Introduction

The animation and graphics industry is probably one of the most rapidly growing industries in today’s times. What’s ironic is that very few people opt for this field as very few realize its existence. The animation and graphic’s industry has its products all around us, right from the packaging of the biscuit we eat to the advertisement of the same biscuit on TV or in the newspaper it’s all done by this industry. Even our 1st favorite channel was cartoon network which totally depends on this industry. Even today each and every advertisement, movie, program has a lot of graphics involved in it. No movie or advertisement is possible without at least a little bit of special effects. It’s not only the entertainment industry that depends on graphics and animation, almost every industry directly or indirectly depends on it. For example a car manufacturing company would need graphic designers to generate 3D images of models they plan to develop in the future. Besides that every corporate firm depends on this industry for its promotion regardless of the media used. Be it banners, posters, Television, newspapers etc it all happens because of the graphics industry. Let’s get a rough idea about how big this industry really is, statistics show that currently there are more than 515 over-the-air and satellite television channels available in India. Hindi television channel have the highest market share and are available throughout the country. In addition to that, numerous regional channels are available for selective regions. The DTH subscriber base has grown to 23.77 million viewers by the end of June quarter from 21.3 million users in the previous quarter, The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) said recently. Each of these channels show various shows every day, besides the shows, a lot of commercials are also shown, each individual show and each individual commercial is directly a product of the graphics industry.

The above statistics were only related to the Television media however the graphics industry operates with various other Medias as well. For e.g. print media, the World Wide Web, large scale banners etc.

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About The Animation and Graphic Industry
This industry can broadly be divided into two parts, the animation and the graphic section. One would think of them as two totally different industries that function independently, however both mostly work hand in hand together. For example the L.G logo was made by graphic alone, however when the same logo is shown on TV the smiley winks, this is done because of animation. Besides every animation film has some graphic special effects added to it as well.

Graphic Designing

Graphic design is a creative process – most often involving a client and a designer and usually completed in conjunction with producers of form (i.e., printers, programmers, sign makers, etc.) – undertaken in order to convey a specific message (or messages) to a targeted audience. The term "graphic design" can also refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines that focus on visual communication and presentation. The field as a whole is also often referred to as Visual Communication or Communication Design. Various methods are used to create and combine words, symbols, and images to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated.

Common uses of graphic design include identity (logos and branding), web sites, publications (magazines, newspapers, and books), advertisements and product packaging. For example, a product package might include a logo or other artwork, organized text and pure design elements such as shapes and color which unify the piece. Composition is one of the most important features of graphic design, especially when using pre-existing materials or diverse elements.

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While Graphic Design as a discipline has a relatively recent history, with the name 'graphic design" first coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922, graphic designlike activities span the history of humankind: from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome's Trajan's Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the dazzling neons of Ginza. In both this lengthy history and in the relatively recent explosion of visual communication in the 20th and 21st centuries, there is sometimes a blurring distinction and over-lapping of advertising art, graphic design and fine art. After all, they share many of the same elements, theories, principles, practices and languages, and sometimes the same benefactor or client. In advertising art the ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design, "the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human experience."

In late 19th century Europe, especially in the United Kingdom, the movement began to separate graphic design from fine art.

In 1849, Henry Cole became one of the major forces in design education in Great Britain, informing the government of the importance of design in his Journal of Design and Manufactures. He organized the Great Exhibition as a celebration of modern industrial technology and Victorian design.

From 1891 to 1896, William Morris' Kelmscott Press published books that are some of the most significant of the graphic design products of the Arts and Crafts movement, and made a very lucrative business of creating books of great stylistic refinement and selling them to the wealthy for a premium. Morris proved that a market existed for works of graphic design in their own right and helped pioneer the separation of design from production and from fine art. The work of the Kelmscott Press is characterized by its obsession with historical styles. This historicism was, however, important as it amounted to the first significant reaction to the stale state of nineteenth-century graphic design. Morris' work, along with the rest of the Private Press movement, directly influenced Art Nouveau and is indirectly responsible for developments in early twentieth century graphic design in general.

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A graphic design project may involve the stylization and presentation of existing text and either preexisting imagery or images developed by the graphic designer. fabrics. etc. often referred to as interactive design. They designed buildings. a newspaper story begins with the journalists and photojournalists and then becomes the graphic designer's job to organize the page into a reasonable layout and determine if any other graphic elements should be required. For example. published in 1927. In the 1920s. clothing. is considered to be the first book to use "Graphic Design" in its title. posters. an American book designer in the early 20th century. logos. Or the designer may utilize stock imagery or photography. menus. often the graphic designer or art director will commission photographers or illustrators to create original pieces just to be incorporated into the design layout. 4 . In a magazine article or advertisement. furniture. or multimedia design. for example in the use of WYSIWYG user interfaces. The movement saw individualistic art as useless in revolutionary Russia and thus moved towards creating objects for utilitarian purposes. Raffe's Graphic Design. Soviet constructivism applied 'intellectual production' in different spheres of production. Contemporary design practice has been extended to the modern computer. The name "Graphic Design" first appeared in print in the 1922 essay "New Kind of Printing Calls for New Design" by William Addison Dwiggins. theater sets. The signage in the London Underground is a classic design example of the modern era and used a font designed by Edward Johnston in 1916.

it is given a digital skeletal structure that can be used to control the mesh. The effect is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision. In order to manipulate a mesh. effects such as fire and water and the use of motion capture to name but a few.Animation Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. 2D animation has many applications. Toy Story (1995. gravity. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as off. Well-made 3D animations can be difficult to distinguish from live action and are commonly used as visual effects for recent movies. and can be created and demonstrated in several ways. Animation has become a popular career choice for many over the last few decades. Various other techniques can be applied. although there are other methods. onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping. simulated fur or hair. 5 . particle simulations). Cinemagraphs are still photographs in the form of an animated GIF file of which part is animated. interpolated morphing. creativity and cutting edge technology in the form of computer graphics and more. Flash animation and PowerPoint animation. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program. This process is called rigging. this is a field that combines art. such as mathematical functions (ex. 2D animation: 2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics. USA) is the first feature-length film to be created and rendered entirely using 3D graphics. As animation movies are on the rise and with the advancement of technologies. including analog computer animation. 3D animation: 3D animation is digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. these techniques fall under the category of 3D dynamics.

and utilized modified versions of Méliès' early stop-motion techniques to make a series of blackboard drawings appear to move and reshape 6 . his end result was that he had managed to make a bus transform into a hearse. These devices produced the appearance of movement from sequential drawings using technological means. but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of cinematography. Stuart Blackton was possibly the first American film-maker to use the techniques of stop-motion and hand-drawn animation. a hearse happened to be passing by just as Méliès restarted rolling the film. This idea was later known as stop-motion animation. Introduced to film-making by Edison. he pioneered these concepts at the turn of the 20th century. and the common flip book were early popular animation devices invented during the 19th century. Developed for the Bryant and May Matchsticks company. Georges Méliès was a creator of special-effect films. When he had fixed the camera.A Chinese zoetrope-type device had been invented in 180 AD. Méliès discovered this technique accidentally when his camera broke down while shooting a bus driving by. he was generally one of the first people to use animation with his technique. There is no single person who can be considered the "creator" of film animation. This was just one of the great contributors to animation in the early years. as there were several people working on projects which could be considered animation at about the same time. praxinoscope. He discovered a technique by accident which was to stop the camera rolling to change something in the scene. J. among them The Enchanted Drawing (1900) and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) were film versions of Blackton's "lightning artist" routine. it involved stop-motion animation of wired-together matches writing a patriotic call to action on a blackboard. and then continue rolling the film. The phenakistoscope. The earliest surviving stop-motion advertising film was an English short by Arthur Melbourne-Cooper called Matches: An Appeal (1899). Several of his films. with his first copyrighted work dated 1900.

Among McCay's most noted films are Little Nemo (1911). typically referred to as "cartoons". a successful newspaper cartoonist. who. who created detailed animations that required a team of artists and painstaking attention for detail. which gave the picture a blackboard look. Each frame was drawn on paper. Émile Cohl. Another French artist. There were also sections of live action where the animator’s hands would enter the scene. patented the cel animation process which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.themselves. El Apóstol (Spanish: "The Apostle") was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation. Following the successes of Blackton and Cohl. became an industry of its own during the 1910s. and cartoon shorts were produced to be shown in movie theaters. such as a wine bottle that transforms into a flower. along with animator Earl Hurd. many other artists began experimenting with animation. The film largely consisted of a stick figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects. began drawing cartoon strips and created a film in 1908 called Fantasmagorie. 'Humorous Phases of Funny Faces' is regularly cited as the first true animated film. The production of animated short films. One such artist was Winsor McCay. Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) and The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918). which invariably required backgrounds and characters to be redrawn and animated. 7 . The most successful early animation producer was John Randolph Bray. and the world's first animated feature film. and Blackton is considered the first true animator. This makes Fantasmagorie the first animated film created using what came to be known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film.

