sarp|es lror lerrerl|rg W|res, re lourd yeasls ard oacler|a -
lral Were corverl|rg sugars lo |acl|c ac|d ra||rg lre W|re lurr sour ard ac|d|c. 8y real|rg lre W|re lo 55C lor
a leW r|rules cou|d |||| lre r|crooes lral spo||ed lre W|re. Tr|s lecrr|que oecare |roWr as
PA3TEuRl3ATl0N.
- le derorslraled arlrrax Was caused oy a oacler|a. le deve|oped lre lecrr|que ol us|rg a Wea|ered slra|r ol
a d|sease ard |rocu|al|rg orgar|srs W|lr |l ca||ed vACClNATl0N. le deve|oped vacc|res aga|rsl cr|c|er
cro|era ard sW|re e|ys|pe|as.
- Pasleur used ar 3-sraped l|as| Wr|cr a||oWed a|r lo erler ard rol dusl ard spores. w|lr lr|s c|ass|c
exper|rerl re d|sproved lre lreory ol sporlareous gereral|or.

Rooerl Kocr (1813-1910)
le slud|ed lre d|sease arlrrax.
le oola|red |rlecled raller lror sreep suller|rg lror arlrrax, p|aced |l or a s||de ard |derl|l|ed rod-sraped ce||s
ard resl|rg spores. le lrer |rlecled rea|lry sreep W|lr lre ce||s ard spores ard lourd lral lrey, loo, deve|oped
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lre sare syrplors. le lrer slud|ed lre |rlecled raller lror lre reW|y |rlecled sreep ard derorslraled lral |l
Was lre oacler|ur ard ro olrer corporerl ol lre o|ood lral Was caus|rg lre d|sease.
Kocr's poslu|ales |s used lo eslao||sr lral a parl|cu|ar r|crooe causes a d|sease.
1. lre r|cro-orgar|sr rusl oe preserl |r every rosl W|lr lre d|sease.
2. lre r|cro-orgar|sr rusl oe |so|aled lror lre rosl ard cu|lured.
3. a polerl|a| rosl, Wrer |rocu|aled rusl deve|op lre sare syrplors as lre rosl.
1. a r|cro-orgar|sr rusl oe |so|aled lror lre secord rosl ard |derl|l|ed as lre sare spec|es as
or|g|ra||y cu|lured.

0|st|ngu|sh between:
- pr|ons
- v|ruses
- bacter|a
- protozoans
- fung|
- macro-paras|tes
and name one examp|e of a d|sease cased by each type of pathogen

Pr|ors - Prole|rs lral rave oeer a|lered lror lre|r rorra| srape. Case oroWr d|sease |r ar|ra|s. Car corverl
rorra| prole|rs lo aororra| prole|rs. Eg Creulzle|dl Jacoo d|sease, 83E

v|ruses - 100rr W|de. Are ruc|ear raler|a| erc|osed |r a prole|r coal. Reproduce or|y |rs|de a rosl ce||. use
cylop|asr ol rosl lo reproduce, lrer |||| |l. Eg Al0s repal|l|s

8acler|a - Procaryol|c (ro ruc|eus or rerorare-oourd orgare||es). Eg luoercu|os|s cro|era
Prolozoa - s|rg|e ce||ed ar|ra|s. Eucaryol|c. Vosl are lree ||v|rg oul sore are |rlerra| paras|les lral cause
d|sease. Eg aroeo|c d|serlry

Furg| - eucaryol|c. Corposed ol luou|ar l||arerls Wr|cr lorr ryce||ur. Vyce||ur produces lru|l|rg ood|es Wr|cr
corla|r lrousards ol spores oy Wr|cr lurgus reproduces. Eg l|rea. lrrusr

Vacro-paras|les - |arge paras|les lral car oe seer W|lr lre ra|ed eye. Eg ||ce r|les l|c|s.

Cather and process |nformat|on to trace the h|stor|ca| deve|opment of our understand|ng of the cause and
prevent|on of ma|ar|a

8elore 56 - 3yrplors |roWr (|r l|rdu ard Cr|rese Wr|l|rgs), oul rol cause

46 - 0ree|s lrougrl lral lre dr|r||rg ol slagrarl Waler, lrrougr orealr|rg rarsr vapours
caused lre d|sease.

1880- A|prorse Lavarar saW lre ra|ar|a paras|le l|rsl. 3uggesled lral ra|ar|a Was caused oy lr|s r|cro-
orgar|sr.

1885-1898 - 3c|erl|sls suggesled ra|ar|a Was lrarsr|lled oy lre Aropre|es rosqu|lo ard lral ra|ar|a
cou|d oe lrarsr|lled lror rurar lo rurar oy |rlecled o|ood.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
1897-1899 - Rora|d Ross corl|rred Varsor's lreory ard eslao||sred lral lre prolozoar P|asrod|ur Was
lre cause ol ra|ar|a. le a|so corp|eled lre ||le cyc|e ol lre ra|ar|a paras|le.

|dent|fy data sources, gather processes and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be one
named |nfect|ous d|sease |n terms of |ts:
- cause
- transm|ss|on
- host response
- major symptoms
- treatment
- prevent|on
- contro|

VALARlA

Cause - prolozoar ca||ed PLA3V00luV

Trarsr|ss|or - lre aropre|es rosqu|loes are lre l|ra| rosls ard lrarsr|l lre paras|le lo rurars. Tre lera|e
rosqu|lo acls as a veclor ard lrarsr|ls |l |r lre o|le.

losl Resporse - al eacr slage ol lre paras|le's ||le cyc|e, |l ras |ls oWr sel ol arl|gers. Tre rosls |rrure sysler
produces arl|ood|es lo l|grl lrer oy arl|gers car oe a|lered.

Vajor 3yrplors - P|asrod|ur paras|les oursl oul ol red o|ood ce||s every 18-Z2 rours, re|eas|rg lox|rs. Trese
lox|rs cause readacre, lever, sr|ver|rg, rausea. 0|s|rlegral|or ol red o|ood ce||s causes araer|a.

Trealrerl - adu|l rurars car produce res|slarce lo ra|ar|a oul very s|oW|y. Arl|-ra|ar|a| drugs ard lrose
corla|r|rg qu|r|re car oe used.

Preverl|or - Arl|-ra|ar|a| drugs srou|d oe la|er oelore v|s|l|rg erder|c areas. Nels, |rsecl|c|des, repe||arls car
oe used.

Corlro| - use ol |rsecl|c|des sucr as 00T lo |||| rosqu|loes, oul rosqu|loes oecare res|slarl. 0ra|r|rg ol sWarps
or sl||| Waler ood|es lo preverl oreed|rg. use ol predalors sucr as l|sr lo leed or rosqu|lo |arvae. 0|| or surlace ol
Waler lo |||| |arvae. Trere |s ro vacc|re. 0erel|c erg|reer|rg ol rosqu|loes lo res|sl lre paras|le are oe|rg
deve|oped.

|dent|fy the ro|e of ant|b|ot|cs |n the management of |nfect|ous d|sease

Arl|o|ol|cs are suoslarce capao|e ol deslroy|rg or |rr|o|l|rg lre groWlr ol r|cro-orgar|srs lral cause d|sease.
Trey are crer|ca|s or drugs lral se|ecl|ve|y |||| lre palroger ard rol lre rosl. Trey |rlerlere, deslroy or darage
lre ce||s ol lre gerr.
loWard F|orey ard A|exarder F|er|rg d|scovered lre l|rsl arl|o|ol|c - per|c||||r - lourd |r lre Perec||||ur rou|d.
3ore arl|o|ol|cs acl or lre slruclure ol lre gerr, eg. Per|c||||r deslroys lre ce|| Wa||s ard arproler|c|r deslroys
ce|| rerorares. 0lrers |rlerlere W|lr lre ce|| processes, eg slreploryc|r d|srupls prole|r syrlres|s.
Res|slarce ras evo|ved |r rary slra|rs ol oacler|a W|lr lre|r W|despread use. Trey are or|y ellecl|ve aga|rsl
oacler|a| |rlecl|ors ard rave ro ellecl or v|ruses.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

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Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to d|scuss prob|ems re|at|on to ant|b|ot|c res|stance

Tre overuse ol arl|o|ol|cs ras |ed lo lre se|ecl|or ol v|ru|erl oacler|a lral are res|slarl lo arl|o|ol|cs. wrer
arl|o|ol|cs Were l|rsl re|eased, lrey rad a draral|c ellecl or oacler|a. 0ver l|re |l oecare apparerl lral lr|s ellecl
Was oecor|rg |ess polerl. Tr|s Was oecause ol lre deve|oprerl ol drug res|slarce |r lre palroger. Eacr l|re ar
arl|o|ol|c |s used, lrere ray oe sore |rd|v|dua| palrogers lral rave a ralura| res|slarce lo lre drug. Trese
ralura||y res|slarl |rd|v|dua|s are |ell lo oreed lre rexl gereral|or ard pass or lre gerel|c |rlorral|or lral rade
lrer res|slarl. Tre rexl l|re lre drug |s used, |l W||| rave ro ellecl. 0veruse ol arl|o|ol|cs ras resu|led |r
superougs. Trese slra|rs are res|slarl lo arl|o|ol|cs ard |rc|ude varcoryc|r res|slarl go|oen srapn
($rapn,|ococcus aureus). Trese orgar|srs are rol deslroyed oy our slrorgesl arl|o|ol|cs. Vary rousero|d
c|ear|rg producls a|so corla|r arl|o|ol|cs. Tr|s |s ar exarp|e, logelrer W|lr lre use ol arl|o|ol|cs or ar|ra|s or
larrs, ol lre overuse ol arl|o|ol|cs lral are |rcreas|rg lre ruroer ol arl|o|ol|c res|slarl oacler|a.

4. we often recogn|ze an |nfect|on by the symptoms |s causes. The response |s not so obv|ous, unt|| we recover

|dent|fy defence barr|ers to prevent entry of pathogens |n humans:
- sk|n
- mucous membranes
- c|||a
- chem|ca| barr|ers
- other body secret|ons

Tre l|rsl ||re ol delerce prolecls lre oody al poss|o|e erlry po|rls. Prolecl|or |s N0N-3PEClFlC.
3||r:
- lorrs a lougr ouler surlace/oarr|er cover|rg lre oody
- ouler |ayers ol s||r corla|r |eral|r Wr|cr r|cro-orgar|srs carl perelrale ur|ess |l |s prole|r.
- 3||r ras |ls oWr popu|al|or ol rarr|ess oacler|a. Tre preserce ol lrese re|p preverl |rvad|rg oacler|a lror
|rvad|rg.
- 3eoaceous g|ards |r lre s||r secrele seour. L|p|ds |r lre seour are oro|er doWr oy lre s||r's oacler|a lo
produce ac|ds lral |rr|o|l groWlr ol |rvad|rg palrogers.

Vucous Verorares:
- ||re lre d|gesl|ve, resp|ralory, reproducl|ve ard ur|rary lracls W|lr lr|c| rucous Wr|cr |s sl|c|y ard lraps dusl
parl|c|es ard palrogers.
- Vucous corla|rs lgA Wr|cr reacls W|lr palrogers preverl|rg lrer lror |rvad|rg.
- F|u|ds sucr as sa||va, lears ard rasa| secrel|or Wasr over rucous rerorares ard corla|r |ysozyres lral
orea| doWr lre ce|| Wa||s ol sore oacler|a.

C|||a:
- are r|rule ra|rs Wr|cr projecl lror ce||s ||r|rg lre rose, lracrea ad ororcr|a| luoes.
- C|||a oeal ard sWeep lre rucous loWards lre rose oper|rg or lrroal Wrere lrey are cougred oul or
sWa||oWed.

