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JOHN v; LT HOG AN 41 PARK Row
PRACTICAL TELEVISION .
" TC. T. GENERAL POST OFFICE.PRACTICAL TELEVISION BY E. . EIGHT WARREN STREET 1928 INC." ALTERNATING CURRENTS. LONDON. BAIRD NEW YORK D. LARNER (ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. ' WITH A FOREWORD BY JOHN L. ASSOCIATE OF THE INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY. FORMERLY LECTURER IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AT THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL HACKNEY INSTITUTE) AUTHOR OF "RADIO AND HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENTS.
Printed in Great Britain .
the prosaically defines it American Constitution as the pursuit of happiness. and during those forty years it can be said that the whole outlook the first THE From of the a man a in the street fundamental great towards science has undergone have at the present change. We time public interested. experiments of Hertz in 1888 to the present day covers a period of forty years. upon humanity by the development of radio communication.FOREWORD and present generation has seen the birth a scientific novelty growth of wireless telegraphy from to a vast industry. . The more Shorter Catechism defines man's chief end as the glorification of God. the introduction of this interest in science to a public in itself which had hitherto been apathetic would be no small benefit. and intelligently literature interested. Business. in scientific subjects. and a new has sprung up catering for this body of people. literature deals almost exclusively with the This many branches of wireless and depends for its appeal upon If no other benefit has been conferred the listener-in. while in these days we might prefer to describe it as the pursuit of truth. Where better can we seek for truth than in scientific research ? Sport.
and the young chemistry. not only to physics. passion.vi FOREWORD all Art. covers Television. To-day it would be difficult to find a household in which at least one member could not give a lucid distinction between a volt and an ampere. optics. be unable to define the functions of a lens or a prism. Television. but inevitably. and henries are frequently totally ignorant of the most fundamental principles of those other branches of science. and the other avenues into which man directs his energies. would be an impossibility. as we know it to-day. indeed. but also to physiology. self-interest. of science unconnected with wireless have been almost completely ignored. demanding. are tainted with commercialism. chemistry. mechanics. and would. unlike Wireless. . but for a purely physiological phenomenon. microfarads. in fact an almost exclusive. and a study of the human eye is essential to a clear understanding of the principles underlying the electrical transmission of visual images. wireless broadcasting has somewhat regrettably. In given a preponderating. amperes. a knowledge of the physiology and psychology of vision . in fact every branch of science. but the same state of affairs does not by any means prevail regarding optics. and emotion. and introduces its devotee. and gentlemen who are so familiar with volts. as it does. retentivity of vision. for example. introducing the public to science. Music. interest to the study of phenomena connected with Other branches high-frequency electrical oscillations. mechanics.
FOREWORD Photo-electricity is vii another branch of the subject which still in is of intense interest and importance. behaves as if it key to the elucidation of this outstanding problem may well be found in the study of photo-electric phenomena. L. 1928. some respects . In the present work the author deals very fully with the fundamental principles from which Television was developed. it We are In were a corpuscular emission other phenomena would appear to prove The conclusively that it is a form of wave motion. B. ignorance as to the true nature of light. hoped that the book will prove of the greatest assistance to those who commencing the study of a subject which perhaps offers to the young scientific worker the most promising are prospects of any avenue of research. . J. and deals with them strict scientific in such a way as to interest the general reader without departing from It is to be accuracy.
...... The G. Alexanderson's : : : Rynoux and Fournier The Problem : : : : : Experiments.C. Wireless Wireless Photography : Experiments : : : : CHAPTER SELENIUM AND THE SELENIUM CELL Selenium haviour : : . CHAPTER : I 17 of Television : Lines of Research The Eye First Stages of Solution Preliminary as a Model Persistence of Vision The : : : Principle of the Telephone as a Guide: Finding an Artificial Eye... III : 63 Make-up of the Selenium Cell Performance and Be- Inertia and Lag.. CHAPTER V CONTINENTAL AND AMERICAN RESEARCHES Ernest Ruhmer's Attempts : . The Electrodes. Belin and from a New Angle : Szczepanik's Apparatus Holweck and the Cathode-ray M.E..'s Potassium in Argon Cell: The Cambridge : : Instrument Co..... CHAPTER of II 35 : The Advent The Selenium : : Employment : of Thermo: Korn's Cathode-ray Systems The Transmission of Poulsen-Korn System Knudsen's Pictures over Telephone Lines Pictures by Wire Thome Baker Apparatus for Experiments in Radio-photography Transatlantic Radio Pictures.CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY The Problem . CHAPTER : IV 74 : PHOTO-ELECTRICITY AND THE PHOTO-ELECTRIC CELL .. Anode and Cathode The General Description Two Classes of Photo-electric Cell Potassium in Vacuum Cell of the G.. Dauvillier's Apparatus Mihaly's " Telehor " Jenkins' Prismatic Jenkins' Television of Shadowgraphs Ring The Moore Lamp Method of Operation Dr.... .. ix ..C.. HISTORICAL The Pioneers electricity : .. : 91 MM.E.'s Potassium in Helium Cell Sensitivity of the PhotoVariation of Current with Voltage Amplifying the Photo-electric Current Disadvantages of the Photo-electric Cell : electric Cell : : : : Zworykin's Cell.
.147 : Present State of the Art Modern Requisites and Procedure Illuminants Television Radio Equipment Short Synchronism Wave Wireless Television The Special Aerials Transmitting and Its Possibilities..... .. : Properties of Infra-red Rays : Vision in Darkness The Phonovisor Long Distance Television.119 Hertz' ExperiLight Sources and Illuminants How Light Travels ments in Electro-magnetic Radiation Light Waves Lights and Shadows Refraction of Light Rays Images Mirrors and Lenses... .. . 172 173 ... : : : : : : CHAPTER THE BAIRD TELEVISOR : VIII . (&) Receiving End. . : Original CHAPTER IX TELEVISION TECHNIQUE : ..... .. . : : 160 Rays : The Noctovisor APPENDIX INDEX . . . .. ... .. : 109 Rosing's Attempts with the Cathode-ray Suggestion. . . .. .. Receiving Circuits Transatlantic Television : : : : : : : CHAPTER X RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Invisible .. Campbell Swinton's CHAPTER IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION : VII . .x CONTENTS CHAPTER VI RESEARCHES WITH THE CATHODE-RAYS Historical: The Phenomena of the Discharge Tube: Properties and Characteristics of Cathode Rays The Cathode-ray Oscillograph : : . .132 Appa- Outline of Principles Employed in Baird's System ratus (a) Transmitting End .. Mr....
... 46 47 48 48 51 51 20. Specimen of Picture transmitted over Telephone Lines Specimen of Transatlantic Radio Picture ...... ... .... facing 20 20 An Early Specimen of Television Picture 4(#) & (Z>).. .. of Lines facing 39 41 43 6.. 23 . 22 . Lamp ... may be Drawn by means .. for Signalling the 29 36 37 38 Mimault's Method and the Arrangement letter "T" 39 a Portrait 13. Knudsen's Transmitter Circuit -54 . 25.... . . Comparison of Eye with Photo Camera A Section of the Human Eye Vertical 5. . 26 27 The 9.23 .... .... . Edison's and Vavin and Fribourg's Apparatus . 21. .. OF ILLUSTRATIONS PACK Sir Oliver 1. . 1 Diagram of Korn's Circuit 8. 19. ..... 22 6. ... .. Frontispiece 2.. Showing how of Varying Width 14. Bakewell's Apparatus 11. . 22. 45 17. . facing . Lodge " Seeing in " . 8. Illustrating Persistence of Impressions Another Illustration of Visual Persistence . 7... 12.. 1 Senlecq's Apparatus Carey's Apparatus . .. Schematic Diagram of Sending End of Apparatus . 15.. Schematic Diagram of Receiving End of Apparatus Knudsen's original Receiving Circuit for Radio Photography . . . Bernouchi's Method . Arrangement of Korn's Apparatus Diagrammatic View of Einthoven String Galvanometer Pointolite ..LIST FIG.. .. Diagrammatic Sketch of Ranger's Transmitter xi 58 . 54 24. 3. Telephone and Television Methods Bain's Chemical Recorder Similarity of 10..
. Current-voltage Curve of Cambridge Instrument Co. Baird's original Transmitting Apparatus . facing . . 71 75 75 Langmuir's Mercury Vapour Pump Internal Construction of Langmuir's . Vacuum Cell . 53. 69 69 66 69 71 35... . Current Wave-length Curve for an Average Cell Connections for measuring Photo-electric Current 84 85 .. 34.. 33. 49. 38.. Diagram of Connections Current Zworykin's Cell for Amplifying Photo-electric 86 50.. . 51. . 36. .'s Cell 83 .... 27. 37...'s Photo-electric Internal Construction 76 Cell. Baird's original Receiving Apparatus Illustrating Construction of early form of Selenium Cell An early form of Selenium Cell Modern form of Selenium Cell (unmounted) .... 48. General Electric Co. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Diagrammatic Sketch of Ranger's Receiver Specimen of Print sent by Radio . 52. General Electric Co. . .. 32. Variation of Current with Voltage in a G.. .E. 28. 95 89 94 98 98 . 39. 76 42. 55. Modern form of Selenium Cell (mounted) General Curve showing Inertia or Lag of a Selenium Cell General Curve for Behaviour of a Selenium Cell Glass Bulb of typical Photo-electric Cell . .. ..... ... . 29. .'s Photo-electric Cell The Cambridge Instrument Co. Szczepanik's Television Apparatus . ... 58 facing 59 59 61 6l Specimen of Print sent by Radio Mr. Apparatus of MM. facing Mercury Vapour facing 75 The Cambridge Instrument Co.. .. 83 46. Pump 40. 43.. . 45.xii FIG. . .'s New Vacuum Type Photo-electric 79 79 80 44. Mr. 30. " " Telehor Explaining the Principle of Mihaly's " " The Telehor Transmitter Circuit The " Telehor " Receiving Circuit .C...'s General Electric Cell Vacuum Type Photo-electric Cell Co.... 47. 31.. 41. -97 .. 26.. Belin and Holweck 54.'s Gas-filled Type Photo-electric Cell.
. 62. .125 126 127 72. Diagrammatic Sketch of Receiving Apparatus 84. .. .129 130 . Jenkins' Prismatic Disc . 88. . . vision (Receiving Apparatus) .... 65. 75. . . . . Alexanderson's Apparatus . . no . .103 104 107 of Light traces out Lines across . .... 70.. 56. . .. .... . . The Neon Lamp Baird's Optical .. . . . . ... . Wave-length 124 124 .. 61. Convex Mirror Concave Mirror . . 82. The Moore Lamp Illustrating how Beam Screen .. . . 86. . . Image formed by Image formed by Types of Lenses a a Convex Mirror Concave Mirror Light .128 .. .. . .. 76. . Umbral and Penumbral Shadow Cones Incident and Refracted Ray ... A Shadow Cone . 67. . . . 142 142 Method of employing Plurality of Light Sources . 137 facing 138 Lever Principle . . . . . ... 71. . . 77.ill facing 112 68. Diagrammatic Sketch of Transmitting Arrangements Lens Disc Slotted Disc Spiral-slotted Disc 134 135 135 135 81. .. Illustrating Refraction of . 78. 66. . 58. . La Cour's " Phonic Drum " Working employed by Jenkins and Moore 59. vision (Transmitting Apparatus) .139 . 73..115 in for Teleusing Cathode-rays Proposed Construction 116 . Cells . 69. The Tuning-fork Principle of Interrupter 57. . 141 87.. xiii 99 99 loo 102 60. . 83... 64. 63. 79. Arrangement with Baird's Two or more Photo-electric in Fig.127 .. 85. 80.128 . 74. ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG.114 Rosing's Apparatus Proposed Construction for using Cathode-rays in Tele. . . Electric Discharge in an Exhausted Tube .. Diagrammatic View of Arrangement 86 . .. . Deflecting Cathode-rays by Magnet The Cathode-ray Oscillograph .
. 92. facing 150 155 Wave Transmitting as . .1^6 . Mr. . . .32 . . . Produced by a Prism Spectrum Radiation Energy Curve for the Spectrum .162 . .. .. . . ..170 TABLES Table of Wave-lengths Table Showing Sensitivity of Photo-electric Cell to the Rays of Different Coloured Light . . . . . 94. System of Exploring the Object to be Transmitted by a Single Point of Intense Light Syntonic Wireless with Carborundum Detector . . . 93. . Transmitting Radio Circuit .xiv FIG. . . ..164 . Bank of Lamps Short .. Baird's 145 148 01. . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 89 90. .163 facing 1 96.. Baird visor" testing Fog-penetrating Power of his " Nocto66 97. . Aerial . Television between London and Glasgow . 95. ..
Ltd.13. loan of block. 45. for the . Also to Messrs. viz. for the loan of blocks. 41.NOTE author gladly acknowledges his obligations to the Cambridge Instrument Company. Ltd. Figs. to the Editor of 67. 46. and Figs.. Ltd. 54. Ltd. Figs.. 1. 65. 43. for much useful information freely offered. Ltd. 42. and 84 from the General Electric Company. to the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and the Bell System Technical Journal (per Mr. Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company. Shreeve) for the use of illustrations given in Figs. 21. and 48 from the Cambridge Instrument Company. 20. E. Fig. for copies of pictures transmitted by radio.. Figs. and 22 . H. for photograph. to the Standard Telephones and Cables. (of London). Fig. Mechanics for permission to reproduce Figs. and 30. 47. 56. and to the THE General Electric Company. Ltd.. Ltd. 55. 38 and 39.. and 68 English and Amateur .. Ltd. 29. 62. 14 and 15 to the Edison-Swan Electric Company. 57. 40. including the loan of electros and sketches. XV . 2. 53. to the British Thomson- Houston Company. to the Editor of the Wireless World for permission to reproduce Figs. 44.
There is little doubt that the use of the magnifying glass as an optical instrument was known to the ancient Greeks. Later. beyond doubt. view which is From his the earliest times occluded by the barriers of language. I? known as the . are we know that a mechanical arrange- ment of 2 lenses for seeing distant objects. facts can be impressed on the mind by sight much more readily than by the spoken or written Actual seeing rivets the attention immediately. especially those normally altogether unseen. of all the senses with which endowed the medium through which he has man is gathered and continues to gather most of his ideas and knowledge of his surroundings and the universe. man has striven to improve objects means of visualising things that and things . and there is a tacit comprehension of what is unfolded to word. for by it the mind is stimulated to a greater Moredegree than from any one of the other senses.PRACTICAL TELEVISION CHAPTER SIGHT I INTRODUCTORY is. but the general consensus of opinion would undoubtedly be in favour of sight. Hearing is almost equal in importance. over.
The word in the television has now come into general use English language as a term descriptive of the instantaneous transmission of images of objects or scenes by telegraphy. is actual date of dis- covery disputed. The transmission of photographs by telegraphy is ." To-day we have the actual seeing of persons and events rendered possible by means of apparatus that would have astounded the contemporaries of Galileo. does not come strictly within the scope of this book.1 8 PRACTICAL TELEVISION was constructed. who by its aid was able to see the spots on the sun. a considerable span of years elapsed. but succeeding developments brought forth the transmission of drawings and pictures which may " be regarded as the shadows of coming events cast before. Tracing the development of the art as the various stages were reached. either by wire or by wireless. but as an astronomical instrument it may be said to date from the time of Galileo. From this stage to the when a device for utilising electricity in order that man might understand at and see by signs what was happening remote spots invisible to the eye. Its telescope. the moun- tains of the moon. the early attempts will be given in the The Problem of Television. next. and Jupiter's satellites. but for the benefit of those readers who desire to have for reference a short account of television research a summary of next chapter. although very interesting.
The transmission of sixteen photographs per second gives a this is moving effected picture at the receiving station. but will also have commercial If it is possible to transmit sound and to talk over the ocean without the aid of any material conductor like copper wire. the methods at present used in phototelegraphy are not applicable to television. In this book we propose to deal only with television. for instance. 19 and it would be well at the outset to distinguish clearly between the two of phototelegraphic as described graphs phototelegraphy^ while properly the transmission of actual objects and scenes without subjects. such as. discovery of means whereby we can see distant objects and scenes outside the range of normal vision The and without regard to intervening objects or other obstructions. has long been the ultimate aim of the scientific inventor. but under that of telekinematography. the curvature of the earth. why should not sight be rendered possible in a similar manner ? If electric waves can reproduce . potentialities.INTRODUCTORY often confused with television. as although there is a certain connection between phototelegraphy and television. but by means of a film or kinematograph transmission and does not come under the heading of television. is The transmission the intervention of photography constitutes television. application of electricity to seeing by wireless has occupied the minds of quite a number of The experimenters only interest who foresee in the wireless field of research the discovery of a new wonder that will not and excite the imagination of the public.
Professor Korn. The practical feasibility of such a it problem having has been attacked in a variety of ways. notably those M. that is vision. Belin. the chief of which has been the pioneer work of the successful transmission of photographs both been duly recognised. It will be observed that possible with the former. so that the achievement of successful phototelegraphy is radio certainly a step in the right direction towards vision. and . why cannot they be made to reproduce rays of light. and others. 2. A transmitted across the Atlantic without wires by the same means is shown in Fig. i. on the other side of the Atlantic by the adoption of similar suitable means ? First Stages of Solution. there are no practical difficulties in the way of transmitting a photograph or transmitting views of actual objects Now by means of phototelegraphy over a considerable distance either with or without wires and reproducing a photograph or picture at the distance station which bears an exact likeness to the original. Several methods of phototelegraphy are already in detail is more good working order invented by at the present day.20 sound and speech in PRACTICAL TELEVISION any part of America from a trans- mitting centre in Europe. A specimen by this means lines picture transmitted over telephone radio picture is shown in Fig. by wire and wireless phototelegraphy as it is called.
3 8 .
short descriptions of the methods employed are given
Chapters II and V.
great drawback with phototelegraphy, however, the slowness of transmission a small picture takes
twenty minutes to transmit, due to the that only small portions of the pictures can be
taken one after the other until the whole picture
Preliminary Lines of Research.
obtain television, the scientist and inventor must
not stop at this stage, since the process of transmission is tantamount to picture transmission and not wireless
sight of objects far
away and out of range
manner of seeing
objects within the range of our eyes.
slowness of transmission, moreover,
where phototelegraphy is concerned in the additional time taken to develop and fix the light-sensitive films.
increasing the speed of this method, however, and making the transmission instantaneous, television in
true sense has been accomplished. It is along the lines of this character, then, but with
the object of finding out how to throw the image on to a screen giving life-size pictures similar to those
seen at cinemas, that investigators have so far proceeded towards their goal. They have therefore
directed their attention to the study of ways
whereby existing appliances, both natural and
could be copied for the purpose of bringing out the
of the very
given in Fig. 3.
in all inventions that
of aids to physical faculties it practice of inventors to study first the methods nature provides e.g. the lens of the eye is copied in the
the category has always been the
Comparison of Eye with Photo Camera.
the drum of the ear is imitated telescope ; the action of Nature in the construction of telephone receiver, etc.
has also been copied in the conquest of the air. Many in various experimenters attemptyears were spent by careful the until not it was but study of the ing to fly, of birds had been undertaken that the problem
of flight was solved.
So, too, in wireless seeing
of the first Pictures received Television Apparatus.
