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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
JOB ANALYSIS
Definition: Job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes and work environment of a particular job. Job analysis is a systematic approach to define the job role, description, requirements, responsibilities, evaluation, etc. It helps in finding out required level of education, skills, knowledge, training etc. for the job position. It also depicts the job worth i.e. measurable effectiveness of the job and contribution of job to the organization. Thus, it effectively contributes to setting up the compensation package for the job position. The job analysis may include these activities:

reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees, doing internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs,

analyzing the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employees filling the position,

researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs, and articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.

Job Analysis - Job Description and Job Specification Job analysis is primary tool in personnel management. In this method, a personnel manager tries to gather, synthesize and implement the information available regarding the workforce in the concern. A personnel manager has to undertake job analysis so as to put right man on right job. There are two outcomes of job analysis: 1. Job description 2. Job specification The information collected under job analysis is: 1. Nature of jobs required in a concern. 2. Nature/ size of organizational structure. 3. Type of people required to fit that structure. 4. The relationship of the job with other jobs in the concern. 5. Kind of qualifications and academic background required for jobs. 6. Provision of physical condition to support the activities of the concern. For exampleseparate cabins for managers, special cabins for the supervisors, healthy condition for workers, adequate store room for store keeper. Advantages of Job Analysis 1. Job analysis helps the personnel manager at the time of recruitment and selection of right man on right job. 2. It helps him to understand extent and scope of training required in that field. 3. It helps in evaluating the job in which the worth of the job has to be evaluated. 3

4. In those instances where smooth work force is required in concern. 5. When he has to avoid overlapping of authority- responsibility relationship so that distortion in chain of command doesnt exist. 6. It also helps to chalk out the compensation plans for the employees. 7. It also helps the personnel manager to undertake performance appraisal effectively in a concern. A personnel manger carries analysis in two ways: a. Job description b. Job specification 1. JOB DESCRIPTION is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive in nature and it constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as : a. Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern. b. The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job. c. The nature of authority- responsibility relationships. d. Necessary qualifications that is required for job. e. Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern. f. The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job. Advantages of Job Description 4

g. It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances. h. It helps in recruitment and selection procedures. i. It assists in manpower planning. j. It is also helpful in performance appraisal. k. It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job. l. It also helps in chalking out training and development programmes. 2. JOB SPECIFICATION is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are : a. Job title and designation b. Educational qualifications for that title c. Physical and other related attributes d. Physique and mental health e. Special attributes and abilities f. Maturity and dependability g. Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.

Advantages of Job Specification 5

h. It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure. i. It helps in giving due justification to each job. j. It also helps in designing training and development programmes. k. It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees. l. It helps in job evaluation. m. It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the employees.

Job Analysis Process


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Identification of Job Analysis Purpose: Well any process is futile until its purpose is not identified and defined. Therefore, the first step in the process is to determine its need and desired output. Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until HR managers dont know why data is to be collected and what is to be done with it.

Who Will Conduct Job Analysis: The second most important step in the process of job analysis is to decide who will conduct it. Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR department while some hire job analysis consultants. Job analysis consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. They dont have any personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job.

How to Conduct the Process : Deciding the way in which job analysis process needs to be conducted is surely the next step. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to investigate a specific job.

Strategic Decision Making: Now is the time to make strategic decision. Its about deciding the extent of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and segregation of collected data.

Training of Job Analyst: Next is to train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the selected methods for collection and recoding of job data.

Preparation of Job Analysis Process: Communicating it within the organization is the next step. HR managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so 8

that employees offer their full support to the job analyst. The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and feedback forms.

Data Collection: Next is to collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, required human traits, job activities, duties and responsibilities involved and employee behaviour.

Documentation, Verification and Review: Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it. This is the final information that is used to describe a specific job.

Developing Job Description and Job Specification : Now is the time to segregate the collected data in to useful information. Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job while job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job.

Thus, the process of job analysis helps in identifying the worth of specific job, utilizing the human talent in the best possible manner, eliminating unneeded jobs and setting realistic performance measurement standards.

COMPONENTS OF JOB ANALYSIS


Job analysis is a systematic procedure to analyze the requirements for the job role and job profile. Job analysis can be further categorized into following sub components.

Job Position
Job position refers to the designation of the job and employees in the organization. Job position forms an important part of the compensation strategy as it determines the level of the job in the organization. For example management level employees receive greater pay scale than non-managerial employees. The non-monetary benefits offered to two different levels in the organization also vary.

Job Description
Job description refers the requirements an organization looks for a particular job position. It states the key skill requirements, the level of experience needed, level of education required 10

etc. It also describes the roles and responsibilities attached with the job position. The roles and responsibilities are key determinant factor in estimating the level of experience, education, skill etc. required for the job. It also helps in benchmarking the performance standards.

Job Worth
Job Worth refers to estimating the job worthiness i.e. how much the job contributes to the organization. It is also known as job evaluation. Job description is used to analyze the job worthiness. It is also known as job evaluation. Roles and responsibilities helps in determining the outcome from the job profile. Once it is determined that how much the job is worth, it becomes easy to define the compensation strategy for the position. Therefore, job analysis forms an integral part in the formulation of compensation strategy of an organization. Organizations should conduct the job analysis in a systematic at regular intervals. Job analysis can be used for setting up the compensation packages, for reviewing employees performance with the standard level of performance, determining the training needs for employees who are lacking certain skills. METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION INCLUDE: A variety of methods are used to collect information about jobs. None of them, however, is perfect. In actual practice, therefore, a combination of several methods is used for obtaining job analysis data. These are discussed below. Job performance In this method the job analyst actually performs the job in question. The analyst, thus, receives first hand experience of contextual factors on the job including physical hazards, social demands, emotional pressures and mental requirements. This method is useful for 11

jobs that can be easily learned. It is not suitable for jobs that are hazardous (e.g., fire fighters) or for jobs that require extensive training (e.g., doctors, pharmacists). Personal observation The analyst observes the worker(s) doing the job. The tasks performed, the pace at which activities are done, the working conditions, etc., are observed during a complete work cycle. During observation, certain precautions should be taken The analyst must observe average workers during average conditions. The analyst should observe without getting directly involved in the job. The analyst must make note of the specific job needs and not the behaviors specific to particular workers. The analyst must make sure that he obtains a proper sample for generalization. This method allows for a deep understanding of job duties. It is appropriate for manual, short period job activities. On the negative side, the methods fail to take note of the mental aspects of jobs. Critical incidents The critical incident technique (CIT) is a qualitative approach to job analysis used to obtain specific, behaviorally focused descriptions of work or other activities. Here the job holders are asked to describe several incidents based on their past experience. The incidents so collected are analyzed and classified according to the job areas they describe. The job requirements will become clear once the analyst draws the line between effective and ineffective behaviors of workers on the job. For example, if a shoe salesman comments on the size of a customers feet and the customer leaves the store in a huff, the behavior of the salesman may be judged as ineffective in terms of the result it produced. The critical incidents are recorded after the events have already taken place both routine and non12

routine. The process of collecting a fairly good number of incidents is a lengthy one. Since, incidents of behavior can be quite dissimilar, the process of classifying data into usable job descriptions can be difficult. The analysts overseeing the work must have analytical skills and ability to translate the content of descriptions into meaningful statements. Interview The interview method consists of asking questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. The reason behind the use of this method is that job holders are most familiar with the job and can supplement the information obtained through observation. Workers know the specific duties of the job and supervisors are aware of the jobs relationship to the rest of the organization. Due diligence must be exercised while using the interview method. The interviewer must be trained in proper interviewing techniques. It is advisable to use a standard format so as to focus the interview to the purpose of analyst. Although the interview method provides opportunities to elicit information sometimes not available through other methods, it has limitations. First, it is time consuming and hence costly. Second, the value of data is primarily dependent on the interviewers skills and may be faulty if they put ambiguous questions to workers. Last, interviewees may be suspicious about the motives and may distort the information they provide. If seen as an opportunity to improve their positions such as to increase their wages, workers may exaggerate their job duties to add greater weightage to their positions. Questionnaire method The questionnaire is a widely used method of analyzing jobs and work. Here the job holders are given a properly designed questionnaire aimed at eliciting relevant job-related 13

information. After completion, the questionnaires are handed over to supervisors. The supervisors can seek further clarifications on various items by talking to the job holders directly. After everything is finalized, the data is given to the job analyst. The success of the method depends on various factors. The structured questionnaire must cover all job related tasks and behaviors. Each task or behavior should be described in terms of features such as importance, difficulty, frequency, and relationship to overall performance. The job holders should be asked to properly rate the various job factors and communicate the same on paper. The ratings thus collected are then put to close examination with a view to find out the actual job requirements. Questionnaire method is highly economical as it covers a large number of job holders at a time. The collected data can be quantified and processed through a computer. The participants can complete the items leisurely. Designing questionnaires, however, is not an easy task. Proper care must be taken to see that the respondents do not misinterpret the questions. Further, it is difficult to motivate the participants to complete the questionnaires truthfully and to return them.