Different careers in the Industry                              3D Modelers FX Artist Multimedia Instructional Designer 3D Tracker Game Artists and Designers Production Designers Art Directors Graphic Programmer Production Support Lead Background Painter Inbetweener Special Effects Designer Character Animators Independent Filmmakers Storyboard Artists Character Riggers Interaction Designer Technical Directors Color Key Artist Layout Artists Texture Artists Compositing Artist Lighting Technicians Tools Programmer Concept Artist Look Development Painter Visual Effects Artist Creative Project Manager Match move Artist Web Developer Film and Video Editor Mathematical Modeler Visual Development Artist Flash Directors Motion Capture Artists Forensic Animators Motion Graphic Artists Animation Computer Science Media Arts Art History Digital Cinema Photography Communication Fine Arts Physics Development Game Design Studio Art Computer Graphics and Motion Picture Technology Game Programming Visual Computing Software Development Interactive Media and Cinema Studies Advertising Graphic Design Industry CAD/Industrial Design In-House Design for Sales or Related Industries Computer Systems Design and Management Instructional Technology Industry Digital Consulting Services Motion Picture and Video Entertainment Public Relations/Marketing Gaming Industry Software Publishers 8 .

Society of Digital Artists website in the references section. For more information. Creative Project Managers. simulating motion picture camera perspective in a software environment. or Computer Arts 3D tracking Art Directors. and Production Leads: People who work as Art Directors. Creative Project Managers and Production Leads are responsible for maintaining managerial role to oversee a creative team from concept to project finish. 9 . Character animators bridge the gap from script to the screen. 3D modelers/Trackers work closely with technical directors in implementing ideas and bringing their work to life. go to CG Jobs. Character Animator/Motion Capture Artists: Character Animators design and create animate characters using a variety of methods.Let us now look at some of the most prominent careers in detail 3D Modelers/3D Tracker: 3D Modelers/Trackers create 3D models and simulate movement in their environments using animation software. Production and Director positions combine both managerial and artistic skills to lead implementation of a given project. including but not limited to animation software. Character Riggers need a solid knowledge of physics and anatomy to fully understand how their character should react to stimuli within the context of its digital environment. Leadership roles require design and technical skills to best understand methods of project implementation. and to help solve problems within a range of animation departments. Character Riggers/Matchmove Artist: Character Riggers manipulate the geometry of their created character in it’s interaction with the environment. puppetry or 3D modeling. 2Danimations. and work with team members to use their character’s movements to tell a story.

and can also provide support on the tools/software needed to portray these effects. Compositing Artist: Compositing Artists work closely with FX Artists and Lighting Directors to develop compositing strategies and achieve an aesthetically balanced overall look. cinema. Flash animations are utilized in a variety of contexts. elements and special effects to achieve goals of art concept and style. and other forms of digital media. background painters. cut and assemble film footage for television. or look development painters are responsible for creating the background paintings and color keys that lighting teams and production teams can use for their projects. Concept Artist: Concept artists design a unique look for a creative project. and working with technical directors to ensure correct light rigging. Compositing artists are an important part of creating the final finished animation project. and how things move to realistically portray them in their work. These artists help these departments by developing color schemes in animations that will deliver the stylistic goals for their projects. Special Effects Designer/FX Artist/Visual Effects Artists: FX artists create images. painting/designing animation backgrounds.Color Key Artist/Background Painter/Look Development Painter: People who work as color key artists. Flash Directors: Flash Directors utilize software to create flash animations. 10 . Film and Video Editor: Film and Video Editors process. ranging everywhere from fine art to website tutorials. working closely with other art departments to create a visual style that will be reflected in each part of the project. and correcting any errors that other departments may not have anticipated. Usually film and video editors utilize computer editing software in assembling a finished film project. FX artists need to have a strong sense of animation.

and Inbetweeners are responsible for the character’s movements in transitioning between (hence the name Inbetween Department) dramatic key movement scenes. or be employed by large corporations. Graphic programmers must have a strong understanding of programming languages utilized in the industry. document layouts. Forensic animators collaborate with other experts depending on the situation they are recreating to produce a realistic outcome backed up by scientific data. Inbetweener: Many animators get their start in the industry by working in the Inbetween department. as graphic designers can produce freelance work. The Inbetween department is responsible for the continuity of moment between scenes in an animation. Graphic artists meet with clients to determine the needs their projects. market and sound effects in game. and other visual mediums. 11 . Graphics Programmer: Graphics programmers help implement the visual and technical ideas from other departments by developing the code that will be used to execute graphical interface programming. Game Designers take many areas into account when planning games such as skill level. Lead Animators draw out the key scenes for an animation. Graphic Artist/Designer: Graphic artists create and apply graphics to communicate ideas in print. logo design. Game Designer: Game Designers utilize technical and artistic skills to conceptualize and create video games. and then implement these solutions with a focus on design principles. work in a small business setting. Graphic Designers can apply their skills in a variety of areas. including but not limited to: website design. signage. technical limitations. and the ability to adapt to new technology to meet industry standards. Working conditions are varied. and advertisements. online.Forensic Animators: These animators help recreate crime scenes or accidents to explain and produce legal evidence.

Interaction Designers: Interaction Designers utilize technical skills in marketing and customer outreach. people who build mathematical models utilize software technology to animate and create 3 Dimensional representations of the processes they are researching. Many times. Instructional designers are essential in providing new employees or clients with mentoring that will help them utilize the tools and skills that promote the goals of the organization. Lighting Technicians: Lighting Technicians use design knowledge of lighting and shadows to create characters and environments that complement project aesthetics. Their design and layout skills are based upon the environment of the character and how the character interacts within an environment. and 3D studio Max. Mathematical Modeler: People who build mathematical models can apply their skills to a variety of fields to solve complex problems or illustrate processes using math based models. A motion graphics artist can utilize a variety of programs such as Adobe After Effects. light rigs. Layout Artists: Layout Artists create the background for animations. and compositing renderings for their shots. Interaction designer’s work with many different departments to implement marketing strategies that best fit their employer’s targeted audience. Maya. video and animation technologies to create the illusion of motion. Layout artists must also take into account how other objects in the background interact to give the illusion of depth and perspective. Multimedia Instructional Designer: Multimedia Instructional Designers utilize their technical knowledge to teach others using multimedia technologies. Develops and implements customer marketing campaigns that directly engage the consumer and many times create opportunities for consumers to generate their own content. Lighting technicians usually work collaboratively with a lighting department on creating color keys. Motion Graphics Artist: This is a general job description for anyone who works with graphics. 12 .

and stylistic elements that assist in storytelling. 13 . Technical directors have a strong foundation in programming and animation software. to complement the visual style of the game. Storyboard artists are essential to the planning stages of an artistic project. and can work with artists in a team setting to implement creative ideas using animation software. character emotions. Visual Development Artists work with time-placement continuity in a story. Tools Programmer: Tools programmers create and design the software or tools used in implementing a project. either on the internet or a smaller network. Visual Development Artists: Visual Development Artists are multi-talented individuals who can use their versatility to help guide the plot elements of an animation. Web development can span from coding. Texture Artists: Texture Artists produce textures to be mapped onto 3-D objects. Technical directors focus on principles such as lighting and rigging in animating their projects. as their storytelling structure dictates the foundation for the rest of the project. Technical Director: Technical Directors use lighting and design principles to bring animations to life. Certain animation projects require the use of specialized software to best meet the stylistic and creative style of an animation. Web Developer: This is a general position for anyone who develops a website.Storyboard Artists: Storyboard artists plan and create layout for storytelling elements of animation. as they can scan or create the textures that will respond to stimuli such as light sources in the 3-D object’s environment. developing web applications to maintaining day to day operations through the site. Texture artists are essential in achieving realistic objects. tools programmers edit and create the technical tools that will make the animation process easier for other departments.