Crer|ca| 8arr|ers:
- lre ac|d erv|rorrerl |r lre sloracr deslroys palrogers |r lood/dr|r|.
- A|so lre a||a||re erv|rorrerl |r lre |rlesl|res
- larr|ess r|cro-orgar|srs |r lre vag|ra acl or lre ce||s sred lror lre Wa||s lo creale ac|d erv|rorrerls Wr|cr
|rr|o|l lre groWlr ol sore oacler|a or lurg|.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- ur|re |s a sler||e ac|d l|u|d Wr|cr l|usres lre urelers o|adder ard urelrra lo preverl groWlr ol r|cro-orgar|srs.

|dent|fy ant|gens as mo|ecu|es that tr|gger an |mmune response





Exp|a|n why organ transp|ants shou|d tr|gger an |mmune response

Ar |rlroduced orgar corla|rs prole|rs Wr|cr are recogr|zed lore|gr. Tr|s sl|ru|ales lre producl|or ol arl|ood|es
lral allac| ard poss|o|y deslroy lre reW l|ssue.


|dent|fy defence adaptat|ons, |nc|ud|ng:
- |nf|ammat|on response
- phagocytos|s
- |ymph system
- ce|| death to sea| off pathogen

Tre secord ||re ol delerce |s N0N-3PEClFlC, Wr|cr rears lrey acl aga|rsl a|| palrogers regard|ess ol lre|r
ralure.

lrl|arral|or resporse:
- Wrer lre oody l|ssue |s daraged, lre area oecores red, rol, sWo||er ard pa|rlu|.
- 8|ood c|rcu|al|or lo lral parl |s |rcreased, o|ood vesse|s d||ale ard oecore |ea|y.
- Tr|s re|ps corl|re lre palroger. Ar |rcreased ruroer ol Wr|le o|ood ce||s re|p lo deslroy |l.
- Tre |rl|arral|or resporse |s lr|ggered oy lre crer|ca|s r|slar|re ard proslag|ard|rs re|eased lror lre
daraged l|ssue. Tre ce||s lral re|ease r|slar|res are ca||ed rasl ce||s.

Pragocylos|s:
- |s lre ergu|l|rg ard deslrucl|or ol |rvad|rg palrogers oy reulropr||s ard racroprages.
- Pragocyles (reulropr||s ard racroprages) car crarge srape ard surrourd lre palroger. wrer lre palroger
|s |rs|de lre pragocyle, |l |s oro|er doWr oy deslrucl|ve erzyres eg |ysozyres.
- Neulropr||s are srorl acl|rg ard acl |r o|ood ard l|ssue
- Vacroprages acl ra|r|y |r lre l|ssues ard are lre ra|r 'garoage co||eclors' |r lre oody.
- Pragocyles a|so rop up ce|| deor|s aller lre spec|l|c resporse ras deslroyed palrogers.

Lyrpr 3ysler:
- cors|sls ol |yrpr cap|||ar|es Wr|cr jo|r lo |arger vesse|s s|r||ar lo ve|rs.
- Trese vesse|s lrarsporl a l|u|d ca||ed |yrpr aWay lror lre ce||s.
- Lyrpr rodes are preserl |r |yrpr vesse|s ard slore |yrprocyles ard racroprages.

Ce|| 0ealr lo 3ea| oll Palroger
- sorel|res lre oody sea|s oll palrogers |r a cysl or W|lr|r a group ol ce||s. Trese ce||s d|e so lral lre
palroger car ro |orger surv|ve
- |l |s as |l lrese ce||s are oe|rg sacr|l|ced lor lre oerel|l ol lre orgar|sr as a Wro|e.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Arl|-r|croo|a| Prole|rs:
- Lysozyres - lre erzyres corla|red |r |ysozores lral orea| doWr ard deslroy palrogers.
- lrlerlerors - a group ol prole|rs produced oy ce||s |rvaded oy v|ruses. Trey cause rearoy ce||s lo lorr lre|r
oWr arl|v|ra| crer|ca|s, lo preverl lre spread ol lre v|rus.
- Corp|ererl Prole|rs - are a group ol 20 prole|rs lral ass|sl lre secord ||re ol delerce:
8y sl|c||rg lo |rvad|rg r|crooes ra||rg lrer rore |derl|l|ao|e as lore|gr
3ore sl|ru|ale pragocyles lo oecore rore acl|ve
3ore deslroy lre rerorares ol |rvad|rg r|crooes

Cather, process and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to show how a named d|sease resu|ts
from an |mba|ance of m|crof|ora |n humans

V|crol|ora are r|cro-orgar|srs lral ||ve or lre oody W|lroul caus|rg d|sease. Trey |rr|o|l lre groWlr ol lre
palroger rol or|y oy occupy|rg ce|| space ard us|rg lood, oy secrele suoslarces sucr as lox|rs.
Card|d|as|s |s a d|sease caused oy Card|da A|o|cars lral occur |r lre roulr, resp|ralory, lera|e ger|la| ard
gaslro|rlesl|ra| lracls.
Card|d|as|s occurs Wrer lrere |s ar |roa|arce ol Card|da A|o|cars ce||s. Tre |rcrease car oe orougrl aooul oy
la||rg arl|o|ol|cs or slero|ds, corlracepl|ves ard d|aoeles re|||lus.

5. HcFar|ane urnet's work |n the m|dd|e of the twent|eth century contr|buted to a better understand|ng of the
|mmune response and the effect|veness of |mmun|zat|on programs

|dent|fy the components of the |mmune response:
- ant|bod|es
- T ce||s
- ce||s

Tre lr|rd ||re ol delerce |s a|so |roWr as acqu|red or spec|l|c |rrur|ly ard |rc|udes a|| lre delerce recrar|srs
lral deve|op dur|rg lre ||lel|re ol ar |rd|v|dua| as a resu|l ol exposure lo |rlecl|or. ll |s spec|l|c ard ras a rerory.

Arl|ood|es:
- are produced oy lre oody |r resporse lo lre preserce ol spec|l|c arl|gers.
- Are prole|rs ca||ed lVVuN00L08lN3
- C|rcu|ale |r lre o|ood p|asra ard coro|re W|lr ard deslroy arl|gers.
- Arl|ger-arl|oody corp|ex a|so acl|vales lre producl|or ol a ser|es ol prole|rs ca||ed corp|ererl prole|rs,
Wr|cr resu|ls |r arl|gers oe|rg |rgesled ard deslroyed.

8 Lyrprocyles:
- ralure |r lre oore rarroW ard corlro| lre rurora| (o|ood) resporse or arl|oody red|aled resporse.
- 8 ce||s preserl |r lre o|ood ard |yrpr are acl|valed oy lre preserce ol arl|gers.
- Acl|valed 8 ce||s c|ore lrerse|ves ard d|llererl|ale |rlo:
a) p|asra 8 ce||s lral produce arl|ood|es
o) rerory 8 ce||s
- lrey are parl|cu|ar|y ellecl|ve aga|rsl oacler|a ard v|ruses |r oody l|u|d (rol W|lr|r oody ce||s).

T Lyrprocyles:
- ralure |r lre lryrus g|ard
- are a|so acl|valed oy arl|gers.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Corlro| lre ce|| red|aled resporse. Trey coro|re W|lr arl|gers/palrogers or W|lr ce||s |rlecled W|lr lre
palrogers.

0escr|be and exp|a|n the |mmune response |n the human body |n terms of:
- |nteract|on between and T |ymphocytes
- the mechan|sms that a||ow |nteract|on between and T |ymphocytes
- the range of T |ymphocytes and the d|fference |n the|r ro|es

lrleracl|or -
Ar arl|ger lral erlers lre oody lrave|s |r lre o|ood lo a |yrpro|d l|ssue (|yrpr rode or sp|eer) Wrere |l |s |rgesled
ard processed oy a racroprage.
Tre racroprage lrer d|sp|ays lragrerls ol lre arl|ger or |ls ouler rerorare, ard lrese are recogr|zed oy
re|per T ard 8 ce||s.
le|per T ce||s lrer, lrrougr lre c|ora| se|ecl|or lreory, d|llererl|ale |rlo cylolox|c T ce||s ard rerory T ce||s. 8
ce||s d|llererl|ale |rlo p|asra 8 ce||s. Tre palroger |s lrer processed ard deslroyed.



Vecrar|srs -
Tre d|llererl ce||s are ao|e lo co||aoorale oecause lrey are c|ose lo eacr olrer ard oecause lrey are regu|aled oy
crer|ca|s ca||ed cylo||res ard |rler|eu||r.
Cylo||res are prole|rs secreled oy T ce||s ard racroprages lral s|gra| olrer ce||s lo |r|l|ale ar |rrure resporse
eg 8 ce||s lo lrarslorr |rlo a p|asra 8 ce||.
lrler|eu||r are se|ecled oy re|per T ce||s ard regu|ale cylolox|c T ce||s ard 8 ce|| producl|or.


T Lyrprocyles:
1. re|per T ce||s - acl|vale 8 ce||s ard K|||er T ce||s
2. ||||er (cylolox|c) T ce||s - produce crer|ca|s (perlor|r) lral deslroy palrogers
3. suppressor T ce||s - suppress 8 ard T ce||s, |e reduce lre |rrure resporse.
1. rerory T ce||s - rera|r |r lre oody ard corler |org lerr |rrur|ly.

0ut||ne the way |n wh|ch vacc|nat|ons prevent |nfect|on

vacc|ral|or/|rrur|zal|or |s lre process ol ra||rg peop|e res|slarl lo |rlecl|or caused oy a palroger.
vacc|res are preparal|ors ol ||ve, allerualed or dead |rellecl|ve gerrs lral are |rjecled |rlo lre oody W|lr lre
|rlerl|or ol provo||rg |rrur|ly lo a d|sease W|lroul produc|rg lre syrplors.
Acl|ve |rrur|zal|or |rvo|ves lre |rjecl|or ol ar arl|ger. (use your ora|r lo exp|a|r lre resl)
Pass|ve |rrur|ly |rvo|ves lre |rjecl|or ol arl|ood|es lral arolrer orgar|sr ras produced. ll does rol prov|de |org
lerr prolecl|or ard carr|es lre r|s| ol sl|ru|al|rg reacl|ors aga|rsl olrer o|ood prole|rs preserl |r lre vacc|re.

0ut||ne the reasons for the suppress|on of the |mmune response |n organ transp|ant pat|ents

8ecause o|ood dra|rs lror lrarsp|arled orgars |rlo lre rec|p|erl's c|rcu|al|or, lre oody recogr|zes lore|gr l|ssue
ce||s ard produces arl|ood|es |r resporse.
Cylolox|c T-ce||s, ralura| ||||er ce||s, racroprages ard 8 ce||s car a|| oe |rvo|ved ard cause a ruroer ol ser|ous
reacl|ors lral deslroy lre l|ssue.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Rejecl|or |s reduced oy ralcr|rg lre lrarsp|arled l|ssue prole|rs lo lre rec|p|erl's oody as c|ose|y as poss|o|e, ard
oy g|v|rg drugs lral suppress lre |rrure resporse.

Process, ana|yse and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to eva|uate the effect|veness of
vacc|nat|on programs |n prevent|ng the spread and occurrence of once common d|seases, |nc|ud|ng
sma||pox, d|pther|a and po||o.