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

To obtain full knowledge about the topic (Job Analysis), skill matrix and practices for successful running of HRD, the procedure of recruitment & selection etc. How to make good relations with every employee of the all departments so that their feelings and attitude is known to factual level. This training provides me good communication skill, personality development and to know how to attend interviews in future etc. Make a behavior to know the blue color mentality of working nature and to know what are their needs and requirement. This training helps to make my career in HR area in performance appraisal and job analysis. To know what are environment of a company or any of the company which are helpful to me in future. To know industry in full like its marketing, finance, IT, production management, HR and its base subsections. To knowing ways of working of various employees of the HR department and other department as well to arrive at correct Skill- Matrix.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

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LITERATURE REVIEW
DEFINITION the history of job analysis is essentially a history of individuals undertaking to satisfy certain needs for information about jobs in order to deal with practical personnel problems. (E.PRIMOFF & S. FINE, 1988, P.14) "Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job for which the selection procedure is to be used. The review should include a job analysis..." Uniform Guidelines 1978 The degree to which an employee identifies with his/her job, actively participates in it, and considers his/her job performance important to his/her self-worth is in the real sense the Job Analysis by oneself unless involvement is made, analysis cannot be done.

RELATIONSHIP OF JOB INVOLVEMENT TO PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE AND SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEE NEEDS Relationship between attitude of job involvement and patterns of perceived need importance, need satisfaction, and need strength were explored. Data were collected from 64 high involved and 77 low involved employees. Results revealed that the attitude of jobinvolvement acted as a moderator variable only with respect to employees cognitive evaluation of the importance of need on the job. High involved employees as compared to low involved employees, attached greater importance to safety and self-actualization needs and lesser importance to physiological and social needs. With respect to the patterns of need 18

satisfaction and need strength, the high and low involved employees did not differ. Both groups were least satisfied with and felt strongest needs in physiological and selfactualization areas. Several hypotheses derived from Maslows need hierarchy notion could not be supported by the results. It was postulated that the cognitive value system of perceived need importance which is influenced by job involvement attitude is different from experiential evaluation of need satisfaction and strength which are more a function of the cue properties of the job and its environment. JOB INVOLVEMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF ITS DETERMINANTS AMONG MALE AND FEMALE TEACHERS Predicated on the assumption of a dichotomy of men as breadwinners and workers, and women as mothers and wives, subjective differences in the work attachment of men and women have been dominated by two competing explanatory frameworks, the job and gender models (Feldberg & Glenn, 1979). The job model suggests differences in working conditions as the primary independent variable in explaining the work commitment of men and women. The reported lower job involvement of women (Sekaran, 1982) is, therefore, attributed to women occupying lower-level, disadvantaged positions, devoid of intrinsic satisfaction and with limited advancement opportunities rather than some gender-related differences (Fagenson, 1986; Kanter, 1977). The gender model, on the other hand, contends that on the basis of sex-role socialization, women are socialized to view their status of mother and wife as their primary role and their social position as determined by the family. In contrast, men are socialized to view their primary role as economic provider and their social position as determined by work. Thus, differences in subjective work attachment can be understood in terms of gender-related differences via sex-role socialization (Feldberg & 19

Glenn, 1979). In the only study that specifically tested the gender and job models of job involvement, Lorence (1987) reported that gender socialization and family responsibilities did not explain the lower job involvement of women and that, women tend to be more job involved than men after controlling for differences in autonomy. While the gender and job models explain differences in the job commitment of men and women, they do not provide an integrated picture of the job commitment process. A theoretical framework of the job commitment process proposed by Chusmir (1982), integrates the gender and job models. Since men and women may have different Experiences in their work and family roles, and if--as noted in the literature (Pittman & Orthner, 1988)--these two role sets fit together in meaningfully different ways for men and women, then it is intuitively plausible to expect differences in the processes that underlie the job commitment of men and women. With its emphasis on both work and nonwork roles, Chusmir's model provides a useful conceptual approach to understanding the job commitment process. However, if the model is to offer practical suggestions on how to enhance the job commitment of male and female employees, its generalizability needs to be established. Following previous studies (Misra, Kanungo, von Rosentiel, & Stuhler, 1985; Sekaran & Mowday, 1981) that provided a cross-cultural examination of job commitment, the primary purpose of this study is to provide a cross-cultural test of the generalizability of Chusmir's model among male and female teachers in Singapore. The focus on teachers is particularly instinctive. The global economic competition has made many nations aware of the role of human capital in achieving and sustaining competitive advantage. As teachers are influential in the development of a nation's human capital and in

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view of the difficulty of attracting and retaining individuals in the teaching profession, it is important to understand the sources of the quality of work life of teachers. Chusmir's (1982) model presented a three-step model of the job commitment process, applicable to both men and women. The first step comprises personal-demographic and personal-psychological variables that collectively form the individual's personality profile which he/she brings to the work situation. Personal-demographic variables included in the present study are sex, age, educational level, and tenure. Several studies have found a significant positive relationship between age and job commitment (Lorence, 1987; Newton & Keenan, 1983; Saal, 1981). Education has been shown to be a poor predictor of job involvement in several studies (Rabinowitz, 1981; Sekaran & Mowday, 1981) but it is included here as a control variable. The organizational tenure-job involvement relationship has been reported to be nonsignificant (Saal, 1991; Sekaran & Mowday, 1981), but recently, Wagner, Ferris, Fandt, and Wayne (1987) reported a significant curvilinear job involvementorganizational tenure relationship. Personal-psychological variables included here are locus of control, work role salience, and need for achievement. A significant, positive locus of control-job involvement relationship has been reported by several studies (Abdel-Halim, 1980; Reitz & Jewell, 1979). However, in a recent review of the literature, Hollenbeck et al. questioned such a relationship. The Protestant work ethic, a variable conceptually similar to work role salience, has been shown to be significantly correlated with job involvement (Saal, 1981; Sekaran, 1989). Need for achievement has been demonstrated to have a direct positive effect on job involvement (Hollenbeck et al., 1982).

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The second step in Chusmir's model comprises family characteristics and job circumstances which are depicted as exerting an external moderating influence on the job commitment process. Pleck (1977) suggested that the boundaries between work and family are asymmetrically permeable for men and women. He posits that men allow the demands of work to intrude more into family life than vice versa, while women permit the demands of family life to intrude more into work life. Thus extra work variables may affect the job involvement of women more than men. Variables included in the family characteristics antecedent set are marital status, spouse support, parental demands, work-family conflict and household coping mechanisms. No significant relationship has been reported between marital status and job involvement (Chusmir, 1986; Hollenbeck et al., 1982; Lorence, 1987). Marital status is, however, included here, because only a few studies have examined this relationship. Family support, which includes spouse support, has been reported to have a significant effect on the job commitment of a sample of military personnel (Orthner & Pittman, 1986). Family pressure, conceptually similar to work-family conflict, has been shown to have no relationship to job commitment (Chusmir, 1986) as previously theorized (Chusmir, 1982). Work-family conflict is, however, included here, as it is intuitively plausible that difficulty in balancing the demands of work and family life will negatively affect one's job commitment. Parental demands or number and ages of children has been shown to affect job commitment negatively for women but not for men (Chusmir, 1986). Household coping mechanisms are coping behaviors or tactical actions taken by employees to manage multiple role demands. Following Steffy and Jones (1988), coping behaviors used in this study focused primarily on altering structural expectations and personal attitudes of 22

household responsibilities. Steffy and Jones (1988) reported a positive relationship between household coping mechanisms and career commitment, and may probably influence job commitment as well. Interest in the concept of job involvement has grown in recent years, beyond its value as an index of the quality of work life (Cherns & Davis, 1975), because of the concept's fundamental importance to the understanding of work behaviours like turnover, tardiness, and absenteeism (Blau, 1986; Mathieu & Kohler, 1990). Job involvement has been variously conceptualized in the literature as (a) the degree to which one is actively participating in one's job (Allport, 1943), (b) the degree of importance of one's job to one's self-image (Lawler & Hall, 1970), and (c) the extent to which one's self-esteem is affected by one's perceived level of performance (Gurin, Veroff, & Feld, 1960). Of the three conceptualizations, Blau (1985) reported that only the self-image-job involvement conceptualization is empirically independent. Based on Blau's finding, job involvement is conceptualized here as the degree to which one psychologically identities with one's job (Kanungo, 1982a, b) and therefore, one's motivational orientation to the job. Interest in the concept of job involvement has been focused on identifying the determinants of the concept (Hollenbeck, Connolly, & Rabinowitz, 1982; Rabinowitz & Hall, 1977. Three classes of antecedents of job involvement have been identified: personal characteristics, situational characteristics, and work outcomes. A multivariate study of the determinants of job involvement, however, indicated that the personal characteristics class of antecedents could more appropriately be divided into personal-demographic and personal-psychological (Saal, 1978). Earlier efforts at identifying