This is also increasing the scope on animations and graphics. Advancement in technology is bringing out newer and more effective Medias day by day. For instance. Comic book artists in the past would generally sketch a drawing in pencil before going over the drawing again with India ink. performance or gallery installation. 3Dcartoons and animations. simply. algorithm. from tiny advertisements to full feature films it all comes under this industry. Magazine illustrators often worked with India ink. Often. Many traditional disciplines are now integrating digital technologies and. As a result. defining computer art by its end product can thus be difficult. the graphics and animation industry has a wide scope. acrylics or oils. Nevertheless. games. In doing so the culture is also reflected in the artwork as is the artist's personal vision. videogame. Such art can be an image. animation. As our culture becomes increasingly digitized. DVD-ROM. film special effects etc. video. an artist may combine traditional painting with algorithm art and other digital techniques. The different fields can be categorized into two main categories namely digital media which includes web-sites. digital artists are leading the way in exploring and defining this new culture. an increasing number of artists are now creating digital artwork. using pens and brushes. web site. this type of art is beginning to appear in art museum exhibits. what centuries of artists have always done by exploring and adopting a culture's new technology toward the making of a personal imagery. Currently. Right from simple pamphlets to fully fledged banners. Following are some of the major fields in this industry:- Digital Media Digital art is any art in which computers played a role in production or display of the artwork. Digital Artists use a medium that is nearly immaterial. as a result. 2D cartoons. Digital artists do. sound. the lines between traditional works of art and new media works created using computers has been blurred.Different fields in this Industry Considering the amount of different Medias that are used. CD-ROM. the medium itself is considered the artwork. that being binary information which describes the color and brightness of 14 .

Sites like Amazon. Advertisers are ready to pay any amount of money for ad space on a web site. A web site is one of the best way to connecting to the public. It convenient for both parties. Being immaterial has its advantages and with the advent of high quality digital printing techniques a very traditional long lasting print of this artwork can also be produced and marketed. and what were formerly chemical dark room techniques into the mathematical changes that effect the arrangement of screen pixels and create a picture. Taken as a whole an image consisting of pure light is the feedback devise that tells an artist what is being made and simultaneously stored on the computer's hard drive. digital art may be exchanged and appreciated directly on a computer screen in gallery situations or simultaneously in every place on the globe with access to the web. these electronic brushes and tools allow an artist to translate hand motions. Rather than manipulating digital code directly as math. 15 . In addition. Digital Artists employ many types of user interfaces that correspond to the wide variety of brushes. Infact it’s not just organizations but also individuals who have web sites these day. writers etc have their own web site.com perform wholly as online shops and earn all of its revenue from there. Besides this. actors. There are many people and firms who earn sufficient revenue through sites. cutting and pasting. There are many firms who also sell their products on web sites. Web Designing: . lenses or other tools that traditional artist use to shape their materials.Today almost every business and firm has its own website. For example banks now provide E-banking facilities which let members perform all the banking functions from home itself. Following are some fields within digital art/media 1. Many models. Digital Art is created and stored in a non-material form on the computer's memory systems and must be made physical.each individual pixel on a computer screen. usually in the form of prints on paper or some other form of printmaking substrate. Web Sites not only help you connect to others but also help you earn. Web sites also help firms provide value added services to its customers. sites like orkut and facebook has made its owners millionaires.

Web design is the process of designing websites — a collection of online content including documents and applications that reside on a web server/servers. It also needs to be maintained with respect to its content and links. and thus it also shows how important web developers and designers are in today’s time. advertising. the process of web design includes planning. A Firm’s web site speaks a lot about the organisation. 16 . A web designer’s job does not end once the web site is online and has begun to function. It includes all the functions right from content writing to final hosting. More and more people are using the internet every day. People prefer online banking to traditional banking as it’s more convenient. Basically web designing is all about making a web site for your client. for example a site with good accessibility and layout creates a positive image in the visitors mind. also known as the home page. His job continues even after this. The demand for web designers is on a constant rise today. As a whole. as well as media control that is applied to the pages within the site by the designer or group of designers with a specific purpose. With newer firms coming into the market every day more and more web sites go online every day. post-production. Besides this there is strong competition among firms to make their web sites better and more functional every day. The web site needs to be updated regularly. Every site wants to land on the first page of Google. which also contains hyperlinks that functions to direct viewers to a designated page within the site's domain. research. Thus a web designer’s job needs a lot of patience and planning. which cites the main objective as well as highlights of the site's daily updates. In many cases the web site is the first mode of communication used by perspective customers of a firm. For example before opting for a DTH (direct to home) services many of us may have visited the provider’s web site to compare different schemes etc.This shows how important web sites are in today’s times. Thus banks try to add as much functionality to their sites as possible. thus there is a rapid need for search engine optimizers who are also a kind of web designer. SEO (search engine optimization) also needs to be carried out on timely basis. The site itself can be divided into its main page. Thus for many of us the web site formed the 1st impression in our minds.

to the creation of your web site. Development 5. Planning 3. 17 . Testing and Delivery 6. and how the web can be utilized to help you achieve those goals. The exact process will vary slightly from designer to designer. as it involves a solid understanding of the company it is created for. Many things need to be taken into consideration when the look and feel of your site is created. It is important that your web designer start off by asking a lot of questions to help them understand your business and your needs in a web site. Maintenance Phase One: Information Gathering The first step in designing a successful web site is to gather information.Web-Designing Pipeline There are numerous steps in the web site design and development process. 1. but the basics are generally the same. From gathering initial information. This first step is actually the most important one. It involves a good understanding of you – what your business goals and dreams are. Design 4. Information Gathering 2. and finally to maintenance to keep your web site up to date and current.

your web designer will also help you decide what technologies should be implemented. The site map is a list of all main topic areas of the site. etc. Consider their age. Target Audience Is there a specific group of people that will help you reach your goals? It is helpful to picture the ―ideal‖ person you want to visit your web site. Elements such as interactive forms. after all. During the planning phase. if applicable. sex or interests this will later help determine the best design style for your site. promote a service or sell a product? Goals What do you hope to accomplish by building this web site? Two of the more common goals are either to make money or share information. A good user interface creates an easy to navigate web site. 18 .Certain things to consider are: Purpose What is the purpose of the site? Do you want to provide information. This serves as a guide as to what content will be on the site. flash. as well as sub-topics. ecommerce. and is the basis for this. online ordering…? Phase Two: Planning Using the information gathered from phase one. This is the point where a site map is developed. it is time to put together a plan for your web site. are discussed when planning your web site. Content What kind of information will the target audience be looking for on your site? Are they looking for specific information. These are. and is essential to developing a consistent. The enduser of the web site – aka your customer – must be kept in mind when designing your site. easy to understand navigational system. the people who will be learning about your service or buying your product. a particular product or service.

for example.Phase Three: Design Drawing from the information gathered up to this point. In this phase.jpg image of what the final design will look like. until you arrive at the final design for your web site. while other designers take it a step further by giving you access to a secure area of their web site meant for customers to view work in progress. A site aimed at teenagers. exchanging ideas. It is important that you work closely with your designer. The most important reason for this is that it gives you the opportunity to express your likes and dislikes on the site design. Target audience is one of the key factors taken into consideration. Often times you will be sent an email with the mock-ups for your web site. Your web designer will create one or more prototype designs for your web site. it is also important to incorporate elements such as the company logo or colors to help strengthen the identity of your company on the web site. communication between both you and your designer is crucial to ensure that the final web site will match your needs and taste. As part of the design phase. it’s time to determine the look and feel of your site. will look much different than one meant for a financial institution. Either way. your designer should allow you to view your project throughout the design and development stages. This is typically a . Then development can begin… 19 .

your designer should continue to make your in-progress web site available to you for viewing. maximizing functionality. On the technical front. At this time. This is typically done by first developing the home page. a successful web site requires an understanding of front-end web development. so that you can suggest any additional changes or corrections you would like to have done. Once the shell has been created. your web designer will take all of the individual graphic elements from the prototype and use them to create the actual.Phase Four: Development The developmental stage is the point where the web site itself is created. as well. The shell serves as a template for the content pages of your site. 20 . in the appropriate areas. This entire time. as it contains the main navigational structure for the web site. Elements such as interactive contact forms. flash animations or ecommerce shopping carts are implemented and made functional during this phase. as well as accessibility for as large an audience as possible. functional site. followed by a ―shell‖ for the interior pages. your designer will take your content and distribute it throughout the site. This involves writing valid XHTML / CSS code that complies to current web standards.