3ra||pox:
- A v|rus lral erlers lre lrroal ard |urgs ard everlua||y spreads lo lre s||r. 3yrplors |rc|ude oov|ous ves|c|es
or lre s||r, readacre, oac|acre ard lever.
- ll l|rsl appeared |r As|a or Alr|ca 10,000 8C. lr lre 1100's r||||ors ol Arer|cars Were ||||ed oy lre d|sease. ll
Was respors|o|e lor 1/10
lr
dealrs |r Europe |r lre 19
lr
cerlury.
- EdWard Jerrer |rproved or a vacc|re lor sra||pox. wl0 oegar a vacc|ral|or prograr |r 19Z. lr 1980, wl0
dec|ared lre Wor|d lree ol sra||pox.
- Erad|cal|or Was acr|eved oy roul|re |rrur|zal|ors, supp|ererlary doses ol lre vacc|re Was g|ver or spec|a|
|rrur|zal|or days, rop|rg up acl|v|l|es or lrose Wro r|ssed oul ard carelu| surve|||arce ol sra||pox cases.
- Tre prograr Was vERY 3uCCE33FuL.

0|plrer|a:
- A oacler|a| |rlecl|or lrarsr|lled |r lre a|r oy c|ose corlacl. Car cause d|ll|cu|ly |r orealr|rg ard dealr.
- 100 years ago, uplo 50 ol lrose |rlecled, d|ed, rosl aged urder 1. lrere Were |arge ep|der|c |r Europe aller
wwll.
- lr 1923, a vacc|re, 0TP, Was re|eased. ll loo| l||| lre 10's ard 50's lor lre d|sease lo sr|ll lror cyc||c ep|der|cs
lo occas|ora| oulorea|s ol |oW |rlers|ly. lr 1990, wl0 slaled 80 ol cr||drer rad oeer vacc|raled. Trere
corl|rues lo oe oulorea|s |r A|ger|a, Cr|ra, ard lre V|dd|e Easl, yel |s ro |orger a rajor cr||d ||||er. Tr|s
prograr rasr'l oeer very successlu|.

Po||o:
- |s caused oy allac| ol po||o v|ruses or lre rolor reurors ol lre sp|ra| cord ard ora|r. 3yrplors |rc|ude oac|
pa|r, lever, rusc|e pa|rs.
- Tre d|sease ex|sled |r arc|erl Egypl ard ||||ed rurdreds ol lrousards |r lre 19
lr
cerlury. Tre ruroer ol
cases pea|ed |r lre r|d 20
lr
cerlury.
- lr 1988, wl0 oegar a po||o erad|cal|or carpa|gr. Ever lrougr |l ras oeer erad|caled |r sore courlr|es |l |s
sl||| |r c|rcu|al|or |r rore lrar Z0r courlr|es. Tre ruroer ol cases ras dropped 80. Tr|s sroWs lre prograr
ras rol oeer very ellecl|ve.

. Ep|dem|o|og|ca| stud|es |nvo|ve the co||ect|on and carefu| stat|st|ca| ana|ys|s of |arge quant|t|es of data. 8uch
stud|es ass|st the causa| |dent|f|cat|on of non-|nfect|ous d|seases

|dent|fy and descr|be the ma|n features of ep|dem|o|ogy us|ng |ung cancer as an examp|e

lrc|derce - ruroer ol reW cases |r a per|od
Preva|erce - ruroer ol peop|e allecled al a l|re
Voro|d|ly rale - ruroer ol cases as proporl|or ol a popu|al|or
Vorla||ly rale - ruroer ol dealrs as proporl|or ol popu|al|or al a sel per|od
Lurg Carcer:
0escr|pl|ve slud|es - lrequercy; parl ol a popu|al|or allecled ard |ocal|or ard l|re ol per|od ard lrose allecled.
Ara|yl|ca| slud|es - l|rd a cause ard ellecl re|al|orsr|p |r occurrerce.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Exper|rerla| - lesl ellecl|veress ol lrealrerl, relerred lo as c||r|ca| lr|a|s.


Cather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on to |dent|fy the cause and effect re|at|onsh|p of |ung cancer

3lud|es rave sroWr a corre|al|or W|lr lre ruroer ol c|garelles sro|ed per day ard lre ear||er age al Wr|cr
sro||rg Was slarled lo lre r|s| ol gell|rg |urg carcer.
Ep|der|o|og|sls rave rad greal success |r delerr|r|rg lral peop|e Wro deve|op |urg carcer are rucr rore |||e|y
lo rave sro|ed lrar lrose Wro do rol - 83.
Pass|ve sro||rg ras oeer ||r|ed lo 3000 peop|e gell|rg |urg carer per year.
l|gr |eve|s ol rad|al|or, po||ul|or ard asoeslos exposure rave a|so oeer ||r|ed lo |rc|derces ol |urg carcer.
Ear|y delecl|or |rcreases surv|va| rales.
ll |s lre |ead|rg dealr |r rer ard Worer, pea||rg oelWeer 55-5. 0ccurs |r 1/1000 peop|e. 0ealr rales are
|rcreas|rg.

|dent|fy causes of non-|nfect|ous d|sease us|ng an examp|e from each of the fo||ow|ng categor|es:
- |nher|ted d|seases
- nutr|t|ona| def|c|enc|es
- env|ronmenta| d|seases

Nor-|rlecl|ous d|seases are rol caused oy palrogers; lrey are rol lrarslerao|e lror ore orgar|srs lo arolrer;
lrey rave a W|de var|ely ol causes ard; ard lrey |rc|ude a W|de var|ely ol lypes ol d|sease.

- lrrer|led: eg. 0oWr 3yrdrore |s caused oy ore exlra crrorosore. Trey rave 1Z crrorosores caused oy
|rcorp|ele separal|or ol a spec|l|c crrorosore pa|r dur|rg re|os|s.
- Nulr|l|ora|: eg. Arorex|a Nervosa |s a prsycr|alr|c d|sease caused oy de||oerale urder-eal|rg. 3er|ous d|sease
lral car rave dargerous |org lerr ellecls or rea|lr.
- Erv|rorrerla|: Card|ovascu|ar 0|sease occurs Wrer lre sysler ol lre rearl ard o|ood vesse|s |s urao|e lo
|eep up W|lr lre derards ol lre resl ol lre oody lor oxygeraled o|ood.

7. |ncreased understand|ng has |ed to the deve|opment of a w|de range of strateg|es to prevent and contro|
d|seases

0|scuss the ro|e of quarant|ne |n prevent|ng the spread of d|sease and p|ants and an|ma|s |nto Austra||a or
across reg|ons of Austra||a

- Prolecls lre rea|lr ol lre rurar, ar|ra| ard p|arl popu|al|ors ol Auslra||a.
- Preverls lre erlry ol lore|gr pesls ard corlag|ous d|seases |rlo Auslra||a.
- 0uararl|re |aWs pror|o|l lre erlry ol |lers cors|dered a r|s|.
- lrporled ar|ra|s lace a l|re |r |so|al|or lo ersure ro d|sease |s preserl. L|v|rg p|arls are a|so quararl|red lo
ra|e sure lrey are rol carry|rg pesls or suller|rg lror d|seases.
- P|arl seeds are exar|red lo crec| lral ro Weed seeds are preserl.
- used ver|c|es ard agr|cu|lura| racr|rery are |rspecled ard c|eared lo ersure lral ro so||/p|arl raller erlers
lre courlry.

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to eva|uate the effect|veness of quarant|ne |n
prevent|ng the spread of a p|ant and an|ma| d|sease |nto Austra||a or across reg|ons of Austra||a

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
8ecause ol Auslra||a's slr|cl quararl|re |aWs, Auslra||ar p|arls ard ar|ra|s do rol rave sore ol lre ser|ous
d|seases lourd |r olrer courlr|es, eg:

Tre ellecl|veress ol quararl|re car oe seer |r Fool ard Voulr 0|sease Wr|cr ras rol perelraled Auslra||a's
oorders. ll |s a r|gr|y corlag|ous d|sease, ard |s carr|ed rol or|y oy ||ve ar|ra|s oy a|so lrrougr real producls ard
equ|prerl. lrporls lror |rlecled courlr|es are or|y a||oWed lo erler |l ro d|sease |s preserl. ll |l d|d erler lre
courlry |l Wou|d deslroy lre real |rduslry cosl|rg o||||ors ol do||ars.

Tre |rellecl|veress ol quararl|re car oe seer |r lre perelral|or ol lre Ved|lerrarear Fru|l F|y, Wr|cr causes
ser|ous darage lo lru|l, |rlo Auslra||a. Tre ellecl|veress ol |rlerslale quararl|re car oe seer |r lre Ved|lerrarear
Fru|l F|y Wr|cr |s |r weslerr Auslra||a ard ras rol spread lo ary olrer slales.


Exp|a|n how one of the fo||ow|ng strateg|es has contro||ed and|or prevented d|sease:
- pub||c hea|th programs
- pest|c|des
- genet|c eng|neer|ng to produce d|sease res|stant p|ants and an|ma|s

Puo||c lea|lr Progrars

- Ass|sl |r prolecl|rg peop|e lror d|sease.
- LaWs del|re sore reasures; cerla|r d|seases are c|ass|l|ed as rol|l|ao|e, eg Al03, wroop|rg Cougr ard
Cro|era. 0lrer d|seases, eg. Cr|c|er Pox, are goverred oy |aWs lral requ|re a quararl|re per|od.
- 0ccupal|ora| rea|lr ard salely |aWs ard po||ul|or |aWs re|ale lo rea|lr cord|l|ors ol Wor|ers.
- lrrur|zal|or progrars |rc|ude cr||drood lr|p|e arl|ger ard Po||orye||l|s ard lrl|uerza prograr lor lre e|der|y.
- Progrars sucr as '0u|l' lor sro||rg, '3||p 3|op 3|ap' lor s||r carcer ard dr|r| dr|v|rg carpa|grs are |r p|ace.
- 3creer|rg progrars rave oeer |rlroduced, eg pap srears lor cerv|ca| carcer, cresl X-rays lor oreasl carcer.
- Puo||c progrars lral re|p |eep lre erv|rorrerl c|ear a|so reduce lre |rc|derce ol d|sease, eg. 3eWage
lrealrerl Wor|s, garoage co||ecl|or ard quararl|re corlro|s.


Cather and process |nformat|on and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to d|scuss the chang|ng methods of dea||ng
w|th p|ant and an|ma| d|seases, |nc|ud|ng the sh|ft |n emphas|s from treatment and contro| to management
or prevent|on of d|sease

lr lre pasl, relrods ol dea||rg W|lr p|arl ard ar|ra| d|seases rad erpras|s or lrealrerl ard corlro| ralrer lrar
raragererl ard preverl|or. For exarp|e, lre use ol ant|b|ot|cs or ar|ra|s Was or|g|ra||y deve|oped |r lre
1910's. Trey Were used lo lreal oacler|a| |rlecl|ors. lr|l|a||y, lrey Were very successlu| |r lreal|rg lre palroger. Yel
W|lr lre |rcreased use ol arl|o|ol|cs over l|re, lre palroger oecare res|slarl Wr|cr rade lre arl|o|ol|cs v|rlua||y
use|ess, eg per|c||||r.
Transp|ant surgery, a|so, |s used |r pal|erls Wrose orgars rave la||ed. Yel lrere Was a proo|er W|lr lr|s relrod
oecause lre oody rejecled lre lore|gr ce||s lror lre doraled orgar. Tr|s proo|er Was so|ved lo sore exlerl W|lr
lre use ol arl|-rejecl|or drugs, eg AL0, yel lrese rad sore s|de ellecls lor exarp|e lral Wea|ered lre |rrure
sysler.
lr add|l|or, drugs Were used aga|rsl |rlecl|ous d|sease. For exarp|e |r lre lrealrerl ol ra|ar|a, qu|r|re Was used.
A|lrougr |l ard olrer drugs are rol 100 successlu| oecause qu|r|re or|y slops lre ra|ar|a| paras|le are ore slage
ol |ls reproducl|ve ||le cyc|e, ard lrerelore car reproduce |r olrer p|ace. Pa|n k|||ers a|so re||eve syrplors.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lr add|l|or, gene therapy, a recerl deve|oprerl, oas|ca||y a|rs or lre rep|acererl ol a d|sease caus|rg gere W|lr
a rea|lry ore. 8ul, lr|s relrod |s rol successlu| al preserl.
For p|arls, |nsect|c|des rave oeer used lo |||| |rsecl pesls ol crops. For exarp|e lre use ol 00T ras oeer
successlu| oul over l|re, lre pesl oecare res|slarl, Wr|cr rade |l v|rlua||y |rellecl|ve.
Fung|c|des are used lo lreal lurga| d|seases ol p|arls. Trese rad lre sare ellecl as pesl|c|des ard lurg|
everlua||y oecare res|slarl.