[To face page 22.
behind which watery fluid the anterior chamber filled with a " " called the and aqueous humour is immediately behind which the most important part .INTRODUCTORY considering and copying the marvellous mechanism of the eye the possibility of television is achieved. Front to back. therefore. V. i. It will be well at the outset. 5. The eye is essentially an optical in- Cornea strument. perhaps by making comparison with an artificial Vertical Section of the Eye. The Eye as a Model. since nat u re's method of solving her television problem has formed the basis of television many methods. 5 is we have the cornea in front. principle and of its con- struction and work- A. eye like the photographic camera. applied more closely by considering the construction of the eye in greater In the vertical section of the eye front to detail. to glance briefly at this remarkable piece of nature's mechanism. This comparison may be back shown in Fig. Compare Fig. 4 (a) and (). Aqueous Humour Vitreous ing may be followed more Iris Humour Diaphragm intelligently FIG.
of the light falling upon the hexagonal Exactly these impulses are generated is not at present due to fully understood. perhaps. The structure of the eye may be likened to a photo- graphic camera. which retina. The crystalline lens and retina of the eye correspond to the convex lens and groundglass screen. the inner coat " retina" a delicate membrane which called the really a fine is network expansion of the optic nerve. are thrown on to the retina The latter takes the place of the groundat the back. and each of these cells is directly connected to the brain by a travel impulses number of nerve filaments along which which are dependent upon the intensity cells. glass screen or sensitive plate in the photographic camera and is in communication with the brain by sensitive nerve structures. or rather the millions of rays of light that proceed from the object to form the picture or image." cells. The walls the is of the eyeball consist of three coats. which flows through the hexagonal The images which we see are thus built up of an . respectively. by means of which the picture. of the photographic camera. but they are almost certainly named substance the presence of a light-sensitive how " visual purple.24 PRACTICAL TELEVISION lens. is means of numerous problem close examination of the screen. the crystalline posterior chamber is Behind the " vitreous latter in the watery fluid similar to humour " a the aqueous humour. A clue to the solution of the found in a is called the The surface of this is found to consist of a mosaic made up of an enormous number of hexagonal cells.
extremely fine mosaic of microscopic hexagons of The number of varying degrees of light and shade.
these hexagonal cells
In a normal
eye there are several millions. This arrangement has been imitated by devising apparatus whereby rays of light of varying brightness
from an object are projected, through the intermediary of an electric current, on to a screen
The variations in the receiving station. of illumination of the intensity object are controlled by means of a light-sensitive cell which sends out
variations of electric current intensity to correspond with the light variations.
Persistence of Vision.
While on the subject of the human eye
be out of place to refer to the fact that the retina
continues to feel the effects of the light rays after the object that caused the sensation of sight has been
called the persistence
impressions one-tenth of a second. approximately Examples of this are quite familiar to us all and advantage of the phenomenon is taken in television.
appears as a bright ring of light,
match-end when swung round and not
single bright spot changing position Also the colours of a rapidly rotating disc that has several different colours blend into one colour, and an
alternating current supply of electricity gives a steady
light, the fluctuations
of light that are actually taking The place being too rapid for the eye to detect them. reader will no doubt call to mind many other similar
tions that serve to
easily the eye
impressions in the eye
quite a perceptible time, the images of the
brightly illuminated objects if the latter are
shown or presented
only one-thousandth of a second remain in the
eye for a whole tenth of a second before they die
then, a second
presented before the
has died away, the be the same
Illustrating Persistence of Impressions.
as that of seeing
verification of this principle
experimental be carried out by
drawing on one side of a white card the outline of a If the card bird-cage and on the other side a bird.
be held by means of two strings as shown in Fig. 6 and then twisted or twirled by blowing on the card so
as to cause rotation, the effect will
a bird in the
a disc with a
of a lantern, the perforated in it be placed in the slide holes as separate spots of light will be seen on the
upon a pin
centre, each little hole
separately, but there
no longer seen a continuous luminous line
shown on the screen
for the success of television, has a
time lag," and
Illustration of Visual Persistence.
the images therefore need not actually be transmitted instantaneously; when they are transmitted at the
rate of eight per second, the transmission appears to the eye to be instantaneous.
In television eight images per second are transmitted ; these images, it should be clearly understood, are not photographs, but images of the actual
transmission of eight photographs per second would not achieve television, but would be the
of a cinematograph film, or telecine-
of the Telephone as a Guide.
While the marvellous mechanism of the human eye was being made the subject of study with a view to
the construction of an
eye that would convey outside the ranges hitherto
and others were
methods of attaining the desired end. Graham however, as we know, perfected the telephone
without achieving television, probably because the problem of hearing from afar was simpler than the allied problem of seeing from afar.
details of the
mechanism of the
telephone became known, several workers in television research conceived the idea of adopting the principle of the telephone to guide them in
experiments. Hoping to solve the problem, scientists and inventors proceeded to imitate the
telephone transmitter and
that just as
sound waves when they
impinge on the sensitive transmitter (carbon granules)
of the telephone, thereby altering the electrical resistance with each note and varying the electric current to be
transmitted, so the different variations of light and shade
of an object by means of a light-sensitive cell could be transformed into varying electric currents that could
be transmitted to a distance
as the currents
received by the telephone receiver cause the diaphragm to set up vibrations producing sounds in the ear that
the transmitted electrical currents could at the receiving end vary the rays given off by a source of light and reproduce a photograph or picture of the object or scene transmitted.INTRODUCTORY are faithful reproductions of the transmitted notes. Similarity of Telephone and Television methods. in television. justified. . Lens Lens Television FIG. 8. illustrate the principle be made. it will on which the arrangement could be seen how far their arguments were The chief difficulty that presented itself in their endeavours to accomplish this end successfully was the provision of an artificial eye that would transmit the image of the scene or object. so. By comparing the two diagrams in Fig. 8 which (a) Receiver Transmitter Sound Waves Sound ) Waves Telephone (b) Screen.
These light-sensi- tive constituents for the make-up of artificial eyes will be discussed in detail Since the time when some sort of chemical eye was sought rapid strides have been made in the technique of television. if an electrical circuit in For obviously. its resistance its When . then. have since been taken into the service of wireless seeing. etc. Other elements like potassium. so operated that fluctuations of light intensity would produce variations of electric current. subjected to bright when placed in the dark. were all the requisite essentials for a device which could be resistance rose. Here.. cells. An element that had been and electri- known as its for a considerable time to chemists cians as one that had a very high electrical chief property was discovered to be resistance also very sensitive to rays of light. so that to-day there are other aspects from which the solution of the problem after. an element which up to that time had not been brought under notice very considerably. especially in connection with photoelectricity and photo-electric later. which the element Selenium to carry currents was incorporated could be made that varied in light in strength according to the variations and shade that go to form a picture. light. dropped This element was Selenium. rubidium.30 PRACTICAL TELEVISION Finding an Artificial Eye. the problem would be solved. fortunate circumstance aided investigators while they were endeavouring to develop the idea of setting A up an artificial eye. .
and diffracted .INTRODUCTORY may be attempts have yet appeared. if 31 viewed. Take. refracted. they differ. their existence would to-day but for the application of the principle employed in the high vacuum pump. It is quite possible that in the future fresh discoveries still be unknown and appliances will enable us to extend the investigation and bring additional knowledge on the subject of wave-frequencies and the field of to bear relation of light rays to electricity so that science will be able to transform the one into the other. Electric waves are exactly like light waves in that they can be reflected. of light waves as com- pared with the wave-lengths or frequencies of the wave-bands that are that utilised in electric transmission. polarised. . The rays in question are so extremely absorbable by matter that special vacuum spectrometers have to be brought into use for their detection . we may glance at the wave- lengths. We us have but to consider phenomena revealed to by modern instruments and appliances like high-vacua pumps to recognise this possibility. for example. or rather frequencies. is. the exploration of the very wide band of electromagnetic waves consisting of eight octaves between the ultra-violet rays and the Jf-rays. the propagation of electric currents either in conductors or otherwise. absorbed. and although no published results of any discoveries have been made it is possible that one day light rays may be transformed into electricity and back again into light by one piece of apparatus. While on this subject.
PRACTICAL TELEVISION in S 9 CQ ?S .
feet.) as the wavethere a very wide range of wave-lengths or latter length. knowing freper second in air or vacuum.000.e.000.000. quency the wave-length can be deduced wave-length i. visible and invisible. Hence. in that their length may be inches. one five-millionth part of a second as seen by the be twenty successive oscillations each lasting only one-hundred-millionth part of a second.000.400 miles per second or 30. the frequency therefore is one hundred-million a eye.000. and / the frequency. (or 10 feet approx. from light waves. there may second. We have reason to believe from the electro-magnetic theory of light that the velocity of light is the same as that of electricity. Now of all is frequencies between the kind of waves and those kinds of light.000 get 300 cm. we dividing 30. yards.. whereas light waves measure a few millionths of an inch only. or even miles. by 100. or convert these very small At light waves into electric waves and vice versa ? How we transform Two principal obstacles present we do not know. In the case of an oscillatory electric spark lasting. first. say.000 cm.INTRODUCTORY 33 however. .000. This may be seen at a glance by inspection of the values given in the accompanying can table. v the velocity. stand in the way of achieving this object. at once from A = = velocity/frequency v/f where A is the wave-length. and this velocity has been estimated at 186.
due to loss of energy during the process of propagation. the impossibility at present of measuring them. difficulty . There is also another drawback. namely. and. even when obstacles do not intervene.34 PRACTICAL TELEVISION the extremely absorbable nature of light rays. the of propagating light waves over a considerable distance. secondly.
A time spent in looking briefly at attempts made in the past would save many an inventor from the pitfalls which so often beset him. the following summary of what has been already essayed television is in the direction of given in the present chapter. and sometimes the commercial Moreover.CHAPTER HISTORICAL II INVENTORS and others. as one of the objects of a book should be to inspire or excite action. mind It a good perspective shows the technical difficulties whereby one aspects the deficiencies of may guard against preceding attempts and the more quickly surmount the difficulties that have confronted other inventors. great advantage of studying or glancing briefly at the historical aspect of the problem at issue is One that view it gives the inventive before setting out. and we can only give a few of the more prominent workers whose endeavours to transmit pictures and images by 35 The name . inspired by brilliant and (to them) original ideas. of the early inventors is legion. The Pioneers. because the historical side of their subject little is not or cannot be studied. often throw away a surprising amount of time and labour.
just as past events are pictured on the screen at cinemas. wires by electric This system was in practical operation for several years between Paris and Amiens. when drawings. for The researches a have now been going on more than unfolded to quarter of a that ideas century have gradually have culminated in the desire far-off view contemporaneously events that are happening. mitted were actual metal types set up in a composing . The first indications of a trend in the direction of discovering means for electrical seeing are evidence in FIG. treated and with Bakewell's cyanide of current through potassium being marked by an electric Bain's apparatus is interesting an iron point or stylus. contours. recorder (1842). and diagrams were transmitted over current in 1862 by Abbe Caselli. the embryo stage. Fig. apparatus paper in that he used a form of copying telegraph as shown The letters to be transin the illustration. Bain's Chemical Recorder. 9. 9. It was really a more elaborate form of Bain's chemical (1847).36 PRACTICAL TELEVISION electrical means of apparatus reveal to us that experito transmitting pictures ments with a view by electrical means took place that so far and writing back as 1847.
Five metal brushes. while metal needles. Bakewell in 1847 followed in the wake of Bain A> move in A Sending A/ Recei/ing FIG. N a sketch drawn on shellac-ink. nected to a battery traced out spirally at one end . As and when the currents were received over the line. but when the . and a sheet of At chemically prepared paper was placed on the receiving When the needle TV^ came in contact cylinder. He with apparatus something similar in character. It was necessary for the two brushes to synchronism. and at the other end a replica chemically prepared paper was produced. the sending end the sketch was drawn on a sheet of tinfoil wrapped round the cylinder. made up of several narrow springs connected to the same number of lines were passed over chemically prepared tape resting on an earthed conducting plate.HISTORICAL stick 37 and connected to an earthed battery. marks were made on the paper and a copy of the type faces at the transmitting end was obtained. Bakewell's Apparatus. 10) which revolved in and 7V2 consynchronism. with a shellac line no current flowed. set up at the two ends of a telegraph wire two metal cylinders (A and Av in Fig. 10.
. followed system of ^ Vavin ^ -\ f having a chemically pared receiving tape. 12 shows the connections for sending the letter " T. distant points regarded in the light of a family tree." We Bain thus see that from the crude endeavours of and others to communicate electrically with by means of metal letters. hearing and seeing from remote parts of the world as achieved The growth may be to-day have been developed. and ooo 7 same sketch. & FribourJ 1865 pr . later Mimault. a suitable selection of pins connected to a battery being capable of printing any desired letter. the cylinder) a current passed through the circuit. causing a chemical the paper on r Edison improved on these methods in mark on a A substituting composing previously in 1865 Messrs. letters it j j was desired to ^/ ^-' send. of course.38 PRACTICAL TELEVISION needle was in contact with tinfoil (and. nt . Vavin and Fribourg produced a kind of monogram by their method as shown ( _ ( ( ooooo oooo o oooo oo goooo gooo g _ ooo ooo o 00 1873 ^7 1 punched tape for the inconvenient 1) stick with metal type (see Fig. than the a year also Edison. ng leyer brought the insulated block containing 49 pins. The diagram in Fig. ) pre- A . Bain's work . the r j elements of which could in i the i i i o 00 Edison T873 ) i .
.FIG. [To face page 39. Showing how a Picture may be drawn by means of Lines of Varying Width. 13.
The Telautograph. Mimault's Method and the Arrangement for Signalling the " letter T. 3) FIG. and " picture parallel lines or " photograph transmission with its of varying width corresponding with 1 the dark and light portions of the picture (see Fig. an instrument for reproducing actual handwriting at a distant station. latter television eventually became an This idea of transmitting drawings and writing to distant points the forerunner of television con- tinued to produce inventors as late as 1900-1901. an instrument for transmitting actual ." from which offshoot. and the Tele- pantagraph.HISTORICAL 39 being the stem from which sprang branches. 12. notably telegraphy with its long and short signals in code.
" theory of television was disclosed. when it became known that Selenium. 14). that any real that were cast on an object was adopted. but it was not telectroSenlecq in 1877 brought out his scope. during that period. stimulus was given to television research in 1873. In this apparatus the principle of reproducing by electromagnetic means the effects of light and shade device. the announcement of this fact being first communicated to Society of Telegraph Engineers (now the Institution of Electrical Engineers) by Mr." mainly modelled on Caselli's apparatus (Fig.O. The Advent of Selenium. Reverting to earlier times. should not be overlooked. " the moon element/' possessed the property of exhibiting great sensitivity to light rays. The notification of this property led to the in nearly all subse- adoption and the use of Selenium quent television research. that even the various types of oscillographs that have come It into use for recording purposes may be regarded as simple elementary forms of televisors.P. This was . moreover. were placed under experiment in the Electrical Research Laboratories of the G. Willoughby the Smith. but with Selenium as an ancillary operating M.40 PRACTICAL TELEVISION drawings over considerable distances by means of telegraphy. Many attempts were made during the following decade to enlist this newly-discovered property of Selenium until in the service of television.
HISTORICAL to 41 be accomplished by projecting the image to be transmitted on to the ground glass of a camera obscura. when out by means of a Selenium point transmission took place variations of current in the tracing it . perhaps noteworthy and remarkable that attempts were being made to transmit pictures electrically at same time that attempts were being made to transmit sound electrically. It is brought out similar inventions and apparatus. of light and shade to The invention was :Brass Rails Ebonite Points of Contact FIG. predecessors that several other workers. ~~r"~] Senlecq's Apparatus. Graham the Bell. 14. latter were to cause the effects appear at the regarded as receiving so important a step in advance of its end. the inventor of the telephone receiver. bcth problems being the subject of investigation by the same genius. . amongst them Graham Bell.
a kind of mosaic of the picture being built up by this means. was in 1880 also that Middleton. instead of the magnetic needles. but at the receiving end. At the receiving end. Cambridge.42 PRACTICAL TELEVISION In 1880. all of which were worked with a multiple wire (and multiple cell) arrangement. Ayrton and Perry and also Pro- fessor Kerr published an account of their proposed Selenium cells were employed system. in this system. each wire having a Selenium cell connected to it. of his St. so a corresponding that each time a needle light passing through an aperture was either shut off or allowed to pass on. transmitter. -each wire contelevision tributing a small portion of the picture until the whole was pieced together in mosaic form. needles operated in unison with the action of the Selenium cells. apparatus in which thermo-electric couples instead of Selenium cells were employed in a multiple wire College. currents received through the electro-magnets rotated the plane of polarisation according to the The amount of light sent out. Ayrton and Perry's apparatus consisted of many wires for transmission purposes. announced invention John's of Corresponding thermo-electric couples . electro-magnets with silvered ends were illuminated by a polarised beam of light. number of magnetic moved In Kerr's apparatus. the same principle was adopted at the sending end. Employment It of Thermo-electricity. Messrs.
HISTORICAL were fixed at the receiving end. Bell take out patents for television apparatus. an Diaphote. 15. Penn. Hick. with the . Carey's Apparatus. of Pittsburg. not only did Chemically Graham Prepared Paper Df'scsm FIG. In America in the same year. 5). of Bethlehem. the apparatus invented " Carey. in the previous year had also brought out 1 apparatus of the multiple wire type (Fig. and Dr. 43 which received the radiant heat sent out at the transmitting end in the form of reflection from the bright-polished surfaces of the thermo-couples." by Hick was called the American. but also Connelly and McTighe.
He contributed " in an account in of (see Telephotography Nature 1907 Wireless Photography. Rignoux and Fournier in France (1906). page 444). probably owing to the disappointing results experienced with in television Selenium pure and simple as apart from It is noteworthy that in 1908 picture photography. and Rosing in Russia (1907). A gap occurs until more recent times. Cathode-ray Systems. Shelford Bidwell. 1879). who sought to achieve . Knudsen made the first practical step towards the transmission of photographs by wireless. also had previously devised a system for this purpose. an experimenter on the properties of Selenium.. Szczepanik in Austria. Am. each instant accordingly (Fig. " Vol. 76. page 309. Vol.44 Selenium cell PRACTICAL TELEVISION arrangement at the transmitting end and an incandescent receiver containing carbon or platinum elements (see Sci. 40. 16). Impetus was given to the pursuit of the transmitting pictures by wire by Ruhmer (1891). of Turin. De Bernouchi. in 1 8 8 1 showed how that element could be applied Practical in improving the Photophone and in telephotography. whereby the by passing Selenium intensity it employed a method of a beam of light was varied He through a photographic film on to a the resistance of the latter varying at cell.
Korn s Experiments. Parabolic Re lector t\er lectors s ) Light Source ^W* FIG. use of a circuit arrangement of which the essential features are given in diagrammatic form apparatus invented by Korn was afterwards set up with certain modifications and improvements by the Poulsen Company for the wireless transmission The of pictures. Campbell Swinton. in who made Fig. in country at about the same time. 17.HISTORICAL perfected results. Light - Source 1 ] Drum Bernouchi's Method. ray in his this 45 Rosing made use of the Cathodeapparatus and Mr. first The method of successfully transmitting in photographs was that of Professor Korn Germany. 1 6. designed quite independently a Cathode-ray system of television. These are mentioned as marking important steps Improvements in towards the solution of television. the pioneer inventions of Korn (1907) and of Knudsen (1908) perhaps deserve special notice. phototelegraphy have been going on up to the present time with remarkable results. In view of the distinct advantage . In addition to the attempts Drum f made by the foregoing.
Poulsen arc generator. the inductance. Korn's apparatus glass cylinder or drum. which revolves threaded shaft. L^ (for example. has its rays cast by means of a lens system so that A they intersect on the surface of the cylinder or drum. although space forbids any details beyond the merest outline. source of light. Receiving Station. and when the apparatus Z. generates continuous or undamped waves. In the figure. 18. thus giving it consists of a in a box on a motion as also a vertical shown in Fig. Diagram of Korn's Circuit. X. 17. a copy of the picture. Tuning is effected by means of the ATI. . Aerial\/ A high frequency alternator or \/Aerial 'ATI Thermo Detector Sending Station FIG. a description of its working is given below. and Condenser. which is wrapped this. a metal print. a Nernst lamp).PRACTICAL TELEVISION which characterises this invention from all preceding attempts. D the is a revolving cylinder or drum on stylus. L. traverses receiving records by means of a string galvanometer denoted by H. For transmission. C.
resistance.HISTORICAL Cv whence 47 they are passed on to a prism of 45. thereby giving rise to the variations in its varying electric currents that are sent out to the receiving apparatus. so are they reflected by the prism turn suffers on to the Selenium cell. Pr In revolving. The Einthoven galvanometer form of oscillograph. the cylinder on which is wrapped the photographic plate thus causes different small portions of the picture to come under the intercepting rays . a string galvanometer of the Einthoven type (Fig. The PoulsenKorn System. 18. Sev which in FIG. In this apparatus as operated in the practice of phototelegraphy by the Poulsen Company. Arrangement of Korn's Apparatus. 19) was introduced as a means for directly reproducing the picture. the simplest Its essential part is a stretched is . the entire picture beam during the is therefore traversed process. As often by the light as the light variations occur.