your web designer will attend to the final details and test your web site. This is just precautionary. A good web designer is one who is well versed in current standards for web site design and development.Phase Five: Testing and Delivery At this point. Once these accounts have been setup. Many designers offer maintenance packages at reduced rates. 21 . based on how often you anticipate making changes or additions to your web site. ensuring that your web site is optimized to be viewed properly in the most recent browser versions. Most web designers offer domain name registration and web hosting services as well. Phase Six: Maintenance The development of your web site is not necessarily over. and that the site continues to be fully functional. One way to bring repeat visitors to your site is to offer new content or products on a regular basis. it is time to deliver the site. the site should be put through one last run-through. though. to update the information on your web site. as well last testing for last minute compatibility issues (viewing differences between different web browsers). As part of testing. Valid code means that your site meets the current web development standards – this is helpful when checking for issues such as cross-browser compatibility as mentioned above. Once you give your web designer final approval. The basic technologies currently used are XHTML and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets). your designer should check to be sure that all of the code written for your web site validates. They will test things such as the complete functionality of forms or other scripts. Most web designers will be more than happy to continue working together with you. to confirm that all files have been uploaded correctly. An FTP (File Transfer Protocol) program is used to upload the web site files to your server. and your web site uploaded to the server.

your designer will utilize online software to develop a database driven site for you. The previously mentioned code validation is something that plays a vital role in SEO. Some people prefer to have all the control so that they can make updates to their own web site the minute they decide to do so.If you prefer to be more hands on. there is something called a CMS (Content Management System) that can be implemented to your web site. as they can take over the web site maintenance for you – one less thing for you to do is always a good thing in these busy times! Other maintenance type items include SEO (Search Engine Optimization) and SES (Search Engine Submission). The possibilities are endless! It’s really up to you as far as how comfortable you feel as far as updating your own web site. as well. you need to make sure that people can find it! 22 . This is a very important step. once again. as they have enough tasks on-hand that are more important for them to handle directly. you can even add new pages and content yourself. or if you are feeling more adventurous. Others prefer to hand off the web site entirely. and update your own content. description and keyword tags which help your web site achieve higher rankings in the search engines. A web site driven by a CMS gives you the ability to edit the content areas of the web site yourself. This is something that would be decided upon during the Planning stage. where you can use an online text editor (similar to a mini version of Microsoft Word). You’ll be able to edit existing content this way. You are given access to a back-end administrative area. There are a lot of details involved in optimizing and submitting your web site to the search engines – enough to warrant its own post. This is the optimization of you web site with elements such as title. because even though you now have a web site. With a CMS. That’s where the help of a your web designer comes in.

However having a certificate from a government recognized institute can provide additional weightage. and implementing web site structure and navigation layout with server side includes and dynamic content       Designing and planning additions to sites Flash presentations Design & layout of e-mail newsletters Design & layout of press releases & white papers Image optimization Knowledgeable with TITLE & META tags and page content for search engine optimization   Understanding of screen resolutions and how to design for them Testing with multiple browsers and operating systems to ensure the best compatibility possible Software knowledge:        Adobe Dreamweaver Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe Photoshop Adobe Illustrator (beginner) Adobe Acrobat Various FTP applications 23 . Anyone having the right knowledge about web-designing along with sufficient creativity can go on an become a web designer. although there are various design courses you could take. designing. Clients and employers are more interested in the portfolio and past works rather that his educational qualification. Adobe Fireworks & Flash   Web standards compliance and basic accessibility issues (as they pertain to XHTML) Planning.Skills and qualifications needed to be a web-designer There's no nationally recognized professional web design qualification. Following are the skills needed to be a web-designer  Graphical user interface (GUI) design using HTML/XHTML/CSS.

pots and other such objects which have a series of images painted on them in such a way that when the vase or pot is spinned the image appears to be moving. Animation can be broadly divided into 2 parts a. Archeologists have found vases. 24 . Man is said to have attempted animation more than 2500 years back. Many a times an animation looks so real that one can’t differentiate it from real film. cars. We’ll heard and probably even seen them. Bugs Bunny. Movies like ratatouille. Infact a recent survey has revealed that even adults prefer these shows as it helps them forget their worries. However through-out all these phases of changes. However this hard work pays off handsomely most of the time. i. Animation though sounding like a recent term. Animation involves any process of adding life to images.2. the art has been in existence for years. Over the years there has been a lot of changes in the process of animation. Today most of the work is done by computers. As an animator a lot of planning and organizing is required. Tom and Jerry etc are more than 80-90 years old. the demand for animated films has always been high. Animation: . Let us look at some of them in detail. to generate moving images. Up in the air. here the job has still been complicated to master. Avatar etc have been a huge success all over the world. 2D animation b. Mickey Mouse.e. It is quite astonishing to know that even today they win the hearts of children just the way they did 80-90 years back. however unlike other tasks where the job gets easy after introduction of computers.The word ―animate‖ means to add life to an object. 3D animation Both are further divided into a number of parts. Hence lifeless objects are also known as inanimate objects. All these frames would then be displayed at a fast rate to produce the illusion of moving characters. However the degree of realism has increased considerably with the introduction of computers. Animators need to be very patient and calm as even a tiny mistake needs them to redo a lot of work again. Cartoons like Popeye the sailor man. Traditionally animation was done by manually drawing each still or frame by hand.

These works are never forgotten and still generate the same entertainment as they did before. Even the most recent cartoons like choota bheem. that simulate motion by each image showing the next in a gradual progression of steps. Commercials cartoons on T. Besides this. People may think it’s easier to make a 2D animation as compared to a 3D one. Tom and Jerry etc. 2D is a far older technique having a history of about 70-100 years. while in 3D it mostly done by human effort. However this fall in demand is very gentle or rather negligent. loony toons. 2D animation: . 2D works are now taking place as a classic form be it in the field of gaming for e. Cartoons like Tom and Jerry. but in reality it’s just the other way round. etc are all in 2D form.g. However many people prefer the simplicity involved in 2D animations. There are many full feature animation films like Lionking. This is because in the case of 3D most of the calculations are done by a computer. 25 . shinchan.Mario and road rash or cartoons like Heidithe girls in the Alps. Tarzan and The Beauty and the Beast which are animated with 2D technology. such as through "traditional" cel animation or in computerized animation software. Aladdin. The demand for 2D animation is falling in recent times because of the rise in 3D. while in 2D even a tiny rotation needs a lot of abstract imagination on the animator’s part.V are still in 2D format even today.A. Example of 2D animations would include cartoons like Popeye. Compared to 3D. Popeye the sailor man etc are all 2D animations and today they’re considered as classics in the animation field. Hence the name 2D meaning 2 dimensions. The Jungle Book.2d animation is the creation of moving pictures in a two-dimensional environment.:. in 3D animation after modeling (designing) the character he can be rotated in any direction without any problem. or "frames". The eye can be "fooled" into perceiving motion when these consecutive images are shown at a rate of 24 frames per second or faster. It involves any type of animation where the Object can be measured in two dimensions which are height and width. This is done by sequencing consecutive images.

it's imperative to get shots right during pre-production." Before computers. especially compared to live-action filming." which was placed on top of a background painting and filmed with the click of a film camera. Re-animating a shot (because a character uses knowledge not gained until later in the story. The drawing is now considered a "cel. in which the main action in each scene is drawn in a comic book-like form. Production: Each shot in a 2D animation involves multiple single drawings of characters. 26 .Production pipe line The overall process of creating a 2D animation is divided into three parts: preproduction. think of a still camera that can take many photographs in rapid succession. though few true cels remain. Pre. production. though this is not always do Some companies hand-ink each drawing. then hand-painted. This created a "cel. Others--especially studios whose artists can draw very clean pencil lines--will scan the pencils directly into the computer. Keys are important drawings that convey the extremes of the character's movement--the first drawing is almost always a key--while in-betweens are the remaining. To demonstrate the concept. Cels are still highly prized by collectors. and parts of the storyboard may be redrawn multiple times. which can be quickly read through by the staff. During pre-production. less important drawings in the shot. in pencil. Many of those on the market are reproductions.production: Pre-production involves establishing the plot of the completed animation. for example) is very expensive. Most animations are storyboarded. This drawing is then cleaned up in pencil. the staff reviews the storyboard for consistency. Typically. Each photograph corresponds to an individual drawing in an animation. then ink the drawing digitally. Imagine aiming that camera at a person and taking many quick photographs as the person walks towards you. writing over the cleaned pencil lines with a pen. Storyboards are usually pasted on large foam-core or poster board sheets. of the character's pose. each drawing begins with a sketch. Because each shot in animation is so labor-intensive. and post-production. the drawing would now be photocopied onto a sheet of clear celluloid or acetate.