As l|re ras progressed, relrods ol dea||rg W|lr d|seases |r p|arls ard ar|ra|s ras crarged lo lre raragererl
ard preverl|or ol d|sease. For exarp|e, vacc|nat|ons are oe|rg used ard adverl|sed. Trey preverl lre occurrerce
ol |rlecl|ous d|sease. Tr|s relrod ras oeer very successlu| as vacc|ral|ors lor sra||pox lor exarp|e rave r|d lre
Wor|d ol lre d|sease as wl0 ras dec|ared.
A|so, slr|cl quarant|ne |aWs are |r p|ace. 0uararl|re preverls lre erlry ard spread ol d|sease oolr srorl ard |org
lerr. 8y ra||rg peop|e dec|are Wral |s oe|rg orougrl |rlo Auslra||a, rary ol lre d|seases preserl |r lre Wor|d are
rol lourd |r Auslra||a.
lr add|l|or, genet|c eng|neer|ng |s used lo produce d|sease res|slarl p|arls ard ar|ra|s Wr|cr |rc|udes lrarsger|c
spec|es sucr as 8T collor ard lre lrarsger|c sreep lor rurar o|ood c|ol la||ure. Tr|s a|so |rc|udes se|ecl|ve
oreed|rg Wrere se|ecled craracler|sl|cs are oola|red lorr lWo orgar|srs.
A|so, pub||c hea|th programs are |r p|ace ard are rore corror roWadays. Trey educale peop|e aooul lre r|s|s
ol cerla|r laclors ard d|sease. For exarp|e lre '0u|l' carpa|gr lor sro||rg lo |rlorr lre puo||c ol lre dargers ol
sro||rg Wr|cr causes |urg carcer ard a|so '3||p, 3|op, 3|ap' lor s||r carcer. C|ear||ress |r persora| ryg|ere,
oeller lrealrerl ol dr|r||rg Waler ard ryg|er|c preparal|or ard slorage ol lood rave a|so oeer |rproved.











9.7 - 0pt|on - Cenet|cs: The 6ode roken?

1. The structure of a gene prov|des the code for a po|ypept|de

0escr|be the processes |nvo|ved |n the transfer of |nformat|on from 0NA through RNA to the product|on of
a sequence of am|no ac|ds |n a po|ypept|de

Po|ypepl|de syrlres|s |rvo|ves a lype ol ruc|e|c ac|d, ca||ed Rh/ (r|ooruc|e|c ac|d). RNA |s lre |rlerred|ary
oelWeer 0NA ard po|ypepl|de syrlres|s. ll |s a s|rg|e slrard ol ruc|eol|de oases. ll ras r|oose sugar ard lre
r|lroger oase, rn,m|ne, |s rep|aced oy urac|| Wr|cr oords W|lr aoen|ne.
Trere are lWo lypes ol RNA lral are |rvo|ved |r po|ypepl|de syrlres|s, resserger RNA (rRNA) ard lrarsler RNA
(lRNA).
Trarscr|pl|or - lr lre ruc|eus, lre douo|e slrarded 0NA ro|ecu|es urz|p ard lre 0NA code |s lrarscr|oed |rlo lre
s|rg|e slrarded rRNA ro|ecu|e. Tre rRNA roves oul ol lre ruc|eus |rlo lre cylop|asr ard allacres lo a
r|oosore. lr lre cylop|asr, lre rRNA |s lrars|aled |rlo ar|ro ac|ds.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Trars|al|or - Al lre r|oosore, lre resserger RNA ||res up lorr|rg a lerp|ale. A group ol lrree oases, ca||ed a
cooon, codes lor a spec|l|c ar|ro ac|d. Trere are codes lral slarl ard slop lre cra|r lorral|or. Au0 |s lre slarl|rg
po|rl lor lrars|al|or.
lRNA ras ar arl|codor (a ror-ar|ro ac|d lorr|rg codor) or ore erd ard ar ar|ro ac|d or lre olrer. A
po|ypepl|de |s lorred as eacr ar|ro ac|d |s added lror lRNA lo a cra|r lo||oW|rg lre sequerce or lre rRNA.

Process |nformat|on from secondary data to out||ne the current understand|ng of gene express|on

lr lre rurar oody, every soral|c (oody) ce|| corla|rs lre sare ruroer ol crrorosores ard lre sare |rlorral|or
or eacr crrorosore. loWever, aller lerl|||zal|or, lre rurar zygole produces ce||s Wr|cr deve|op d|llererl|y lror
eacr olrer, eg o|ood ce||s, oore ce||s, rusc|e ce||s, elc.
Tr|s occurs oecause rol a|| lre gerel|c |rlorral|or preserl |r eacr ce|| |s expressed.
0r|y lre geres supp|y|rg |rlorral|or lor lre lurcl|or|rg ol lre ce|| are expressed. Tre olrer geres are 'srul doWr.'



0peron theory of Cene Act|on |n Procaryotes
- Tr|s exp|a|rs roW geres car oe lerporar||y sW|lcred or ard oll accord|rg lo lre reeds ol lre ce||.
- Accord|rg lo lre lreory, sore geres lurcl|or as |rslrucl|or ur|ls, acl|val|rg ard deacl|val|rg olrer geres.
1. A|org lre slrard ol 0NA |roWr as lre operor, lrere |s ar operalor gere ard slruclura| geres.
2. Tre operalor gere |rslrucls lre slruclura| gere lo produce erzyres.
3. Tre erzyres cala|yze a reacl|or corverl|rg lre suoslrale |rlo a producl.
1. Tre preserce ol lre suoslrale resu|ls |r deacl|val|or ol a prole|r |roWr as lre repressor prole|r.
5. wrer acl|valed, lr|s prole|r o|rds lo lre operalor gere, preverl|rg |l lror acl|val|rg lre slruclura| geres.
N0TE: lre operalor e|lrer a||oWs lre RNA po|yrerase erzyre access lo lre geres so lral rRNA car oe
syrlres|zed or preverls |l.























HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan










Tre recrar|sr operales as a leedoac| |oop. Tre grealer lre arourl ol suoslrale lre grealer lre |racl|val|or ol
lre repressor prole|r Wr|cr rear |ess |racl|val|or ol lre operalor gere ard lrerelore slruclura| geres are sW|lcred
or.

E01 - Velaoo||sr ol |aclose |r oacler|a, LAC-0peror
lr lr|s case, lre geres are rorra||y off ard rave lo oe lurred on.
- ll lrere |s a |arge arourl ol |aclose, |l o|rds W|lr lre repressor prole|r so lral |l ro |org |rr|o|ls lre producl|or
ol lre erzyre.
- ll lrere |s very ||ll|e |aclose preserl, |l W||| rol o|rd W|lr lre repressor prole|r, |l W||| allacr lo lre operalor Wr|cr
|rr|o|ls lre producl|or ol erzyres.

E02 - 3yrlres|s ol lre ar|ro ac|d Tryploprar - TRP-0peror
lr lr|s case, lre geres are rorra||y on ard rave lo oe lurred off.
- For lre syrlres|s ol lryploprar, severa| erzyres are requ|red.
- wrer lrere are |arge arourls ol lryploprar, |l o|rds W|lr lre repressor prole|r Wr|cr crarges |ls srape. Tre
repressor car lrer o|rd W|lr lre operalor lo slop lre producl|or ol erzyres.
- ll lrere |s ||ll|e lryploprar preserl, lre repressor ro|ecu|e |s urao|e lo o|rd W|lr lre operalor. Tr|s a||oWs lor
lre producl|or ol erzyres Wr|cr produce lryploprar.

Cene Express|on |n Eucaryotes

1. 0NA urpac||rg
- lr lre ruc|eus, 0NA |s Wourd arourd lre r|slore prole|rs lo lorr ruc|eosores.
- 0eres lral are perrarerl|y sW|lcred oll ray oe pac|ed very l|grl|y.
- Tre add|l|or ol relry| groups a|so o|oc|s 0NA express|or
- Tre add|l|or ol acely| groups ras lre oppos|le ellecl.

2. 0NA Trarscr|pl|or
- Eacr gere ras |ls oWr proroler. RNA po|yrerase car or|y o|rd W|lr 0NA Wrer severa| prole|rs rave a|ready
allacred lo lre proroler.
- Eacr gere ras corlro| e|ererls (p|eces ol ror-cod|rg 0NA) lral o|rd lo lrarscr|pl|or laclors ard lre proroler
lo |r|l|ale lre acl|v|ly ol RNA po|yrerase (RNA po|yrerase corlro|s lrarscr|pl|or).
- Tre Wro|e group ol regu|alory prole|rs ard RNA po|yrerase |s ca||ed a Trarscr|pl|or Corp|ex.


3. Regu|al|or ol rRNA (RNA process|rg)
- F|rsl, lre RNA |s capped ard la||ed (adds ore or rore ruc|eol|des). Tr|s preverls lre ro|ecu|e oe|rg degraded
oy olrer erzyres |r lre cylop|asr.
- lr a gere, a |arge arourl ol 0NA ard corsequerl|y rRNA |s rol coded |rlo a prole|r.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Tre ror-cod|rg parls are ca||ed |rlrors.
- Tre cod|rg parls (expressed) are ca||ed exors.
- Tre |rlrors are cul oul oelore lre rRNA |eaves lre ruc|eus. Tre exors are sluc| logelrer (sp||ced).
Regu|alory prole|rs corlro| lr|s sp||c|rg ard ray oe d|llererl |r d|llererl ce||s.

1. Corlro| ol lrars|al|or
- Trars|al|or ol rRNA car oe o|oc|ed |l spec|l|c prole|rs o|rd lo |l ard preverl |l lror allacr|rg lo lre
r|oosores.

5. Prole|r process|rg ard degradal|or
- usua||y po|ypepl|des rusl oe processed lo produce a lurcl|ora| prole|r. Tr|s ray |rvo|ve lo|d|rg, c|evage, or
lre add|l|or ol ror-cod|rg secl|ors. Regu|al|or ray occur |l ary ol lrese sleps |s |rr|o|led.
- Prole|rs ray oe degraded perrarerl|y oy 'garoage o|rs' ca||ed pro|easores.

2. Hu|t|p|e a||e|es and po|ygen|c |nher|tance prov|de further var|ab|||ty w|th|n a tra|t

C|ve examp|es of character|st|cs determ|ned by mu|t|p|e a||e|es |n an organ|sm other than humans

Vu|l|p|e a||e|es: wrer rore lrar lWo lorrs ol a gere ex|sl lor lre sare craracler|sl|c. 0r|y lWo ol lrese a||e|es
ray oe preserl |r ore |rd|v|dua|.
Trey are |||e|y lo ar|se lror rardor rulal|ors ol or|g|ra| lorrs ol a gere over a per|od ol l|re. Trere ray oe ore
a||e|e Wr|cr produces lre oas|c lra|l ca||ed lre W||d lype. 0lrer a||e|es are ca||ed rularl a||e|es ard produce
var|al|ors |r lre prerolype.

