Student‟s Last Name 1 Student Name Kate Flom WRD104 Date Final Annotated Bibliography and Research Statement

Gun violence in the United States has been a controversial debate for the last several decades but the issue has resurfaced now more than ever due to the most recent public shootings. Even before the most recent and devastating mass shootings such as the Columbine High School, Virginia Tech, the Colorado Movie Theatre, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings, I have been in strong support of stricter gun control laws in the US. In order to prevent further gun violence, there has to be immediate legislation action to better the current situation. This legislation should include but not limited to bans on military assault weapons, better execution of current laws, stricter background checks and gun-trafficking laws. Stricter gun control is needed to reduce gun violence in the US as soon as possible. Within my paper I will focus on why people support or oppose gun control, determine who has a better point, and on the current debate on gun control. I will present information regarding both sides of the argument. I will include information on the opposition to demonstrate that there is another side to the argument of gun control but I will then refute it thus proving my point.

Baker, Peter and Michael D Shear. “Obama to „Put Everything I‟ve Got‟ Into Gun Control.” NYTimes.com. New York Times, 16 Jan. 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2013. Peter Baker and Michael D. Shear‟s informative article, “Obama to „Put Everything I‟ve Got‟ Into Gun Control,” focuses on discussing President Obama‟s future plans of enforcing

Student‟s Last Name 2 stricter gun control despite opposition. Baker and Shear explain that Obama plans to enforce legislation and gain public support that will facilitate and result in stricter gun control. They also convey the overwhelming effects gun violence has had on our nation recently. Not ignoring the other side of the argument, Baker and Shear include pro-gun rights politician‟s opinions. I chose this article due its constant focus on the effects of gun violence, the ongoing gun control debate and more specifically how President Obama is handling the issue. Baker and Shear appeal to the audience‟s intellect and establish credibility throughout the article. Baker and Shear effectively inform their audience of the consequences of gun violence on our nation, the President‟s future plans of enforcing stricter control despite opposition thus proving a viable source to argue gun control is in fact necessary to prevent future gun violence in the United States. This article will prove helpful when I write about the importance of enforcing stricter gun control in order to prevent further gun violence in our nation.

Bennett, Katherine, John Kraft, and Deborah Grubb. “University Faculty Attitudes Toward Guns On Campus.” Journal Of Criminal Justice Education 23.3 (2012): 336-355. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. Bennett, Kraft and Grubb focus on and study university faculty‟s feelings towards the idea of being allowed a concealed gun in public places such as college campuses and churches. They conduct a survey in which faculty and administrators are tested over their opinions on the current gun law being considered. The results demonstrate a majority of those tested oppose allowing concealed weaponry on college campuses. Bennett, Kraft and Grubb also found that a person‟s opinion on the matter depends on their political affiliation and if they own guns or not.

Student‟s Last Name 3 This article will prove useful in establishing and proving my argument because it offers a perspective my other sources do not. Bennett, Kraft and Grubb actually conducted a study where they asked the participants if they favored gun legislation. The results showed that most participants opposed the lenient gun laws, which will further prove my argument. Also, the results demonstrated political affiliation and gun ownership are contributing factors in someone‟s opinion on gun control, which is one of the points I am making in my paper.

Celinska, Katarzyna. "Individualism And Collectivism In America: The Case Of Gun Ownership And Attitudes Toward Gun Control." Sociological Perspectives 50.2 (2007): 229-247. Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. In her research, Celinska addresses the belief that the vast majority of Americans have individualistic ideologies. To determine if this claim is valid, Celinska utilizes an index of individualism and collectivism and applies it to the issues of gun control and ownership. Celinska suggests that society‟s attitudes are mainly due to either their individualistic or collectivist ideologies. After doing surveying research, she finds that people with individualistic ideologies usually oppose gun control measures. I chose this article because not only does Celinska provide a conclusion that goes along with my argument, she has appropriate evidence to prove it. In my argument to enforce gun regulations, I want to show how the supporters have better reasoning than the opponents of gun control. Celinska‟s research establishes opponents of gun control have more individualistic outlooks than supporters. Thus facilitating my argument that gun control should be enforced.