This is then saved on the computer as a single video file. Videos are viewed minutely still by still or frame by frame to ensure the best bits get into the final edit.production: Even after all the tweens have been colored and added to the animation. and junior animators can be directed in small adjustments to improve the flow of each shot and scene.Today. The animation also may need to be edited in the more traditional film sense. Meanwhile. the digital cels are colored on a computer. 27 . In Asia. Post. shots cut slightly short or held longer. In practice. a background is drawn. as well as visual effects (glows. There's still music and sound effects to be added. the keys are usually drawn by a top animator. etc. This process is as complex. the film is far from complete. even scenes cut entirely. It is in this process that all the tiny bits and pieces come together to finally form a full feature film. complicated and crucial as the production process because it is at this stage where all the animations begin to make sense. who will draw the tweens. this is typically when dialog is recorded. so that the junior animators can match the tweens to the vocal. The film can then be assembled during production. hazes.). and each cel is layered onto the background in succession. The background is imported into an animation program. and these are then scanned and assembled into a "rough cut" of the shot while the keys are given to a junior animator.

earning over $217 million in revenue in the United States. and released by Walt Disney Pictures on November 25. Aladdin was released on November 25. The Return of Jafar and Aladdin and the King of Thieves. and over $504 million worldwide. Composer Alan Menken and songwriters Howard Ashman and Tim Rice were praised for creating a soundtrack that is "consistently good.Aladdin an example of 2d animation film Aladdin is a 1992 animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation. an animated television series. The film also won many awards. most of them for its soundtrack. and was the most successful film of 1992. relates a version of the story of Aladdin and the magic lamp from The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. spin-offs. rivaling the best of Disney's other animated musicals from the '90s." 28 . The thirty-first animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. Aladdin's success led to many material inspired by the film such as two direct-to-video sequels. video games. and merchandise. It was directed by John Musker and Ron Clements. 1992 to positive reviews. both of whom had just finished writing and directing The Little Mermaid. 1992. toys.

The concept of calm. serious British bird would later be worked into The Lion King's Zazu.Production of the film Aladdin In 1988. Princess Jasmine became a stronger character. 29 . the character of Aladdin's mother was removed. the scene where Aladdin tries to escape the collapsing cave. After writing a storyline and songs with partner Alan Menken. it often sticks out like a sore thumb. the script was delivered to studio chief Jeffrey Katzenberg. Among the changes. In 1991. such as the tiger entrance of the Cave of Wonders. With the integration of CG within a 2D world still in its infancy in 1992. voiced by Gottfried. like a young Harrison Ford. the magic carpet. after the filmmakers saw Gilbert Gottfried in Beverly Hills Cop II was turned into a comic role. the full view of Agrabah. The weakest-looking aspect of Aladdin is its computer-generated animation. Aladdin was drawn originally based on actor Michael J. Computer animation was used to develop some features of the movie. Musker and the screenwriter duo Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio." and the parrot Iago. Most characters' designs were based on the work of caricaturist Al Hirschfeld. who thought the script "didn't engage". Howard Ashman suggested Disney make an animated musical version of Aladdin. and the clouds in "A Whole New World". and only approved it after rewrites from Clements. originally conceived as a "British" calm and serious character. Fox but during production it was decided that he wasn't "appealing enough" and they decided to make him resemble actor Tom Cruise instead. Ashman delivered it to directors John Musker and Ron Clements. Aladdin's personality was reworked to be "a little rougher.

The film has the traditional touches many people associate with classic Disney animation. this visual presentation is up to the high standard of Disney’s Platinum Collection.Watching this film will give animation buffs the opportunity to study and admire the fine animation work. smooth style of animation really adds a layer of detail to the story. The first element is story. Though some influence from Richard Williams’ ―The Thief and the Cobbler‖ (made from 1968 to the early 1990s) is apparently present. as the colorful. It’s fun entertainment. and there are many in this film and most of them are strong characterizations. and the backgrounds are even better. Al Hirschfeld drawings. Otherwise. there’s also the top-notch artwork and music. The film mixed a variety of animation and art styles to come up with a unique look. Only a few minor nitpicks kept this presentation from being perfect. used in the film are rich and almost three-dimensional. Musker and Clements’ direction is solid. The strengths of this film are many and overshadow any minor gripes one might have. The sidekick characters are another element of Disney animation. Aladdin is a well-rounded effort that holds up well. the crew of ―Aladdin‖ borrowed motifs from Tex Avery cartoons. The film is also an interesting time capsule on Robin Williams. and Arabian design. Character animation is pitchperfect. There’s not much doom and gloom to be found in Aladdin. Combined with the trademark Disney style of orchestral music. Of course. The animation and voice casting is nearly perfect. the story of a young boy who wants to become somebody. 30 . and really bring the colorful world of Aladdin to life. namely a few instances of very mild edge enhancement and a few traces of interlacing. The colors. Image detail and contrast are superb.

This is done by sequencing consecutive images. without doubt.3D Animation 3D animation is the creation of moving pictures in a three-dimensional digital environment. Though one is working in a 3D environment the monitor can always show only a 2D image. More over 9597% games are also made in 3D. The degree of realism in 3D games and Movies is rising at an even steeper rate. Many a times it is difficult to distinguish between real models and 3D ones. Computer gives the opportunity to the animator to use time. Megamind. Cars. 90% of full feature films realized these days are in 3D. while examples of 3D games would include counter-strike. Hitman series. this makes it even tougher to design in 3D. Examples of 3D movies would include Up. The eye can be "fooled" into perceiving motion when these consecutive images are shown at a rate of 24 frames per second or faster. technique and creativeness at a higher level and enables high quality products to be emerged. It involves any type of animation where the object can be measured in three dimensions which are height. Fly me to the Moon.It is like clay modeling but with just a finger and one side at a time. is closely related with the computer technology technique and a series of capabilities of this technique. It involves a lot of planning and patience. Though stated earlier that creating 2D is more taxing than 3D. crysis etc. width and breadth. bolt. most of the animations of today are made in 3D environment. Madagascar. 31 . GTA series. Cloudy chance of meat-balls etc. 3D demand is on a steep rise. Up in the sky etc. Hence the name 3D meaning three Dimensions. or "frames". filmed by a virtual "camera" and then output to video by a rendering engine. Producing animation by using computer technology. Examples of 3D animations would include shriek. it never means creating 3D models is easy. that simulate motion by each image showing the next in a gradual progression of steps. cars.

the message that is going to be given.Production pipeline In the process of 3-d computer animation production. bright like chromium and reflecting light. the message to be sent to target population. an idea must be formed to produce an animation. Besides this description. images and sound which are going to be used in the animation are formed in mind. Animator produces very realistic images by defining the materials to objects like transparent like glass and light permeable. CD. the method to be followed in presenting the information. or film. Scene arrangement Transformation Rendering the objects Assembling and special effects Transferring to video.‖ The event takes its first form with the scenario. manner and behaviors all form the text in this step. the drafts of characters. 3-d computer animation production begins with the modeling of the characters that are made in the computer’s virtual space where width.         Design Producing the models (modeling) Determining the surface qualities of models. These features are the simulations of the objects surface characteristics in real life. And design enables the transfer of the idea. ―The design process of animation production is a kind of planning process in which the subject of animation. a three-dimensional skeleton of the model which seems to be made of wires is made. 32 . relations. First of all. it is inevitable to realize some series of steps related to production technique and methods based on both technique and expression style. atmosphere. The information about these steps is as follows. In the first step. models. length and depth are entered with numerical values. time and expression characteristics are all taken into consideration and planned as a whole. Scenario can be thought as the story of the planned design. texture and material features are defined. The event that is going to be told. On the surface of this skeleton color.

objects and accessories. Using sound. Light sources and cameras are also placed in this section. Then the animation is added to the models. Key frames are simply frames where the movement is supposed to start and stop. the movements are applied according to the flow of scenario and the effect that the characters must follow. Each individual object has a different set of key-frames for example a character’s hand would have a different set while the legs would have yet a different set. On these specific points. After the editing of animation. video. music. Animation is being used very wide-spread in many fields today which have many steps from design to production. CD.dull like plastic and absorbing light. it is transferred to any medium like film. The key frames of the objects or the characters that are being planned to be moved are placed on the time line. the scene where the events will occur can be built. It is at this stage that movement is added to the objects and characters. by the help of light sources. After the surface qualities of the models are done. effects can take the animation to its goal so easily. can be viewed on the computer screen. 33 . the defined surface characteristics. Till the process all the objects in were still like statues. The computer then added the movement to the frames in between to create a smooth transition between the two. and their movements that will be performed in a planned time which is determined by shooting script and storyboard. Here the 3D models are converted from the the animation software related format to a proper video format. etc. By this operation. once the scene is designed three dimensionally. The last step is the rendering step. A placement is arranged on stage according to the positions of characters. Producing 3-d computer animation comes to an end by playing all the frames in a sequence.