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the determinants of job involvement led to a universally applicable model for both men and women, and did not take into consideration variables external to the work environment. In the past two decades or so, there has been a substantial increase in the labour force participation of women, on a global basis. While the increased labour force participation of women has generated a steady stream of research, most of these studies have examined gender differences in work values (Brenner, Blazini, & Greenhaus, 1988; Kaufman & Fetters, 1980; Lacy, Bokemier, & Shepard, 1983; Walker, Tausky, & Oliver, 1982), and only a few studies have examined the processes through which men and women become attached to their jobs (Chusmir, 1982; 1986; Graddick & Farr, 1983; Lorence, 1987; Yammarino & Dubinsky, 1988). DAVID MCCLELLAND David C Mcclelland's Motivational Needs Theory American David Clarence McClelland (1917-98) achieved his doctorate in psychology at Yale in 1941 and became professor at Wesleyan University. He then taught and lectured, including a spell at Harvard from 1956, where with colleagues for twenty years he studied particularly motivation and the achievement need. He began his McBer consultancy in 1963, helping industry assess and train staff, and later taught at Boston University, from 1987 until his death. McClelland is chiefly known for his work on achievement motivation, but his research interests extended to personality and consciousness. David McClelland pioneered workplace motivational thinking, developing achievement-based motivational theory and models, and promoted improvements in employee assessment methods, advocating competency-based assessments and tests, arguing them to be better than traditional IQ and

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personality-based tests. His ideas have since been widely adopted in many organisations, and relate closely to the theory of Frederick Herzberg. David McClelland is most noted for describing three types of motivational need, which he identified in his 1988 book, Human Motivation: Achievement Motivation (N-Ach) Authority/Power Motivation (N-Pow) Affiliation Motivation (N-Affil)

David Mcclelland's Needs-Based Motivational Model These needs are found to varying degrees in all workers and managers, and this mix of motivational needs characterizes a person's or manager's style and behaviors, both in terms of being motivated, and in the management and motivation others. The Need For Achievement (N-Ach) The N-ach person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment. The Need for Authority and Power (N-Pow). The N-pow person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige. The Need For Affiliation (N-Affil) The N-affil person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. The affiliation driver produces motivation and need to be liked and held in popular regard. These people are team players. 25

McClelland said that most people possess and exhibit a combination of these characteristics. Some people exhibit a strong bias to a particular motivational need, and this motivational or needs 'mix' consequently affects their behaviors and working/managing style. McClelland suggested that a strong n-affil 'affiliation-motivation' undermines a manager's objectivity, because of their need to be liked, and that this affects a manager's decision-making capability. A strong n-pow 'authority-motivation' will produce a determined work ethic and commitment to the organisation, and while n-pow people are attracted to the leadership role, they may not possess the required flexibility and people-centered skills. McClelland argues that n-ach people with strong 'achievement motivation' make the best leaders, although there can be a tendency to demand too much of their staff in the belief that they are all similarly and highly achievement-focused and results driven, which of course most people are not. McClelland's particular fascination was for achievement motivation, and this laboratory experiment illustrates one aspect of his theory about the affect of achievement on people's motivation. McClelland asserted via this experiment that while most people do not possess a strong achievement-based motivation, those who do, display a consistent behaviors in setting goals: Volunteers were asked to throw rings over pegs rather like the fairground game; no distance was stipulated, and most people seemed to throw from arbitrary, random distances, sometimes close, sometimes farther away. However a small group of volunteers, whom McClelland suggested were strongly achievement-motivated, took some care to measure and test distances to produce an ideal challenge - not too easy, and not impossible. Interestingly a parallel exists in biology, known as the 'overload principle', which is commonly applied to fitness and exercising, ie., in order to develop fitness and/or strength the exercise must be 26

sufficiently demanding to increase existing levels, but not so demanding as to cause damage or strain. McClelland identified the same need for a 'balanced challenge' in the approach of achievement-motivated people. McClelland contrasted achievement-motivated people with gamblers, and dispelled a common pre-conception that n-ach 'achievement-motivated' people are big risk takers. On the contrary - typically, achievement-motivated individuals set goals which they can influence with their effort and ability, and as such the goal is considered to be achievable. This determined results-driven approach is almost invariably present in the character makeup of all successful business people and entrepreneurs. McClelland suggested other characteristics and attitudes of achievement-motivated people: Achievement is more important than material or financial reward. Achieving the aim or task gives greater personal satisfaction than receiving praise or recognition. Financial reward is regarded as a measurement of success, not an end in itself. Security is not prime motivator, nor is status. Feedback is essential, because it enables measurement of success, not for reasons of praise or recognition (the implication here is that feedback must be reliable, quantifiable and factual). Achievement-motivated people constantly seek improvements and ways of doing things better.

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Achievement-motivated people will logically favors jobs and responsibilities that naturally satisfy their needs, ie offer flexibility and opportunity to set and achieve goals, eg., sales and business management, and entrepreneurial roles.

McClelland firmly believed that achievement-motivated people are generally the ones who make things happen and get results, and that this extends to getting results through the organization of other people and resources, although as stated earlier, they often demand too much of their staff because they prioritize achieving the goal above the many varied interests and needs of their people. Interesting comparisons and relationships can be drawn between McClelland's motivation types, and the characteristics defined in other behavioral models, eg: Benziger's thinking and working styles: Achievement-motivation is a double-frontal brain mode style; affiliation-motivation is right basal (rear); authority-motivation is arguably left basal (rear). Adair's action-centered leadership model: (John Adair's model, typically represented by three converging circles, essentially analyses management and leadership responsibility in terms of satisfying three overlapping priorities, namely, to develop Teams, Individuals and meet Tasks.) Achievement-motivated managers are firmly focused on the Task, often to the detriment of the Individual and the Team. Affiliation-motivation people are Team- and Individual-centered. DISC (Inscape, Thomas International, etc) system: Achievement-motivated people are 'D' profiles - results-driven, decisive, dominant, etc. Affiliation-motivated people are I (proactive) and S (reactive) profiles. Authority-motivated people are S and C profiles.

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Hersey/Blanchard's Situational Leadership model: Achievement-motivated people tend to favour the styles of the first and second modes ('telling' and 'selling'); affiliation-motivated people tend to favour the third mode ('participating'); and the authority-motivated people tend to favour the style of mode four ('delegating'). Please note that Situational Leadership is protected intellectual property: Situational Leadership is a trademark of the Centre for Leadership Studies. Situational Leadership II is a trademark of The Ken Blanchard Companies. McGregor XY Theory: Achievement-motivated people tend towards X-Theory style, due to their high task focus; there are plenty of exceptions however, and training definitely helps the n-ach manager to see the value of employing Theory Y style. n-pow managers are definitely Theory X. n-affil are typically Theory Y and if not can relatively easily be trained to be so. Herzberg motivators and hygiene factors: n-ach people are more responsive to the Herzberg motivators (especially achievement obviously) than n-affil and n-pow people. TURNOVER IS LINKED TO JOB INVOLVEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Past research on voluntary turnover has produced very extensive and sophisticated models; however, a recent and more parsimonious model of turnover utilizes only two employee work attitudes to predict turnover propensity. These two attitudes are job involvement and organizational commitment. The premise discussed here is that job involvement and organizational commitment interact jointly to affect turnover. For example, the job employees do helps them meet their intrinsic needs, such as satisfactorily performing a challenging job, which, in turn, increases their sense of competence. This leads to increasing 29

employees' job involvement attitude. Likewise, the organization helps employees meet their social and other extrinsic reward needs, such as pay, fringe benefits and promotions. This leads to increasing employees' organizational commitment attitude. In order to reduce the turnover propensity of employees, a manager's goals should be to get employees to identify with and care about their jobs. The greater the success at this, the more the job becomes important to each employee's self-image, which reflects the basic definition of job involvement. It is important to get employees feeling positively about the organization that employs them so they identify with particular organizational goals, values, and culture, and want to maintain membership in it. This is defined as organizational commitment. Employees with both high job involvement and organizational commitment should, therefore, have the most positive attitudes and the lowest propensity to quit because they are attracted by both the job and the organization. These employees feel they have a relationship with the company; the employee and company are part of the same whole. Telemarketing sales employees develop both job involvement and organizational commitment attitudes. The operations of telemarketing firms are strongly characterized by a job/task environment where focused attention must be directed at performing detailed responsibilities for extended periods. The sales transaction performed by telemarketing sales employees always occurs over the phone with a faceless customer and, generally, occurs by following a computer-scripted sales presentation. This job and environment provide employees with limited autonomy to do the job outside the boundaries of the required format.