M. the light being concentrated on the fibre by the main and substage condensers. The figure shows the the general arrangement of mounting the fibre in magnetic It is field. " but an over-run ". M. The acting causes degree to which the ribbon is shifted depends on the strength of current passing whether the movement be very small or otherwise. is quite common. 18). by which focussed on to the surface of the receiving film. conducting fibre or wire placed This fibre is made very field. which stretched between the poles of an electromagnet. L 2 are brought to a focus by means of a lens. Normally if is this silver ribbon cuts off all rays of light. usual to have a Pointolite lamp (Fig. A^ B (Fig. this film arrangement at the wrapped round a revolving the .48 PRACTICAL TELEVISION in a strong fine . lamp or arc lamp can be One of the principal features of the Poulsen-Korn is apparatus a flat silver ribbon. or less is the general rule.gas-filled used as an alternative. be mentioned that the pole pieces of the electromagnet are tunnelled for the purpose of allowing the light rays to converge to a focus. and the light it is is thus allowed to reach a second lens. and it should is . magnetic if of silver or tungsten a diameter of 0*02 mm. 20) for the source of illumination. photographic Like is transmitting end. or if of silvered glass a diameter from 0*002 to 0*003 mm. five in milli-inches wide and one milli-inch thickness. but the least current traverses A^ B. the magnetic field that it to be repelled. Light rays from a source.
Pointolite Lamp. Diagrammatic Illustration of the Einthoven String Galvanometer. FIG. 20. . [To face page 48. 19.FIG.
a photo-electric it differs very little cell now takes its place. As will be seen by the following description of working. Telephone Laboratories Inc. Other improvements have been introduced. The latter is mounted on an arrangement so that it travels longitudinally at the same time that it is rotating . of America have worked out a much more efficient system of Bell The phototelegraphy based on that of Korn's invention. in a cabinet or light excluded. is 49 camera from which intensity all C2 . also possible electric by regulating the speed of the special type motors used and with the aid of phonic wheels controlled by tuning-forks operated electrically. The developed in the usual way and a copy of the original obtained. up-to-date improvements are added. the chief of which is a much more accurate method of keeping the two cylinders in This has been rendered perfect synchronisation. Since the of light varies according to the density of the image. whereas Korn used a Selenium cell. the light falling amount of film is on the film corresponds likewise. The Transmitter and Receiver.HISTORICAL drum. The Transmission of Pictures over Telephone Lines. from Korn's except in so far as For instance. Transmitting by this method depends first of all on having a negative of the photograph prepared from which a positive is made on a celluloid film 5 by 7 inches wrapped closely round a hollow glass cylinder.
Obviously the movement of this ribbon being governed by the varying incoming current will correspond with the amount of light and shade of the picture at the sending end. and this. acting in conjunction with the magnetic field already generated.50 round its axis. film is a cylinder on which a blank wrapped. In the apparatus at the receiving end there is a " device termed a " light-valve having a small orifice which is normally covered entirely by a very thin ribbon. a electric very strong beam of light from an lamp is directed through the orifice mentioned. Now when the incoming current traverses the ribbon. This action tantamount to modulating the current transmitted in accordance with the degree of light or dark shading of the picture. an electromagnetic field is set up around the ribbon. the latter metallic being subjected to the influence of a magnetic field.or darkly-shaded portions of the photograph and thus varies the amount of current received from locally the cell which is connected is by wires to the main lines. causes the ribbon to shift. provided it revolves in exact syn- Hence . on to the cylinder with and this spot travels over the film in a spiral direction on account of the motion already referred to. thus allowing a certain modicum of light to pass through the aperture. Obviously the spo't of light while traversing the film gives out light in varying intensity according to the lightly. Inside the cylinder is a photo-electric cell. At the same time. PRACTICAL TELEVISION A source of light throws a spot of light its film.
will have now .HISTORICAL chronism with the cylinder at the 51 sending end and is placed so that the light beam strikes it.
Pictures by Wire.
Pictures, drawings, photographs, letters, including
Jf-rays, radiograms, finger or
thumb prints, cheques, in this manner over short
distances, the actual time of transmission lasting about
In long-distance line working the effects of capacity and inductance come into play, and it is necessary to
adopt a circuit similar to that used for radiotelephony by using an oscillator valve and a modulating valve. At the transmitting end, therefore, a frequency of
cycles per sec. generated
has superimposed on it much lower frequencies (controlled as before by the lights and shades of the picture
being transmitted) from a modulator valve. In this case, since an alternating current
negative will show on close examination variations in the thickness of the lines of the picture traced out,
corresponding to the changes of current during each cycle, but the reproduction of the picture is not interfered with in any way on this account. This method
65 lines to the inch and militates somewhat against the use of a ribbon for plates where
retouching is necessary. to have an aperture of fixed measure-
to allow the light to fall
on the film
lines to the inch
and a half-tone picture produced.
absolutely necessary that perfect synchronisation of the cylinders both at the sending and at the
In order to ensure receiving ends should take place. this, phonic wheels controlled by tuning-forks operated
employed with the cylinder mechanism
The accuracy and efficiency of synchronisation now achieved are such that received photographs when
sent over a line in this
are indistinguishable to
the naked eye from their originals. The transmission of pictures and photographs by wire is carried out in America at the present time
by the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. Amateurs in the United States of America who are in
the possession of licences are allowed to use certain wave-lengths for the transmission of pictures.
Knudsen's Experiments in Radio Photography.
attempts made in wireless phototelegraphy considerable over any distance were those of Knudsen in 1908. As a matter of historical interest, a diagram
of the apparatus used
given in Figs. 23 and 24. transmitter consisted of a camera with lens
behind which was placed, between the lens and the
plate, a line screen for splitting
into parallel lines.
be specially prepared with a thick gelatine film. this kind of plate the shaded portions of the
quickly than the transparent or lightly-shaded Hence, when iron filings or dust is sprinkled
where and when necessary, the currents being transmitted by wireless to the receiving end, where a
point and spring actuated by a small electromagnet travel over a smoked glass plate.
the picture scratched out print may be taken from a manner similar to that adopted in the smoked on plate
with an ordinary photographic negative. The results obtained by this apparatus were extremely crude and it was found to be quite unsuitable for
It is interesting to recall that
some years ago (1916) devised a system of radio photography by means of an instrument which he
" designated the Telephograph." metal print of whatever had to be transmitted was
necessary, and in preparing this print a screen having a number of ruled lines was used, the effect being to
The time for a break the picture into parallel lines. complete transmission of a picture 5 by 7 inches with 50 lines to the inch took twenty-five minutes.
In working the apparatus the metal line print was wrapped round the drum of the machine, during the
revolution of which a stylus made contact (or otherwise) with the lines of the print according to the light
or dark lines into which the picture was split up. By means of an optical arrangement at the receiving end variations of light from a Nernst lamp were
received on the film on the
to the point of contact of the stylus of the transmitter,
whether tracing over a conducting or an insulating
It will be noted that these fish-glue lines are non-conductors of electricity. As the drum revolves a current of electricity flows. With this apparatus pictures can be broadcast by wireless which may be picked up by means of a simple set. the different shading in the image represented by dark and ing to thick light parts of the photograph correspond- and thin lines respectively. is graph of after this character photoprinted on sheet copper A the latter has been sensitised with fish-glue treated with bichromate of potash." Thome Baker Apparatus for Wireless Phototelegraphy. The unexposed portions of this kind of plate can be got rid of by washing the plate in water. form of apparatus adapted to a two-valve receiving The effected transmission of a picture by this method is by first of all copying the photograph to be transmitted through a photo-mechanical screen. By this means a positive picture was received from which a photograph could be reproduced. Further details of interesting apparatus are given in Mr. when the image will be clearly shown in fish-glue lines. Martin's book. and when- . The picture is then wrapped round a revolving metal drum provided with a steel needle or stylus. The obsolete syntonic system with Carborundum portion detector was used in the wireless this of the apparatus. The latter is ruled with close parallel lines which cause the photograph to appear made up of thick and thin lines.56 strip PRACTICAL TELEVISION on the metal print. " Wireless Transmission of Photographs.
H. The actual printing is done by electrolytic action on the paper wrapped round the revolving drum. may be remarked that the stylus and cylinder are joined to the terminals to which either headphones or loudspeakers are ordinarily connected. or rather series of dots. the apparatus at the distant drum provided with a revolving metal round which is wrapped the sheet of moistened is end paper chemically prepared on which the photograph This is done by a platinum stylus is to be traced. in the Transatlantic Radio Pictures. the wider the line the longer the break and vice versa. transmitting circuit has the condenser in the is valve circuit.HISTORICAL 57 ever the steel point touches a fish-glue line the current is broken. R. whereby photographs were . Ranger and developed by the Radio Corporation of America. A dot. by means of apparatus invented by Mr. so that the degree of shading in the photo- graph will The be represented by the width of the lines. radiations through the ether being controlled by the photo print on the drum. In November in Radio House 1924 experiments took place at connection with Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. For receiving purposes. which short-circuited by a transmitter of this description and thus stops oscillation. which It traces a spiral path as the drum revolves. appears as very minute stains less than cases. 1/200 of an inch in diameter in some dependent on the density or shading of the lines photograph.
photo-electric cell. variations have their effect on the receiving apparatus. being Fig. 25 shows the revolving glass cylinder. Apparatus FIG. 26 G is the receiving cylinder. cell. placed some distance The same The principle of dark and light patches of the is films controlling the variation in current followed. which focusses the beam on to F. London. D and E are the condensing and focussing lenses. and New York. 5. To Receiving respectively. Briefly. adopted. Diagrammatic Sketch of Ranger's Receiver. 26. the same principle of working and the employment of revolving cylinders. the light-sensitive away from the cylinder. former for converging the rays to a point on the film whence it is directed to E.. A) on which is wrapped the photographic " Pointolite film. inside the cylinder acting as a very powerful source of illumination. 25. the apparatus is constructed very much on the same lines as that of Korn's and others. etc. C.PRACTICAL TELEVISION transmitted between Radio House. Diagrammatic Sketch of Ranger's Transmitting Cylinder. Relay Jo Wireless Transmitting Circuit FIG. the " lamp. . where in Fig.
[To face page 59. 28.I. raraiKXH) ^* '^ FIG.S W. Specimen of Print sent by Radio.Guaranty Trust Company of Newark 50. IE FIG. . 27.Pall Mall . Specimen of Print sent by Radio.
When it photograph by wireless. which at the time of writing is being operated successfully by the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company..S. and / is a self-inking or pen. whose revolving the paper.R. suggested the use of Cathode-rays.HISTORICAL on which stylus is 59 //. 2. The action is spacing between the rows of dots is nearly i/2ooth of The an inch for each revolution of the cylinder. A specimen drawing received by radio in London from New York was given in Fig. and showed that before the the difficulty of securing extremely rapid and accurate motion of parts could be got over by making use of . F. important improvements have been effected in this system. Recent Research. makes small dots or blanks in a series of lines according to the dark and light patches of the pictures. A. Mr. The pen controlled by the received currents.. Addi- recent tional reproductions of original prints sent across the Atlantic are given in Figs. in co-operation with the Radio Corporation of America. Ltd. 27 by radio and 28. worked by an electro-magnet. Since the date mentioned. in a lecture Rontgen Society and also at a meeting of the Radio Society of Great Britain some time ago. A. all the methods employed the current sent out by a photo-electric cell is superposed on the that in telegraphing a picture or should be borne in mind alternating current carrier wave sent through the ether at the same time. . image is therefore reproduced in the form of dots or lines and spaces. Campbell Swinton.
chiefly along the lines and numerous other workers. in all recent developments the photo-electric cell is relied on for good results. and therefore any practical results that might be obtained by this means are not known. Most of these have brought forward new ideas. Belin and Hollweck and by M. sensitiveness of Selenium to light rays. During the last five years a crop of fresh inventors and aspirants has arisen. Shadowgraphs have been successfully sent both by MM. Dauvillier in France. of the Cathode-ray. He further described a new device for analysing the image under transmission and making use of a controlled Cathode beam which could be magnetic fields. developments. C. Belin and Hollweck. appropriately influenced by The lines. In America. the Notwithstanding the example. Jenkins has successfully sent . Selenium for found that photo-electric cells respond in a far better manner to the enormous speed of signalling that is Hence involved in all forms of transmission of vision. F. it has been cell. not to mention the scrapping of older devices. and in Austria Denes von Mihaly claims to have achieved the transmission of shadows. and improvements.60 PRACTICAL TELEVISION immaterial substances like these rays. using a complex apparatus of oscillating mirrors. Television research has been carried out on the Continent by MM. Dauvillier. does not appear to have been con- structed so far. apparatus for working out his idea on these however.
Revolving Disc with Lenses D.C. 29. Motor Reproduced Image A. Motor Synchronous Rotating Spiral Slot Aperture through which the light passes from the varying light source Ground Glass Screen Receiver FIG. 30. Baird's original Transmitting Apparatus. Baird's original Receiving Apparatus.HISTORICAL 61 Slotted Disc Rerolvingat High Speed Revolving Disc with Lenses D.C. Motor Rotating Spiral Slot Aperture through which the light passes to the light sensitive cell. Mr. Mr. .C. Wireless Receiver & Filter Circuits. Object to be Transmitted Transmitter FIG.
The in general method employed by these workers each case the same. Alexanderson. In 1923. however. . although he has so far given no L. Baird followed up his demonstration of the transmission of outlines by giving a demonstration of true television.62 PRACTICAL TELEVISION shadows. however. The means employed to obtain this end vary. earliest forms of his and 30 show the transmitting and receiving Figs. in Mr. real images being shown by diffusely reflected light. be dealt with in a separate chapter. May work is will. Baird in Great Britain and also demonstrations. transmitted to the receiving station. where it controls the intensity of a light spot traversing a screen in synchronism with the traversal of the image over the cell. Jenkins in America demonstrated the " " transmission of Shadowgraphs by television. Elemental areas of the cast in rapid succession image being transmitted are upon the is The pulsating current light-sensitive cell. and Dr. very considerably. the Chief Consulting Engineer of the General Electric Company of America. in The American Telephone and Telegraph Company 1927 gave a successful demonstration of true Their television. These results and the apparatus with fully described in the which they were achieved are present volume in Chap. the first given outside of England. VIII. 29 apparatus. but F. 1926 Mr. Mr. C. has described his apparatus with which he hopes to achieve results. J.
could be intelligently underof this book.CHAPTER Selenium. stood without an account of the properties of this electrical eye. No Selenium or the " moon element " was first dis- in the red deposit covered by the Swedish chemist. cell the the passing of a current of electricity. since this form conducts electricity. however. its electrical resistance it is increased.. in 1817. but for making a variety is grey or crystalline selected. Berzelius. formed in vitriol chambers. instantly lowers resistance from 15 30 per cent. to the maximum effect. but increases its resistance when the rays are shut off. not to mention the early and ineffective systems of picture transmission that were tried. red rays appear to give This property has been made 63 The . III SELENIUM AND THE SELENIUM CELL THE history of the element Selenium is so closely associated with the history of television that a short account of the properties of this remarkable element may well form the preliminary to succeeding chapters account of television. under normal conditions is very high . There " " are several allotropic modifications of this element. its When exposed to rays of light. according to the intensity of the illumination. when Its resistance to heated.
Although a member of a chemical family (Sulphur. already seen. Tellurium and Selenium) having teristics. but apparently it is the predominant partner so far as light-sensitiveness is concerned. vapour burns with a blue flame producing a characteristic penetrating odour which has been compared with its that of decayed horse-radish (Thorpe). being made up in the " " form of a cell for the purpose.64 PRACTICAL TELEVISION use of in certain determinations of feeble photometric intensities like those of the light received from the stars. all the same charac- member . On it account of its property of sensitivity to has therefore been employed considerably in television research work. and grey in colour. each of these cells being connected by wires to a . A Chemical Eye As we have Operated Electrically. is Ordinary Selenium according to the red or dark brown in colour. light rays. in amorphous condition which it occurs. It forms compounds with other elements in the same manner. etc. the early inventors endeavoured to construct artificial telegraph eyes by substituting Selenium for visual purple and building an artificial retina out of a mosaic of Selenium cells.Selenium. however. . that sulphur does it assumes the same allotropic modifications and is capable of the same kind of transformation under the action of heat.. appears to be the only of the family that is light-sensitive.. for instance. but on being subjected to heat it turns bluishIt vaporises at about 655 C.
way each cell controlled a spot of light. as we have also seen. cell fall 65 This shutter opened when light fell on the connected with it and allowed a spot of light to In this on a screen. such resistances were employed in the early days at Valentia.SELENIUM AND SELENIUM CELL shutter. namely. In this respect. Graham another " namely. One Mr. the terminal afternoon the attendant. enormous passed through remarkable sensitivity whereby its resistance when an electric current is and its is lowered when it is exposed to light rays. by following the lines adopted by nature in the construction of the ear. a little village in the West of 5 Ireland. and this property made it useful in the construction of the high resistances used in telegraphy . station of the Atlantic Cable. the image being reproduced as a mosaic formed of the spots. " " While the baffling problem of seeing from afar television was in process of solution on the lines of nature's marvellous mechanism of the " eye. brought to their notice. cognate problem. they were fortunate of in having the extraordinary properties its Selenium resistance it. This latter phenomenon quite accidentally. The appearance of the Bell Telephone immediately stimulated workers in television research to devise mechanism that represented artificially the action of the eye. came under observation The element was known to be a first metal possessing enormous resistance. telephony hearing from afar was actually solved by Hughes. May. and others. was surprised to see his instruments behaving in a . Bell.
Sabine. variations of illumination were thrown on to the cell In the make-up of the alkali metals. apparatus invented in the early days depended for transmission of vision on the provision of some form of chemical cell that produced variations the of electric current in the circuit in which it was joined when cell. The announcement " cells led to the construction of so-called Selenium Graham Bell. " . and others. Minchin. property of sensitivity to light rays and of thereby producing an electric current.66 PRACTICAL TELEVISION It was a very erratic manner. but these will be ployed. sodium. Selenium was em- such as potassium. Selenium thus provided a means of turning light into electricity. day of bright sunshine. and the sunlight fell occasionally upon his Selenium resistances. The considered later. and the scientists of those days were quick to see that in Selenium they possessed a chemical eye which could be used for transmitting vision. already mentioned in the previous chapter. He found that every time the sunlight shone on the Selenium the needle of the galvanometer moved. have under certain conditions the calcium. The phenomenon was investigated and the light-sensitive properties of Selenium were disclosed. by Shelford Bidwell. rubidium. the discovery that the resistance of Selenium altered As considerably on exposure to light was communicated to the Society of Telegraph Engineers by Willoughby Smith. Make-up All of the Selenium Cell.
one having fixed to it a number of studs. Annealing necessary because in its amorphous state Selenium is not sufficiently sensitive to light. to cool. Moisture decreases the resistance of the cell . placed in an oven and heated to a temperature of 180 C. the grey metallic variety only being conspicuously When therefore the cell is ready to light-sensitive. fixed together so that the studs entered the holes but did not touch the second plate. when the transformation from the amorphous to the greyish be annealed. or waxed to a plate of mica or glass. the two plates being insulated from each other. Molten Selenium was then poured in to is fill the interstices and annealed. it functions more efficiently when thoroughly dried.SELENIUM AND SELENIUM CELL Graham Bell 67 was the first to make a practical newly-found property of Selenium. application of He built up a Selenium cell by arranging two metal these plates. for about five minutes. this studs being slightly smaller in diameter than a series The two plates were of holes in the second plate. it is variety should be complete. early forms of cells were often painted over with a transparent varnish to protect them from the damp. Shelford Bidwell also constructed a form of Selenium be made by taking a small sheet of ground-glass and spreading over it a very cell. This form of cell may . It is then slowly allowed process of annealing renders the cell more sensitive. but to obtain the best results it should be The protected from moisture by placing it in a vacuum The receptacle.
