Śaivam = śāstram tena (śiveṇa) proktam. Śaivaḥ = follower of the Śaivam. In a broader sense, Śaivaḥ = Śiva-bhaktaḥ. I.V.C. "Proto-śiva" in kūrmāsana? Sanderson thinks he is not three-faced, nor ūrdhva-liṅgaḥ Earliest firm evidence: 140 BCE: Patañjali's Mahābhāṣya (on 5.2.76, 5.3.99, 6.3.26; Śivabhāgavatas, etc.) 2nd cen BCE Many theophoric names attested in donative inscriptions, e.g. Śivadatta, from to 3rd CE Afghanistān to Mahārāṣṭra to Andhra 65 CE: Kharoṣṭhī inscription from Panjtār, now in Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistān (names are East Iranian (middle period)), recording the founding of a Śiva-sthala, 65 CE, Kuṣāṇa period st 1 cen. CE: Maheśvara in deity list in the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya from Gandhāra 100 CE: Coins of Wima II Kadphises depicting Wēsh with iconography exactly like later Śiva images: is Wēsh Śiva or is Śiva's iconography modelled on Wēsh?1 2nd cen. CE: mention in Jaina texts: Śiva paired with Vaiśravana, separate person from Rudra 220 CE: shrine to Caṇḍaśivamahādeva dedicated in Dharwar, Karṇātaka 3rd cen. CE: Temple of Bhagavān Jīvaśivaswāmin in Pallavan Andhra 355 CE: Inscription recording grant to Pāśupata shrine to the Mātṛ-s 4th cen.: Andhra inscription of Devavarman of Veṅgīpura: first use of paramamāheśvara LECTURE 4 – INITIATORY ŚAIVISM Lay Śaivism: upāsaka, śivabhakta/rudrabhakta (latter preferred by the Veda-congruent); Benefit of puṇya shared by family and patriline (denied by orthodox Brāhmins, affirmed by Purāṇas and Śivadharma corpus Mantramārga presents this five-fold hierarchy of valid forms of religion: Mantramārga Atimārga Ādhyātmika (Sāṅkhya/Yoga) Vaidika (exclusive devotion to Śiva, but in Vedic domain, leading to heaven) Laulika (mundane religion; calendrical observence; tīrtha visits; puṇya) Sanderson presents a new three-fold classification of initiatory Śaivism: 1. Atimārga / 2. Mantramārga / 3. Kulamārga [for last see next lecture, below]

                                                                                                                1  See  Studies in Silk Road Coins and Culture: Silk Road Art and Archaeology by Tanabe for images.  

Atimārga (= Atyāśrama) • Pāśupata path ends in a cremation ground with utkrānti (“Śaivism is originally about how to die”) • Lākulas add bhuvanādhvan (topped by Dhruva) and kapāla-vrata • Somasiddhāntins (Soma = Sa + Umā) add Bhairava/Cāmuṇḍā. legitimation of the state. but without kapāla-vrata): private and public worship (bahiḥ-sthira-pratiṣṭhā of the deity in a public liṅga).. exported to Cambodia. a. ritualistic. absorbed into Buddhist Mañjuśriya-mūla-tantra b. āveśa. Yāmala: Aghorī / Caṇḍā Kāpalinī. Mantrapīṭha: Svacchanda-bhairava. regular piety. countercultural. Bhairava/Goddess-worshipping non-Saiddhāntika systems (derives from Lākula and Somasiddhānta): private worship only. mudrā. Kālīkula Śakti-tantras subdivision: Trika. Vāma: 4 Baginī. initiation includes wine 2. rituals for times of emergency. Trika. Kālīkula LECTURE 5 – THE KULA-MĀRGA Kālottara becomes the “base text” for the Saiddhāntikas (by the 10th century). known to Dharmakīrti and Ādi-Śaṅkara. Veda-congruence (vedasaṃhitā). still semi-active in Nepāl c. visualization in dīkṣā • hautrī dīkṣā (ritualistic initiation with fire-offerings) • Divides into three: 1. 6th-7th cen. sexual elements.1. Siddhānta (derives from Lākula stream. provides evidence that worship of the Buddha took place within Brāhmanism circa 8th/9th cen. not just brāhmin males willing to become ascetics • “Choreography of spiritual transformation” using mantra. a Mantramārga redaction of ‘primitive’ Somasiddhāntin/Kāpālika material. Srotas division: Vāma-srotas 4 Bhaginīs + Tumburu Ubhaya-srotas Kālīkula (JDY) Dakṣiṇa-srotas Svacchanda Yāmala Trika Pīṭha division: Mantrapīṭha: Svacchanda Vidyāpīṭha: 4 Bhaginī. Mantramārga (Tantric/Āgamic Śaivism) • Nominally open to all. stability of society 2. root mantra OṂ HŪAṂ ŚIVĀYA NAMAḤ (CHECK) . sacrifice (even human). blood offerings. Yāmala. Trika e. translates into a transgressive temple cult in the south described in Mātṛtantras—inscription from Tamil/Andhra/Karṇātaka border region confirming worship with meat and wine d. Kālīkula 3. Sāmānya: rather less popular cult of Amṛteśvara & Amṛta-lakṣmī.

Kāmeśvarī/Tripurā: early tradition of erotic magic includes worship of consort Kāmadeva and 11 Nityās. which then display Kaula and non-Kaula forms. worship of Tripurasundarī N. Kālīkula. maintained the kapālavrata The Kula or Kaula tradition. founded by Macchanda and Koṅkanāmbā. surrounded by eight Mothers. successful for several centuries. now extinct but gave rise to Śrīvidyā. ādyayāga (consort practice).1-55): first of the four W. thus one can be initiated via the tantra-prakriya or the kulaprakriya. vīra-melāpa. influences early haṭha-yoga S. Kulamārga (historically derived from the Somasiddhānta): initiation through āveśa. flourished for several centuries in north and south. prohibition of external kapāla-vrata except in the Kālīkula (see below). note that “Tantric” is originally an antonym to “Kaula”. comes to “colonise” many of the Mantramārga traditions. sacrifice. influenced by Trika. with ancillary worship of the Siddhas and Mahāsiddhas (siddha-santāna) and their consorts.3. . along with their six lineage-holding sons. attended by Gaṇeśa and Vaṭuka. Kubjikā. The elements that people think of as Tantric today are in fact Kaula. Kuleśvarī (see TĀ 29. divided into four Āmnāyas or Anvayas (“transmissions”) or Gharāmnāyas (“lodge-teachings”): E. worship of Bhairava and the Goddess as Kuleśvara & Kuleśvarī (either together or separate).