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Telemarketing sales employees also develop attitudes about their employing organization, its goals and whether they wish to maintain membership in that organization. In a telemarketing firm, there are a variety of physical and psychological factors influencing an employee's attitude about organizational commitment. Physically being around other employees, or having more opportunities to coalesce in social groups, or having more opportunities for participation, autonomy and/or empowerment are a few factors that create a positive organizational commitment attitude. Thus, employees develop attitudes about both their job and their organization and these two attitudes have been found to interact in a person's decision to stay or leave the organization. Based upon their levels of job involvement and organizational commitment, employees could be classified as stars, corporate citizens, lone wolves or apathetics. Stars have high job involvement and organizational commitment and should have the lowest turnover propensity. Their jobs are important to their self-image and they strongly identify with their organization. Alternatively, apathetics have low involvement and commitment and should have the highest turnover propensity because their jobs are not important to them and they do not strongly identify with their organization. Lone wolves have high involvement, but low commitment. They are expected to have higher turnover propensity than corporate citizens, who have low involvement and high commitment, but not as much as apathetics. Lone wolves view their job as being important, but they do not strongly identify with their organization. They may leave if a more attractive job is offered to them by another organization, i.e., highly skilled TSRs feel they can switch organizations because of the transferrable nature of their skills. Corporate citizens do not identify with their jobs as much as they do with their organization. Their high organizational commitment makes staying 31

with the company, in any reasonable capacity, their primary goal. This commitment can come from an ardent identification with and support for the organization's values, managers, its method of operation, or from accrued retirement, stocks, perks and seniority that have economic as well as intrinsic value. Telemarketing firms have traditionally relied on a large proportion of part-time employees to fill phone sales jobs, which presents the opportunity to investigate the proposed model across both full- and part-time employees. A study was undertaken consisting of both parttime and full-time telemarketing sales employees employed in eight locations of a major, national telemarketing firm. There were 387 part-time employees and 114 full-time. Parttime was defined as anyone working less than 35 hours per week, and full-time as working more than 35 hours per week. Sixty-three percent of the part-time salespeople were females, 57 percent had completed high school, and 69 percent had worked for their organization less than three months. The average age was 27 years. In the full-time portion of the group, 60 percent were females, 59 percent had completed high school, and 67 percent had worked for their organization less than three months. The average age was 29 years. Employee responses were collected via a questionnaire administered during the employees' lunch hour and then returned by mail. Job involvement was measured by 10 questions, each measured by a seven-point Likert scale. Organizational commitment utilized a seven-point Likert scale and contained 13 questions. Turnover propensity was measured by three questions. The turnover score could range from a positive value (indicating high propensity to leave) to a negative value (indicating low turnover propensity). The model was tested first to determine if the interaction of job involvement, organizational commitment, and part-time versus full-time employment status predicted turnover 32

propensity. The result supported this three-way interaction, thus signifying that the model acted differently for the part-time versus full-time employee samples. To investigate the nature of this difference, four subgroup analyses were run on part-time and full-time TSRs. Employees were partitioned into stars, corporate citizens, lone wolves, or apathetics based on splitting the employees at their mean scores on job involvement and organizational commitment, respectively. The turnover propensity score of each employee category was then compared to other employee categories within each sample by means of stat istical t-tests. Part-time star employees had the lowest turnover propensity, whereas part-time apathetic employees had the highest turnover propensity. Part-time lone wolf employees had the next highest turnover propensity. Finally, part-time corporate citizen employees had lower turnover propensity than lone wolf employees, but not as low as star employees. These mean score comparisons were in the expected direction of the proposed model. The statistical comparisons of these mean scores revealed that the turnover propensity of stars was significantly different from citizens, lone wolves and apathetics. Likewise, the turnover propensity of apathetics was significantly different from lone wolves, citizens and stars. There was no significant difference between corporate citizens and lone wolves in the part-time sample. The mean scores indicate that full-time star employees had the lowest turnover propensity and the highest turnover propensity occurred with the full-time apathetic employees. Furthermore, the corporate citizen had a lower turnover propensity compared to the lone wolf employee. These findings suggest that the full-time sample seems similar to the part-

33

time sample. However, the three-way interaction indicated differences between the two employment groups. The statistical comparisons reveal the differences. The turnover propensity of stars was significantly different from lone wolf and apathetic employees, but not corporate citizen employees. The turnover propensity for corporate citizen employees and lone wolf employees is significantly different from apathetic employees. The overall results indicate that apathetic employees, whether full-time or part-time, have the highest turnover propensity. Employee results for the lowest turnover propensity are not as clear cut. Part-time star employees have the lowest propensity, but full-time, corporate citizen employees have no significant differences compared to full-time star employees in their turnover propensity.

IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL Establishing different management-employee leadership relationships offers additional means of building organizational commitment. These leadership patterns can be characterized by reciprocal influence, mutual trust, respect and liking, and a sense of common fate or alternatively by unidirectional downward influence, role-defined relations, and a sense of loosely coupled fates.(6) Managers get "close" to some employees and "distance" themselves from other employees. These types of leadership patterns are expected to influence employees' attitudes of organizational commitment. For instance, employees who receive greater attention and resources would be more likely to exhibit a greater desire to retain membership in that organization. Furthermore, employees who receive more inside information and discretion would develop a stronger belief in the organization's goals and 34

values. Finally, employees who receive greater autonomy and support would be willing to work harder on the organization's behalf. Managers secure greater commitments by partnering with employees. These "close" partners or cadre members have higher job satisfaction, less role conflict, role ambiguity, and job stress, and are more satisfied with their managers than are the "distant" employees. For managers who understand and can apply the findings presented here there are unique opportunities to develop more productive employees who are less likely to quit. Employees who already have high organizational commitment -- stars and corporate citizens -- see very positive attitudes associated with their membership in the organization. The factors contributing to this attitude may include the flexible scheduling or limited employment duration or the treatment by their managers. Employees with low organizational commitment -- lone wolves and apathetic -- initially see little opportunity to change their organizational commitment attitudes. If management is interested in reducing their turnover propensity, management needs to devote more efforts to enhancing these employees' organization commitment attitudes. This may be particularly true of lone wolve employees. These employees, though having low organizational commitment, are often considered experts at doing their jobs. They are a valuable asset to the company in that they act as problem solvers for their peers. They are sought out by other employees for advice and instruction rather than going to the manager. The departure of lone wolves can effectively create an expertise void which will then have to be filled by either managers or star employees.

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Research has shown that building organizational commitment will enhance retention faster and more effectively than will job involvement. It should be remembered that in each of the subgroup categories, there is a distribution of people. For example, there are apathetics who are beyond conversion, they hate the job and company and will quit the minute something better comes along. However, there are apathetics who are somewhat close to corporate citizens in their involvement and commitment attitudes. For them, a little extra attention from management could pay off significantly and move them into the ranks of corporate citizens. Obviously, not all these employees will change their organizational commitment attitudes; however, management's real problem may be developing better retention strategies and these employees, the lone wolves and borderline apathetics, definitely need to be considered as important elements for this strategy. The principal attitude telemarketing management can use to reduce turnover propensity of both their part- and full-time employees centers on instilling more organizational commitment compared to trying to build more job involvement. Building organizational commitment means devoting energy to group maintenance and creating loyalty and devotion to the organization and its goals. Management would like to have its members conform to the organizational norms and to carry out their prescribed roles and behavioral expectations. However, the partitioning of employees based on their job involvement and organizational commitment attitudes produces four categories of uniquely different employees. These differences are further illustrated by the part-time/full-time employment status of these employees. Both the part- and full-time apathetic employees had the highest degree of turnover propensity. Beyond this the similarities between the part- and full-time employees 36

disappear. Part-time star employees have the lowest turnover propensity, whereas, full-time star and corporate citizen employees have no significant difference in their low turnover propensity. Building organizational commitment through a variety of strategies was offered as the principal way to reduce turnover propensity. The challenge for management, in building employee organizational commitment, will be to design a work and organizational environment in which the social and leadership aspects of working are more balanced with the strong concentration on the technical components of job performance technology. This challenge is further complicated because of the relatively large number of part-time employees working in this industry. The principal attitude telemarketing management can use to reduce turnover propensity of both their part- and full-time employees centers on instilling more organizational commitment compared to trying to build more job involvement. Building organizational commitment means devoting energy to group maintenance and creating loyalty and devotion to the organization and its goals. Management would like to have its members conform to the organizational norms and to carry out their prescribed roles and behavioral expectations. However, the partitioning of employees based on their job involvement and organizational commitment attitudes produces four categories of uniquely different employees. These differences are further illustrated by the part-time/full-time employment status of these employees. Both the part- and full-time apathetic employees had the highest degree of turnover propensity. Beyond this the similarities between the part- and full-time employees disappear. Part-time star employees have the lowest turnover propensity, whereas, full-time 37

star and corporate citizen employees have no significant difference in their low turnover propensity. Building organizational commitment through a variety of strategies was offered as the principal way to reduce turnover propensity. The challenge for management, in building employee organizational commitment, will be to design a work and organizational environment in which the social and leadership aspects of working are more balanced with the strong concentration on the technical components of job performance technology. This challenge is further complicated because of the relatively large number of part-time employees working in this industry.