. now four strands of bare wire. The cell can then be annealed in the ordinary way. the other two left separated for the whole of their length by a space equal to the diameter of a wire. It may be remarked that the light on this form of cell should fall as nearly perpendicular to the surface as possible to increase its sensitivity.68 thin layer of purified PRACTICAL TELEVISION amorphous Selenium by means If of a hot glass rod. strands are Another method of making a Selenium cell spread a very thin layer of platinum on a glass is to plate and then condition to scratch a zigzag line across the platinum fine steel point. by means of a is Selenium in the molten then spread over the platinum layer and converted into the crystalline metallic form by means of heat. either nickel or platinum. In its simplest form a Selenium cell originally was made up of brass and mica plates on which Selenium in fluctuations of current was deposited. Thin. are wound round is the plate so that the whole of the surface alternate covered and two strands are then removed. be connected one to each part. the fine line of Selenium acting as a varying resistance when incident light is thrown intermittently on the cell. Any parts of the cell left unilluminated naturally increase the resistance and decrease the change through the cell. rectangular plates of brass and mica were clamped together alternately in a frame by Selenium was rubbed over the plates and the whole heated on a sand bath whereby the Selenium bolts. the zigzag line dividing the platinum layer Electrodes can into two separate parts or plates.
Early form of Selenium Cell built up of alternate sheets of Brass and Mica with surface layer of Selenium between the Brass Plates. Terminals Cell mounted in airtight and 'waterproof ebonite case. 34. 31. Modern form of (unmounted). 32. . Early form of Selenium Cell. Modern form of Selenium Cell Shutter FIG. Unmounted Cell FIG. Terminal Terminal FIG. 33. Selenium Cell (mounted).SELENIUM AND SELENIUM CELL 69 TV?//? Ar^ass plates between which are placed thinner mica plates covered with Se FIG.
The cell disadvantage attending the use of the Selenium in television work is the time factor or slowness in recovering its resistance after exposure to illumination. as. The more modern form of a of Selenium consists steatite. same it is for all wave-lengths of the visible spectrum of the red rays.70 melted and plates. a limit comparable with that of the human eye. it is practically non-hygroscopic. or copper wires. or marble slab on which a thin coat of crystalline Selenium is deposited. platinum. in all cell is which is Selenium cells. Recently published results show that the maximum sensitivity of the most efficient type of Selenium cell is that of being capable of detecting an illumination of io~ 5 metre-candle. the response for the remainder of the spectrum varying as the greatest in the region square root of the stimulus-value. Inertia Performance and Behaviour. and Lag. the period taken for recovery increasing with the intensity of the illumination to which it has been . The important essential modern type of Selenium an shown in Figs. is favoured as a dielectric in The mineral steatite practice. 33 and 34. slate. modern apart from its high insulation properties. 32 for another early cell form of construction). porcelain. The response of a cell to illumination is not the . filled PRACTICAL TELEVISION The essential the narrow spaces between the brass features of the construction are shown in Fig. 31 (see also Fig. On this steatite slab are wound bi-spirally two or more gold.
35 . -Dark H Cell. General Curve showing Inertia or Lag of a Selenium Cell. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 --Light Time in Seconds. 35. which detrimental television cell to the instantaneous effects demanded effects are in work. General Curve for behaviour of a Selenium illumination falling on certain it. Spontaneous change of sensitivity with lapse of time can largely be overcome by mounting the cell in vacuo. two charts shown Figs. The readily seen in by reference and 36. In responding to rapid changes in the amount of 16. The higher to the the resistance of the the smaller the inertance. FIG.000 024 f*Light 8 10 J2 14- 16 Time in Second's FIG. 36. a Selenium cell exhibits is a amount of inertia or lag.SELENIUM AND SELENIUM CELL exposed.
of a cell is the ratio of its resistance in the dark and its resistance when -r.-v-^ : light resistance The cell ratio of of average type 5. Taking the time exposure to light (in seconds) as abscissa and RI as ordinate. - Ratio = dark resistance . Dr. cell it has been used extensively has in later phototelegraphic and television experiments been displaced by the more The advantage possessed by the latter cell over the Selenium cell is that its action is certain and instantaneous. then only gradually rising afterwards until at 4*5 seconds it reaches a maximum. illuminated or . dark resistance to light resistance of a may vary between the limits of a cell 2-1 and The performance of such general may be shown in a manner by the accompanying chart (Fig. we see that the value of the curve rises suddenly at the first. evidence of lag or fatigue at any time during of action.72 PRACTICAL TELEVISION The higher the resistance of a Selenium cell the The sensitiveness greater the ratio of sensitiveness. While the Selenium as a light-sensitive cell. there being no satisfactory photo-electric cell. it On shutting off the light at this maximum does not drop at once to a minimum. 36). but takes several seconds to do so. Fournier . its period While Selenium has been discarded by modern inventors on account of the tardy manner in which it recovers its normal resistance value.
although there is a time interval between the stimulus given to Selenium and the final effect obtained. work proves should its unsuitability. the stimulus is given to the Selenium and the chemical action commences at once.SELENIUM AND SELENIUM CELL 73 d'Albe holds that the lag in its action is purely a relative He contends that there is really no lag in its term. for television. action. An lag. signals per second were This rate of signalling. is not sufficient arises in the use cell for the instantaneous responses is no light-sensitive cell it suitable for tele- responds instantaneously to the the very fact that rapid variation of light and shade a curve can be obtained showing the lagging effect " when subjected alternately to " light " and " dark unless . ideal sensitive cell show no curve of . and he illustrates the that of an instantaneous truth of his assertion by referring to his Optophone experiments whereby 600 transmitted. hence a disadvantage of a Selenium required vision . however. The process is a chemical one exactly the same as photographic plate.
The flashing of light last a millionth on its surface. Credit for the discovery of the photo-electric cell is really due. for the purpose of primarily demonstrating the action of light in producing electricity. This phenomenon Elster. Subsequent developments 74 . This capable of detecting the light of a candle two miles distant and of stars that would have othercell is wise been undiscovered but for its action. in the first place. through the work of Hallwachs. rubidium. his apparatus passed more readily when rays of ultra-violet light lay in their path.CHAPTER General Description. and others. potassium. who in 1888. moreover. they have to a certain extent been superseded by the photo-electric cell. to Hertz. found that the sparks set up by led. need only of a second. IV PHOTO-ELECTRICITY AND THE PHOTO-ELECTRIC CELL ALTHOUGH Selenium and Selenium cells have been and still are very much to the fore in experimental television research. Geitel. to the construction of glass tubes or bulbs from which air was evacuated. when carrying out his famous Hertzian waves researches. Photo-electric cells of cadmium and the alkali metals sodium. and calcium are now used for the photometry of visible and ultra-violet light.
FIG. . The Langmuir Mercury Vapour Pump. Diagram showing Internal Construction of the Lang- muir Pump. [To face page -75. 39. 38. FIG.
air 37 is exhausted of It all air by means of a here that the special pump. Many improved forms of mercury vapour pump have since the present-day method of attaining been developed . 37. A cell surface of the metal with which it is coated. high vacua by means of the type known as the Langmuir Mercury Vapour Pump. that has displaced all others for high first vacuum work is the Mercury Vapour Pump devised by Gaede in 1915. the ordinary mechanical pump being useless for obtaining a high degree of exhaustion. may be remarked pump To Pump FIG. A suitably designed glass tube of the form shown in Fig. is Certain portions of the tube are silvered and thinly layered with a deposit of the alkaline earth used . 38 and 39. an illustration of which is given in Figs. Glass Bulb of typical Photoelectric Cell. usually an alkali metal such as rubidium. or potassium. sodium.PHOTO-ELECTRICITY in the design alkali metals 75 of such glass tubes and treatment with brought about the evolution of the photo- of this kind depends for its action on the emission of a stream of electrons at the electric cell.
is and C. Anode and Cathode. is placed at a distance of half a foot from the invisible The lower band of the ultra-violet rays. is The axial electric field not one of uniform value throughout the length of the tube. (The Cambridge 40 and 41. where the current leaves. is necessary to work the cell of which the points of connection or fairly A terminals are marked A and C. for example). colourless crystals.'s type) are given in Figs. lamp cell. one-hundredth of a micro-ampere only being The obtained when a 100 c. Freedom from parasitic effects is obtainable when the metal within the cell is prepared and maintained within a vacuum of the highest order. It is necessary for the photo-electric cell itself to be kept in a wooden box. The point of entry of current at A is called the Anode. called the Cathode. At the anode A . The Electrodes. Illustrations of a photo-electric cell Instrument Co. high voltage.76 PRACTICAL TELEVISION The alkali metal is made (rubidium. that visible rays. about 250 volts. current given off by such a cell is extremely small. clear. light-tight except at one aperture for the admission of light rays that fall on the metallic coating. much more effective if heated in hydrogen gas at a The hydrides so formed are temperature of 350 C. and on being bombarded by ' Cathode-rays become brightly coloured. is.p. produce greater sensitivity in the cell than the ordinary light waves.
Co. 40.) [To face page 76. (Internal Construction. The Cambridge Inst. . Co. FIG. 41.'s Photo-electric Cell. The Cambridge Inst.FIG.'s Photo-electric Cell.
the vacuum the current passing through the cell is that which is liberated by the direct action of the cell. The electric field fluctuates in value in passing from a sharp fall anode to cathode. like The photo-electric the wireless valve and the electric lamps employing tungsten filaments. namely. There are two classes of this type of cell. where the discharge tube is considered from the standpoint of a cathode-ray tube rather than a photo-electric cell. light on the sensitive cathode. this In the second class is the gas-filled cell magnified by the passage of the primary electrons through the gas with current which the cell is filled and the in which they produce secondary electrons. These we shall Vacuum now proceed to describe. It is at the cathode C that the electrons originate by positive ray bombardments. At same time. is the outcome of high vacua research. In the first-named class. The electric field is it of high value very near the cathode. drops Other features and phenomena connected with a vacuum or discharge tube are discussed in the next chapter. since interesting researches in tele- vision have been made with cathode-rays from time to time. but suddenly at the cathode itself. The Two Classes of Photo-electric Cell. (a) the type and () the gas-filled type. cell. the presence .PHOTO-ELECTRICITY there is 77 of potential dependent on the current passing and the nature of the residual gas.
cells greatly preferable to sensitivity is vacuum which of prime import- ance.. so that the primary current is greater than it is from an unGas-filled cells are therefore sensitised cathode. Ltd. The must be enclosed in a light-tight is box with a single opening against which pressed the window . As an example of that manufactured a vacuum photo-electric cell take by the General Electric Company. 42 and 43. Vacuum cells are preferable only when the incident light is to be measured accurately.78 PRACTICAL TELEVISION " " of the gas makes it possible and useful to sensitise the cathode still further during preparation. and on them deposited by condensation from vapour a thin layer of either rubidium. by making it the cathode in a discharge in hydrogen. much light more sensitive than vacuum cells . gives perfect reliability. Ltd. potassium. so that the same light must always give exactly the same current and the current must be nearly proportional to the light. the same may give They are therefore for all purposes in several hundred times as much current. (of London]. or sodium. " This surface has not been sensitised "-by the ElsterGeitel method of a discharge in hydrogen. the internal construction of which is shown in The shaded portions are silvered. sacrifices This method of cell preparation. though sensitivity. the cells is are completely evacuated and are not filled it with gas. Potassium in Vacuum Cell of the General Electric Company. Figs.
Internal construction of the General Electric Co. of Photo-electric Cell. Over Glass H -SSmmr I i Cathode Lead FIG. H new type r*. Cathode Lead Cathode Plate Anode Lead 60mm.PHOTO-ELECTRICITY 79 Guard Ring Lead Window 95mm.35mm. The General Electric Co. 42.'s Vacuum-type Photo-electric Cell. 43.'s . FIG.
The G. A> which acts as cathode . PRACTICAL TELEVISION The cathode is a plate supported in the in . D. As an example of the gas-filled type. . C. and connected to is omitted . the anode Since the currents are usually much is the gauze. 10mm. The surface of sensitised potassium is deposited on the silvered cup.E. take the 45mm FIG. greater than those in vacuum cells.C. 44. B.'s Potassium in Argon Cell. the anode to the apparatus.'s Gas-filled Photo-electric Cell.8o of the cell. wrapped round the tube. 44. General Electric Company's cell shown in Fig. middle of the bulb as shown the Usually the cathode is connected to the driving potential. the figure silvered surface of the bulb acts as anode. The General Electric Co. the internal guard ring but an external guard ring of wire.
in diameter. radius of curvature). applied. light. by The current can be amplified by using an accelerating is current. The two rings are con- nected together and are maintained at the potential The cell is fitted with a window (20 mm. Oxford. A^ and is proportional to the incident taken insulated leads to the apparatus. Leakage prevented by guard a of of tinfoil rings consisting strip wrapped around the outer surface of the cell and a platinum wire ring around the inner surface.PHOTO-ELECTRICITY earth is 8 1 sometimes desirable. the pattern originally developed at The the cell is of Clarendon Laboratory. which potential which causes ionisation by collision in the is rare gas helium with which the bulb is filled at an appropriate pressure. due to non-parallelism of the incident . potassium being deposited in a sensitive colloidal form on the silvered walls of the glass bulb. 20 mm. Potassium in Cambridge Helium Cell The Instrument Company's The internal construction cell is of a typical gas-filled type of photo-electric well exemplified in the photo-electric cell shown in Fig. The electrons emitted when light falls on the the cell are caught on a ring-shaped anode. The cell is filled with argon to a pressure of about 0*15 mm. which reduces to a minimum beam of errors light. 41.
is It will be seen that the The absence not saturated. The ratio of illumination to photo-electric current varies to a factor of less than 2 between a in this cell. vacuum and cell gas-filled cell range for the rubidium potassium lamp. A 6o-watt gas-filled lamp with from the vacuum filament 15 cm. rather less sensitive. type cell will give a current of the its order of io~ 8 ampere. the response to a vacuum lamp is somewhat less than that to a gas-filled lamp. between the electrodes. vacuum type cell with a given voltage Fig. sensitivity increases with the frequency of the Thus. the being The is variation of sensitivity with frequency of the light very closely the same for metal. than the The light. all cells filled is with the same The sensitivity independent of the tem- perature within atmospheric limits. potassium cells. it varies less than for the sodium intermediate.82 PRACTICAL TELEVISION Sensitivity of the Photo-electric Cell. the ratio of photo-electric current to luminous flux entering the window) varies by a factor not greater than 2 from cell to cell with the same active metal. the sodium cells rather more sensitive.C. on the average. The absolute sensitivity (i. current volts. Variation of Current with Voltage.e. 45 shows the variation of the current through a G. for lamps of the same candle-power.E. even with several hundred of saturation is not due to residual . To this light the rubidium cells are.
21 The form of this curve varies somewhat no 80 ~120 VOLTS 160 2CO 2^0 FIG. Current-voltage Curve of Cambridge Instrument Co.PHOTO-ELECTRICITY gas and ionisation by collision. from cell to cell.$> ^^0-4 Si 20 40 60 80 100 120 J40 160 180 20O Volts FIG.'s Vacuum Cell). Curve of Current.voltage Variation (General Electric Co. . 45. but to the form of the active surface which consists of fine drops from the 1-0 34 0-6 \ Is is . 46. but never differs greatly from that shown. interstices between which the electrons have to be dragged.'s Cell.
81 when exposed to illumination from a tungsten at a distance of 7 gas-filled lamp (100 aperture) candle-power) It will cm. shows a current-voltage curve 46. the slope of the .3 I2 .84 PRACTICAL TELEVISION The Cambridge Instrument Company's Photoelectric cell described on p. (5 mm. be observed that the sensitivity increases four-fold between 100 and 200 volts. like that' given in Fig.
and not advisable to potential can raise the potential much further. but the actual potential which glow discharge occurs depends to some extent on the particular cell. 48. as shown in Fig. C. When the sensitivity it doubles with an increase of. An indication that the glow discharge is being approached can be gained from the sensitivity voltage curve. 47 shows curve for an average cell .PHOTO-ELECTRICITY particular cell. to an large . say. the ordinates are arbitrary units.) (o appreciably to uniform intensity 50. and the high tenresistance of about A sion supply. which can be constructed from the figures supplied with potential for each cell.000 ohms. . Temwithin the normal perature changes working range to do not the sensitivity. V_y'Galvanometer FIG. The be conveniently applied by means of ordinary wireless high tension batteries. should be inserted between the cathode. . 85 a current wave-length Fig. 10 volts. affect 50 C. potential at is safe to use a up to about 250 volts. corrected for spectroscope deviation and reduced across the spectrum. to in order safe- guard the cell should a spontaneous luminous discharge occur owing . 48. Unusually / potential Connections for measuring Photoelectric Current. being In general. indicates that the critical it is value is being approached. it accidentally applied.
it is necessary to employ a three-electrode (triode) valve amplifier in all practical applications. Enormous is obtainable before this stage reached. pose. three-electrode valve altered the whole aspect of the problem of television by giving a means of The amplifying the most minute currents ^j to almost -=- any extent. as the currents obtained are of the order of one-hundred-millionth of an ampere. Since photo-electric currents are so minute. but although the three-electrode valve provides an immensely powerful amplifier. but the response from the cell is very far amplification limit. A stage is reached when irregularities in the emission if from the is first valve become audible. . for that pur- Method of connecting Amplifier to a Photo-electric Cell. below the further With amplification the ordinary potassium cell.86 PRACTICAL TELEVISION Amplifying the Photo-electric Current. the amplification obtainable is limited. a of approximately a thousand times would be required. 49. is and the signal not heard before is this point reached further amplification is useless. and an attempt was made to use the valve in conjunction with the photo-electric cell FIG.
the amplification is greatest for small initial currents) and this result is to be expected from the general characteristics of is the valve. An amplification of high degree can. 49. so that the indicator reads from zero. is The current in the anode of the valve no light falls on the cell. be obtained when light rays fall on the cell. but they are more complicated. Although the photo-electric current proportional to the illumination. Amplifications varying from.e. and filament current on the same valve. automatically adjusted when so that the effect is nil. the amplified current is by no means linear. insulation. this An 5 amplification of io method quite readily. The current flowing in the is anode circuit when the photo-electric current zero can easily be compensated by obvious arrangements not shown.PHOTO-ELECTRICITY 87 is A method for connecting the cell to an amplifier shown in the diagram of Fig. is may be obtained by The objection to it is that the amplifier an extremely sensitive detector of high frequency electrical disturbances from which the apparatus has to be shielded very carefully. and the form of curve varies from valve to valve and with variations of anode potential.000 can readily be obtained. It is found that the amplification falls off consider- ably as the illumination increases (i. In addition to the standard potassium cells. but the higher ampliare fications possible only with light intensities of small value. 1000 to 10. which have a sensitivity curve approximating to that of an . There are several other amplifier circuits that can be set up. however. say.