comical animated adventure that satirizes fairy tales and wears its heart on its sleeve without ever winking too far to remind us that it is all a joke. particularly in computer animation. but also memorable and enchanting. and Shrek Forever After.the movie is nonstop candy for the eyes. and a round-up of central characters who are not only likable. Commercially successful on release in 2001. The opening credits for the movie are absolutely incredible. 34 . There was also a Christmas special called Shrek the Halls and a Halloween special called Scared Shrekless. with a palette of bright colors jumping off the screen. The film's success also made DreamWorks Animation create three sequels: Shrek 2. The film is an ideal viewing experience for both children and grown-ups alike. Shrek the Third. The opening credits interact with Shrek’s environment and are pulled off so well that it is easily the best animated opening credits ever created. it helped establish DreamWorks as a prime competitor to Pixar in the field of feature film animation.Shrek: A 3d animation film It is a wondrous. It wastes no time in making big impressions. The second computer-generated animated film from DreamWorks Shrek is a dazzling display of creative artistry and sheer imagination. With animated characters never looking so flesh-and-blood before .

it replaces the rough storyboard footage. building the fully rendered movie scene by scene. it was one animator per scene. Early in the process. As each sequence is completed. DreamWorks Animation uses the popular Linux Maya commercial package for 3-D modeling.Each frame is assigned to a different node of the renderfarm by grid software so that many frames can be output simultaneously. and a scratch audio track is edited together creating a rough video representation of the movie. Then. In the past. Lighting and any special effects are added. 35 . such as cloth or flames. the scene is rendered frame by frame on a 3.Production process of the film: Shrek The production moves from story and concept artwork into 3-D modeling and eventually render. Storyboard: A Story Artist's Rendition of the Scene. Because of the complexity.000+ CPU Linux renderfarm. Models are ―rigged‖ with internal skeletons by the Character TDs. and then given to the scene animators. Shrek 3 animators were assigned in pairs to each of the hundreds of scenes. hand-drawn storyboard images are scanned. The frames are edited into a movie using Avid software. Layout positions the characters in the scenes and determines overall lighting.

the animators create the character's performance for the scene. Lighting: Final Version of the Scene with Lighting and Textures Added to the Frame 36 .Layout: the Layout Artist's Blocking of the Camera Moves and Character Poses Animation: at this stage.

clothing. costuming and crowds as well as bringing the secondary character animation (crowds) to a whole new level of performance. some of the challenges were rendering skin. the complex environment and then the traditional visual effects — things like fire and water and the elements. 37 . The way the hair moves had to become much more automated. as they love hard surfaces.The issues with maintaining a large Linux-based pipeline are the same as maintaining a large pipeline on any operating system. They stress. but to date they haven’t been as successful dealing with translucent softer surfaces and we didn’t find real applicable computer graphics research for rendering skin that we would use. Long hair may be the biggest technology advance in Shrek. the human characters. There was much specific technical advancement on the movie. Hair is everywhere in Shrek 3. They unified the studio on one standard pipeline a while ago. including advancements in hair. It took months to do the hero-hair flick on Shrek 2. Technically and creatively there were three major challenges. Fast motion is always difficult to do. With clothing they have more interactions. There isn't time for animators to position each hair by hand. How hair glides across a shoulder looks easy but is very complicated to model. push and develop the pipeline in different ways on each production. For human characters. including ripping of the cloth. and now they have all productions at all times using the same pipeline. Computers are really good at rendering things like plastic and metal. In all of animation in the past long hair is very little.

an understanding of composition and the ability to draw are the foundation of an animation career.Qualification and skills needed to be an animator Just like web designing there is no specified educational qualification for animators. Animation projects involve many people. In some animation jobs you may also find math and physics helpful.  Technical Skill / Software Knowledge – With the increased use of computer generated imagery (CGI) technology in the film industry—in both live action films and animated movies—animation careers are becoming increasingly technical. physics.  Teamwork – You not only need the ability to work with clients. working to meet deadlines and communicating clearly and effectively with other team members and clients. but you'll also need to thrive in a team environment. For eg. Whether you're creating storyboards or putting the finishing touches on a series of computer generated images. you'll need to have a good grasp on basic artistic skills. This includes having a good sense of timing and pacing. You'll need training in various software programs that are standard in the industry.  Storytelling Ability –You need to be a good storyteller. in order to be able to create a realistic scene it is necessary to know how the real world functions. to create a realistic reflective surface the animator needs to know how light it reflected and how it behaves in the real world. mathematics etc.  Miscellaneous knowledge.It includes knowledge about geometry. even if you're not the one onscreen. It’s all about your skill and creativity.  Artistic Ability – Creative thinking. However doing a course in a reputed institute is quite necessary in the case of animation as very few firms can afford to trust an animator with no experience. When looking for an animator employers look for the following qualities in an individual. and knowing how to get your characters to express themselves in a believable way. This may involve following or giving direction. Besides it is almost impossible to work on free lance basis as an animator. 38 . As an animator. but the end product needs to be consistent as if produced by one person. you'll be responsible for portraying characters' emotions—which means you need to understand character development.

or blowing up a building are examples of mechanical effects. Since the 1990s. CGI gives film-makers greater control. With the emergence of digital film-making tools a greater distinction between special effects and visual effects has been recognized. snow. fog. with "visual effects" referring to digital post-production and "special effects" referring to on-set mechanical effects and in-camera optical effects. scale models. For example. mattes. As a result. or prosthetic makeup can be used to make an actor look like a monster. a set may be built with breakaway doors or walls to enhance a fight scene. either "in-camera" using multiple exposure. Mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. computer generated imagery (CGI) has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. scenery. Mechanical effects (also called practical or physical effects). pyrotechnics and Atmospheric Effects: creating physical wind. Optical effects (also called photographic effects). are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting. television. and allows many effects to be accomplished more safely and convincingly – and even. 39 . Today even a tiny advertisement on television has atleast some amount of special effects added to it. as technology marches on. rain. An optical effect might be used to place actors or sets against a different background. SPFX. at lower costs. Making a car appear to drive by itself. are techniques in which images or film frames are created photographically.Special effects are traditionally divided into the categories of optical effects and mechanical effects. or entertainment industries to simulate the imagined events in a story are traditionally called special effects (often abbreviated as SFX. or simply FX). or in post-production processes using an optical printer. many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI. This includes the use of mechanized props. theatre.Special Effects The illusions used in the film. or the Schüfftan process. clouds etc.

Pipeline process of Special effects A special effect can be accomplished in a number of ways depending on what kind of effect is needed. Involvement during production helps the director make creative decisions so that the effects can be integrated into the film more easily. The team of graphic artists works with the movie's director both during filming (production) and then extensively after filming (post-production) to create the effects. The word digital in the term digital visual effects means that the process primarily uses computer hardware and software to create its effects. For example. The process is generally a mixture of 2D and 3D. In olden times special effects was created by physically manipulating the film (negative). Basically special effects are the fusion of animation with real world graphics. During post-production. However in today’s time it’s all done ―digitally‖. The advantages of CG (computer generated) effects are their realism. or a number of films were combined to generate a new fused image. the director works extensively with the artists to make sure that the effects in each shot have exactly the right look for the film. Artists would manually paint on them. and also allows them to add different markers and other features to each scene to make post-production work easier. in certain scenes the camera might be fitted with encoders that will allow for easier integration of the effects that is created. flexibility and relatively low cost (compared to the alternatives). That is today all special effects are ―digital visual effects‖. 40 . and they also create almost every effect that used to be done using models. Computer-generated effects make imaginary characters like Godzilla possible.

buildings. Artists can also create ships.The artists can create and realistically animate characters and then integrate them into scenes -. artists create a 3-D model of the scene and how the camera moves within it.Compositing is the process of adding all of the different layers of a shot together to create the final shot.the process of adding or removing things from a scene. store it. It’s not necessary for all of these procedures to be used for every project. vehicles.  Scanning and printing – This process used equipment to scan film at extremely high resolution (up to 12.000 dots per frame).Rotoscoping is the process of outlining and "lifting" elements of a filmed scene off the frame so that other elements can be added to the frame either in front of or behind the rotoscoped elements. manipulate it digitally and then write it back out to film at the same resolution.Painting involves the creation of imaginary scenery. Every project is different and thus these techniques can be used in any order as per needs. or it can be created after the fact. flags. In either case.  3-D camera tracking .everything from Godzilla to a platoon of British soldiers can be added to a film.  Rotoscoping .  3-D Character modeling and animation . background scenery.In order to lay 3-D characters into a filmed scene. there must be a model of how the camera moves and zooms when the scene was shot.Following are some of the procedures carried out but special effect artists in the process of establishing an effect.  2-D compositing . clouds.750. These CG elements are totally realistic and are seamlessly integrated either into CG backdrops or filmed scenes. 41 . It also involves what was once called "airbrushing" -. This model can be created by adding encoders to the camera. explosions and so on.  Painting . water.