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INDUSTRY PROFILE

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INDUSTRY PROFILE
Moradabad is renowned for brass work and has carved a niche for itself in the handicraft industry through out the world. The modern,attractive, and artistic brass ware, jewelry and trophies made by skilled artisans are the main crafts. The attractive brass ware are exported to countries like USA, Britain, Canada, Germany and Middle East Asia. There are about 600 export units and 5000 industries in the district. Moradabad exports goods worth Rs. 2200 crore every year. Recently other products like Iron Sheet Metalwares, Aluminium Artworks and Glassware's have also been included as per need of the foreign Buyers. Mentha is also exported in several crores from Moradabad. These products are very popular in foreign market and are being exported in thousand of crores every year. Due to increase of exports and popularity in foreign specially in Europe, America, Italy and other countries, a large No. of exporters are establishing their units and started their export. Out of the seven industrial corridors declared by the State Govt. in Industrial Policy 1999-2002, Moradabad is one of them. The Government is investing a lot of money to improve infrastructural facilities to promote the Industrial activities at Moradabad like 24 hours UN-interrupted power supply, construction of By-pass, Proposal for widening and making 4 lane Delhi-Moradabad Road. About 450 Acres of land has been acquired to develop a New Industrial Area for Export Oriented Units at Pakbara to Dingarpur Road. Thus this is good opportunity for new entrepreneurs to establish their projects.

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Brass Industry Raw material used in the manufacture of brass utensils are called "SILLY" and "GULLY" in the local jargon. "SILLY" and "GULLY" is the mixture of many metals namely- Copper, Zink, Lead, etc.(in a specified ratio). All these metals mixed in a big pot called "GHARIA" and heated in a furnace. The molten mix is then poured into a mold of desired shape & allowed to cool. First & foremost, the design of the utensil, to be made, is sketched on a piece of a paper followed by its wooden frame which is later on used to make its metal prototype. This is known as Master piece. The expert artisans also known as "DHALLAIYA" prepares mould for the different brass utensils. Molten metal is poured into these moulds, the utensils is then taken out for repair and refurbished with utmost care. These brass utensils are then polished. If needed, exotic design are made on these polished utensils. These utensils are then ready to be sold in the domestic market or are exported out to various countries. Brass industry is developed as a small scale industry in Moradabad . Worker have small workshop in their houses. Apart from brass, there are other handicraft industries in Moradabad :

Jewelry made out of bones and horns. Kitchen ware Combs Wooden sticks

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The main center of this industry is in Sambhal, a tehsil of Moradabad district. The attractive goods generated by this small scale industry are in great demand in many countries. There are about 1500 families involved in the production of these items, which provide job to about 5000 people. Printing Printing on cloths is done at many places in the district, but Thakurdwara, Kanth and Amroha are the main centers. District administration has established a Handicraft Corporation depot in Thakurdwara. Design for printing on cloth is provided by this depot to these cloth merchants. The final prepared product in then taken over by the corporation. There are about 6000 people involved in the profession. Moradabad district apart from brass and handicraft industries, there are about 7182 other small scale industrial units. Prominent among these are

Mentha oil. Rice Mills Sugar Mills Cement and Building material Agricultural Instruments Animal Feed Coal Bricks Oil Mill, etc.

These small scale units provide jobs to about 28545 people. There are about 44 units of Medium and Large Scale Industries, which includes Distillery, Sugar Mills, Pulp & Paper, Pharmaceutical & Chemical Industries etc. These industrial units provide jobs to about 40000 people. 42

The brassware industry in Moradabad bloomed in early 19th century and British took the art to foreign markets. Other immigrating artisans from Banaras, Lucknow, Agra and many other places formed the current cluster of brassware industry in Moradabad.

In 1980's various other metal wares like brass; iron, aluminum etc. were also introduced to the art industry of Moradabad. New technologies like Electroplating, lacquering, powder coating etc. also found its way to the industry.

Type of business - manufacturing and export Some of the artisans


have their in house manufacturing units and workshops. Otherwise different tasks take place in different small manufacturing units. These units consist of furnace, moulding tools, polishing machine. It is a low technology industry and hand powered labor predominates. Moradabad is renowned for brass work and has carved a niche for itself in the handicraft industry through out the world. The modern, attractive, and artistic brass ware, jewelry and trophies made by skilled artisans are the main crafts. The attractive brass ware is exported to countries like USA, Britain, Canada, Germany and Middle East Asia. There are about 600 export units and 5000 industries in the district. Moradabad exports goods worth Rs. 2200 crore every year. Recently other products like Iron Sheet Metal wares, Aluminium Artworks and Glassware's have also been included as per need of the foreign Buyers. Mentha is also exported in several crores from Moradabad. These products are very popular in 43

foreign market and are being exported in thousand of crores every year. Due to increase of exports and popularity in foreign especially in Europe, America, Italy and other countries, a large No. of exporters are establishing their units and started their export. Out of the seven industrial corridors declared by the State Govt. in Industrial Policy 19992002, Moradabad is one of them. The Government is investing a lot of money to improve infrastructural facilities to promote the Industrial activities at Moradabad like 24 hours UN-interrupted power supply, construction of By-pass, Proposal for widening and making 4 lane Delhi-Moradabad Road. About 450 Acres of land has been acquired to develop a New Industrial Area for Export Oriented Units at Pakbara to Dingarpur Road. Thus this is good opportunity for new entrepreneurs to establish their projects. Brass Industry Raw materials used in the manufacture of brass utensils are called "SILLY" and "GULLY" in the local jargon. "SILLY" and "GULLY" is the mixture of many metals namely- Copper, Zink, Lead, etc.(in a specified ratio). All these metals mixed in a big pot called "GHARIA" and heated in a furnace. The molten mix is then poured into a mold of desired shape & allowed to cool. First & foremost, the design of the utensil, to be made, is sketched on a piece of a paper followed by its wooden frame which is later on used to make its metal prototype. This is known as Master piece.

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The expert artisans also known as DHALLAIYA prepare mould for the different brass utensils. Molten metal is poured into these moulds, the utensils is then taken out for repair and refurbished with utmost care. These brass utensils are then polished. If needed, exotic designs are made on these polished utensils. These utensils are then ready to be sold in the domestic market or are exported out to various countries. Brass industry is developed as a small scale industry in Moradabad. Worker have small workshop in their houses.

R K ASSOCIATES, Estd. 2007, (Rajesh) Importers of ferrous metal, non ferrous metals such as mild steel bright bar, black bar, stainless steel rod, stainless steel pipe, stainless steel sheets, stainless steel fittings, mild steel fittings, copper, bronze, brass, gunmetal, aluminum, alloy steel ohns, wps, hche, mild steel pipes, sheets and coils etc. Address: 82/92, Durgadevi Street, Kumbhar Wada,India,Mumbai,Maharashtra Phone(s): 91-022-67437378, Fax(s) : 91-022-66363212, Mobile : 91-9869680284/ 9222202256 Cmm Metals, Estd. 2005, (M.ramanan.) Importers of industrial raw materials, ferrous metal, non-ferrous metals, aluminium, brass, copper, stainless steel, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, boiler plates, non ferrous scraps, stainless steel sheets, stainless steel rods, stainless steel flats, stainless steel pipes, stainless steel angle and stainless steel wires.

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Address: 47/51, Kika Street, Room No.19, Second Floor, Gulalwadi,,India,Mumbai,Maharashtra Phone(s): 91-022-67437284, Fax(s) : 91-22-23453242, Mobile : 91-09323424592 Metal Sales India , Estd. 1998, (Dinesh Shah) Importers of stainless steel, copper, brass and aluminium. Address: 5/a,Jay Siddhivinayak Society,Ardeshir Dady Cross Lane,C.p.tank,India,mumbai,Maharashtra Raj Rajendra Metal , Estd. 1999, (Manish Jain) Importers of stainless steel, steel sheets, steel plates, steel coils, non ferrous metals, copper, brass, aluminium, monel, nickel, titanium etc. Address: Shop No. 4, Laheri Building, Gr. Floor, 5th Khetwadi Lane,India,MUMBAI,Maharashtra A P ENTERPRISES , Estd. 1995, (ASLAM PARVEZ) Importers of brass, iron, aluminium etc. Address: SARAI BHOOKI SCHOOL NO 35 JAIGANJ,India,ALIGARH,Uttar Pradesh Servewel Industries , Estd. 1980, (Karthik Viswanathan) Importers of Aluminium, Steel and Brass. Address: #19A, 2nd Main Road, 3rd Cross, KIADB, Veerasandra Industrial Area, Hosur Main Road, Anekal Taluk,,India,Bangalore,Karnataka Ansh Enterprises , Estd. 2008, (Bhavna Razdan) 46

Importers of Metal Scraps, Hms1 Scraps, Hms 1 Scraps, Hms2 Scraps, Aluminium Scrap, Honey Brass and Steel Rods. Address: 632, Plot-16, Sector-10 Dwarka,India,New Delhi Jiyaa Impex , Estd. 1998, (kunal solanki) Importers of Copper, Brass, Aluminium, Hms Scrap, Hms1 Scrap, Hms2 Scrap Etc. Address: 302,pratibha complex,moti tanki chowk,India,Rajkot,Gujarat Orion , Estd. 1974, (Jacob) Importers of Ferrous Metal, Non-Ferrous Metals, Metals, Scrap, HMS1 Scrap, HMS2 Scrap, Copper, Brass, Aluminium, Tungsten, Zinc, Cathode, Silver, Iron, Steel, Plastic, Minerals, Industrial Chemicals, Pharmaceutical Chemical, Bulk Drug, API, Pharmaceutical Intermediates, Enzymes, Readymade Garments, Spices, Refractories, Granite & Natural Stones. Address: Block 5B, Periamet Salai, T. Nagar,India,Chennai,Tamil Nadu Rathore Trading , Estd. 1992, (Gajendra Singh Rathore) Importers of Coal, Steel, Iron, GunPowder, Zinc and Brass. Address: Chanderia,India,Chittorgarh,Rajasthan S. a Unique N. V , Estd. 1989, (Priya Iyengar) Importers of Iron, Steel, Copper, Brass, Aluminium, Tungsten, Mineral Ores, Granites, Chemicals, Dyes, Drugs, Tablets, Capsules, Injection, Syrup, Ointment, Creams and Lotion.