By combining a three-electrode . Disadvantages of the Photo-electric is rapid and instandoes not action. a cell it taneous in its Shadows may be sent by its aid. Zworykins This is Cell. this limit can be extended. At very sitic large amplifications the intrusion of para- battery irregularities and other causes sets a practical limit to the amplification obtainnoises to due great care. By to irregular emission of the valve filament makes its appearance. Cell. the results are poor. Although photo-electric. caesium cells. or lithium and sodium cells. sensitive in the infra-red region. but even then a further limit arises in which the noise due able. but in television. always respond satisfactorily to the very small and limited amount of light available where television is concerned. for with shadows the light from any powerful source can be directed straight on to the photo-electric cell. sensitive in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum and quartz cells are also made. where the objects or scenes concerned reflect only a very small and limited amount of light. a three-electrode (or four-electrode) type of photo-electric cell in which the stream of electrons emitted is treated in the same manner as that of a thermionic tube and in consequence of its special construction increased amplification of the current is thereby obtained.88 PRACTICAL TELEVISION ordinary photographic plate.
grid. Zworykin's ment of the valve portion of the cell are shown by the The valve is of the dull emitter type usual symbols. 50. The construction of the cell is illustrated diagramfila- matically in Fig. claimed that the an improvement over the ordinary combination of photoelectric cell plus three-electrode valve amplifier. and Sensitive Coating H. The upper section of the glass tube takes the form of a spherical bulb and on the inner side of this bulb a sensitive coating of potassium This coating constitutes the hydroxide is spread. and not gas-filled. anode of the photo-electric cell and as shown in the drawing is connected to the grid of the amplifier valve . where the plate.T. 50. Battery Cell. 90 -150 V FIG.PHOTO-ELECTRICITY valve in the 89 effects are cell is same vacuum bulb capacity It is somewhat reduced.
finer which mesh. Both coating and collector are carefully shielded from the valve portion of the cell so that light from the filament may tions not is fall on the coating. is PRACTICAL TELEVISION An electron collector in the form of a wire connected to the plate of the valve.90 below. These three parts are enclosed by the two grids and the plate being mounted In this form of cell the fine-mesh grid is contact with the coating of potassium while the plate is connected to the ring collector. in electrical . coaxially. latter is surrounded by an open surrounded by a grid of much the plate. ring. The method of connec- given in the figure. cell is also The mesh made with is four electrodes. When so constructed the filament grid.
cell only Or (2) by having one and causing the illumin- ated elemental areas of the scene on this one celL to fall in rapid succession Ernest Ruhmer's Attempts. Ernest Ruhmer. showing how they contributed their quota towards the progress of research and the ultimate evolution of television will Two lines of : given. lines already A brief account of the early and later attempts. whose brilliant pioneer work in connection with wireless telephony is so well known. constructed and attempted to realise 91 television by . several inventors on the Continent and America constructed apparatus on the indicated. the approaching problem presented now be themselves Either (i) by imitating the construction of the eye very closely and having a large number of Selenium cells thereby forming a mosaic of the scene.CHAPTER V CONTINENTAL AND AMERICAN RESEARCHES IMMEDIATELY subsequent to the discovery of the properties of Selenium and the recognition that the human eye might be followed as a model on which to design some practical means for seeing over long in distances.
employing letters Stencils of or simple objects were placed in front of a wall composed of a number of separate Selenium cells and forming a kind of screen. These two French demonstrate a scientists constructed a similar machine to that of Ruhmer principle. however.92 PRACTICAL TELEVISION the first-named principle. The transmitter consisted of a wall covered with Selenium cells. From each two wires ran to the receiving screen. He did. Each cell was exposed to a certain amount of light according to the dimness or brightness of the light that happened to fall on it. Electric currents were sent out by these cells to a distant receiving screen of corresponding pattern and form and these received currents controlled the of a light that illuminated the receiving screen. was intended only to and had no pretensions . his investigations Although Ruhmer continued till from 1901 1912. succeed in the transmission of crude shadows of simple objects such as letters of the alphabet. 64 fairly large cells cells being used. which was constructed with 64 shutters. each shutter of these . all his attempts inertia of at true television failed. chiefly through the the Selenium cells used and the prohibitive cost of such apparatus due to the number of cells required. using 25 Selenium cells to form a crude mosaic of 25 spots of light. Rignoux and Fournier. it towards presenting an instrument for television. on which a luminous image appeared as a facintensity simile of the original. the idea being to build up the picture in mosaic form.
and the varying current from the cell to be transmitted to the receiving station. . but the thousands of cells. it was proposed to use only one cell. Instead of using a separate cell for each point of the picture. wires. owing to persistence of vision. and shutters required made the practical and commercial nised. there to control a point of light traversing a screen exactly in step with the traversal of the image across the cell. every point of the picture to fall in succession on this single cell. and wires necessary prevented the adoption of any schemes under (i) and an endeavour was made to solve the problem on the principle mentioned under (2). but the image as a whole instantaneously. The Problem from a New Angle. and thus when a strong current from a brilliantly lighted cell at the transmitter arrived at the receiving station its corre- sponding shutter was opened and light corresponding part fell on to the receiving screen. By with the wall stencils. The dim point of light was to be bright at the high lights. and completely out at the black parts of the image. other workers were attracted by this system of building up a mosaic.RESEARCHES controlled from its 93 respective cell. the process to be carried out with such rapidity that. development of such a scheme quite unthinkable. not a succession of spots. at the half-tones. transmitting large covering shadowgraphs of letters of the alphabet and geometrical figures were transmitted and could be recog- of the The enormous number of cells. the eye would see. Many shutters.
first on to one mirror and from this mirror on to the second one. 5 1 shows the apparatus of Jan Van Szczepanik. Fig. which in turn reflected at right angles to it on to a Selenium cell. Szczefanik's Apparatus. the image being projected by the lens.94 PRACTICAL TELEVISION A great in number of devices in order to achieve the It will end view on these principles was invented. The result of the combined . 51. Szczepanik's Television Apparatus. vibrating in each other. which the image traverses the cell. At the transmitting station two mirrors are employed. Transmitter FIG. be possible to describe only a few of the most representative.
Apparatus of MM. Belin and Holweck. the ray being caused to traverse a fluorescent screen by magnets which are energised this cell controls the intensity from . and the current where was transmitted to the receiving station controlled the intensity of a spot of light. 52. Belin and Holweck and the Cathode-ray. by means of two mirrors vibrating at the same way as the mirrors of the Transmitter FIG. 52 shows the apparatus of MM. Receiver Belin and Holweck. Fig. mirrors causing the image traverse a potassium photo-electric cell.RESEARCHES travel over the cell in a 95 motions of the mirrors was to cause the image to zigzag path. MM. this point of light being reflected in a zigzag path from the it cell across a screen right angles in transmitter. who employ at their transmitting station two mirrors vibrating at right angles to each other in a manner somewhat these similar to that suggested by to Szczepanik. The current of a Cathode-ray at the receiver.
from these motors pass through two coils at right angles to each other and in close proximity to the Cathode-ray. like while he was able to transmit Holweck. The combined action of these coils rents Cathode-ray to traverse the fluorescent screen in a zigzag path. however.96 PRACTICAL TELEVISION from an alternating current transmitted from a motor that moves the mirrors at the transmitter. Dauvillier has conducted extensive experiments along similar lines. found impossible to transmit by reflected light. shadows. he MM. difficulties in cell 1927 in transmitting simple owing to from the obtaining sufficient response light. television unable to demonstrate were. Dauvillier's Apparatus. with reflected M. He describes his difficulties as being chiefly those connected with the Belin and potassium electric cell. the curvibrating mirror. Writing in the Proceedings of the French Academy of it . and the other with a high frequency drives the rapidly At the receiving station. and. Synchronism is obtained by the use of two synchronous motors. corresponding to a path of the image over the cell at the transmitter. early in They shadowgraphs. Cathode-ray for reception purposes and two vibrating mirrors as the exploring device. one synchronous motor having a low periodicity drives the slowly vibrating mirror. Using this apparatus in conjunction with a potassium Belin and Holweck succeeded photo-electric cell causes the MM. using potassium cells and the M.
53.RESEARCHES Science in 97 " : No object normally August 1927 he states illuminated from the exterior diffuses sufficient light to the apparatus. the oscilFIG. which is set at 45 to the optic axes. P. so that the mirror oscillates with movements of vibration of different frequencies about two perpendicular axes horizontal and vertical. By means of a powerful lens system. lograph ther being at Explaining the Principle of Mihaly's Telehor." In Austria. also given a fur- motion right angles. Essentially the conlittle apparatus sists of a mirror." " Mihatys Telehor. a very small image of the object to be transmitted is thrown upon this minute mirror. of light after forming the image are reflected through a right angle upon a diaphragm and the motion of the mirror causes the 7 The beams . and it would have to be a thousand times more sensitive to make it make an impression on utilisable." both to explore his image at the transmitting end and to traverse the receiving screen at the receiving station. 53. The principle employed may be explained by means of Fig. Denes Von Mihaly uses a device which " he calls a Telehor. actua- ted by an oscillograph.
.PRACTICAL TELEVISION FIG. 54. FIG. The " Telehor " Receiving Circuit. 55. The " Telehor " Transmitter Circuit.
from the description given. No clear image. but rather a blur. Mihaly claims transmitted metrical to have IRON STRIPS geosilhouettes. diaphragm. 57< _La Cour > s Phonic Drum . the receiving station the current from the cell controls the motion of a mirror At mounted upon an oscillograph (Fig. of the given in Fig. behind The diagram 54. An image of the aperture is caused to traverse a screen by an optical system similar to and synchronism vibrating in with the trans- mitting device.RESEARCHES image to traverse a slot which is a light-sensitive transmitter circuit is 99 in this cell. The vibration of the mirror causes more or less light to pass through an aperture in a diaphragm. would be formed by the combina- FlG . and the phonic drum " of La Cour (Figs. Synchronism is obtained by the use of two special devices : interrupter. 56. and 57). 56 the tuning-fork " FIG. but simple HOLLOW DRUM FILLED WITH MERCURY his optical device. appears to be unsatisfactory in principle. The Tuning- fork Interrupter. 55).
58 illustrates the principle on which the apparatus used by Messrs. has. Jenkins. In the United States. whereas. we can use unlimited light. in connection known In transmitting the shadow of an object. Prismatic Screen Discs Moore Lamp FIG. may possibly account for the unsatisfactory results obtained. Fig. Jenkins" Television of Shadowgraphs. Moore. in conjunction with the inertia of the Selenium. To provide a light-sensitive device capable of responding instantaneously to this infinitesimal light was the outstanding problem to be solved in order that . as the PRACTICAL TELEVISION image projected upon the mirror would be out of focus on the diaphragm. This. whose name is with phototelegraphy. 58. only an infinitesimal light is available. in conjunction with Mr. Jenkins and Moore works. in transmitting images of the actual object itself. well Mr.IOO tion described. succeeded in transmitting shadows. Explaining Principle on which the Jenkins' Apparatus works.
one which deserves particular notice is used for exploring purposes. the latter thus having its own support on the shaft on which it is mounted. Jenkins. This therefore takes the form of a specially made combination of disc and prism known as the Jenkins* Fig. In the early attempts at television mentioned in this book. 101 This. The photographic was wrapped round the revolving cylinder so that the rays from the source were always directed radially. Jenkins and accomplish. the cross- section varying continuously round the circumference. the apparatus of Messrs. This consists of a circular glass plate. . 59. obviously the employment of a revolving glass cylinder is out of the question and some form of glass a flat prism for bending rays of light latter is necessary. the edge of prismatic which is ground into a prismatic section. will be more fully discussed in the next paragraph. the pris- matic lens being ground into the face of the disc. The disc itself made of a mirror glass.RESEARCHES television could be regarded as achieved. a rotating glass cylinder in which was placed the source of light was usually made use of. Jenkins' Prismatic Disc. and the feature of the apparatus. film As screen placed vertically is used in the Jenkins* system. Moore has failed to The important disc however. the cylinder being rotated and given a longitudinal motion at one and the same time. is Prismatic Disc. a remarkably ingenious device invented by Mr. As it the nature of this device deserves special mention.
Moore.IO2 PRACTICAL TELEVISION The prism has its base inward from one end to a point midway round the periphery of the disc. and its varying light is caused to traverse a screen by a device similar to that at the transmitter. Since this prism varies in thickness. first one way and then the other. Jenkins' Prismatic Disc. where it transmitted to the receiving controls the light from the lamp invented by Mr. 59. and by using two of these discs at right angles. The the picture or device will be better understood by refer- ence to diagram. This lamp changes its intensity instantaneously in proportion to the current. . the image is made give a perpento traverse a potassium photo-electric cell at the transmitting station. light A beam of passing through such a disc is bent backwards and forwards as the disc revolves. cell is The current from this station. one to give a FIG. it is really better in functioning . the slope being gradual from start to finish. than many single lenses a beam of light is by its action swept across or oscillated from one side of the to the other screen. thence it has its base outwards round to the end of the half- section. lateral movement and to the other dicular.
etc. Positive Electrode are contained. lamp giving Using this apparatus in conjunction with a Potassium Photo-electric Cell. The Neon dis- lamp form is a modified Hole in electrode in which concentrated glow appears. . 103 The Light Source this is a special type of electric glow 60). of FIG. The Moore Lamp.. 60. discharge lamp invented by a Mr. light spot of great brilliancy. tube the charge being concentrated in the small hole in the central electrode. Messrs. Jenkins and Moore were able to trans- mit shadowgraphs successfully.RESEARCHES The Moore Lamp. Moore (Fig. It is Glass placed outside the light-tight box or cabinet in which /Jar Negative Electrode Positive the other receiv- Electrode ing parts. such as discs. the received currents are passing they vary the brilliancy of the discharge in accordance with the When degree of intensity sent out at the transmitting end. The rays are focussed on to a ground-glass screen after passing through the prismatic discs and so produce the picture.
pictures. each revolving at different speeds. Illustrating how the Beam of Light traces out Lines across the Screen. on to the light-sensitive cell. For transmitting motion however. transmit an actual artifi- scene natural or cial light reflected from the scene must be used. after passing through the discs. 61. the effect of the light rays being to draw very close lines across the picture. This action sented a in is repre6 1 Fig. When tern is a magic lanused for the transmission tures. one. it is of pic- obvious the picture to be trans- mitted must be a i. transparent FIG. and these variations on being sent through a rotating disc . When the transmitted currents are received they vary the illumination of the lamp in the same manner. one depicted on a to slide. the magic lantern jector and the is replaced by a motion picture prolight rays transmitted by the motion picture are concentrated by the lens projector and then focussed.IO4 PRACTICAL TELEVISION of Operation. and one disc is set at right angles to the other.e. as side view or eleva- tion. The operations at the receiving end are very similar. Method Two prismatic discs are used in transmission.
RESEARCHES at the receiving 105 trace out a series of parallel lines end on the receiving screen.C. of the General Electric York. Dr. has. Early paper year (1927). He explores the image by means of a rotating mirror polyhedron. in which he described his television giving a demonstration. current Dr. Dr. however. light sources . power supply to automatically synchronise his machines. generator.C. F. Alexanderson read a before the American Institute of Electrical last Engineers. each mirror being set at a slightly different system without. Alexanderson' s Experiments. The synchronism apparatus is driven from the of the transmitting and receiving effected by means of synchronous motors alternating supply-mains. Schenectady. To obtain more detail. but took advantage of the A. but lays no Company. His receiving arrangement station consisted of a similar optical to that at his transmitter. E. W. besides inventing phototelegraphy apparatus. Alexanderson suggested dividing his image into zones and using a plurality of cells with a corresponding plurality of light sources at the receiver. angle from that proceeding it. New claim to having solved the problem. also turned his attention to experiments in television. both receiver and transmitter motor being supplied from the same A. Jenkins did not synchronise by wireless or by telephone. Alexanderson. the image being cast upon the revolving polyhedron by a lens and reflected upon a light-sensitive cell.
the focussing image and a brilliant source of light from which seven beams of light radiate and consequently motor running direct-coupled to a There is a lens for seven spots of light traverse the picture or scene to be In addition. at the transmitting end. of the apparatus militates against the attainment of such an object. i. Alexanderson be blended at the receiving end into one perfect image of good definition. transmitted. no blurring of outline. Alexanderson's contention that impossible sufficiently to illuminate a large screen with a single spot of light in the small space of time The mechanical inertia required in television work. The arrangeseven photo-electric cells are required.io6 PRACTICAL TELEVISION replacing cells and a screen replacing the object being His fluctuating light he proposed protransmitted. revolving mirrors with lenses. each carrythe use of by Each of these crude images will ing a crude image. is experimenting with this apparatus seven distinct wave-lengths. Synchronism was synchronous motors. to be obtained by the use of The wheel or drum about 2^ transmitting apparatus consists of a revolving feet in diameter which carries its twenty-four mirrors 8 by 4 inches on flanged periphery. ment of screen.e. 62. The reason for using seven light beams instead of one it is is because of Dr. The gain in the amount of illumination thus varies directly as the square of the number . is and light sources shown in Fig. ducing by means of high speed shutters controlled by oscillographs. lo-inch The drum is at a high speed.
at.RESEARCHES 107 of light sources. the top section of the screen and then perform the same operation over the next section. since there FIG. 62. As the mirrors revolve these seven beams trace seven lines of light simultaneously. since with seven light sources and seven spots of light 49 times as much illumination will be obtained in the same interval of time. and so on until the whole of the . A further the fact that seven spots of light will traverse the whole of the screen in one-seventh of the advantage time that lies in it takes one spot to do so. say. there will be 168 light-spot traversals over the screen for every revolution of the mirror drum. Moreover. Alexanderson's Apparatus (reproduced by kind permission of the Wireless World). are seven light sources and 24 mirrors.
in the neighbourhood . so that with a wave-band of 700 kilocycles a radio channel for television purposes could be utilised on a short wave-length of 20 metres. this reason that the seven photo-electric required. spots traces own picture Each of and has the seven lightto be controlled It is independently from the transmitting end.io8 PRACTICAL TELEVISION its screen has been traversed. The suggested is distance apart of these carrier waves 100 kilocycles. for cells are Hence a multiplex radio system of trans- mission sending out seven different carrier waves should be capable of transmitting seven crude but differing pictures that can be blended into one picture at the receiving end.
A brief glance at their properties and marvellous be- haviour should therefore prove of service. hitherto little-known television phenomena into the service of occasion. especially in the realm of the infinitely small. The employment of Cathode-rays together with other aids is exceedingly interesting as the unique characteristics of these rays suggest to the inventive mind many possibilities. and other The enlistment of some of these recent discoveries. and Campbell Swinton's forms of apparatus already mentioned. Dauvillier's. has been attempted on more than one For instance. the use of the Cathode-rays in Belin's. VI RESEARCHES WITH THE CATHODE-RAYS THERE are many secrets of nature that have been unlocked by modern science.CHAPTER Historical. such as those revealed by investigation into the structure of the electron. brought to notice when men began to experiment with vacuum tubes and the properties of vacuous spaces generally and in particCathode-rays were first ular the phenomena in associated with electric air dis- charges evacuated. a glass tube from which had been have The advances made 109 in this direction in been due largely to the researches high vacua by . atom and the the detection of invisible rays.
Electric Discharge in an Exhausted Tube.no Gaede in PRACTICAL TELEVISION Germany. Campbell The Phenomena It is of the Discharge Tube. R. possible to detect luminous streamers which appear to proceed in a direction from the Cathode and penetrate a short distance along the length of the tube. further reductions of pressure approaching Still 10- millionths of an atmosphere make the walls of the tube show a bright green fluorescence. suitable object A interposed in that part known as the Crookes' dark . negative charges of electricity soon when the of the charge changes pressure gas is reduced. Exhaustion of the discharge tube beyond i/iooooth or loo-millionths of an atmosphere causes It is then rapid changes in the discharge phenomena. well known that if a closed glass tube with a metal disc electrode sealed into each end. This diselectrons. between the electrodes.D. be connected to a high vacuum pump. 63). Langmuir and Dushman in Knudsen in Denmark.e. America. i. a Cathode plate and an Anode plate (Fig. The discharge consists of Faraday Dark Space Anode Negative Striations Glow FIG. N. after the first reduction of pressure " " a form of a spark discharge will pass which only requires for its production a small applied P. 63. and Dewer and in this country.
the usual method of applying the field being by means of a short solenoid coil of about 6 inches FIG. etc. stream " of radiation from the Cathode the name Cathode-rays. a piece of platinum foil is hung inside the tube.RESEARCHES WITH CATHODE-RAYS in on the walls space causes a sharp shadow of it to appear Goldstein gave this phenomenon or of the tube. Deflecting Cathode-rays by Magnet. thus a concave Cathode which focusses the rays Now Cathodeconverging them to a point. 64. when focussed on any material substance produce melted." Properties and Characteristics of Cathode-rays. an ordinary horse- shoe magnet will deflect the rays so as to bring the . but not too near the focus of the rays. If therefore glass is great heat hot. a fact first A An interesting experiment may be performed by making use of rays. These Cathode-rays are deflected by a magnetic field. Fleming. discovered by Dr. platinum foil rendered reddue to the impact of electrons. horse-shoe magnet will produce the same effect. diameter.
and others improved on the original form of vacuum tube and the Cathode-ray The Cathodeoscillograph tube was evolved from it. either magnetically or electrically. 64). and there is no limit to the speed at which it can travel. The inside of the tube at large . a brilliant spot of light is produced so that by using the Cathode-ray in conjunction with a fluorescent screen we can get a receiving device capable of following almost any speed. The purpose likelihood of Cathode-rays serving a useful in experimental television may be appreciated perhaps more readily by glancing at the construction of a typical Cathode-ray tube. ray oscillograph. pencil- like discharge and this pencil of rays can be moved any direction.ii2 focus on to the (Fig. has no weight and therefore no inertia. unsurpassed as an inertia-free recorder. foil PRACTICAL TELEVISION and raise it to a bright red heat The in It rays are produced in the form of a thin. It differs a little from the is early forms of tube in that the source of electrons a hot filament instead its of a gas discharge. Fig. Braun. The Cathode-ray Oscillograph. having been used for studying the wave-form and purity of high frequency currents like those obtained in line telephony is and in wireless practice with conspicuous success. the outcome of vacuum tube research. 65 gives a a general idea of the form and construction of such tube. When this pencil of rays strikes a plate of fluorescent material. Crookes.