The Patriot was nominated for three Academy Awards: Best Sound. and Heath Ledger. Benjamin Martin. Let us now see how a certain war scene was made in this movie. Jurassic park. and starring Mel Gibson. Best Cinematography. written by Robert Rodat. Andrew Pickens and other Revolutionary War figures. and Best Original Music Score.A movie rich in special effects The Patriot is a 2000 Historical war film directed by Roland Emmerich. Though there are many movies like 2012.The Patriot(2000) . the process used in this is far more easier to understand. The protagonist. It was produced by the Mutual Film Company and Centropolis Entertainment and was distributed by Columbia Pictures. 300 etc which have made much more use of special effects than this movie. The film mainly takes place in South Carolina (and was entirely filmed there) and depicts the story of an American swept into the American Revolutionary War when his family is threatened. Chris Cooper. The scene we’re going to study involves a surprising number of techniques to completely change the landscape from a wooded field to a seaside town! 42 . is loosely based on real Continental Army officer Francis Marion.

frame by frame. and then each frame is stored as an individual full-color image with a resolution of 2. and the first step is to scan this film into digital form so it can be manipulated. a variety of things might be done to the original shot to clean it up. An artist sits at a computer and. outlines the portion of the original shot that will be used in the final version. or about 480 frames. it and the rotoscoped scene can be integrated: 43 . Another camera crew has created an ocean shot -. One of the first steps taken to add visual effects to the scene is the rotoscoping. correct the color and so on. The breastworks. but the explosion seen on the left and everything else will be removed. a portion of the field and several of the running soldiers will all be used. Since the camera pans across the scene in this shot.556 pixels. The section of video shown in the two previous videos is 20 seconds long.in this case the ocean is not far from the CFX studio in Hollywood! Once the ocean shot is cleaned up and colorcorrected.This is the original shot without effects The shot arrives as a piece of film. Scanning is done frame by frame (movie film is shot at 24 frames per second).048 by 1. the next step is to build a 3-D model of the camera so that all of the visual effects the team will create will mesh with the original scene exactly. The artist will outline these elements and essentially "lift" them out of the frame. First.

This is how the scene looks with the added ocean Another artist in the paint department has been working on a matte painting of the town. The boats are all computer generated. The “painted image” The scene with the added town. In this shot there are a number of boats encircling the town and firing on it. Each one is modeled and then added to the shot: 44 . This is a high-resolution digital image created using a painting/illustration package.

The scene with boats and canon fire A variety of other effects are added to the shot. a large explosion on the right. including things like smoke over the town. 45 .The scene with the boats added to it The cannon fire for the boats is its own stand-alone effect that is created separately and then added to the shot. etc. people in the town.

convincing visual image. Jurassic park etc. creating a scene like this is time-consuming. the explosion. Titanic. birds flying overhead and so on) layer by layer to create the final shot as it will appear in the movie. the boats. people in the town.when you see "The Patriot" on a huge screen in a theater. 46 . The small images used here don't really do justice to the shot -. the shot is written back to film so that it can be spliced into the movie. the cannon fire. Even though the shot only appears on screen for 20 seconds. Once digitally composited. hundreds of hours go into the visual effects to create a rich. the town. While this was the case in just a 20second clip one can imagine the amount of time and energy going into movies like 2012. the smoke. It is an amazing process that involves an entire team of people.The final step in the process is compositing all of the different components of the shot (the rotoscoped foreground. As you might imagine. the water. and this process may be repeated several hundred times in a single film! In "The Patriot. Godzilla. you can see the incredible detail that has been added to make this shot look totally realistic." 150 shots in the film involve visual effects like these.

Expertise in software such as Autodesk Maya and Adobe Photoshop helps." Newcomers usually enter the industry through internships and apprenticeships— sometimes unpaid. such as light. 47 .Qualification and skills needed to be a VFX artist Animation and visual-effects programs are offered at a number of universities. Tobin says. networking is also key. employment for artists and related workers is expected to increase 12% through 2018—on pace with other occupations. shadow and texture. but a degree or certificate isn't required." Mr. Since it's a tight-knit industry. More important is an eye for artistic detail. but you can't teach a great eye. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. managing director of The Moving Picture Co. says Mark Tobin. "The key is getting your foot in the door. "You can teach the technical knowledge. Employment in the industry is cyclical and tied to film studio budgets and appetites for films with extensive special effects.'s Los Angeles office. A strong reel (a short video showing clips) is critical.

However. but required mainframe computers and were not available to general public. such as designers. This usually involves a 20–100 man team of various responsibilities. Indie games can take less time and can be produced cheaply by individuals and small developers. Development is undertaken by a game developer. Mainstream games are normally funded by a publisher and take several years to develop. in pre-production. Even so. The first video games were developed in 1960s. ever-increasing computer processing power and user expectations made it impossible for a single developer to produce a mainstream game. artists. If the idea is approved and the developer receives funding. approaching 21st century. programmers. The games go through development. and game design documents are written. etc. Commercial game development began in 1970s with the advent of first generation video game consoles and home computers. alpha. Mainstream games are generally developed in phases. Modern games are advertised. The average price of game production slowly rose from US$1M– 4M in 2000 to over 5M in 2006 to over 20M in 2010. prototypes. many games do not turn a profit.Game Development Game development is the software development process by which a video game is developed. First. pitches. The indie game industry has seen a rise in recent years with the growth of new online distribution systems and the mobile game market. a full-scale development begins. Due to low costs and low capabilities of computers. a lone programmer could develop a full game. and showcased at trade show demos. and beta stages until finally being released. 48 . which may range from a single person to a large business. marketed. testers.

story lines. however. 49 . This phase is usually not funded by a publisher. for example. Publishers have started to expect broader game proposals even featuring playable prototypes. The late stage of pre-production may be also be referred to as proof of concept. The goal of concept development is to produce clear and easy to understand documentation. Pre-production Pre-production or design phase is a planning phase of the project focused on idea and concept development and production of initial design documents. The suite of documents produced in this phase is called production plan. both Bethke and Bates refer to pitch document as "game proposal". dialogues. however good publishers may require developers to produce plans during pre-production. yet Moore. Development of a commercial game usually includes the following stages. The concept documentation can be separated into three stages or documents—high concept. Novak refers to concept document as "game proposal". Hence it is probably one of the most complex processes in graphics. which describes all the tasks.Pipeline of Game Development Making a game today is as good as making a fully fledged film. It also needs a great deal of knowledge in the field of audio editing. pitch and concept. or technical review when more detailed game documents are produced. Because is included developing sounds. there is no industry standard naming convention. This field combines both coding (programming) and graphics. schedules and estimates for the development team. employs voice artists etc.