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Address: 4,

Ramprasad

Block,

Bhagwan

Parashnath

Marg,

Bhandup

(West),India,Mumbai,Maharashtra

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COMPANY PROFILE

COMPANY PROFILE
Name M/s designco Established 1979 Manufacturer/Exporter

Business Activity Status State

A government of India recognized trading house and award winner in export

in 1993/1999/2000. Location Office/Factory/ShowroomLakri Fazalpur, Delhi Road, Moradabad. 244001 U.P.India. Delhi Office- 5A/14, Ist floor, Tilak Nagar, Contact Person New Delhi. 110018 India.

Mr. Vibhor K. Gupta (President) 49

Mr. Vipin K. Gupta (Partner) Mr. Vinay K. Gupta (Partner) Banker Punjab National Bank,Station Road, Moradabad. 244001 India Annual Turnover Production Capacity 18 Million US$ 30 Million US$, 2.5 Million US$/Month or 350000 Pcs/Month. Total Land Area Covered Area Recruitment Policy Product Range 1, 50,000 Sq. Feet 40000 Sq. Feet It is in standard order file. Gift item in Brass, Aluminium, Iron, Copper, and Wooden & Silver plated items. All kinds of house hold utensils in Stainless Steel & Brass Builder Hardware, Glass Handicrafts in different categories. No. of Employee 143

Type of Machinery Coloring. Delivery Schedule Terms of Payment Countries of Export

Press, Polishing, Lacquer, Electro Plating, Powder Coating,

180 days from the date of order confirmation. L/C: T/T U.S.A, U.K, Australia, Germany, Canada, France, Japan & Hong Kong. 50

Height of Boundary Walls Shift of Guards Guards/Shift Lowest Wages for Trained Employee Incentive Plan for Employee Training Program Verification of Age Health & Safety policy P.F. Deduction Working Hours / week Working Hours / Day Weekly Off Type of Ownership Procedure of Complaint From the Worker To protect Environment

11 Feet 3 3 Rs. 2800/Month

Bonus First Aid, Fire Drill, Awareness Program. By the High School mark sheet Yes 12% from the salary 48 Hrs. 8 Hrs. Sunday Partnership Complaint Box

ETP & Dust Collector

LOHIA AUTO INDUSTRIES LAI is into the manufacturing of electric vehicles- mainly two wheelers and three wheelers. These electric vehicles will be eco- friendly, cost effective and pollution free. Keeping in mind the growing demands of teeming millions balancing with the environmental concern Lohias have come up with the electric vehicles. With the Lohias electric vehicles one 51

would be free to move, free from expensive maintenance, free from rising fuel prices, free from pollution and free from guilt about damaging the planet.

DESIGNCO is engaged in export business. The firm is having a status of trading house. It manufactures and exports Handicraft Gift items in Brass, Glass, Aluminum, Iron, Copper, Wooden, Beaded and Stainless Steel. Designco India is the well established and the highest Export award winning Company in Metal Decorative trade. Designco India is producing high quality art metal wares and having ISO: 9002 rating for its quality products.

Designco India is serving their clients by producing high quality metal decorative goods, having a turnover of 300 crores with most of the business in U.S.A., Europe and Australia.

LOHIA DEVELOPERS INDIA PVT. LTD is engaged in Real Estate Development and construction business. Its main activities are concentrated in Western UP (Moradabad )and NCR region of New Delhi. The Company was incorporated with main object to deal in acquisition of property, develop it and sell the same. Its object also includes works to carry on business as developers, constructionresidential as well as industrial / commercial, roads, highways and new townships.

The Company started its business activity since its very inception. Lands have been purchased and the same are under development and the necessary activities are also going

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on. The company acquires, improves, manages and develops the rights in respect of property and to deal with the property of all kinds including land and building.

LOHIA BRASS (P) LTD. is involved in the manufacturing of brass sheet and coils. The company was established in the year 1988. The Company was incorporated with main object to manufacture, process, import, export, buy, sell, distribute or otherwise deal in all kinds of ferrous and non ferrous metals, metals sheets, metal articles including art wares, ores, metal alloys, amalgams in any form or shape or any article or thing in which any of the aforesaid item is used.

BHIWADI METAL ROLLWELL (P) LTD is involved in the manufacturing of stainless steel coils. It symbolizes strength, durability and impeccable quality. Established in the year 1995, it has grown tremendously and entrenched as the most authentic manufacturer and exporter of stainless Steel Strips and Foils. This firm is into manufacturing, import, export roll, Re-roll and deals in all kinds of stainless steel, iron ferrous and non ferrous metal and to carry on the business of manufacturers, designers, fabricators, exporters, importers, processor and contractors, in costing products, casting and foundry works and to carry out the business as forgers, engineers, melteres, welders, moulders, jobworkers etc. From the last one decade, this company is relentlessly catering to the requirements of various industrial sectors like Flexible Hoses, Capillary Tube, Pipes, Watch, Food and Diary, Thermo ware, Utensils, Decorative Items, Automobiles, Sugar Industry,

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Refrigeration, Surgical Equipment, Furniture, Hinges, Rims and Items for Architecture, Building and Construction.

LOHIA WAREHOUSE PVT. LTD The Company was incorporated with main object to import, export, warehouse, trading, and deals in all kinds of home appliances, home equipment, home improvement items, electrical goods, decorative goods, handicrafts items and FMCG products and to carry on the business of retail trading through retail store and other retailers. It promotes the business by appointing franchisers and accepts the franchises of other company or manufacturer.

Vision To be recognized as the leader in every segment and to be known as a market driven company which strives for excellence, quality, performance and reliability in all functional areas.

Feel, sense and experience the wonder of a genious craftsmanship. Designco defines a decorum for the grace and dignity of a well maintained home. Two and a half decades of long dedicated services in the field of manufacturing hand crafted brass, copper, aluminium, iron and glass items has given a cutting edge experience to designco in making available the best quality products. We one stop shop for all your handicrafts requirements established in 1979 in moradabad. We are one of the largest govt. Recognised trading house in the country.

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We received national award in handicrafts for the year 2002-2003 form the prime minister shri atal bihari vajpayee. The production unit for brass and iron are in moradabad and glass in ferozabad. Over the year we have expanded the product line and product mix to cater to the increasing demands of the handicrafts from all over the world.

The company has a strong work force of over 1500 people in its production unit and an office staff of 100 people. The total production capacity is us $45 million in brass, glass and iron handicrafted products.

COMPANY FOCUS Our business mission is focous on volume buyers, provide fast-moving products of high quality and consistency on time, every time. We export 100% of our production and our main focous is on volume buyers such as chain stores, departmental stores, discount stores importer and wholesalers. Product development is a major activity at designco. We compete in the Market by conntinuously developing new products that are not only innovative and functional, but most importantly that sell well.

OUR PRODUCTS Our deep specialization and impressive range of products, competent infrastructure to serve our customers, customised and new products quickly and efficienlty by our in house design and develoment department. Item the category undertaken at present are as follows: 55

Household and Stainless Steel Utensils Table Ware Gift Ware Bathroom Accessories Outdoor and Indoor Garden Christmas Dcor and Trim O Tree Wooden Furniture Wax Candle Embroidered and Fabric Covered Gift Items Stone Handicrafted Items Electric Lamps With Approved Fittings Window Hardware Other Utility Items Mission To create enduring value for clients and customers in core manufacturing and service businesses, through innovative techniques, world class standards and a positive approach.