I F IG> 65. . The Cathode-ray Tube or Oscillograph. [To face page 112.
The heated by a 4. usually about 1*3 to 1*5 amps. persistence of vision being relied ing it a great on to give a defined image. During the last few years there has been extensive development both in the construction and technique filament of application of the Cathode-ray tube. a single spot of light can be seen by the eye traversing the fluorescent screen at a rate of between 200 and 300 miles an hour.or 6-volt accumulator. . tungsten. in the present chapter a few other weck's and types of apparatus employing the Cathode-rays are now given. and their modern development the Oscillograph several inventors conceived the idea of utilising the Cathode-ray by deflect- Cathode-ray number of times per second for the of purpose producing a series of dots on a screen so many times a second. Dauvillier's apparatus and their of the Cathode-ray in attempting to solve application the problem of television have already been outlined in the last chapter . With presentday apparatus. and zinc silicate. The spot where the electrons strike is thus rendered bright and luminous for visual observation. Subsequent to the discovery of Crookes' tube. The focussing of the ray on the fluorescent screen is brought about merely by adjustment of the filament current.RESEARCHES WITH CATHODE-RAYS end is 113 coated with a fluorescent substance a mixture of calcium. Belin and Hol- M. being consumed by the filament when electrons is the beam of is correctly adjusted. Braun's tube. MM.
a Russian professor. The varying current from the cell was transmitted to the receiver. Rosing used as his as transmitter two mirror polyhedrons revolving at right angles to each other. the amount of the ray which passed through being proportional to the current passing through the magnet cell. His transmitting arrangements were similar in principle to the others. Transmitter FIG.PRACTICAL TELEVISION Rosing s Attempts with the Cathode-ray. This ray was . Boris Rosing. he dispensed altogether with mechanical parts and used instead the Cathode-ray. 66. but his receiving device was very original. in 1907 brought out a device of a novel and interesting character. 66). and here it passed through a magnet which deflected the Cathode-ray away from an aperture placed in its path. Rosing's Apparatus. Acting on the ideas inspired by such a promising ally in field of television research as the Cathode-ray. their combined motion causing an image of the object transmitted to pass over a lightsensitive cell (Fig.
letter in Campbell Swinton published a Nature prior in this letter to the publication of Rosing's device. Proposed Construction for using Cathode-rays in Television. Mr. By this means he abolished mechanical inertia at his receiver but not at his transmitter.RESEARCHES WITH CATHODE-RAYS 115 caused to traverse a fluorescent screen by currents sent out from coils joined to the mirror polyhedrons. COUPLED ALTERNATORS TRANSMITTER FIG. and he suggested a design of apparatus in which Cathoderays could be both at the transmitting and receiving . 67. Transmitting Circuit. Campbell Swinton's In this connection Suggestion. it should be noted that Mr.
in Television. PRACTICAL TELEVISION And. he pointed out that by employing an imponderable agent of extreme tenuity like the Cathode-ray. 67 and 68). in an address given before the in 1911. Campbell Swinton proposed to use at the trans- mitting and receiving ends of his apparatus a Cathoderay tube having the Cathode itself heated by one or two cells (Figs. 68. Mr.n6 ends. Proposed Construction for using Cathode-rays Receiving Circuit. At both ends the Cathode- . the difficulty of securing the Rontgen Society essential feature of extremely rapid and accurate RECEIVER FIG. motion required with mechanical parts could be removed. further.
Cathode-rays can be bent by the action of a magnet. but in the case of those cubes that are brightly illuminated by the to projected image. mechanical exploring devices being thus dispensed with at both receiver and transmitter. and on its other side is a chamber that filled with sodium vapour or any other gas negative electricity (electrons) more readily under the influence of light than in the dark. Upon this by a Cathode-ray. this Cathode-ray traversing a fluorescent screen in synchronism with the ray at the transmitter.RESEARCHES WITH CATHODE-RAYS rays impinge 117 on screens. the receiver. In the case of cubes on which no light is projected. At screen consists of a (or number the transmitting end the of small cubes of potassium rubidium) surrounded with insulating material. rubidium. The metallic cubes are made of potassium. the mosaic to be traversed to light. The fluctuating current thus produced controls the intensity of the Cathode-ray at the receiver. no action takes place. and . the negative charge imparted passes through the ionised line them by the Cathode-rays sodium vapour along the light until it of the illuminating beam of reaches the screen. screen the rays impinge. each cube discharging tional to the in turn as the ray travels across it. conducts or other strongly active photo-electric element because such elements readily discharge electrons when exposed mosaic can be projected an image of the scene to be transmitted. On the one side of this thereby forming a mosaic. whence the charge travels to the plate of This plate on becoming charged acts on the Cathode-rays in the receiver. the discharge being proporamount of illumination received.
. so that variations in the intensity of the rays cast on the screen produces a replica of the picture transmitted. At the receiving end the screen on which the beam impinges must be a sensitive fluorescent substance. the picture surface in a tenth of a second (the maximum limit for visual persistence). The electromagnets are placed at right angles to each other and supplied with alternating current of widely different This causes the two beams to sweep over frequencies. one at the transmitting end and the other at the receiving end.n8 therefore PRACTICAL TELEVISION by synchronously deflecting the two beams of Cathode-rays. the varying magnetic fields of two electro-magnets are set up.
that to say. and it is the perfecting of the means and devices for transmitting and receiving this image that enables television to be successfully accomplished. and therefore a few cursory remarks on the theory of light The study and its transmission may prove helpful. Light-Sources and Illuminants.CHAPTER THE results at VII IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION of modern research of radio seeing seem to indicate quite definitely that with the present means our disposal an image of the scene or object must be formed before the transmission can be attained with any degree of success. is it is Before we can it necessary for it to be either self-luminous. the minute particles of which up the vibrations of waves that affect the eye. or the body itself must be capable of reflecting light from some selfluminous source. Thus the sun is a self-luminous is composed must themselves set 119 . on which proposed images are formed preparatory to a description of the latest developed system of television so that the It is to recount the principles practical application may be understood more readily. see a body. of Optics assists very considerably in following out the ideas and principles applied.
The sun.e. but they render visible all surrounding objects that are not self-luminous. a i. a lighted candle. Light is definitely known to travel at an inconceivable speed.120 PRACTICAL TELEVISION body. or to to Light. believed to is. faster than that of any moving material body. How Light Travels. are objects glow lamp. These self-luminous bodies are not only seen directly by the eye by virtue of the rays proceeding from them. Calculations made during astronomical observations and measurements carried out with optical apparatus confirm this state- . an electric fire-fly. In television we are mainly concerned with the latter kind Whether we transmit a daylight scene of luminosity. such as the articles of furniture in a room when an electric lamp is switched on. which are said to emit light. a in a darkened or scene room. all The rays of the latter being fall transmitted in directions on non-luminous bodies like the walls and furniture and the rays are thrown back or reflected so as to reach the eye. ideas. are self-luminous. it is the rays of light thrown on to the scene. but the moon is rendered luminous by reflecting the rays of light that stream upon it from the sun. either those proceeding from the sun or from an artificial source of light. speak more broadly radiation. that render it possible to transmit the scene. according electro-magnetic waves set up by vibrations of the minute entities that compose its source and trans- modern consist of mitted by wave motion through the all-pervading medium known as the ether.
has all the it is properties of light. setting they are cm. travel is not known to us for a certainty. that Hence up electro-magnetic radiation. however.IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION ment. The mode by which radiant light and electricity. or the of electro-magnetic waves. Hertz Experiments in Electro-magnetic Radiation. in his first to classical experiments was the show that they are identical when oscillations of electric current are set . Therefore we may . per second. Hertz. up across in the an air-gap such oscillations produce waves air.700. speed is equivalent to that of a body going round the earth seven and a half times in one second.000 miles distant) thus The A Its takes about eight minutes to reach the earth. ray of light from the sun (92.000 miles per second in all directions. neighbouring ether just as a tuning-fork of sound in sets up waves Hertz detected these waves by suitable apparatus. investigated their properties. The so question arises vast a distance ? : How We does this energy travel can only imagine two methods (1) By movement of matter through space (CorBy a handing on of energy from point to point puscular Theory). in and particular clearly demonstrated I0 propagated with a velocity of 3 x io This value is the same as that obtained for the velocity of light. 121 accepted figure for the speed of light is 186. (2) (Wave Theory). which are now regarded as one. with the only difference that on an enormously greater scale.
example. enormously large in the case of sound waves and extremely small in the case of light waves. From a certain it phenomena in connection with is photo-electricity seems very probable that there light. light waves only one twenty-thousandth of a If we could only have the objects centimetre. and all of light. has hitherto practical experiment and calculais tions have so far demonstrated that the hypothesis a workable one . long. practical applications Light Waves. whereas light when it meets an opaque This is explained by obstacle casts a sharp shadow. a more For accurate idea and comparison could be conceived. will travel the difference in length between a sound wave and a Sound waves are ordinarily a metre or so light wave. especially in the case of sound. when a church bell is sounded and a house is . Our everyday are that wave motion round corners. a kind of corpuscular theory of The wave-theory held the day. The wave theory of light perhaps gives rise to is some to difficulty in accepting the view that light ideas due wave-motion. and on account of their minute- ness send out very much shorter waves and accord- ingly waves of far higher frequency than the Hertzian waves. it serves as a foundation on all its which the superstructure of light in can rest.122 PRACTICAL TELEVISION conclude that light is electro-magnetic radiation set up by the vibrations of the infinitely small particles that constitute the source. however.
if is the sound being much with the house between him and the hearer stands This a may is be observed in a still greater degree shadow formed by a On the sound waves from a big explosion. a very 123 formed. namely. the other hand. are so small that the human eye cannot detect the mechanism of the eye is not adapted for their frequency of vibration to effect the sensitivity of the optic nerve and thus convey any impression to the brain without artificial aid. that is. caused by the light waves spreading into the space behind. it will be found that a little light does get behind the edge.IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION the obstacle. marked sound shadow less intense if the bell. This will be referred to more fully later on. and meeting there. but even the shortest of them their very small length . the length from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next (Fig. not a fine black shadow. differ in size. The shadow of a needle or a hair when light from a it is single point or a single narrow slit is incident upon found to be. which passing by it. and since the . on the contrary. if the shadow thrown by a small hill to sharp-edged object placed in front of a brilliant source of light be examined by a fairly high power eye-glass. This is the chief feature about light-waves. but. The difference in size of the waves is called their wave-length. 69). a shadow with curiously fringed edges and is with a line of light right throughout the very middle of the shadow. some them In consequence of this latter feature. Hence there are visible and also invisible rays.
Length) fashion to measure physical phenomena inwave motion in volving frequencies. 69. and Shadows.->. The velocity or speed of light. A Shadow Cone. remains the same. whether the waves are short or long. we obtain what is known as a shadow FIG. 70. This result let not desired in true a source of For example. however. light in the and an opaque body be placed . Wave-length. television. it is < * w now becoming the all A .I2 4 PRACTICAL TELEVISION vibration or creation of short waves involves a greater frequency of movement than the creation of long waves. and the equation frequency holds good in Lights all = velocity/wave-length cases. let S denote path of Since the rays of light proceeding from S (Fig. is of that object. If an object intercepts the rays of the light proceeding from any source. FIG. 70).
it follows that a darkened cone. the rays from every point on the source go to form a separate shadow cone from the object.) . respectively. For true television. S (Fig. J5. (A. thrown from an opaque sphere. formed when a naked arc light is the If the source of light large in comparison with its 1 C FIG. Opaque Sphere C. and it is only the space is common light. Umbral. termed the umbral and penumbral. will enable us to see clearly the difference between true television and the systems that have already been demonstrated as such. distance from the object. Very is sharp shadows source. extends beyond the shadow cone and any point A screen within this cone receives no light from S. the axis of the shadow cone placed at right angles to opaque body called a will show a well-defined are shadow of the object. Umbral and Penumbral Shadow Cones. shadow cones A and foregoing accounts of Lights and Shadows. B. 71). O. to all these shadow cones which sections of the free from Compare the C. by light from opposite points of an extended source. although perhaps given in rather an elementary form for the benefit of readers The unacquainted with optics.IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION the rays that fall 125 directly on the opaque body are blocked and those that just pass it are not bent. Penumbral. we need . 71.
etc. and let refracted ray. Light is assumed to travel in straight lines in any medium of uniform density. where the straight line It the surface at O. so that it is seen on the receiving screen as observer. represent the OB Then the is called the angle and angle of incidence AON BON' NON is r the angle of refraction. 72. water. glass. and detail. 72) represent a ray of light passing through cident at O on the surface of FIG. but in travelling from N one medium to another it suffers deviation on account at of its refraction the sur- face of the separation of the two media. Let AO air (Fig. . such as air. shade. (in Refracted Light the Angle of Incidence is equal to the Angle of Reflection. Refraction of Light Rays.) and in- a piece of glass. True television means the trans- mission of the image of an object with all gradations of light. Incident and Refracte fracted Ray. represents the normal to for this reason that an image can be formed by a lens. The light from some source must be reflected from all points on the scene and be brought by to means of a lens form an image. as we shall see in the following paragraph.. Images appears to the eye of an actual may be formed either by one or it more lenses or by means of mirrors.126 to PRACTICAL TELEVISION have an image formed of the scene to be transmitted.
74). Hence in television before a scene or object can be transmitted any distance. out. results achieved in television are due to this transmission of images.73. If it is we have a mirror with a surface that bulges out. A Convex Mirror. FIG. the light vision. 127 When known retina an object or body is seen by the eye. it is called a concave mirror (Fig. to use either a Mirrors and Lenses. A Concave Mirror. 73).IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION Images. not shadows. of the Shadows are easily transmitted. what is as an image of the object is thrown on the where the nerve-centres convey the impression image or concentration of all rays proceeding from the object that produces It is this to the brain. If it is called a convex mirror (Fig. otherwise we get a shadow of the object and the successful scene or object. A convex mirror will cause a divergence of the rays . 74. they appear to come from a virtual focus from behind the mirror . an image of it must be formed. hollowed Line ofSi$ht I -* Line of Sight FIG. The best method of forming is an image for television purposes mirror or a lens. as we saw in Chapter V.
it will cause the rays to be focussed real at a point in mid-air (Fig.128 (Fig. 76). 76. than at the piece of glass that is thicker in the middle edge a convex lens the waves or rays converge to a focus and a real image can be formed. forming a image. With a piece . With a FIG. If a concave silvered mirror be placed in a beam of light from any FIG. 75). Image formed by Convex Mirror. source. 75. but PRACTICAL TELEVISION no real image is formed. Image formed by Concave Mirror.
consider light be transmitted by we means of wave-motion. polished a re-bound of the waves that impinge on the simply surface. the wave bulging wave as if diverging from some virtual focus and no real image is formed. connected with For example. If This may be made clear by the aid of 77. Fig. FIG. emerge as a A lens may thus be regarded as a combination refracting surfaces either of plane. Illustrating Refraction of the reflection of light from a plane or curved surface that is is Light. 77. waves of light from P strike against the surface of a thick glass plate a wave reaches SS'. air. A little later 9 . that part of the wave-front that strikes the glass first will go more slowly after entry and the other part which is going on a little longer time in air gains on the part that entered first. or concave. If to of two which may be convex. Light travels more slowly in glass than in if so that in consequence it follows quite simply that the waves strike obliquely against the surface of a glass. so that the direction of the wave-front is changed and the line of march is also changed. it quite easy to understand many of the is laws that and phenomena are it.IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION of glass that will is 129 a concave lens thinner in the middle than at the edges the effect is just the opposite.
130 it PRACTICAL TELEVISION (in air) would reach TT' . glass that is thicker in the middle than at the edges then we can is use it to form a real image. set of arcs can be described by means of com- case being passes to represent the various wavelets. The wave point. This sudden change in its path caused by a ray of light entering a denser in a straight line takes the course medium is known by the name of refraction. but it has struck a denser medium first will (glass) and the part of the wave that enters A only reach //. This property of refraction can be used to converge For example. if we take a piece of light to a focus. which is a much flatter curve having its centre at Q. 78. the wave-front that has travelled in the direction PT' has its direction changed it instead of going along T' A T'E as if it had come from Q. or two-thirds of the distance. Glass the medium used in focussing the object and . the arc in each made only two-thirds of the distance that the passing The overcould have gone on to TT'. ) Concave C Diverging ) Various Types of Lenses. lapping wavelets build up the new wave-front HT' y light wave of would have had to go if after the surface it Convex (Converging FIG. therefore will appear to proceed from this Again.
e. since the rays have to be through it. 78 may take. concave lens. i. shows sectional views of the forms that lenses Fig. is capable of converging or diverging the rays of light passed In television. and when made in the form of a solid with spherical surfaces. convex lenses only are necessary. .IMAGES AND THEIR FORMATION 131 forming an image for television purposes. either a convex or converged.
he demonstrated true television to the Royal Institution. L. and subsequently. Baird. Mr. J. and while a system of television based on the application of Cathode-rays is most fascinating in its possibilities. Outline of Principles Employed in Bawd's System. and now apparatus designed for making use of the Cathode-rays is perhaps the most interesting. Baird. was the first demonstration of true television ever given. as in other systems. mechanical exploring Mr. ceeded some three years ago in publicly demonstrating the transmission of outline images by wireless between two separate machines. the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient response from the light-sensitive cell in this. but all have failed to produce true television. using suc- a purely mechanism. members of The principle followed by other inventors has been 132 . real images with This gradation of light and detail being transmitted. preventing true television from being devised. in January 1926. up to the present time no practical success The has been achieved by it.CHAPTER THE VIII THE BAIRD TELEVISOR systems described so far have in a few cases enabled shadows to be transmitted. which was first attained by is the apparatus invented by in practical operation.
that of rapidly traversing an image of the object or scene to be transmitted over a light-sensitive parallel paths. which will be described in or a series of having lenses. object. of light-sensitive cell used by Mr. pictures. is the transmitting end.. a picture. like a scene rapid succession. The light proceeding from a brilliant source is reflected from the picture surface and focussed by means of the projection lens and through revolving The special type discs on to the light-sensitive cell. swept across the picture by moving made up of moving people. or scene alter the intensity of the rays reflected from it. apertures.THE BAIRD TELEVISOR 133 adopted in this system. Baird gives an instantaneous effect. which are focussed on to the light-sensitive cell. in The finely-drawn lines of light are means of revolving discs etc. detail later on in this chapter. The varying gradations of light and shade of the picture. thereby causing electrical current variations to be given out by the cell which vary in strength in accordance with the light variations and are by this means transmitted to the receiving apparatus. The a series of closely-drawn picture reproduced is therefore cell in one made up of fine parallel lines. and it is possible with such a cell to send a figure. the light-sensitive cell used the principal agent in effecting the transmission of At the picture. variations in light intensity from the picture as they fall on the cell produce variations in electric The current just as variations in speech uttered into a telephone transmitter produce variations in current along the line wire and actuate the diaphragm of the . namely.
and consists at the transmitting end of a roughly constructed disc of cardboard containing 32 lenses in mounted on a shaft. 80) Behind this and mounted on the same shaft are two additional discs.134 PRACTICAL TELEVISION In the case of television. 79. actual principle as applied in mitting end is shown in working at the transdiagrammatic form in Fig. 79. Motor Object To Radio Transmitting Apparatus FIG. The . receiver at the distant end. the varying currents set up by the light-sensitive cell are sent to that portion of the transmitting set which These currents on being throws them into the ether. Original Apparatus (a) The tions is demonstraapparatus used in the first of these Science now in the South Kensington Museum. received by the receiving set vary and control the light from a lamp placed behind an arrangement of revolving discs similar to that at the transmitting end. staggered formation (see Fig. one with a large number of radial slots . Diagrammatic Sketch of Transmitting Arrangements. To Radio Transmitting Lens Disc Apparatus D. Transmitting End.C..
spiral slot (Fig. (6) Source of light. 82. 80). (3) disc revolving with single spiral slot. Object or scene. FIG. 81. thus causing a series of images of the object or scene to pass across the aperture to the is This which 32 convex is light- FIG. A at how II. these discs are mounted was given parts : Chap. speed 800 revs. 29. in front of which placed the object. A revolving slotted disc. 135 and behind 82). is revolving lens disc (Fig. The (1) (2) essential the transmitting end are therefore A revolving lens disc. it another disc with a single sketch showing in Fig. 80. . A (4) (5) A light-sensitive cell. set.THE BAIRD TELEVISOR (Fig. The provided with a single spiral of rotated at a high lenses. Disc with Radial Slots (64 Slots). disc. per minute. Disc with Spiral Slot. (7) Radio transmitting FIG. is the principal item of apparatus. 81). The Lens Disc (32 Lens).
is slot. A ground-glass screen. and Fig. . A revolving disc with spiral A glow discharge lamp. 83 gives a diagrammatic sketch of this The arrangement. slot there would be only one strip for each lens. PRACTICAL TELEVISION Before reaching this aperture the light is broken up by the slots in the second disc. The two terminals of the photo-electric this disc any required number of may be cell are connected by insulated leads to the radio transmitting apparatus alternatively they can be connected to an . ordinary twin pair telephone Receiving End. line.136 sensitive cell. and thus divides the image into a greater number of Without the use of the disc with the spiral strips. By using strips obtained by the use of only a few lenses. position corresponding with that of the light-sensitive The variations of light cell at the sending end. per minute. The effect of the disc having the spiral slot is to give a backwards and forwards motion to the slot admittinglight to the cell. (1) They are : (2) (3) (4) (5) It will A revolving lens disc. intensity fall on a ground-glass screen. showing a reproduced image of the object or scene transmitted. A radio receiving set. (b) principal parts of the receiving end are almost identical. which revolves at 1000 revs. be observed that behind the second disc lighted is the its lamp that by the receiving current.