Eg wr|le C|over Leal:
- Trere are sever a||e|es lor lre pallerrs or lre |eaves ol Wr|le c|oves.
- Tr|s g|ves 22 poss|o|e prerolypes Wrer lre Z a||e|es are coro|red |r d|llererl groups ol 2.
- Tre W||d lype g|ves a p|a|r greer c|over |eal.
- Tre olrer coro|ral|ors ol a||e|es produce |eaves W|lr crerrors.

6ompare the |nher|tance of the A0 and Rhesus b|ood groups

- Trere are 1 o|ood lypes A, A8, 8, 0.
- Trese are caused oy lre preserce ol lWo caroorydrales or lre surlace ol red o|ood ce||s - lre A ard 8
suoslarce.
- lrd|v|dua|s ray rave ore ol lrese suoslarces (A or 8), oolr (A8) or rore (0).
- Tre rec|parl's |rrure sysler recogr|zes surlace arl|gers or lre red o|ood ce||s as lore|gr.
- ll |l |s d|llererl lorr |ls oWr ce||s, agg|ul|ral|or or c|urp|rg W||| occur.
- Vu|l|p|e a||e|es occur |r lre gere lor syrlres|s ol lre red o|ood ce|| arl|ger.
- Tre Rresus laclor |s corp|ele|y |rdeperderl lo A80 arl|gers. ll |s corlro||ed oy a d|llererl gere.
- Tre rresus laclor |s e|lrer preserl (Rr) or rol (Rr-).
- Ar |rd|v|dua| W|lr Rl- o|ood W||| lorr arl|ood|es aga|rsl lre Rr laclor |r Rr o|ood.

A80 |s ar exarp|e ol ru|l|p|e a||e|es Wrere lrere are lrree a||e|es. Rresus |s rol, lrere are or|y lWo a||e|es.
Tre A80 o|ood group ras lour d|llererl prerolypes Wrereas Rresus laclor or|y ras lWo.
A80 ras ar exarp|e ol co-dor|rarce Wrereas Rr |s dor|rarl/recess|ve.


HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan


0ef|ne what |s meant by po|ygen|c |nher|tance |n humans or another organ|sm

Po|yger|c |rrer|larce: craracler|sl|cs lral are corlro||ed oy rore lrar ore pa|r ol geres.

3||r co|our |r rurars:
3||r co|our |r rurars |s corlro||ed oy al |easl lrree geres (or pa|rs ol a||e|es) ard poss|o|y rore. we car
syroo||ze lrese lrree pa|rs ol a||e|es as a ard a`, o ard o` ard c ard c`. we car assure lral eacr ror-dasred
a||e|e (a, o ard c) corlr|oules ||grl s||r p|grerl. we car a|so assure lral eacr ol lre s|x a||e|es are |rcorp|ele|y
dor|rarl. TWo red|ur s||rred |rd|v|dua|s cou|d lrer rave a prerolype aa` oo` cc` a|lrougr lrere are olrer
prerolypes lor red|ur s||r.

0ut||ne the use of h|gh|y var|ab|e genes for 0NA f|ngerpr|nt|ng of forens|c samp|es, patern|ty test|ng and
for determ|n|ng the ped|gree of an|ma|s

- A|| orgar|srs produced oy sexua| reproducl|or rave ur|que 0NA cod|rg ard every oody ce|| carr|es a sel ol
lr|s 0NA.
- A|lrougr lre cod|rg reg|ors ol lre 0NA (exors) produce lre |rd|v|dua| prole|rs, |l |s lre ror-- cod|rg parls
(|rlrors) lral sc|erl|sls use lo ur|que|y gerel|ca||y |derl|ly ar |rd|v|dua| (0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg).
- Tre ror-cod|rg 0NA cors|sls ol |erglrs ol oase sequerces oller repealed rary l|res.
- 3c|erl|sls use aooul 10 |roWr 0NA reg|ors lo creale a 0NA prol||e or l|rgerpr|rl ol ar |rd|v|dua|. Tre crarce
ol arolrer |rd|v|dua| rav|rg exacl|y lre sare sequerces |s exlrere|y sra||.
- Forers|c sc|erce uses 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg lo ralcr lre 0NA lord |r sarp|es ol o|ood, olrer oody l|u|ds or
l|ssues |ell al a cr|re scere W|lr lral ol a suspecl. Tr|s ev|derce |s adr|ss|o|e |r courls.
- Palerr|ly lesl|rg |r rurars s|r||ar|y re||es or ara|yz|rg lre 0NA ol lre cr||d ard lre a||eged lalrer. Ce||s lror
s||r, ra|r or o|ood are usua||y used.
- 8reeders ol ped|greed ar|ra|s, sucr as call|e ard rorses, reed lo |roW lre s|re ard dar (rolrer ard lalrer)
ol lre ar|ra|s lrey oreed. 8|ood sarp|es car oe used.
N0TE: 2 advarlages ol 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg over prev|ous relrods ol |derl|l|cal|or:
1. 0NA |s a rore accurale rar|er ol ar |rd|v|dua|'s l|ssue or o|ood sarp|e lrar o|ood or l|ssue lype. Trere |s a
grealer crarce lral |rd|v|dua|s rave sare o|ood or l|ssue lypes lrar lral lre|r 0NA |s |derl|ca|.
2. T|ry arourls ol o|ood or l|ssue are sull|c|erl lo oola|r resu|ls W|lr 0NA lecrro|ogy. ll lre sarp|e |s loo sra||,
lre 0NA car oe ru|l|p||ed oy us|rg 'po|yrerase cra|r reacl|or.'

3. 8tud|es of offspr|ng ref|ect the |nher|tance of genes on d|fferent chromosomes and genes on the same
chromosomes

Use the terms 'd|p|o|d' and 'hap|o|d' to descr|be somat|c and gamet|c ce||s

- lr sexua||y reproduc|rg spec|es, lrere are 3 lypes ol ce||s:
1. 8ody ce||s or 3oral|c ce||s
2. 3ex ce||s or 0areles
3. 0err-||re ce||s Wr|cr are desl|red lo oecore 0areles

- 3oral|c ce||s are d|p|o|d, Wrere:
1. crrorosores are |r pa|rs
2. lrere are 1 sels ol crrorosores
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
3. lre ruroer ol crrorosores = 2r

- 0arel|c ce||s are rap|o|d, Wrere:
1. crrorosores are s|rg|e
2. lrere |s 23 sels ol crrorosores
3. lre ruroer ol crrorosores = r

0escr|be outcomes of d|hybr|d crosses |nvo|v|ng s|mp|e dom|nance us|ng Hende|'s exp|anat|ons

Verde| |rvesl|galed lre |rrer|larce ol lWo craraclers - seed srape (rourd or Wr|r||ed) ard seed co|our (ye||oW or
greer).
Fror lre rororyor|d cross re |reW:
- Rourd seeds Were dor|rarl lo Wr|r||ed
- Ye||oW seeds Were dor|rarl lo greer
A p|arl W|lr rourd, ye||oW seeds Was crossed W|lr a p|arl W|lr Wr|r||ed greer seeds ard lre ollspr|rg Were a||
rourd ye||oW.
le |rlerored lrose ollspr|rg ard lourd lral lre l2 Were |r lre ral|o ol 9:3:3:1 - Rourd ye||oW : rourd greer :
Wr|r||ed ye||oW : Wr|r||ed greer.

3|gr|l|carce-
lealures ol seed srape ard co|our rad eacr produced a 3:1 ral|o ol dor|rarl:recess|ve.
lre lWo lealures rad oeraved |rdeperderl|y ol eacr olrer. Tre preserce ol or rad rol allecled lre oerav|our ol
lre olrer.
0r lre oas|s ol lrese l|rd|rgs, Verde| lorru|aled r|s secord |aW :
'E|lrer a||e|e ol a gere pa|r ray oe coro|red W|lr e|lrer ol lre olrer pa|r.

Pred|ct the d|fference |n |nher|tance patterns |f two genes are ||nked

Ary lWo geres Wr|cr occur or lre sare crrorosore are sa|d lo oe ||r|ed. A|| lre geres or a s|rg|e crrorosore
lorr a ||r|age group.
urder rorra| c|rcurslarces, a|| lre ||r|ed geres rera|r logelrer dur|rg ce|| d|v|s|or ard so pass |rlo lre garele,
ard rerce lre ollspr|rg logelrer. Trey do ro lrerelore segregale |r accordarce lo Verde|'s LaW ol lrdeperderl
Assorlrerl.

lr ||r|ed geres lrere are 2 prerolypes expecled oul lrere are 1 prerolypes. wral lrer |s lre exp|aral|or? Cou|d
|l oe lral lre lWo craraclers are rol ||r|ed, oul occur or d|llererl crrorosores? ll lr|s Were so, |l Wou|d oe a
rorra| d|ryor|d cross, ard a 9:3:3:1 ral|o srou|d oe lourd, oul lr|s |s rol lre case.

wrer lre grealer lre proporl|or ol prerolypes |r a popu|al|or corlorrs lo lre expecled prerolyp|c ral|o due lo
||r|age ol geres ard a sra|| proporl|or does rol corlorr W|lr lre pallerr, lrer a poss|o|e exp|aral|or |s cross|rg-
over ol geres or lre roro|ogous crrorosores. Tre recoro|rarls ol sucr cross-overs W||| produce gareles
corla|r|rg excrarged geres.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to ana|yse the outcome of d|hybr|d crosses when both tra|ts
are |nher|ted |ndependent|y and when they are ||nked

F|ower co|our and po||en shape |n sweet peas
Ral|os |l geres are rol ||r|ed: Ral|os ol lre geres are ||r|ed:
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
100 Purp|e, Lorg (a|| PpL|) 100 Purp|e, Lorg (a|| PpL|)

0areles ol F1: 0areles ol F1:
PL, pL, P|, p| PL, PL, p|, p|

Forral ol purell square lor F1 x F1 cross: Forral ol purell square lor F1 x F1 cross:
PL P| pL p| PL p|
PL PL
P| p|
PL
P|

F2 Prerolypes: F2 Prerolypes:
Purp|e,Lorg:Purp|e,3rorl:Red,Lorg:Red,3rorl Purp|e,Lorg:Red,3rorl
9 : 3 : 3 : 1 3 : 1

Exp|a|n how cross-breed|ng exper|ment can |dent|fy the re|at|ve pos|t|on of ||nked genes

L|r|ed geres - geres Wr|cr occur or lre sare crrorosore.
- L|r|ed geres are usua||y |rrer|led logelrer. loWever, lrey car oecore separaled dur|rg re|os|s Wrer
cross|rg-over occurs. Tr|s |rvo|ves porl|ors ol eacr crrorosore oe|rg excrarged ard resu|ls |r reW
coro|ral|ors ol geres oe|rg preserl |r lre gareles.
- Tre degree ol cross|rg over |s delerr|red oy lre d|slarce oelWeer ||r|ed geres
- Tre sra||er lre d|slarce oelWeer geres, lre |ess crarce lrey rave ol cross|rg over ard lre sra||er lre
percerlage ol recoro|rarl lypes |r lre ollspr|rg.
- Trey grealer lre d|slarce oelWeer ||r|ed geres, lre rore crarce lrey rave ol cross|rg over ard lre |arger lre
percerlage ol recoro|rarl lypes.
- Tre percerlage ol ollspr|rg Wr|cr sroW recoro|ral|or represerls lre d|slarce oelWeer lre lWo geres (a|so
ca||ed crossover lrequercy).
Exarp|e - A recoro|ral|or rale oelWeer geres A ard 8 ol 15 represerls a d|slarce ol 15 ur|ls or a
crrorosore.
- Tre re|al|orsr|p car oe used lo |ocale lre pos|l|or ol cerla|r geres re|al|ve lo eacrolrer or a crrorosore.
- Tr|s |rlorral|or car oe used lo ra|e a crrorosore rap.
- Crrorosore raps g|ve us a p|clure ol lre arrargererl ol ar orgar|sr's geres or |ls crrorosores.
- 3ludy|rg lre lrequercy ol recoro|ral|or ol craracler|sl|cs |r leslcross oreed|rg exper|rerls ras a||oWed
gerec|sls lo produce raps ol lre geres or crrorosores.
- Tre lorru|a lor esl|ral|rg lre d|slarce oelWeer lWo geres or a crrorosore |s:
Vap 0|slarce = Nuroer ol recoro|rarl ollspr|rg X 100
(|r ur|ls) lola| ruroer ol ollspr|rg