Customs With the current emphasis on free trade agreements and global sourcing, Customs issues have assumed an increasingly important role in the supply chain. Our global Customs services focus on the compliance, release, and reporting needs of the marketplace, which we refer to as the "Customs value stream." Distribution They provide a comprehensive, flexible spectrum of distribution and warehousing services that are available throughout our global network. Leading - edge information technology and connectivity offers real time visibility to inventory. This combination of coverage and technology offers seamless control over a global supply chain. 56

Global Network With a seamless global network of professionals, they are able to handle all the paperwork for you. From filing your claims, issuing certificates, flexible billing mechanisms and anything in between. They provide both economic and administrative savings for you through this continuity and integrity, simplifying and eliminating costly duplication. Administrative Office Speed Control System for Vehicles with in the Factory

Baking of Items (Powder Coating)

Phosphating

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14T / day Glass Furnace

Annealing Furnace (Glass Unit)

Metal Press Shop 58

Metal Fabrication Unit

Conveyorised Electroplating Plant Equipped with plc fresh air Intake and Air Exhaust System

Brass Polishing

(For Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metals & Alloys) Lacquer Spray System

Equipped with Water Wash Spray System for Air Pollution Control Wood Finishing (Spraying in Conveyored Plant)

Wood Division (Machine Shop)

Wood Division (Machine Shop)

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Wood Division (Seasoning chambers)

Wood Division (Sawing)

Wood Division (Treatment Vessel)

Wood Division (Seasoning Treatment Maxwall)

2300 KVA F.O. Genset 60

Generator 360*6 KVA

Thermic Fluid boiler

2MT Steam Boiler

Chemical Laboratory (Destructive / Non-destructive Tests)

(To supply steam for Wood seasoning and Tank Heating ) Salt Spray Cabinet

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Corrugation sheet and Carton Manufacturing

Propane Storage Gas Yard

Workers Canteen (250 Seating Capacity)

(for fuel in Glass Melting Furnace and Glass Fire-Polishing) Supervisors Canteen

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In House Dispensary

Effluent Treatment Plant (Phosphating Division)

Ultra Modern Automatic Effluent Treatment Plant

Smoke Washing and Suction System

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(attatched to Electroplating Plant) Brass Melting Unit

Brass Melting Shop (Reverberatory Furnace) 2300 kva F.O Genset

Smoke extraction and Air filteration with Cooling System (front view) Time office

Air Pollution Control System on 2033 kva F.O. Genset Staff Bus

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Time office with Time- Punch Card & Metal Detection units

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PRODUCT PROFILE

PRODUCT PROFILE

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Designco Exports Ltd. is the manufacturer and exporter of handicrafts of glass, metal and wood. It is largest Export House of Moradabad. The specialties are the production of combination items all in-house. Raw materials are purchased and finished products duly assembled (where required) go out of factory for export. As regards quantum of exports it is the largest in Moradabad employing maximum number of craftsmen. The processes of manufacturing are best suited to produce quality, intricate and economical products. The finishes imparted meet the international requirement. The product in turn is tested for necessary mechanical, chemical and metallurgical tests as per standards or protocols of the buyers. The company has in-house Design Cell where R & D keeps going on the basis of latest requirements in International Market. The manufacturing processes are so decided as per product design i.e. 1. Casting 2. Pressing 3. Extrusion etc. Some of the typical products are exhibited in forthcoming pages. We can see that the products of the company are not fix, company manufactures the products as per the customers order or choice.

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Companys Manufacturing Capabilities

1.Brass: In house manufacturing and finishing in variety of finishes as polished brass, antque brass, bronze, silver plating, patinas etc. Items: Figurines, Fire fashion, Tableware, Decorative, Clocks, Candle-stands, Wall decor, Bath Accessories, Window Treatment , Hardware, Seasonal, Giftables, etc.

2. Aluminium: In-house casting & finishing, mostly painted or polished finishes Items: Garden Furniture, Garden Animals, Markers, Planters, Figurines, Potholders, Birdbaths etc.

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4. Glass: They have Continuous Tank furnace with a capacity of 40 tones per day to make mouth-blown glass, in crackle finish, frosted, seeded in clear & colored glass. They have arrangements of producing pressed and extrusion glass as well. Items: Mostly combinations of Glass with Iron, Brass, Bronze or Silver plated bases for Bowls, Bath Accessories, Candle holders, Lanterns, Pillar holders, Tumblers & Decanters, Vases etc.

4. Iron:- In- house facility to manufacture Wrought & Cast Iron items with in-house 7 tank Phosphating (rust treatment Spray Painting, Powder Coating and Hand applied finishes.

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Items: Indoor Accent furniture (CKD), Garden Furniture, Bases for Glass Vases & Candleholders, Fire fashion, Pillar candleholders, Armillaries, Potholders, etc. 5. Wood: In-house arrangements of Sawing, Seasoning, Treatment, Machining, Carpentry, Finishing (spray paint & stain finishes). Items: Colonial Dutch furniture, Neo-Classical furniture & Desk sets, Candle holders, Pillar holders, Lanterns, Photo-frames, Finials for drapery rods, Photo frames Trays, Bowls etc.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF C. L. GUPTA EXPORTS LTD. IN THE FIELD:Moradabad is the city of brass rather handicrafts now. It fetches around 2000 crores of foreign exchange every year and we contribute the largest portion into that. In the present scenario following aspects are getting important: Best quality at competitive price. Best delivery to economise in finance- involvement period. Keeping one self updated with the international requirements. Production in ecofriendly atmosphere.

Our approach has been very practical to achieve above for which we have done following improvements in methods and machines.

Specialized Production Facilities


Glass Division are unique in i.e. Installation of 16 head press machine for producing quality / quantity glassware. 75

Installation of injection and Lapping Machine. Introduction of Arsenic and Antimony trioxide free clear glass batch, as these substances were hazardous being toxic in nature.

Establishing continuous process for cutting and drilling of glass and then frosting by controlled dipping to produce Lamp Shades in bulk.

Process for Production of Picture tubes. Process for glass painting in controlled dust free atmosphere maintaining positive pressure in the Paint shop.

WOOD HANDICRAFT: Installed various new machines viz 2-Side Planers, 4-Side Installation centralized dust collection, moulders, systems in wood machine shop. Producing all handicrafts of seasoned wood only, by increasing seasoning chambers from 12 to 30 within last two years. Installed wood finishing line having water curtain on-Pump spray booths and conveyorised temperature controlled ovens. Installed New vacuum Press dryer for fast wood drying machine. Installed various new machines viz 2- Side Planner , 4- Side Planner and moulding machines, Rotary glue composing machines, moulders, circular saws, semi automatic and automatic wood turning lathes. BRASS HANDICRAFTS: Introduction of Brass melting and casting unit using Reverberatory Furnace with smoke extraction system fitted with carbon filtration. 76

Press Machine shop with optically controlled safety switches. Establishing Polishing shops with water wash dust collection system to achieve upto 90 % efficiency. The water is recycled and the residue is pressed into blocks which are subsequently used as fuel to Thermic heater to heat the oil which by circulation through pipes heats the plating and phospating tanks (Step towards energy conservation ).

Installation of Thermic heaters described above in which waste saw dust of wood division is used as fuel. (Step toward energy conservation)

Installation of automatic plating plant PLC controlled using fume exhaust system and generation of healthy working atmosphere by intake of filtered fresh air through AHUs installed. IRON HANDICRAFTS: Installation of conveyorised Phospating unit with material handling equipments. Automatic electroststic Powder Coating plant with 100 % Powder Recovery system and provision of instant colour changing facility. OTHER DEVELOPMENTS: Installation of continuous effluent treatment plant attached to plating plant. 100 % in house power generation facility upto 5200 KVA. Clay and Resin Moulding Processes. Installation of boiers with auyomatic saw dust feeding system which not only consumes wood waste but also the steam generated is used in seasoning chambers and heating phospating solution. 77

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research is common parlance refresh to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learners dictionary of current English lay down the meaning research as a careful investigation and inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch knowledge. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of theory is also research. As such the term Research refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts of data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusion either in the form of solution towards the concerned problem or certain in certain generalization for some theoretical formulation. TYPES OF RESEARCH There are the following types of research: 1. Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and factfinding enquiries of different kinds. The majors purpose of descriptive research is description the set of affairs it exists at present. In analytical research, on the other hand, the research has to use facts or information 79

already available, and analyze these to use fact or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of material. 2. Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied research or fundamental research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or and industrial / Business origination, Whereas Fundamental research is mainly concern with generalization and with the formulation of a theory. 3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the

measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand is concerned with Qualitative phenomenon, that is, phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. 4. Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is that related some abstract idea or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, Empirical research realizes on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is a data based research. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analyses of data in a manner that aims to combined relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it is constitute the blue print for the collection, measurement and analyses of data. 80

DATA SOURCES The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design/plan chalked out. While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data. 1.Primary data 2.Secondary data 1. Primary data: These data are collected afresh & for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. 2. Secondary data: These data are already collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. The researcher would have to decide which sort of data he would be using for his study and accordingly he will have to select one or other method of data collection. COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA We collect primary data during the course of doing experiments in an experimental research but in case we do research of the descriptive nature and perform surveys, whether sample survey or census surveys, then we can obtain primary datas either through observation or through personal interviews. This in other words means that there are several other methods of collecting data, particularly in surveys & descriptive researches. Important ones are: 1. Observation method 2. Interview method 3. Through questionnaire 4. Through schedules 81

COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA Secondary data means data that are already available i.e.; they refer to data, which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. When the researcher utilizes secondary data, then he has to look into various sources from where he can obtain them. In this case he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data. Usually published data are available in: Various publications of central, state and local governments Various publications of foreign governments or of international bodies and their subsidiary organizations Technical and trade journals Books, magazines and newspapers etc Reports and publication of various associations connected with business and industry, banks, stock exchanges etc. Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economists etc Public records and statistics, historical documents

This project is based on primary data as well as secondary data which has been collected from various sources Annual reports Websites Journals 82

In this research project, secondary data were used from Magazines, journals, annual reports, statements and periodicals were consulted to fetch the information about Job involvement among high and low achieving employees. Research project is also based on the information collected from various websites and e-links. The research is also done by collecting primary data using Questionnaire as a source for collecting the information from the employees of Designco Exports Ltd. SAMPLING SAMPLE UNIT SAMPLE SIZE DATA METHOD TOOLS USED AREA OF RESEARCH The project is based on Data Sources: Primary Data Secondary Data Primary datas were collected through observation, interview and filling the questionnaire. They have been incorporated in the project. The secondary data are gathered through company profile. Products analysis, manufacturing processes, Swamy Handbook Labour Law Reporter, available policies of M/s Designco Exports Ltd. support. Non- Probability 1 Questionnaire/ Person 50 Employees Primary and Secondary data Questionnaire Graphs and Charts Designco Export Ltd.