Student‟s Last Name 4 Cook, Philip J., and James A. Leitzel. "`Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy': An Economic Analysis Of The Attack On Gun Control." Law & Contemporary Problems 59.1 (1996): 91-118. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Feb. 2013 Cook and Leitzel look at the issue of gun control through an economic lens. They look at how numbers come into play with society‟s take on gun control and whether gun regulations benefit our economy or not. More specifically Cook and Leitzel analyze and critique Albert O. Hirschman‟s “The Rhetoric of Reaction Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy”. Unlike Hirschman‟s argument, Cook and Leitzel suggest an unregulated gun market would not be good for our economy. By incorporating Cook and Leitzel‟s research, I will add the perspective of another discourse community to my argument. After referencing Albert O. Hirschman‟s book in their article, they refute his claims by providing evidence that gun control is in fact better for our economy. Cook and Leitzel‟s conclusion support my argument that gun control should be enforced in the United States.

Cooper, Michael. “Debate on Gun Control is Revived, Amis Trend Toward Fewer Restrictions.” NYTimes.com. New York Times, 15 Dec. 2012. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. Cooper informs his audience on the current situation of the gun control debate. He describes the recent legislation, lessening gun laws, in a couple of states preceding the shooting in Connecticut. Due to this most recent shooting and a couple others, the issue of gun control has resurfaced now more than ever. Cooper mentions the Colorado governor‟s efforts to call for awareness and action on the issue after the Colorado shooting but nothing came of it. Despite

Student‟s Last Name 5 receiving more attention after the Connecticut shooting, opponents of gun control such as the NRA and Republicans only offered condolences and such. In my argument to enforce gun control, background information will be necessary to provide my audience with an accurate foundation of the debate on the issue so this article will prove useful. Cooper describes gun legislation in some states before the Connecticut shooting and after. He also touches on how opponents of gun restrictions continue to argue for their right to bear arms despite the recent shootings and their devastating outcomes. Not only will this information provide my audience with a sufficient understanding of the current gun control debate, it will help emphasize enforcing gun laws is a necessity.

Ellison, Christopher G. “Southern Culture And Firearms Ownership.” Social Science Quarterly (University Of Texas Press) 72.2 (1991): 267-283. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. This article takes a different perspective on the issue of gun control, in which Ellison studies possible cultural reasoning as to why gun ownership is high among white southerners. The results of her research reveal the strongest correlation is between high levels of gun ownership in the south and racism and conservatism. Racist and conservative people tend to look out for themselves and people they are affiliated with and not society as a whole. I will use this information in my argument because it supports the idea that gun control opposition tend to be individualistic meaning they are not taking into consideration other‟s well being. For this reason, gun control should be enforced because it is what is best for society.

Student‟s Last Name 6 Moorhouse, John C., and Brent Wanner. "Does Gun Control Reduce Crime Or Does Crime Increase Gun Control?." CATO Journal 26.1 (2006): 103-124. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. Moorhouse and Wanner use estimates to inform their audience of the correlation between gun control and crime rates. They reference D.R. Murray‟s research that suggests gun laws in essence do not affect crime rates. Their main claim is that gun legislation does not influence crime rates drastically or enough to be noteworthy. Although this article argues against my argument, by incorporating the other side of the spectrum I will provide my audience with nonbiased information, which is necessary for a good argument. I will include information from this source and then refute in order to prove gun laws are necessary a valid argument.

Wolpert, Robin M., and James G. Gimpel. "Self-Interest, Symbolic Politics, And Public Attitudes Toward Gun Control." Political Behavior 20.3 (1998): 241-262. Academic Search Complete. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. Wolpert and Gimpel‟s research assesses public attitudes towards the policy issue of gun control. They argue self-interest is a key factor in someone‟s feelings towards gun control. Wolpert and Gimpel also argue the banning of handguns usually increases self-interest effects than the banning of assault weapons or waiting periods on buying firearms. This article will prove helpful in arguing gun control should be enforced in order to reduce gun violence. Through studies, Wolpert and Gimpel determine opponents of any type of gun restrictions have a strong sense of satisfying their self-interests. Meaning, they will apply those self-interests to how they view gun control. In my argument, one of my main points as to

Student‟s Last Name 7 why gun control should be enforced is because those supporting the cause have better reasoning than those opposing gun laws. Wolpert and Gimpel‟s research will help prove my point.

too vague in a couple of your annotations currently.

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