The alternating current from this generator and the fluctuating current from the cell are superimposed upon a carrier wave sent out and transmitted Lens Disc Jo Radio Receiver D. At Mr. At the receiver the two currents are filtered out. presence To obtain synchronism. Diagrammatic Sketch of Receiving Apparatus.C.C. the A. one set for synBaird's demonstration chronising and one for Television. motor. motor being used to prevent hunting. two separate transmitters and receivers were used for simplicity.THE BAIRD TELEVISOR There is 137 no slotted disc at the receiving end . motor driving Synchronism is obtained approximately by adjusting the D. two motors are employed a direct current motor which supplies the driving power is and an alternating-current generator running at 500 cycles per second which sends out a synchronising signal. to the receiver. Motor A.Synchronous Glow Lamp Screen Single Spiral To Radio Disc Receiver FIG. its quite unnecessary. . 83.C. the alternating current after amplification is used to control the speed of a synchronous motor directly coupled to the shaft of the D. the receiving apparatus.C.C.
so that the speed of traversal of the image is doubled with each operation It is an without increasing the mechanical speed. however. so that the motions they give to the image . He uses a succession described as an optical lever. of exploring devices. 85 is applying this principle. gives a Mr. the first point which appears obvious is that a limit would arise in endeavouring to obtain a large Mechanical considerations image. is caused by the rotation of the spirally slotted lens disc.138 PRACTICAL TELEVISION The fluctuating current. The two systems of lensed discs revolve in opposite directions. a drawing reproduced from the one of the methods of specification which indicates Fig. controls the light of the lamp. Baird's apparatus. finely-grained would prevent the fixed from revolving beyond a speed of possibly 3000 revs. after amplification. 265640 method whereby this mechanical limitation may be overcome. The light from this lamp disc. 84). per minute as a discs the use of the Cathode-ray gives us an exploring device without mechanical limits of any maximum. which is a glow discharge lamp of the Neon type (Fig. whereas sort. His method consists in using what is Baird. In criticising original form of Mr. in his patent No. to traverse the screen exactly cell and the in step with the traversal of the image over the this at the transmitter. each device exploring the moving image of the one preceding it. of relative application to television of the principle motion.
. [To face page 138. 84.OSdL . Neon Lamp. - FIG.
THE BAIRD TELEVISOR 139 CD .
is immense intrinsic is brilliancy necessary if adequate illumination to be obtained. Baird's machine. A a further point arises. which is the would be inadequate to cover a screen of The image given by Mr. 86 with the arrangement of spiral-lensed disc. and other parts already mentioned for the purpose of causing the image to traverse the lightThe light waves sensitive cell in a series of strips. but while it seems that this could not be done with the use of a single moving light spot. 266591. in fact.140 PRACTICAL TELEVISION by the final are additive. from the view or scene by this means impinge inter- . is Accordingly. and. a plurality of such points should not be used. measured only about 2 by 3 inches in his first machine. To cover a screen equivalent to the modern cinema screen and with equal brilliance is. however. large dimensions. even the most intense source of arc lamp. lateral motion being given lens disc. Baird's patent specification No. a different matter. two or more photo-electric cells or other light-sensitive cells may be used as indicated in Fig. while quite sufficiently brilliant. as indicated in Mr. Such brilliancy as that obtainable from lamps of the glow discharge type would be sufficient to cover only a very small screen. point of light covers the whole screen. so that. The image is by moving point of light traversing a screen. slotted disc. although latterly by increasing the in brilliancy of his this he has succeeded 8 bringing glow lamps measurement up to by 12 inches. point is reproduced This if the small and the screen large. there no reason why. light obtainable.
nals The sig- of different frequencies so obtained are to be transmitted on the carrier wave sent out by the FIG. the number of holes in the outer set being double the number of those in the inner set. each cell or dealing with its own wave-band of the view scene. It is necessary to have a different frequency of intermittence for the light waves incident on each of the cells. The lensed disc has 1 2 lenses set in spiral contour and is mounted on a shaft with disc is which it is rotatable. diagrammatic view of the arrangement of parts and connections is shown in Fig. so that each cell sets up a current having a fre- quency differing from that of any of the other joined in circuit as cells light-sensitive devices. the distance end. transmitting station and received at Arrangement with two or more Photo-electric Cells. The double slotted a rotatable disc having two sets of radially arranged holes or slots. where they are separated out by means of filter circuits or sent on separate wave lengths and reproduce the image. as the descriptions of the various parts A have been added on the drawing. . 86.THE BAIRD TELEVISOR 141 mittently on the separate light-sensitive cells. image transmitted and controlling its own light source. 87 and should be self-explanatory.
. 88. 86.142 Light Sensitive Cells PRACTICAL TELEVISION f^ cr Double Slotted or Holed Disc Lens ISC View Scene on Object to be Transmitted. Baird's Method of employing Plurality of Light Sources. Diagrammatic View of Arrangement in Fig. 18 Rows of Lamps Holes Object Lens Revolving " Plate FIG. Shaft Shaft Primary . Coils Jo Line Secondary Coil FIG. 87.
A valve it amplifier strengthens this varying current so that can be transmitted. to the receiving station. batteries cell. 88) revolves in exact . At the receiving end a brush arrangement fitted at the end of an arm (see Fig. when connected to a wireless transmitter set.88). say. Baird's Patent No. Here. so that a moving light spot traverses is the screen. has a primary coil of its own. each lamp being thus connected in turn with the transmitter.T. light-sensitive cells are connected to ordinary H. but the complexity a the apparatus barrier involved its would appear considerable to practical use. in place of a single light source. With of this system there no limit to the size of the screen nor to its brilliancy. a lightis placed behind an exploring disc at the transmitter and the variations of light falling on it sensitive cell cause the current set up in the cell to vary. and to a transformer as shown. in succession by a commutator revolving in synchron- ism with the transmitter. The outer set of disc revolves at holes may be arranged to give. 2000 or more The interruptions per second of the light waves. but the two primary coils are connected to a secondary coil which is common to both. a plurality of light sources These are fed disposed to form a screen is used. As in previous types of similar apparatus. Each light- however. in Another altogether different method is indicated Mr.THE BAIRD TELEVISOR This latter 143 a speed so that 1000 interruptions (or more) per second of the light waves from the inner set of holes are given. 222604 ( Fi g.
the appropriate lamp is brightly . there are the more perfect in detail will be the repro- duced image. bright part of the image is traversed by the light that lit passes through a hole. each of which is connected to a small electric glow lamp. and the arm. on the other hand. rows of 20 lamps contacts.144 PRACTICAL TELEVISION synchronism with the transmitting disc already referred to. . Since there must be a each lamp. sweeps first over the contacts connected with the row of lamps. in each row would require 360 has already been said on the general be it will theory of working television apparatus. which synchronism with the disc. light from a dim part of the image passes through a hole. thus lighting each lamp in turn as it touches the corresponding contact. A in it. to give better definition. Each hole in the disc has therefore its If at the moment a corresponding row of lamps. since these lamps constitute the screen on which the picture can be viewed. and each row may have any number contact for as already mentioned. There is an indefinite number of these lamps the more lamps - . the corresponding lamp will be dull. disc of 1 8 holes should have 18 rows of such of lamps 18 lamps. if. Each hole in the transmitting disc as it revolves sweeps out a strip of the revolves in exact image. As this brush revolves it passes over a series of contacts marked in the drawing. numerous evident that the varying brightness of the From what lamps that form the screen will reproduce the image.
Baird's system of Exploring the Object to be Transmitted by a Single Point of Intense Light. 89.THE BAIRD TELEVISOR and that visual persistence will blend the rapid successive variations into one whole image. Baird's Patent No. is described in Mr. Another interesting patent which description indicates the is worthy of method of obtaining intense illumination of the object to be transmitted without the Source of Light Object Light Sensitive Cell Source of Rotating Disc Series of Mirrors Lenses Object Light Sensitive Cell FIG. it may be made very . This pencil of light is the caused to traverse object and is used in conjunction with a stationary photo-electric cell. 269658 and consists of exploring the object to be transmitted by a single point of intense light. As the point of light is 10 continually moving. The system disadvantage of brilliant flood lighting.
146 intense PRACTICAL TELEVISION without inconvenience to the sitter. of the features the various matically 89) The drawing indicates . The patent describes methods of using a moving light spot alone. and also in conjunction with a device causing the image to traverse the simultaneously with the traversal of the light spot over the object. (Fig. purely diagraminvention. This combination gives the advantage that the cell maximum on the cell light available at any instant is concentrated by the action of the second exploring device.
To-day more ingenious devices and apparatus and improved methods . two and when at a later stage transmission without wires was essayed. leaving development we now come to an examination of present-day practice REVOLUTIONARY advances dealt with of reproducing scenes that are ordinarily out of range of human vision. 90) was the only available means of bridging space. Therefore the of the art as already outlined. the details of which were in in the preceding chapter. devices that in made Korn's and Belin's early successes phototelegraphy epoch-marking events in the past. Their crude but encouraging results were only achieved in those pioneering days of the art by relying on a line or metallic conductor to carry the transmission over different points. a matter that will acquire greater importance in succeeding years. notably those brought about by Mr. differ from the that is. the employment of syntonic wireless with carborundum detector (Fig. Baird. transmitting actual scenes as distinct from cinematelegraphy or phototelegraphy. Present-day methods of achieving true television.CHAPTER Present State of the Art. IX TELEVISION TECHNIQUE technique have been made during the past two or three years.
or objects to be transmitted. be. It will of how various be obvious from the few details already given investigators have endeavoured to M/ Transmitter FIG. because it can be used only after reflection and consequent attenuation. Syntonic Wireless Circuit with Carborundum Detector. and continents may be termed " wireless telephoning. a strong and is A source of light brilliant illuminant. and the operation of transmitting sight without the aid of any material link whatever be quite accurately described as in just the " may wireless seeing. as follows : These may be summarised (i) necessary to illuminate the This must scene." Modern Requisites and Procedure. 90. so far as experiment has taught us. oceans. . object." same way that speech 'across countries.i 48 PRACTICAL TELEVISION of transmission can be incorporated into the electrical circuit arrangements. design apparatus for seeing by wireless that certain requisites are necessary and that certain well-defined briefly principles must be followed.
The only way in which the whole image can be rendered visible in the ordinary it way is to show on the screen at the same rate and in the same as pictures are manner about shown at the cinema. eye. pictures every second. best known amplifiers of current are the ordinary valve amplifiers. must be split up into strips which are (3) received synchronously in a similar fashion and by a similar device at the receiving end and rapidly thrown on a screen. Feeble currents only can be expected to be set up by this means. to This image. in namely. by means of a device at the transmitting end.TELEVISION TECHNIQUE (2) It is 149 necessary to focus the object or scene so as form an image. (4) During this process the or graduations of light device that will convert the graduation of light and shade into variations of electric current at the trans" This is the electric The mitting end. the photo-electric cell at present holding and will continue to hold the field until outclassed by a better device. sixteen whole succession due to visual persistence. . both at the transmitting and receiving ends. since no material substance is known that will give out currents strong enough for the (5) purpose required and hence a magnification or an The amplifier of the current impulses is necessary. Some means must be adopted. the picture thus appearing as a continuous one." various forms of light-sensitive cell that are used as electric eyes image with its variations and shade must be cast on to a have already been fully described. such as a system of lenses or mirrors for image formation.
A bank of 20 ordinary 40 watt lamps at about 2 feet from the sitter was subsequently adopted. providing a suitable source of light for use with either a selenium cell or any form of photo-electric cell has always been one not easily over- The difficulty of come. so that the light reflected from the object may be of maximum intensity. ample whose person Fig. The brilliance of these lamps was controlled by a resistance so illumination without distressing image was being transmitted. it is thrown on to a receiving screen. but withal of sufficient power and brilliance. in fact even a 500 candle-power lamp at a short distance has a most unpleasant effect upon the eyes. Synchronism. The image thus formed has therefore variations of light and shade similar to the transmitted image when Illuminants. but much too bright to be comfortable for a human face. Originally jection Mr. The source of illumination must be one of steady and uniform intensity. Baird used a metal filament pro- lamp of 1000 candle-power with his apparatus. This was quite suitable for inanimate objects.150 (6) PRACTICAL TELEVISION An illuminant a necessary at the receiving glow discharge lamp is end which has its intensity of illumination controlled by the varying received current. 91 shows the the as to give A simple method of effecting the synchronism of the transmitting and receiving apparatus is that adopted . bank of lamps employed by Mr. Baird.
To face page 150. Bank of Lamps. 91. .FIG.
one a D. Like the carrier wave in radio telephony transmission. are driven by a two motors. modification of this device was used by the A American Telephone and Telegraph Company recent experiments in America. Synchronism is obtained approximately by adjusting the D. motor was used. this carrier wave is modulated or moulded to conform to the frequencies imposed on it. motor to give the drive. motor.C.C. the rotating discs for focussing and subdividing the image. At the transmitting end the apparatus. in the D. which has the advantage of making the initial process of getting the two machines in step simpler.C. the motor of the receiving machine rotated about its spindle until the received picture correctly framed. motor driving the receiving apparatus.C.C. It has. The alternating current after amplification is used to control the speed of an A. synchronous directly coupled to the shaft of the motor D. generator having a frequency of 500 cycles per shaft connected to second which sends out a synchronising signal. where the filtered out. and the other an A. The alternating current from this generator and the fluctuating current from the light-sensitive cell are sent on wave and sent out two currents are separate wave-lengths or superimposed on a carrier to the receiving end.C. the A. motor being used to prevent hunting.C. however. the very serious disadvantage .TELEVISION TECHNIQUE in the 151 Baird system of television. To obtain is is synchronism. By this means isochronism is obtained. a Instead of using a low frequency A.C. that is to say. motor which supplies the driving power to the shaft.
suitable inductance and capacity is an We have the same conditions to observe and consequently the same wireless apparatus parts to join in circuit. Again. It may the be of interest therefore to outline electrical very briefly equipment and circuit connections. the thermionic valve.152 PRACTICAL TELEVISION of requiring another synchronising line or wave-length. when initial efforts at transmission were made experimenters were very much handicapped because syntonic wireless with carborun- dum detector was the only known means of bridging To-day we have in space without a wire conductor. the careful balancing of an aerial circuit by As with the transmission of music and means of essential. speech without the aid of wires. the development of television was hindered for the want of suitable energising apparatus. a quarter of a century ago. of an ordinary short-distance television wireless circuit so far described has been chiefly that comprising the purely mechanical parts The equipment and their operation. To obtain synchronism. Baird of rotating the driving motor about its spindle. Television Radio Equipment. As already mentioned. conjunction with continuous wave transmission. so with the transmission of sight. which is a great advance in the method of effecting communication without wires between any two points. but there is no need for it to languish on that account to-day. the American Telephone and Telegraph Company use the system described by Mr. since .
decided in the Baird Television Development Company experimenting with syste- . trial and experiment based on in The extremely stations have rapid manner which short wave hundreds of sprung up in recent years. for particular or given trans- the necessary receiving arrangements and connections and the best wave-length on which to work being determined by current radio practice. General experience in radio transmission points to the fact that fading of signals and the occurrence of atmospherics were the be encountered in transmitting vision over considerable distances. that radio television When became evident it was an followed that the next stage was accomplished fact. Short Wave it Wireless Television. having been set up by both commercial companies and Government administrations all over the world.TELEVISION TECHNIQUE 153 the thermionic valve can be utilised both for controlling and amplifying television currents in the various sections of the path between one observer and another. to design and instal equipment necessary to ensure successful commercial operation. the use of transformers and those individual combinations of inductance and capacity known as filters for selecting and rejecting undesired frequencies are now found to be a very important means towards perfecting results. The preliminary data difficulties to already on hand showed what minimum amount of power was necessary mission. and 15 m. transmitting stations working on wave-lengths between 150 m. Further.
Within the three or four years it has been discovered that waves below 100 m. 50 m. transmitting set complete with a small aerial 30 or 40 feet high for a range covering last thousands of miles. although they may be in the ground. other hand. may be confined to one The Special Aerials. The technique of producing and detecting short waves admittedly difficult. . (approximately) display phenomena which are not met with in long waves. short waves are absorbed but very little in the upper regions of the atmosphere. Having decided that short-wave working would for prove on the whole more efficient and satisfactory television transmission than the employment of long waves. the next step was to devise a special form of Since the power may aerial suitable for the purpose. Hence. the drawback of their remarkable inconis stancy. The latter travel in the form of a direct or earth-bound wave and over a great distance may be attenuated by On the absorption to an almost negligible intensity. beyond that there is. but. for example.154 matic long-distance vision PRACTICAL TELEVISION trials on the short wave for tele- purposes. and even when sent plete failure in the dark over different tracks success track and not to the others. One important advantage of the short wave is of time and a 2 kw. effective that a comparatively small expenditure money is required to set up. in addition. scenes televised in daylight quite a comsuccessfully on a certain wave-length may be at night.
Short Wave Transmitting Aerial. a single vertical aerial without mirror or other similar device and of the type shown in Fig. 92. generally Aerial Wire Inductance Coil for Tuning Feed W/res FIG.TELEVISION TECHNIQUE more which it 155 or less be concentrated in the one direction in can be utilised. . 92 has been found sufficient to cause radiation most strongly in a direction inclined to the horizontal when it is excited with an appropriate harmonic of its fundamental frequency. has been tried in many instances exciting a plurality of spaced aerials but. as practised by by Hertz years ago. speaking. beam radiation.
i 56 PRACTICAL TELEVISION Circuits. 93. at present much of the experimental work must be treated as confidential. acting on the ideas inspired by wireless practice in cognate fields. but Fig. the question of design of circuits for the transmitting and receiving sets connected to the purely mechanical As portion of the apparatus is of prime importance. Transmitting Radio-circuit. Here again. The Transmitting and Receiving In conjunction with the design of special aerials. the general type of circuit having what is known as choke control has been adopted. The reduction of the wave-length to 40 metres has been effected in certain instances. 93 gives a suitable circuit for working on the 200 metre circuits in use. and it is found that for transmitting images over very short distances good . diagrams of the actual is now wave-length that normally employed in television. it is not possible to give the Iron Core Choke To Photo Electric Cell FIG.
in that seeing across the ocean and continents is only a matter of time. the conditions governing the use of such a circuit worked on a short wave-length would be very different from a circuit over which long waves are sent. In like . Although the public mind is no doubt surfeited with successive wonders in scientific discovery. Experiments are being conducted at the present time with a view to establish a television circuit across the Atlantic. and while atmospherics would be not nearly so troublesome as on long-wave transmission. Assuming possible. and probably be available results of a sensational shortly. ocean telegraphy merely obtained a series of three To-day messages can be sent and received quite satisfactorily between Europe and America. character will for publication While adopting an that not at attitude of reserve concerning the it success of such an endeavour. they would constitute a factor to be taken into account. The signal strength on a short wavelength would vary from hour to hour.TELEVISION TECHNIQUE results 157 have been obtained by employing a circuit with receiving circuit may be any one of the welltypes of short-wave receiving circuit. should be remembered in his first efforts many years ago Marconi dots. sometimes from minute to minute. so far as our present knowledge extends. The known Transatlantic Television. there is little doubt that another has yet to be added. it a London-New York Television Circuit should be remembered that. grid control.