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FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

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FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

1. At which level you are placed in your organization?

DESIGNCO

20% Top level 50% 30% Middle level Lower level

Interpretation From the above graph the interpretation is that in Designco Exports Ltd. 20% of people are designated at Top level, 30% at Middle level and 50% at Lower.

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2. Do you feel satisfied with the working condition of your organization?

DESIGNCO

20% Yes No 80%

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 80% of the employees are satisfied with the working conditions and 20% of the employees are dissatisfied.

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3. If Yes, which amongst the following factor make you satisfied with the working conditions of your organization?

DESIGNCO
10% 10% 15% 30% 15%

Proper ventilation Lightening

20%

Organisation culture Proper hygine Transportation facilities Proper Grievance handling procedure

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 10% of the employees are satisfied with the working conditions of their organization due to proper ventilation, 10% due to lightening, 30% due to organization culture, 15% due to proper hygiene, 15% due to transportation facilities, 20% due to proper grievance handling procedure.

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4.

How many leave has been prescribed in your organization in a year?

0%DESIGNCO 0% 0% Less than 7 days 7-15 days 15-30 days 100% More than 30 days

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 100% of the employees say that the leave prescribed to them in a year is more than 30 days.

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5.How often you take leave in a year?

DESIGNCO
10% 20% 35% Less than 7 days 7-15 days 15-30 days 35% More than 30 days

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 35% of the employees take leave for less than 7 days and 35% for 7-15 days and 20% for 15-30 days and 10% for more than 30 days in a year.

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6.Are you satisfied with the incentives being paid by your organization?

DESIGNCO
15% Yes No 85%

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 85% of employees are satisfied with the incentives being paid by their organization and 15% of the employees are dissatisfied.

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7.What are the normal working hours in your organization?

DESIGNCO
5% 27% 9% Less than 5 hrs 5-7 hrs 7-10 hrs 59% More than 10 hrs

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in DesigncoExports Ltd. the normal working hours of the employees is less than 5 hrs is for 5% employee, 5-7 hrs is for 10% employees and 7-10 is for 65% employees and more than 10 hrs for 30% employees.

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8.Are you satisfied with your working hours in your organization?

DESIGNCO
15% Yes No 85%

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in DesigncoExports Ltd. 85% employees are satisfied with working hours with their organization and 15% people are dissatisfied.

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9.Is medical facility being provided by your organization?

DESIGNCO
0% Yes No 100%

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in DesigncoExports Ltd. 100% of the employees are being provided by the medical facilities in their organization.

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10. If Yes, to what extent you are satisfied with the medical facility being provided by your organization?

DESIGNCO
10% 35% Excellent Not up to the standard Proper

55%

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 35% of the employees said that the medical facility provided by the organization is proper, 55% says excellent and 10% says not upto the standard.

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11. Does your personal/family problems do affect your work at your work place?

DESIGNCO

40% 60%

Yes No

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 40% employees are affected by their personal/family problems at work place and 60% employees are not affected.

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12. Do you want to recommend any change in the working culture of your organization to increase Job Analysis?

DESIGNCO

25% Yes No 75%

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that in Designco Exports Ltd. 25% of the employees want changes in the working culture of their organization and 75% of the employees do not want any change in the organization.

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CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION
I conclude that social compliance is the degree to which an employee identifies with his/her safety in the company and considers his/her job performance important to his/her self-worth. So, by taking Designco Exports Ltd. I conclude the following points: In Designco Exports Ltd. most of the employees are satisfied with the working conditions, therefore the social compliance in Designco Exports Ltd. is positive. The social compliance in Designco Exports Ltd. is positive because the factors such as organization culture, transportation facility and proper grievance handling procedure are more appropriate. In Designco Exports Ltd. the employees are satisfied with the leave prescribed by the organization in a year. The employees of Designco Exports Ltd. are satisfied with the incentives given by the organization. In Designco Exports Ltd. the working hours are appropriate. So the social compliance is positive in the organization. The employees of Designco Exports Ltd. find the medical facilities of the organization are excellent so the social compliance is positive. The employees of Designco Exports Ltd. are highly satisfied with the organization culture as most of them do not want any change in the organization so the social compliance is positive. Health and safety issues are taken care of to a great extent in Designco Exports Ltd. 98

Thus I conclude that in Designco Exports Ltd. social compliance is positive among the employees and results revealed that the attitude of job-orientation acted as a moderate variable only with respect to employees cognitive evaluation of the importance of need. Highly satisfied are employees with positive analyzing attitude are more than employees with negative attitude. Former give greater importance to safety and self-actualization and lesser importance to physiological and social needs. With respect to the patterns of need satisfaction and need strength, the high and low involved employees did not differ. Both groups felt strongest needs in physiological and self-actualization areas.

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SUGEESTIONS

100

SUGGESTIONS

When I made a thorough study of what exactly the importance of social compliance in an organization is, I realized that it plays a crucial role in achieving the ultimate goal of the organization. So the following suggestions could be given: The organizations should ensure the development of the employees so that they feel the importance of their existence in the organization. This can be done by giving proper training to the employees periodically. Performance matrix be prepared annually and employees be appraised enabling them to analyze their competence and inclination specially when their welfare and safety is well protected. The organization should give appropriate incentives (monetary as well nonmonetary) or bonus to an employees depending upon the capabilities, so that the employees try hard to give their best to the organization once they have been assigned according to their skill. The organization should compensate its employees by given fringe benefits like medical facilities, canteen facilities, education facilities, retirement benefits, social securities etc. to employees. So that employees get motivated and perform the jobs assigned with carefree and open attitude. The organization should ensure that, there should be the harmonious relationship between the employees and the employers so that the employees feel familiar in the working environment of the organization.

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The working conditions of the organization should be made healthy by providing proper ventilation, lightening, hygiene, organization culture & values, follow proper grievance handling procedure etc.

These entire factors contribute to high rate of motivation for social compliance of the employees in every organization. The safety Audit report prepared is reference to methodology adopted gives a detailed spectrum of actions taken and suggestions made for sustainability and further development.

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LIMITATIONS

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LIMITATIONS
Response of the employees was average in Designco Exports Ltd. towards their approach of sustainability. The time period allotted to researcher was small to interact with the huge number of strength of the company. Further the nature of jobs persons was quite variable, so standard norms could not be fixed. For source jobs like glass blowing only a specific sector of persons (Firozabad) were having necessary skill but they were quite reluctant to adopt methods and safety instruction. Faced problem is mobilizing the workers.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books Kothari C.R. Research Methodology, Vishwa Publication, Second Edition Mamoria C.B. Personal Management, Himalaya Publication, Second Edition Swamys Handbook Public Interest Litigation and Rights Handbook on Safety and Health . Magazines Business World Labour Law Reporters Newspapers Times of India Economics Times Websites http://www.designco-india.com/

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ANNEXURE

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ANNEXURE
Q1. At which level, you are placed in your organization? Top level Middle level Lower level

Q2. Do you feel satisfied with the working condition of your organization? Yes No

Q3. If Yes, which amongst the following factor make you satisfied with the working conditions of your organization? Proper ventilation Proper lightning Good Atmosphere Proper hygiene Organization culture Transportation facility

Proper grievance handling procedure Q4. If No, lack of which factor makes you dissatisfied with the working condition of the organization? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q5. How many leave has been prescribed in your organization in a year? Less than 7 days 15 30 days Q6. How often you take leave in a year? Less than 7 days 15 30 days 7 -- 15 days More than 30 days 7 -- 15 days More than 30 days

Q7. Are you satisfied with the incentives being paid by your organization? Yes No

Q8. What are the normal working hours in your organization? Less than 5 hrs 7-10 hrs 108 5-7 hrs More than 10 hrs

Q9. Are you satisfied with your working hours in your organization? Yes Q10. If No, Why? Q11. Is medical facility being provided by your organization? Yes No No

Q12. If Yes, to what extent you are satisfied with the medical facility being provided by your organization? Proper Q13. Excellent Not upto the standard

Does your personal/family problems do affect your work at your work place? Yes No

Q14.

Do you want to recommend any change in the working culture of your organization to increase Job Analysis? Yes No

Q15.

If Yes, then specify?

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EMPLOYEES PROFILE Name Sex : : Male Female

Designation : Address Tel. No. : : .

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