0|scuss the ro|e of chromosome mapp|ng |n |dent|fy|ng re|at|onsh|ps between spec|es

- 0rgar|srs ol lre sare spec|es srare a corror gere poo| ard rave s|r||ar crrorosore raps.
- Tre rore c|ose|y re|aled, lre rore geres lrey rave |r corror.
- Tre |derl|l|cal|or ol ||r|age groups |r d|llererl orgar|srs |s a relrod ol ara|yz|rg re|al|orsr|ps oelWeer
spec|es.
- Ev|derce ol s|r||ar|l|es |r ||r|age groups oelWeer spec|es suggesls lral |r lre pasl lrey srared a corror
arceslor.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
lurar Cal
X Crrorosore X Crrorosore
0P0---j j---0P0 0erel|c Loc|
lPRT---j j---lPRT



4. The human Cenome Project |s attempt|ng to |dent|fy the pos|t|on of genes on chromosomes through who|e
genome sequenc|ng

0|scuss the benef|ts of the human Cenome Project

Tre rurar gerore projecl |s ar |rlerral|ora| projecl lral a|rs lo |derl|ly a|| lre rurar geres ard lo delerr|re
lre sequerces ol 3 o||||or oases |r rurar 0NA

8erel|ls:
1. 0realer urderslard|rg ol gerel|c
- 3c|erl|sls W||| exp|a|r rore c|ear|y roW geres are expressed, roW lrey rulale ard are |rrer|led.
- ll W||| re|p exp|a|r roW geres |rleracl W|lr eacr olrer.
- Trere are sore geres lre lurcl|ors ol Wr|cr rave rera|red a corp|ele ryslery. KroW|edge ol lre rurar
gerore ray re|p lo urrave| lre lurcl|ors ol lrese geres.

2. lurar evo|ul|or
- Tre gerores ol olrer spec|es car oe corpared W|lr lre rurar gerore. Tr|s W||| g|ve |rs|grls |rlo lre
s|r||ar|ly or d|llererces ol lre evo|ul|orary palrWays oy Wr|cr a|| lrese spec|es, |rc|ud|rg rurars, evo|ved |rlo
lre|r preserl slales.

3. 0elecl|or ol d|sease ard |rprovererl |r rurar rea|lr
- Fau|ly geres Wr|cr cause d|sease car oe delecled oelore lre d|sease deve|ops.
- Tr|s car |ead lo reW d|agrosl|c lesls ard/or lre prov|s|or ol gerel|c course||rg lor lrose |rd|v|dua|s Wro are
lourd lo oe carry|rg a delecl|ve gere.
- NeW|y sequerced rorra| geres ray oe c|ored ard lre producls ol lre express|or ol lrese geres us|rg |r lre
lrealrerl ol d|sease |r olrer |rd|v|dua|s.
- 0ere lrerapy |rvo|ves lre adr|r|slral|or ol a gere lo ar |rd|v|dua| Wro ras a delecl|ve copy ol |l.

0escr|be and exp|a|n some the ||m|tat|ons of data obta|ned from the human Cenome Project

- KroW|rg lre oase sequerces ol 0NA or a crrorosore does rol exp|a|r a|| lre o|ocrer|ca| lurcl|ors |r a
rurar - |l does rol delerr|re lre lurcl|or ol every gere.
- Trere |s groW|rg oe||el lral sore corp|ex processes |||e lre ora|r lurcl|or, W||| rever oe lu||y urderslood ever
W|lr lre |roW|edge ol lre rurar gerore.
- Trere are corcerrs lral lre rurar gerore cou|d oe r|sused ard |ead lo d|scr|r|ral|or oelWeer peop|e ol
d|llererl gerolypes, eg lrose W|lr a gerel|c pred|spos|l|or lo cerla|r d|seases ray oe relused |rsurarce
po||c|es or erp|oyrerl.
- Trere are a|so olrer elr|ca| |ssues, eg Wro corlro|s access lo lre gerel|c |rlorral|or re|al|rg lo ar |rd|v|dua|.

Process |nformat|on from secondary sources to assess the reasons why the human Cenome Project cou|d
not be ach|eved by study|ng ||nkage maps
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan

- Ear|y rapp|rg lecrr|ques sucr as lrose used lor lru|l l||es Were oased or recoro|ral|or lrequerc|es oola|red
lror lesl crosses. Trese ear|y ||r|age raps revea|ed lre re|al|ve pos|l|or ol geres ralrer lrar lre aoso|ule
pos|l|ors. 8ecause rurar oreed|rg exper|rerls are urelr|ca|, dala cou|d rol oe oola|red |r lre sare Way as
lre lru|l l||es/o|oW l||es. lrslead, ooserval|ors ol a lra|l over a ruroer ol gereral|ors Were used lo rarroW doWr
lre pos|l|or ol a parl|cu|ar gere or a crrorosore, eg lre co|our-o||rdress gere or lre X-crrorosore.
- lurar 0NA ras a very |arge arourl ol |rlorral|or pac|ed |rlo a very sra|| space. Cerla|r segrerls ol 0NA
sroW greal var|ao|||ly as We|| as over|ap ard repel|l|or. Trerelore lre process ol |derl|ly|rg geres |s loo
corp|ex lo oe acr|eved oy sludy|rg ||r|age raps.

0ut||ne the procedure to produce recomb|nant 0NA

1. A gere |s cul oul ol lre crrorosore ol ore spec|es, eg gere lor ra||rg |rsu||r |s cul oul ol lre rurar
parcreas ce||, us|rg a reslr|cl|or erzyre.
2. A c|rcu|ar p|ece ol 0NA (p|asr|d) |s reroved lror oacler|a| ce||s ard cul oper W|lr lre sare reslr|cl|or
erzyre. Escrer|a Co|| |s corror|y used as lre source ol p|asr|d.
3. Tre cul-oul gere |s r|xed W|lr oacler|a| p|asr|ds |r a lesl luoe. 8ecause lrey've oeer cul W|lr lre sare
reslr|cl|or erzyre, lre erds ralcr. Trerelore a gere recoro|res W|lr a gere sp||ced |rlo |l. Tr|s |s cala|ysed
oy ||gase.
1. Tre p|asr|d |s re-|rserled |rlo lre oacler|a oy r|x|rg ca|c|ur cr|or|de - ca||ed lrarslorral|or |rlo oacler|a.
5. 0rce |rs|de lre oacler|a| ce||s, lre p|asrs|ds are reproduced Wrer lre ce|| reproduces.
. Tre |rlroduced gere W||| roW oe expressed.






Exp|a|n how the use of recomb|nant 0NA techno|ogy can |dent|fy the pos|t|on of a gene on a chromosome

1. A gere |s c|ored oy ra||rg recoro|rarl 0NA. Tre gere car oe |derl|l|ed oy:
a) us|rg a probe (|l lre gere's sequerce |s |roWr), or
o) |derl|ly|rg lre producl ol lre gere (eg rurar |rsu||r).
2. C|ored geres car oe used lo l|rd |ls pos|l|or or a crrorosore oy ruc|e|c ac|d ryor|d|zal|or:
a) A rad|oact|ve probe ol lre gere |s rade (|l lre producl ol lre gere |s |roWr. Tre ar|ro
ac|d sequerce car oe oola|red ard lrer, Wor||rg oac|Wards - lre 0NA sequerce car oe
produced).
o) Tre rad|oacl|ve prooe |s a||oWed lo oase pa|r W|lr sore s|rg|e slrarded, 0eralured 0NA
ro|ecu|es or a r|croscope s||de.
c) Tre o|rd|rg s|le car oe revea|ed oy autorad|ography.

5. Cene therapy |s poss|b|e one the genes respons|b|e for harmfu| cond|t|ons are |dent|f|ed

0escr|be current use of gene therapy for an |dent|f|ed d|sease

Tecrr|ques used lo rep|ace delecl|ve geres W|lr rorra| ores |s ca||ed 0ere Trerapy
ll Wor|s oy cull|rg geres lror lre 0NA ol rea|lry ce||s ard |rserl|rg lrer |rlo lre 0NA ol delecl|ve l|ssue

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
0ere Trerapy |r lre lrealrerl ol Cysl|c F|oros|s
- Cysl|c l|oros|s |s a gerel|c d|sorder caused oy a recess|ve gere lral |ac| lre 0NA sequerce lral codes lor
prery|a|ar|re.
1. 0ere c|or|rg lecrr|ques are used lo c|ore lre rea|lry gere.
2. Tre rea|lry gere |s |rserled |rlo a rarr|ess v|rus adere-assoc|aled-v|rus (AAv)
3. Tre rod|l|ed v|rus |s lrer p|aced |rlo a so|ul|or ard dr|pped |r lrrougr lre rose ard doWr a lr|r luoe |rlo a
|urg l|ssue.
1. 0rce |r lre |urg, lre v|rus ru|l|p||es ard |rserls |lse|l |rlo olrer ce||s. Ce||s W|lr lre reW 0NA srou|d lurcl|or
rorra||y.

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to |dent|fy a current use of gene therapy to
manage a genet|c d|sease, a named for of cancer or A|08







????? |s d|s cyst|c f|bros|s.aga|n??? No |dea

. Hechan|sms of genet|c change

0|st|ngu|sh between mutat|ons of chromosomes |nc|ud|ng:
- rearrangements
- changes |n chromosome number, |nc|ud|ng tr|somy, po|ypo|dy and mutat|ons of genes
- base subst|tut|on
- framesh|ft

1. ClR0V030VE VuTATl0N3 (2 lypes)
a) Crarges |r crrorosore ruroer
- due lo lre ror-d|sjurcl|or ol crrorosores
- crrorosore pa|rs do rol separale dur|rg re|os|s
- sore ol lre gareles produced corla|r add|l|ora| crrorosores ard olrers corla|r leWer:
eg 0oWr 3yrdrore
resu|ls lror ror-d|sjurcl|or ol crrorosore 21
Wrer a garele corla|r|rg ar exlra crrorosore 21 |s lerl|||zed oy a rorra| garele, lre zygole ras 3
cop|es ol crrorosore 21 |rslead ol 2
rav|rg 3 roro|ogous crrorosores |s ca||ed lr|sory.
- Tr|sory car occur lror lre ror-d|sjurcl|or ol a|| lre pa|rs ol roro|ogous crrorosores. wrer lr|s occurs, |l
resu|ls |r or garele W|lr a|| lre crrorosores (2r) ard ore W|lr rore.
- ll a 2r garele luses W|lr a rorra| rap||d garele (r) |l lorrs a lr|po|d ce|| (3r)
- Tre occurrerce ol orgar|srs W|lr exlra sels ol crrorosores |s ca||ed po|yp|o|dy.
- Tre lus|or ol 2 d|p|o|d gareles car a|so occur produc|rg a ce|| lral |s lelrap|o|d (1r).
- Po|ypo|dy |s rore corror |r p|arls. Reproducl|or |r ryor|d p|arls sorel|res produces po|yp|o|d ce||s.
Po|yp|o|dy |s usua||y lre resu|l ol reproducl|or arorg ryor|ds ralrer lrar lre ror-d|sjurcl|or ol Wro|e sels ol
crrorosores.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Po|yp|o|d p|arl spec|es ra|r|y reproduce asexua||y oecause re|ol|c d|v|s|or |s a proo|er lor orgar|srs W|lr
rore lrar 2 sels ol crrorosores.