Now there is no reason from a technical standpoint why these distances should not be greatly increased. signs and wave-lengths. is are available. Since. worked on the same principle as radio telegraphy and radio telephony. the subject of a public announcement very shortly. Television over distances of small range quite an accomplished fact and it only remains to perfect the details of the scenes transmitted. Its Possibilities.158 PRACTICAL TELEVISION manner. not to mention the short wave beam system of transmission. In this respect the utilisation of the short wave or . The same theoretical and mathematical considerations are applicable. their distances apart. the thermionic tube. Hence the aim at the is to extend the time present range of transmission. seeing across the ocean may become an established fact. the time of writing.. the photo-electric cell. as well as many other ingenious mechanical contrivances. Instead of the old tools being relied on. there are several television stations in the country all working on the system At invented by Mr. radio valves. The stations between which operations are carried out Development Company. Baird. there is no reason why seeing events that are happening in America cannot television is be just as easy of accomplishment as ocean talk to America. moreover. and opportunities for receiving scenes by means of Televisors will form official call by the Baird Television Ltd. new ones in the shape of oscillographs.
TELEVISION TECHNIQUE beam system is 159 found to be very much better as a work- ing and commercial proposition than the adoption of long waves. The theoretical considerations respecting wireless equipment and the use of circuits. Primarily short wave transmission has two advantages. it is intended to discuss in another book. (i) its directional character and (2) the comparatively small transmitting power required to ensure successful results. more fully at when television some future time practice has become more advanced. . short waves for television however.
being able to penetrate the fog and 160 affect our . ONE by experiments which have taken place during the last hundred years show us that waves of varying length are transmitted The observed facts as revealed These waves vary in length from through the ether. Ordinary white light manifests itself to us when the whole group of the waves between these limits If. affect the optic nerve. being absorbed and the longer waves only those near the 0-00076 mm. thousands of metres down to lengths so small that even present-day apparatus cannot measure them. . DARKNESS. measure only a fraction of a millimetre. the longer waves have been made quite familiar to us on account of their use in wireless The waves that transmission of sound and speech. are known to length between the us only as light waves. In recent years. They vary in and 0-00039 mm. however.has been achieved by Mr. THE THE PHONOVISOR LONG DISTANCE NOCTOVISOR . we look at the an light through atmosphere of fog it appears to the due shorter waves red. Baird's successful application of the infra-red ray to his televisor. same limit eyes. TRANSMISSION of the most remarkable developments of television . however. limits of 0-00076 mm. VISION IN.CHAPTER X RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.
green. orange. namely. the discoverer of oxygen. but assuming a hair to be y^^th of an inch thick. it to fall on the bulb ment By trial and experimanner he found that he could get a maximum heating effect when the thermometer was in this in a position ii beyond the red. light could be split up red. to Herschel was the next throw further light on the subject while investigat- ing the heating properties of the visible rays produced by the sun in order to ascertain which of them (the red. was the first to give a lead towards the discovery of other rays than those which produce ordinary white light. indigo. yellow. Acting on the knowledge that white into the primary colours blue. green. Scheele. This was a step forward. that the maximum effect was obtained when the silver chloride was exposed to the rays at the extreme violet end of the spectrum. wave nearly forty times of red light. he sought by experiment to find out which of these seven colours of He found sunlight produced the maximum effect. split up the white light from the sun into the coloured spectrum produced by a prism and then tested each colour He by allowing of a very delicate thermometer. its diameter is still greater than the length of a Invisible Rays. violet (the spectrum) also that sunlight by means of a prism and silver chloride from white to changed the colour of purple. in the path of . blue. or violet) had the least heating power. yellow.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Red 161 rays are relatively long when compared with violet rays.
during the time the rays fall on it. 94.162 an invisible ray. Properties of Infra-red Rays. Use of the infra-red rays to affect a Selenium cell . can be used as a detector of infra-red rays. PRACTICAL TELEVISION He pursued his experiments further and established beyond any doubt that the sun gives out invisible rays whose wave-lengths are greater than the longest red rays (0-00076 mm. therefore. These rays are known as infra-red rays (Fig. very noticeable in their effect on a Selenium If a beam of cell infra-red rays be allowed to fall on a Selenium then the resistance of the cell is altered Such a cell. The visible Colours produced by a Prism a part of the great Electro-magnetic Spectrum. the wire increases in temperature sufficiently to observe a change in its resistance. This change of value is in the electrical resistance of a body cell.). The infra-red rays make themselves apparent by If they are allowed to fall the heat they produce. 94). Wave Length Q-76 MICRONS FIG. on very fine wire.
This fact was noted by Ernest Ruhmer over twenty years ago. 1902.Red Invisible Radiation FIG. 95. absorbed. who gave a demonstration before the Electrical Society of Berlin on March 1 9th. others. although the visible rays are completely O-ljL Ultra Violet 0-4p Invisible Ordinary Light 0-8p.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS for practical signalling purposes 163 was made by Ruhmer over twenty-five years ago. the infra-red rays will pass through with very little diminution intensity. but these cells as a class are the least sensitive to the infra-red (Fig. If a thin sheet of ebonite or bakelite be placed in in the path of the sun's rays. 95). " Thompson's following figures taken from " of Discharge Electricity through Gases The . Such cells as the potassium cell possess their greatest sensitivity in the ultra-violet region. have their greatest sensitivity in the yellow band. Up to 3OO/& Radiation Radiation Energy Curve for the Spectrum. photo-electric cell is sensitive to rays of the spectrum beyond the range of vision both in region of The the ultra-violet and of the infra-red. Infra. like the rubidium cell.
1 64 PRACTICAL TELEVISION : give a good indication of the characteristics of the usual types of photo-electric cells Type of Cell. .
however. Photographs were taken many years ago days of photography by means of these The rays have also been rays by Abney and others. photo-electric remained.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS schel 165 investigating the spectrum by means of a He found that the great heating effect thermometer. They can also affect a refracted and and can be reflected photographic slight plate. a region beyond the red end of the that these rays also affect photo-electric although to a much less extent than the rays of the visible spectrum. 96). Baird has termed a Noctovisor. cells. While they are quite invisible to the eye.*' This remarkable result is achieved by using in place of light the invisible rays beyond the red end of the spectrum. Baird successfully to apply them to television and thus render actual direct vision in darkness possible. as he terms . for Mr. when took place at spectrum and cells. The Noctovisor. they are otherwise identical in their properties to light. Baird's " Noctovisor (Fig. One which were given by Mr. " Mr. although the effect is extremely and exceedingly long exposures are necessary. of the most surprising developments of television is unquestionably the recent demonstration of Vision in total Darkness. used for signalling as they affect Selenium cells and in the early also. Baird in December. although in a It much lesser degree. persons sitting in total darkness were seen and recognised by observers on the screen of a modified form of television " apparatus which Mr. In these demonstrations.
and it will be interesting to see if the effect is available under the conditions which prevail. where the . glow are used on account of the fog-penetrating powers of these red rays. eye flooded with infra-red rays. red appearing as white and blue appearing as black. so that is an image appears upon the screen of the directly- coupled Receiver. consists essentially of a Television Transmitter Receiver directly coupled together. it being well known that the penetrative The power of light varies as the fourth power of its wave-length. however. so that the device to extent renders vision through fog possible. a dummy's head in a room vision with a fog perfectly opaque to ordinary being clearly seen on the receiving screen. say. short-range demonstration of the fog-penetrating A powers of these rays was given by Mr. smoke and some fog-penetrative powers of the infra-red rays are. The eye of the Television Transmitter scans the scene which. red light penetrating fog some sixteen times better than blue light. in a sea fog. filled This demonstration. Advantage of this phenomenon is now being taken where neon tubes with their deep red to guide the airmen. of course. Baird on the " " screen of his Noctovisor recently. showed only the penetrative power over a short distance. The nature of the image thus received is somewhat distorted. These rays affect the cell in precisely the same fashion as light rays. a further peculiar effect is that vapour are semi-transparent.1 66 PRACTICAL TELEVISION and it. in aerodromes. although in total darkness as far as the human is concerned. no new discovery.
Baird testing the Fog-penetrating Power of his " Nocto visor. Mr. 96.FIG." [To face page 166. .
effective must have a penetration to be commercially range of miles rather than yards. Advantage has been taken of these rays for signalling
purposes during war time, the rays being used in place of visible light to actuate photo-electric relays.
successfully using these rays in conjunction with a coupled television receiver and transmitter has rendered actual vision possible in total
Mr. Baird by
The appearance of coloured
received by the infra-red rays differ considerably from
under normal illumination, due to red colouring appearing as vivid white, and the use
of these rays
than the use of
normal illumination, so that there
their use for television as such.
however, to see without the use of
light has obvious uses in warfare, and a further possible " " is disclosed Noctovisor by the application for the Since these fog-penetrative qualities of the rays used.
rays penetrate some sixteen times farther through fog than does visible light, it is reasonable to expect that " " this may open up a field of utility for the Noctovisor
Any range of vision through fog. increase of visibility in foggy weather would be of
in increasing the
immediate advantage to the mariner and the The "Phonovisor"
In transmitting the image of any object by television, the traversal of the image over the cell causes the
production of a fluctuating electric current, the character of the fluctuations being determined by the shape and
appearance of the object or scene being transmitted.
If the fluctuating electric current
received on a
telephone in place of a televisor, a noise
that every scene
noise having a different character for every object, so may be said to have its' corresponding " image sound. By listening intently it is quite possible to distinguish two different human faces by
their equivalent sounds,
and the difference between a
hand and a
audible, opening the mouth, for example, causes an immediate change in the note.
recording these sounds on a phonograph, a permanent record can be taken, and if these records are
played again into a microphone connected to a televisor working in synchronism with the phonograph the
reproduced, thus turning a scene into a fluctuating electrical current, then into a sound, then indentations on wax, then reversing the whole series
of processes and recovering the scene from the wax disc, so that we have a means of storing living images
upon phonograph records. Mr. Baird has given the " " to this device, which has name of Phonovisor
perhaps not too wild a flight of fancy to say that " " by a development of the Phonovisor the blind may one day learn to know their friends by the sound of
displace the cinematograph is doubtful, but it certainly is a noteworthy scientific achievement and had the
cinematograph not already been have been of the first importance.
In April 1927 television was demonstrated in the U.S.A. by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Their system consisted in exploring the
scene at the transmitter by means of a point of very intense light, and by this means obtaining an illumination of
The being transmitted. of a disc with a spiral of holes revolving in front of a
power arc lamp as shown in Fig. 97. By this means a spot of light from the arc was caused to traverse the
without dazzling the person arrangement used consisted
back from the face was caught by three large photo-electric cells, and the fluctuating current from
receiving station. By means of a commutator it was fed to a bank of small neon lamps, arranged in the
form of a screen, each lamp being fed
in succession so
that a spot of light in effect traversed the screen.
a single neon tube behind a disc with holes in spiral formation.
small machine was also
Synchronism was obtained by means of synchronous
motors, separate synchronising signals being transmitted between receiver and transmitter. large
low frequency synchronous motor being used to obtain approximate synchronism and a small high frequency
synchronous motor used to prevent hunting.
While the question of distance
not of primary
The American Telephone and Telegraph
Washington, a distance of 200 miles, and Baird in this country has transmitted between London and Glasgow,
a distance of 400 miles.
In both cases, telephone lines
were used, and
remarkable that successful results
in spite of the capacity effects inseparable
apparatus used appears to have been comparatively simple in the London to Glasgow demonstration, as a total of three operators only were required,
the receiving instrument being contained in a box which as shown in the photograph (Fig. 97) is little
bigger than a large suit-case.
The American Telephone and Telegraph Company
employed a great number of operators in their demonstrations, nearly 1000 men having been engaged in the
apparatus involved no fewer than four separate channels, two for synchronising, one for the television impulses,
whereas Baird used two only, one for television and one for speech.
At the time of writing television
sets are not available
to the public, but their advent cannot be long delayed.
first sets will,
show only the
most simple of scenes, a head-and-shoulders view of the
person speaking, or possibly a simple scene, such as a few figures on a stage with little detail; but with the
rapid development of wireless broadcasting in view we may reasonably expect that the development of
television will continue steadily until results rival the
perfection of the present-day cinema, and with the
It It rt &w .
he stated: come when we are all dead and forgotten and our * electric cables man who In these days a rotted away." Ayrton's world-encompassing within less electric voice is with us now. . so that perhaps we may conclude by quoting Professor Ayrton's remarkable The day will prophecy when. perhaps from a ship in the midst of the ocean. perhaps from the slopes of the Andes. in 1880. fifty years of the utterance of what must have seemed at that time a wild flight of fancy. wishes to speak to a friend will call him with a all have world-embracing electric voice and his friend will reply. allied arts. will develop along parallel lines. he will know that his friend is dead. such as Noctovision.RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 171 perfection of television. than annihilation Television will give to us electrical vision and an of space which far exceeds Ayrton's prophecy. or if there is no reply.
London. which was referred to in Chap. fifteen miles out of London. however. life-size picture. the over-all sions of the receiving apparatus being 2' by 3' by 8". and it is probably owing to the simplicity of the apparatus that success was possible. IX as being mental stage.APPENDIX A AT London-New York Television Circuit. Communication between Hartsdale and London was carried took place out by Morse signals from a small wireless transmitter working on 37 metres from Hartsdale. and this was followed by the face of a Press representative (Mr. and apparatus is in use experimentally which produces a transmitter is power and pated. Howe). of Mr. when faces in London were seen on the screen of a small Television The first face transmitted was that receiver in New York. 169 have naturally been considerably increased. the Television transmitter being at the head-quarters of Mr. the features not being clear. and with increased perfected apparatus much better results are antici- A Owing to the achievement of this Transatlantic Television the distances mentioned on p. a suburb of New York. has become an accomplished fact. in the experi- In the early morning of February Qth a demonstration was given in Hartsdale. and then used to control the light of the glow discharge lamp in the receiving Televisor. Fox). on a one-valve receiver using reaction. and after amplification at Purley were used to modulate the carrier wave of the 45-metre transmitter. The picture received was 2" by 3" in size. Experiments are being continued in the Company's laboratories in Long Acre. Baird and the Press representative were recognised the face of the lady was.valve low-frequency amplifier. to the Press. indis. 172 . The Television Baird's Company in Long Acre. dimenIn the experiment only one operator was required to operate a receiver of the simplest possible form. The received signals were subsequently amplified by a four. larger power wireless also in course of erection. Baird. Reception at Hartsdale tinct. impulses were transmitted over telephone wires to Purley. the time of going to press Transatlantic Television. and later by the face of a lady (Mrs. The transmission took place on 45 metres from a 2-kilowatt station situated at Purley. The faces of Mr.
101 Discharge Tube. Baird's Lens. 62. 26 Inertia of Selenium. in Cur76 Diaphote. Photo-electric.. 60. System. 83 Current Wave-length Curve. 135 Anode. Potassium in Argon 80 Graham Bell. 95 Bell EDISON. 84 HERSCHEL'S Experiments. 8 1 Campbell Swinton.INDEX AERIALS. 120 ILLUMINANTS. 23 FOG. 166 System of Phototelegraphy.Voltage Curve. 128 Impressions. 30 Ayrton and Perry. 132 no Televisor. 70 DAUVILLIER. 86 Deflection of Cathode-rays.. 116 Cells. 42 BAIN. 36 Cathode-rays. 44. 37 Belin and Holweck. 96 De Bernouchi. 95. 135 Jenkins' Prismatic. of Photo-electric Artificial Cell. A. L. 59. A. 49 Fribourg. 44 Infra-red Rays. GENERAL in Electric Co. 150 Images. 43 Current. 43 How Light travels. 67 76 Cathode-ray Systems. 115 Carey.. 41.'s Potassium Cell. 83 Variation. 74 Hertz' Experiments. 121 Hick. 38 CAMBRIDGE Instrument Co. 60. Dr.'s Potassium in Helium Cell. the. J. 47 Electro-magnetic Radiation. 136 Transmitting Apparatus. 154 Alexanderson. Persistence of. 33 Eye. 105 Amplifying Photo-electric rent. 121 Theory of Light. 127. 161 173 . the. 59. III. 113. 78 Vacuum Cell. 36 Baird. 1 12 Cathode of Photo-electric Cell. 88 Disc. 43 Caselli. 109. 161 Hertz. the. 133 Bakewell. 135 Spiral-slotted. 60. 162 Invisible Rays. Dr. 160.PENETRATING powers of the Noctovisor. Slotted. 43 Disadvantages of Photo-electric Cell.. 77 Connelly and McTighe. 134 Baird's Receiving Apparatus. Eye. 38 Einthoven Galvanometer. Principle of. 119.
138 Synchronism. 42 Mihaly. Middleton. 152 Receiving. 18 Problem of. 127 Light. 143 Pointolite Lamp. Measur- Telectroscope. 57 Television. 60 Jenkins' Prismatic Disc. 75 Lenses. H. the. 45 Plurality of Light Sources. Amplifying of.INDEX JENKINS and Moore. 126. 47. 53 Korn. the. the. 67 70 Sensitivity of the Photo-electric Cell. 56 Photographs. 44. 114 Ruhmer. 48 Poulsen-Korn System. 44. Shadowgraphs. 82 Shadow Cones. 67 Short-wave Transmission. 76. 42 Knudsen. 55 Telephone. 127 75 Senlecq. 33 Refraction of. 126. 157 2O . 66 Performance Inertia of. 63 Cells. 19 Bell Shadowgraphs. 19. Electro-magnetic Theory of. 40. Television. 129 Light-sensitive Cells. 94 the Cathode-ray. Oscillograph. 97 Mimault. the 167 Phonovisor. 97 Telephograph. 49 KERR. 40 Telehor. Baker Apparatus. the. 39 Mirrors. the. Comparison 28 with. Transmission Transatlantic Radio Pictures.. 103 1 25 Moore Lamp. 99 Photo-electric Cells. the. 122 Lights and Shadows. 57 Refraction of Light. 91 Light-sources. R. the. 156 Transmission. 85 Thome of. 39 PERSISTENCE of Impressions. 78 Sensitivity of. 169 SELENIUM. 153 NOCTOVISOR. 60. 18 Thermo-electricity. 112 TELAUTOGRAPH. 148 Rignoux and Fournier. Definition of. 82 Current. 165 OPTICAL Lever. MERCURY Vapour Pump. 30. 45. 99 Langmuir's RADIO Equipment. 101 LA COUR'S Phonic Drum. 100 System of. 45. 44 Knudsen's Experiments. the 44 Phototelegraphy. 150 SzczeparuVs Apparatus. 42 ing of. 101 Photophone. 129 Requisites for Television. 48 Prismatic Disc. 86 Photo-electric Current. 119 Light Waves. 26 Phonic Drum. 140 Rosing. 40 and Lag of. 92 Mercury Vapour Pump. 156 Ranger. 100 Shelford Bidwell. the. 74. 124 Long-distance Television.
40 ZWORYKIN'S Cell. 1 21 Vision in Darkness. 33 Wave-lengths. 24 175 VARIATION Curve of Current- Voltage. 88 . 99 Visual Purple. 83 Vavin. 25. 32 Velocity of Light.INDEX Tuning-fork Interrupter. 27 Willoughby Smith. 164 Visual Persistence. Table of. 38 WAVE-LENGTH.
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