o) Crarges |r lre arrargererl ol geres or crrorosores
- occurs dur|rg cross|rg over ol crroral|ds dur|rg re|os|s.
- 3orel|res Wrer crrorosores orea| ard rejo|r lre sequerce ol geres |s a|lered.
- Trere are 1 lypes ol crrorosore rearrargererls:
1. 0e|el|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore |s |osl (aocde acde)
Eg Cr|-du-cral syrdrore |s lre de|el|or ol ore ol lre crrorosores ruroer 5. Tre allecled cr||d ras a
roor-|||e lace, ullers a cry |||e a reW|rg cal ard |s oolr rerla||y ard prys|ca||y rard|capped.
2. dup||cal|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore |s repealed (aocde aaocde). 0ller |elra| |r rurars.
3. lrars|ocal|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore roves lo a d|llererl (ror-roro|ogous) crrorosore
(aocde, Wxy cde, aoWxy)
Eg Trars|ocal|or 0oWr 3yrdrore (parl ol crrorosore 21 |s allacred lo crrorosore 15) lre
suoslarce ol lrree crrorosore 21s- lWo rorra| ard ore allacred lo crrorosore 15 - causes doWr
syrdrore.
1. |rvers|or - Wrer parl ol a crrorosore lurrs ups|de doWr (aocde coade). Are lre |easl rarrlu|.
Tre ra|r ellecl ol |rvers|ors |s lo crarge lre order ol lre geres or a crrorosore.

2. 0ENE (P0lNT) VuTATl0N3 (2 lypes)
a) 8ase 3uos|lul|or - lre rosl corror lype ol gere rulal|or
- occurs Wrer ore oase |r lre 0NA |s suosl|luled lor arolrer. Trerelore ore codor |s a|lered.
- Tr|s |eads lo ar a|leral|or |r lre correspord|rg slrard ol rRNA ard a d|llererl ar|ro ac|d |r lre po|ypepl|de
cra|r.
Eg 3|c||e ce|| Araer|a. Norra| raerog|oo|r 0NA (CTT), rRNA (0AA) 0Lu. Vularl raerog|oo|r 0NA
(CAT), rRNA (0uA) vAL. Tr|s causes lre raerog|oo|r ro|ecu|e lo lorr l|orous slruclure Wr|cr a|lers sre
srape ol red o|ood ce||s.
Tre crescerl-sraped 's|c||e-ce||s' rove aW|Ward|y lrrougr o|ood vesse|s reduc|rg lre l|oW ol oxyger. Tr|s
resu|ls |r pa|r ard darage lo a|| orgars ol lre oody.

o) Fraresr|ll rulal|or
- A oase |s de|eled or added |r lre 0NA
- Tr|s crarges a|| lre codors lror lr|s po|rl orWards.
- Tre |rpacl ol lraresr|ll rulal|ors |s grealer lrar oase suosl|lul|ors oecause lre code sequerce lor rary
ar|ro ac|ds |r rary po|ypepl|des |s a|lered.
E0 ruscu|ar 0yslropry. ll |s a sex-||r|ed d|sease. Peop|e W|lr lr|s d|sease suller a gradua| degereral|or ol
lre rusc|es, lo||oWed oy dealr. Trere are lWo lorrs ol ruscu|ar dyslropry: 8V0 ard 0V0.
8V0 |s caused oy a suosl|lul|or rulal|or.
0V0 resu|ls ol a de|el|or or dup||cal|or ol oases.
Tre gere Wr|cr |s a|lered, |r lre case ol 8V0, or rol ever produced, |r 0V0, |s respors|o|e lor lre producl|or
ol a prole|r ca||ed 0yslropry|r.

0ut||ne the ab|||ty of 0NA to repa|r |tse|f

- Va|rlerarce ol urdaraged 0NA |s |rporlarl lor ce|| lurcl|or|rg.
- Ce||s corla|r ralura| 0NA repa|r recrar|srs.
- Copy|rg errors car oe repa|red oy erzyres eg 0NA po|ymerase. Tre 0NA repa|r erzyre uses lre
urdaraged slrard as a lerp|ale lo rep|ace lre oase sequerce |r lre daraged 0NA.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
- Nuc|eot|de ex|s|on repa|r |rvo|ves recogr|l|or ol darage, (ar exlra ruc|eol|de) cull|rg ol lre 0NA slrard ard
rerd|rg.
- Tre oody |s corslarl|y ooroarded oy rad|al|or ard crer|ca|s lral car cause errors |r 0NA. For exarp|e,
surourr |s ev|derce lral darage cou|d cause sucr errors |r 0NA. Repa|r erzyres rove corslarl|y a|org
0NA |r ce||s lo crec| lral oase pa|rs are correcl|y ralcred.
- (l|rsl a ruc|ease erzyre culs lre daraged 0NA slrard al lWo po|rls, repa|r syrlres|s oy 0NA po|yrerase l|||s
lre gap ard 0NA ||gase sea|s lre rera|r|rg r|c|.)

0escr|be the way |n wh|ch transposab|e e|ements operate and d|scuss the|r |mpact on the genome

0NA segrerls lral car rove lror ore pos|l|or lo arolrer |r lre crrorosores ol a ce|| are ca||ed transposab|e
genet|c e|ements or transposons. Trey are sorel|res relerred lo as 'jurp|rg geres.'
Trey car e|lrer rove lrerse|ves lo reW |ocal|ors or dup||cale lrerse|ves lor |rserl|or e|seWrere or ary ol lre
crrorosores.
Trey are lourd |r a|| ce||s ard lre|r ro|e |s or|y roW cor|rg |rlo ||grl. Trey Were lourd |r lre 1910's oy 8aroara
VcC||rloc|.

lrpacl or lre 0erore:
- 0re lurcl|or ol lrarsposors seers lo oe regu|at|on, lurr|rg geres or or oll. 8aroara VcC||rloc| saW lr|s |r
ra|ze W|lr lre 0s go|rg |r lo lurr oll p|grerl gere ard Ac gere oe|rg cop|ed lral ra|es lre 0s gere jurp
oac| oul, lurr|rg lre gere oac| or.
- Trarsposao|e gerel|c e|ererls lrarsler a gere or groups ol geres lo a slruclura||y urre|aled 0NA ro|ecu|e.
- Tr|s creales new nuc|eot|de sequences ard chromosoma| rearrangements (mutat|ons}, crarg|rg lre Way
geres are expressed.
- Trarsposors car a|so lrarsler 0NA lror ce|| lo ce||. ll |s roW urderslood lral lrarspos|l|or |s ore ol lre
processes respors|o|e lor lre rap|d spread ol ant|b|ot|c res|stance |r oacler|a.
- 8acler|a ray lrarsler 'res|slarl geres' |rlo p|asr|d 0NA. Tre p|asr|ds ray lrer oe lrarslerred ever arorg
d|llererl spec|es ol oacler|a.


0|st|ngu|sh between germ-||ne and somat|c mutat|ons |n terms of the|r effect on spec|es

- 0err ||re ce||s produce gareles.
- Vulal|ors |r gerr ||re ce||s car oe passed orlo lre rexl gereral|or.
- wrer a rularl garele luses W|lr arolrer garele lre ollspr|rg's ce||s corla|r lre rulal|or.
- lr lr|s Way rulal|ors |r gerr ||re ce||s oecore parl ol lre |rrer|led gere poo| ard |rl|uerce lre Wro|e
popu|al|ors ol orgar|srs.
- Tr|s |rcreases lre polerl|a| lor evo|ul|or.
- 3oral|c ce||s do ro produce gareles. Vosl ce||s |r lre oody ol ar orgar|sr are soral|c ce||s.
- wrer rulal|ors occur |r lrese ce||s lre 0NA |s a|lered ard as a resu|l lre lurcl|or ol lre ce|| |s a|so a|lered.
Exarp|e uv ||grl car cause rulal|ors |r s||r ce||s caus|rg carcer. 0lrer carcers are caused oy rulal|ors |r
soral|c ce||s.
- Trese rulal|ors carrol oe passed orlo lre rexl gereral|or.
- Tre rulal|or rera|rs W|lr|r lre |rd|v|dua| |r lre popu|al|or. 3pec|es are rol a|lered oy soral|c ce|| rulal|ors.

Process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources to descr|be the effect of one named and
descr|bed genet|c mutat|on on human hea|th

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
7. 8e|ect|ve breed|ng |s d|fferent to gene c|on|ng but both processes may change the genet|c nature of spec|es

Exp|a|n, us|ng an appropr|ate examp|e from agr|cu|ture, why se|ect|ve breed|ng has been pract|sed

3e|ecl|ve oreed|rg |s lre pracl|ce ol croos|rg |rd|v|dua|s |r a popu|al|or ol a spec|es lor ral|rg, lo oola|r ollspr|rg
W|lr cerla|r requ|red craracler|sl|cs.
Repealed se|ecl|or ol |rd|v|dua|s W|lr lre des|red craracler|sl|cs lor ral|rg W||| |rcrease lre lrequercy ol lre
craracler|sl|cs |r lre popu|al|or, so lral everlua||y lre popu|al|or W||| oe crarged perrarerl|y.

Eg wreal 8reed|rg |r Auslra||a
- lr|s ras oeer oreacl|sed |r Auslra||a s|rce lre ear|y sell|ers lourd lral Europear Wreal d|d rol groW We|| urder
Auslra||ar cord|l|ors ard Was parl|cu|ar|y suscepl|o|e lo d|sease.
- Craracler|sl|cs requ|red lor Wreal p|arls lo oe successlu| |r Auslra||a ard lo produce rax|rur y|e|d |rc|ude:
- rap|d progress|or lrrougr lre ||le cyc|e so ralural|or occurs oelore r|gr surrer lerperalures
- |rcreased gra|r y|e|d
|rcreased lo|erarce or res|slarce lo lrosl, drougrl ard ac|d|c so||s
|rproved l|our qua||ly lor oa||rg

Ana|yse and present |nformat|on from secondary sources to trace the h|story of the se|ect|ve breed|ng of
one spec|es for agr|cu|tura| purposes and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to descr|be the ser|es of changes that
have occurred |n the spec|es as a resu|t of th|s se|ect|ve breed|ng

8rass|ca 0|eracea - exarp|e ol roW 3|rp|e 3e|ecl|or oy peop|e groW|rg a p|arl over severa| lrousard years |ed
lo lre deve|oprerl ol d|llererl vegelao|es.

w||d form - rass|ca 0|eracea |s ral|ve lo lre Ved|lerrarear.

3oor aller lre doresl|cal|or ol p|arls - 8rass|ca Was groWr as a |ealy vegelao|e. Trose p|arls W|lr lre |argesl
|eaves Were se|ecl|ve|y propagaled. Tr|s resu|led |r p|arls W|lr |arger |eaves.

5
th
6erlury 8C - corl|rued se|ecl|or ol |arge |ealed p|arls |ed lo lre deve|oprerl ol Ka|e
1
st
6erlury A0 - se|ecl|or ol p|arls W|lr a l|grl c|usler ol lerder yourg |eaves al lre cerlre |ed lo lre deve|oprerl
ol cabbage.
3are l|re - Ka|e p|arls W|lr srorl l|esry slers se|ecled. Tr|s resu|led |r p|arls W|lr laller slers, ca||ed koh|rab|.
8y 15
th
6erlury - prelererce deve|oped |r soulrerr Europe lor eal|rg |rralure l|oWer ouds. 3e|ecl|or lavour|rg
p|arls W|lr |arge lerder l|oWer|rg reads resu|led |r lre deve|oprerl ol cau||f|ower.
100 years |ater - rocco|| deve|oped |r lla|y
18
th
6erlury - se|ecl|or ol caooage p|arls produc|rg |arge l|grl|y pac|ed ouds |r 8e|g|ur - russe| 8prouts.

0escr|be what |s meant by 'gene c|on|ng' and g|ve examp|es of the uses of gene c|on|ng

- A c|ore |s ar exacl gerel|c copy.
- 0NA, ce||s ard Wro|e orgar|srs ray oe c|ores.
- 0ere c|or|rg uses gerel|c erg|reer|rg lecrr|ques lo produce ur||r|led ruroers ol |derl|ca| cop|es ol geres.
- wrer rary cop|es are rade, a gere |s sa|d lo oe c|ored or arp||l|ed.



HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Tecrr|ques:
A ruroer ol recoro|rarl 0NA lecrro|og|es ray oe used |r c|or|rg, eg:
- KroWr geres or lragrerls ol 0NA car oe |rserled |rlo oacler|a| p|asr|ds. Trese recoro|rarl 0NA ro|ecu|es
are re|rserled |rlo lre oacler|a Wrere rep||cal|or occurs, c|or|rg lre recoro|rarl 0NA. ll produces 10*12
cop|es |r |ess lrar a day.
- Po|ymerase 6ha|n React|on (P6R} |s lre reWesl ard laslesl lorr ol gere c|or|rg. ll occurs ouls|de ce||s,
arp||ly|rg spec|l|c 0NA sequerces oy ru|l|p|e cyc|es ol po|yrer|zal|or ard real separal|or.

uses:
- produc|rg ru|l|p|e cop|es ol a gere lor lurlrer ara|ys|s or researcr, eg lorers|c |rvesl|gal|ors.
- Produc|rg uselu| prole|r producls sucr as rurar groWlr rorrore ard |rsu||r.
- Produc|rg lrarsger|c orgar|srs W|lr spec|l|c craracler|sl|cs, sucr as |rproved pesl res|slarce or gra|r y|e|d.
- lr gere lrerapy, ru|l|p|e cop|es ol a des|red gere |s requ|red.


0|st|ngu|sh between gene c|on|ng and who|e organ|sm c|on|ng |n terms of processes and products

0ere c|or|rg wro|e orgar|sr c|or|rg
Vu|l|p|e cop|es ol a 3lN0LE gere are produced 0erel|ca||y |derl|ca| 0R0ANl3V3 are produced lror a
s|rg|e parerl. A|| ce||s |r lre c|ore rave lre sare
gerel|c raler|a| ard are exacl cop|es ol lre or|g|ra|.
0r|y PART ol a ce||'s 0NA |s exlracled. ll |s oller
|rserled |rlo arolrer spec|es, Eg oacler|ur. Tre
oacler|ur lrer ra|es cop|es ol lre gere lrrougr ce||
d|v|s|or.
ALL lre 0NA lror lre or|g|ra| parerl ce||(s) |s
lrarslerred lo lre c|ore.
Ar|ra| c|ores- are der|ved lorr ore ce||. Tecrr|que
ca||ed NuCLEAR TRAN3FER TEClN0L00Y
P|arl c|ores- car oe der|ved lror ore ce|| or a ruroer
ol ce||s/l|ssues. Tecrr|que ca||ed Tl33uE CuLTuRE
0r|y lre lrarslerred gere |s |derl|ca| lo lre or|g|ra|
gere
Tola| gerel|c ra|e up, |e a|| lre 0NA, |s |derl|ca| lo lre
orgar|sr lror Wr|cr |l Was c|ored.
Tre purpose |s lo TRAN3FER C0PEl3 0F 0ENE3
lror ore orgar|sr lo arolrer. lerce lre gerel|c
ra|eup ol lre rec|p|erl orgar|sr |s crarged. NeW
geres are |rlroduced |rlo a spec|es.
Tre purpose |s lo produce 0ENETlCALLY l0ENTlCAL
P0PuLATl0N3 ol orgar|srs.


|dent|fy data sources, choose equ|pment or resources, gather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from
secondary sources to descr|be the processes used |n the c|on|ng of an an|ma| and ana|yse the
methodo|ogy to |dent|fy was |n wh|ch sc|ent|sts cou|d ver|fy that the an|ma| produced was a c|one

Nuc|ear Trarsler Tecrro|ogy lor C|or|rg 3reep:
1. Adu|l sreep rarrary l|ssue Was cu|lured |r lre |ao lo ra|e lrer dorrarl.
2. Tre ruc|eus Was reroved lror ore ol lrese ce||s ard lrarslerred lo ar eruc|ealed egg ce|| lror
arolrer sreep.
3. A gerl|e e|eclr|c pu|se caused lre ce||s lo luse. A secord e|eclr|c pu|se lr|ggered ce|| d|v|s|or
ard eroryo lorral|or.
1. Tre eroryo Was |rp|arled |rlo a surrogale lera|e sreep Wrere |l greW |rlo a |aro.
- A|| lre ce||s ol lre |aro Were gerel|ca||y |derl|ca| lo lre sreep lral prov|ded lre rarrary l|ssue.

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
Velrodo|ogy ard roW sc|erl|sls car ver|ly lral lre ar|ra| produced Was a c|ore:
- 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg:
1. 0NA |s cul |rlo lragrerls oy reslr|cl|or erzyres
2. 0e| E|eclroprores|s |s carr|ed oul Wrere lragrerls are separaled oy r|gral|or |r ar e|eclr|c l|e|d a|org a ge|.
3ra||er lragrerls lrave| lurlrer. Eacr sarp|e lorrs a pallerr ol oards.
3. 3oulrerr 8|oll|rg - 0NA lragrerls are lrarslerred lror ge| lo paper
1. 0NA ryor|d|zal|or - Rad|oacl|ve prooes added lral o|rd lo sore ol lre lragrerls.
5. Aulorad|ograpry - paper |s over|ayed W|lr prolograpr|c l||r. Rad|oacl|v|ly |r prooes exposes lre l||r ard
prooes W|lr corp|ererlary 0NA lragrerls appear as dar| oards.

- 0NA l|rgerpr|rl|rg/prol|||rg Wou|d oe carr|ed oul lo corpare lre gerel|c ra|eup ol lre doror ar|ra|, lre
ar|ra| lral doraled lre egg, lre surrogale rolrer ard lre ollspr|rg. 0NA lror lre ollspr|rg ard lre doror
(ar|ra| lral doraled lre ruc|eus) srou|d oe |derl|ca|.

0|scuss a use of c|on|ng |n an|ma|s or p|ants that has poss|b|e benef|ts to humans

1. P|arls:
- Trarsger|c p|arls, res|slarl lo allac| oy |rsecls, rave oeer produced lrer c|ores
- v|rus-lree p|arls rave oeer produced oy l|ssue cu|lure
- P|arl c|or|rg ersures lral larrers rave a ur|lorr crop W|lr s|r||ar rulr|erl requ|rererls, groWlr rale, d|sease
res|slarce, l|avour, elc.
2. Ar|ra|s:
- 0erera||y, lre polerl|a| oerel|l ol ar|ra| c|or|rg |s lral ar|ra|s W|lr lre requ|red craracler|sl|cs car oe
produced rore qu|c||y lrar oy lrad|l|ora| relrods.
- Trarsger|c sreep rave oeer produced lral secrele a prole|r |rporlarl |r lre lrealrerl ol raeropr|||a. Tr|s
prole|r |s a laclor requ|red lo c|ol o|ood, ard car oe oola|red lror lre sreep's r|||. Trese lrarsger|c sreep
car oe c|ored lo oola|r rary |derl|ca| ar|ra|s.
- 0lrer uses proposed lor c|ored ar|ra|s |rc|ude lre use ol lre|r orgars lor rurar lrarsp|arls. For exarp|er
p|gs are cors|dered good polerl|a| sources ol orgars, lrey are s|r||ar |r s|ze lo lrose ol rurars. ll c|ored p|gs
are gerel|ca||y erg|reered lo produce rurar orgars, lre proo|ers ol rejecl|or assoc|aled W|lr lrarsp|arls
cou|d oe overcore.

8. The t|m|ng of gene express|on |s |mportant |n the deve|opmenta| process

|dent|fy the ro|e of genes |n embryon|c deve|opment

8ummar|se the ro|e of gene cascades determ|n|ng ||mb format|on |n b|rds and mamma|s

0escr|be the ev|dence wh|ch |nd|cated the presence of ancestra| vertebrae gene homo|ogues |n |ower
an|ma| c|asses

0|scuss the ev|dence ava||ab|e from current research about the evo|ut|on of genes and the|r act|ons


A|| arsWers lo lrese po|rls are |r lre sreel l|l|ed 'Tre l|r|rg ol gere express|or ard |l's |rporlarce |r
deve|oprerl.'

HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology

Copyright 2006; Zain Khan
|dent|fy, gather, process and ana|yse |nformat|on from secondary sources and use ava||ab|e ev|dence to
assess the ev|dence that ana|ys|s of genes prov|des for evo|ut|onary re|at|onsh|ps

- 0NA sequerc|rg lecrr|ques rave |derl|l|ed roro|ogous geres |r d|llererl orgar|srs.
- For exarp|e:1. ll ras oeer sroWr lral lre ruc|eol|de sequerces |r geres lral code lror cerla|r resp|ralory
erzyres |r oacler|a are s|r||ar lo lrose |r rurars. 2 slud|es ol lre ruc|eol|de sequerces ol geres Wr|cr code
lor r|oosora| RNA |r d|llererl orgar|srs rave oeer used lo suggesl evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps.
- A sludy ol gere sequerces |r d|llererl spec|es ard lre|r roro|og|es car revea| lre evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps
oelWeer lrer.
- Currerl researcr suggesls lral rary geres corla|r ruc|eol|de sequerces lral rave crarged or|y s||grl|y
dur|rg lre evo|ul|or ol ||le or earlr. 3equerces lral do rol crarge are used lo reasure lre degree ol
re|aledress ol orgar|srs.
- Exarp|e, oecause lre roreooox sequerce |s s|r||ar |r lox geres, |l |s lrougrl lral lrey are roro|ogous
geres ard lral a|| srare a corror arceslra| gere. ll seers |||e|y lral a|| ar|ra| spec|es |rrer|led lre|r lox
c|uslers lror a corror arceslor.
- Researcr |rlo lox geres |s prov|d|rg reW ev|derce aooul evo|ul|orary re|al|orsr|ps. A rulal|or |r a roreol|c
gere car cause ore parl ol lre oody lo deve|op |rlo arolrer parl. lr 0r|sopr||a l||es, lor exarp|e, ore parl|cu|ar
roreol|c rulal|or resu|ls |r e|gs, ralrer lrar arlerrae or lre read ol lre l|y.
- Trese slud|es ol rulal|ors |r roreol|c geres sroW lral a sra|| rulal|or car resu|l |r a draral|c ard sudder
crarge |r ar orgar|sr as lre deve|oprerla| cascade |s a|lered. Tr|s suggesls recrar|srs lor lre evo|ul|or ol
lre d|vers|ly ol ||v|rg orgar|srs ard adds supporl lo lre purclualed equ|||or|ur lreory ol evo|ul|or.