a skeleton crew of programmers and artists usually begins work. Verbal pitches may be made to management within the developer company. Prototyping may also take place 50 . The producer aims to create a solid production plan so that no delays are experienced at the start of the production. hardware platforms.a. budget and estimating tasks with the team. help determine what features the design specifies. or game proposal is a short summary document intended to present the game's selling points and detail why the game would be profitable to develop. Prototype: . Pitch: . team requirements. then only the upper management needs to give approval. game proposal.A pitch. Programmers may develop quick-and-dirty prototypes showcasing one or more features that stakeholders would like to see incorporated in the final product. proposal document. Concept: . Producers may work part-time on the game at this point. This includes all the information produced about the game. A great deal of prototyping may take place during pre-production before the design document is complete and may. marketing analysis. features. Demos may be created for the pitch. If the developer acts as its own publisher. and then presented to publishers. and risk analysis. scaling up for full time commitment as development progresses. concept document. game's genre.Writing prototypes of game play ideas and features are an important activity that allows programmers and game designers to experiment with different algorithms and usability scenarios for a game. or game plan is a more detailed document than the pitch document. Artists may develop concept art and asset sketches as a springboard for developing real game assets. Game producers work during preproduction is related to planning the schedule. story. in fact. target audience. High concept:-High concept is a few sentences long description of a game.Concept document. setting. however may be unnecessary for established developers with good track records. A game proposal may undergo one to several green-light meetings with publisher executives who determine if the game is to be developed. estimated schedule. This includes the high concept. Before an approved design is completed. The presentation of the project is often given by the game designers. d. b. or both companies are subsidiaries of a single company. c. game play description. A written document may need to be shown to publishers before funding is approved.

during active development to test new ideas as the game emerges.All the while. A new platform may be targeted as well as a new demographic. RAD tools may be used to aid in the quick development of these programs. Therefore usually very prolific programmers are called upon to quickly code these testbed tools. All these changes need to be documented and dispersed to the rest of the team. Level designers create levels. and writers write dialogue for cutscenes and NPCs. when assets and source code for the game are produced. artists develop game assets. Often prototypes need to be developed quickly with very little time for up-front design. sprites or 3D models. requiring artistic and technical competence as well as writing skills. The art treatment may evolve and the back-story may change. where design is refined based on current progress. Programmers write new source code. A successful development model is iterative prototyping. Most algorithms and features debuted in a prototype may be ported to the game once they have been completed.Game design is a collaborative process of designing the content and rules of a game. Game designers continue to develop the game's design throughout production. Features and levels are often removed or added. Prototypes are often meant only to act as a proof of concept or to test ideas. Design: . by adding. modifying or removing some of the features. such as.Programming:. a. Production Production is the main stage of development. the game designer implements and modifies the game design to reflect the current vision of the game. Most changes occur as updates to the design document. Mainstream production is usually defined as the period of time when the project is fully staffed. Sound engineers develop sound effects and composers develop music for the game. 51 . b.

in such games as Pac-man or Mario. especially for slow periods of game. music. 52 . such as chase. Voice acting adds personality to the game's characters. the game's first level takes the longest to develop.c. Music may be ambient. the design of early levels may also change over time.From a time standpoint. Menu music. character models. so the levels developed early on may be repeatedly developed and discarded. Audio production: . It is not uncommon to spend upwards of twelve months on one level of a game developed over the course of three years. hard-changing score. Music may be triggered by in-game events. Because of the dynamic environment of game development. Action music. Level creation: . and voice-over.Game audio may be separated into three categories—sound effects. item sprites. e. Newly introduced features may cause old levels to become obsolete. Voiceovers and voice acting creates character game play interactivity. similar to credits music. such as concept art. is a process of creating 2D and 3D game art for a video game. etc. battle or hunting sequences is fast-paced. Sound effect production is the production of sounds by either tweaking a sample to a desired effect or replicating it with real objects. As level designers and artists use the tools for level building. A game artist is a visual artist who creates video game art. Sound effects are important and impact the game's delivery. There are several ways in which music is presented in a game. A game title with 20 hours of single-player game play may feature around 60 minutes of music. Music may be synthesized or performed live. where the music aims to reinforce the aesthetic mood and game setting. creates aural impact while relatively little action is taking place. For example. Later levels can be developed much more quickly as the feature set is more complete and the game vision is clearer and more stable. they request features and changes to the in-house tools that allow for quicker and higher quality development. player picking up powerups triggered respective musical scores. a subset of game development.Game art design: -Game art design. d.

or beta game versions. Some common milestones for two-year development cycle are as follows. Early on. and such vary depending on publisher.At the end of the project quality assurance plays a significant role. Milestones mark major events during game development and are used to track game's progress. Proper regression testing is also increasingly expensive as the number of features increases and is often not scheduled correctly. Regression testing is one of the vital tasks required for effective software development. This may be one level or subset of the game software that can be used to any reasonable extent. They strive to test new features and regression test existing ones. it is considered "working" for the rest of the project and little attention is given to repeat testing. This task is often overlooked. This can result in customer’s dissatisfaction and failure to meet sales goals. Such milestones may be. g. Testers need to carry out regression testing to make sure that features that have been in place for months still operate correctly. As new features are added. Sometimes.Commercial game development projects may be required to meet milestones set by publisher. Also. As development draws to a close. subtle changes to the codebase can produce unexpected changes in different portions of the game. a single game usually employs many testers full time (and often with overtime). Testers start work once anything is playable. year. features that are added late in development are prioritized and existing features often receive insufficient testing time. first playable. most developers and publishers quickly release patches that fix the bugs and make the game fully playable again. alpha. Testing is vital for modern. for example. When this does happen. Testers may work on several games at once. testing a game occupies a relatively small amount of time. 53 .f. Testing: .Milestones: . complex games as single changes may lead to catastrophic consequences. There is no industry standard for defining milestones. when a feature is implemented and tested. Despite the dangers of overlooking regression testing. for several reasons. At this time features and levels are being finished at the highest rate and there is more new material to be tested than during any other time in the project. some game developers and publishers fail to test the full feature suite of the game and ship a game with bugs. or project. Project milestones depend on the developer schedules.

First code release candidate is usually ready three to four weeks before code release. No changes are made to the game features. but unimplemented features may be dropped. similarly planned. when only bugs are being fixed.First playable: The first playable is the game version containing representative game play and assets. This version is tested against QA test plan. Programmers focus mainly on finishing the codebase. It is often based on the prototype created in pre-production. this is the first version with functional major game play elements. A game in alpha is feature complete. This version contains no bugs that prevent the game from being shippable. new features may be added. These features may be further revised based on testing and feedback. First playable occurs 12 to 18 months before code release. Alpha: Alpha is the stage when key game play functionality is implemented. 54 . Alpha occurs eight to ten months before code release. Beta: Beta is feature and asset complete version of the game. Gold master: Gold master is the final game's build that is used as a master for production of the game. rather than implementing additions. that is. Additional small. Code release: Code release is the stage when all bugs are fixed and game is ready to be shipped or submitted for console manufacturer review. or code. Beta occurs two to three months before code release. assets. game is playable and contains all the major features. Code freeze occurs three to four months before code release. however large projects require first playable before feature complete alpha. and assets are partially finished. Alpha and first playable are sometimes used to refer to a single milestone. Code freeze: Code freeze is the stage when new code is no longer added to the game and only bugs are being corrected.

it is still prominent in smaller companies. In recent times popularity of online console games has grown. called comp time or extra paid time-off after product ships to compensate for crunch time's negative effects. crunch time or crunch mode is unpaid overtime requested by many companies to meet project deadlines and milestones that negatively affect game developers. Maintenance:. These changes would not have been possible in the past without the widespread availability of the Internet. Post-production After the game goes gold and ships. or enhanced remake that reuses a large portion of the engine and assets. In this case. 55 . maintenance would only occur in the case of a port. A team missing a deadline risks the danger of having the project cancelled or employees being laid off. This was the norm for consoles since all consoles had identical or nearly identical hardware. Game developers try to account for majority of configurations and hardware. the maintenance phase for the video game begins. Many companies offer time-off. Developers can maintain their software through downloadable patches. The shipped game would forever house as many bugs and features as when released. Particularly. Sometimes on-site crunch meals are offered and delivered to the team during crunch time. some developers will give team members comp time (perhaps up to a week or two) to compensate for the overtime put in to complete the game. The International Game Developers Association (IGDA) surveyed nearly 1. Games developed for video game consoles have had almost no maintenance period in the past. though this compensation is not standard. Although many companies are reducing the amount of crunch time. The PC development is different.000 game developers in 2004 and produced a report to highlight the many problems caused by bad practice.Once a game ships. Some companies offer bonuses and financial rewards for successful milestone reach. and online capable video game consoles and online services such as Xbox Live for the Xbox have developed. sequel.Crunch time: Overtime is expected in the games industry.

or "worlds. It is a visual representation of the story and a reference for the writers. Therefore various levels. but increasingly they are based on other forms of entertainment like popular movies. Once the basic game concept is decided upon. Often story ideas come from game designers themselves or are pitched by outsiders. Other common sources are sequels or spin offs of existing games and simulations of real-world events. Preproduction Every game begins with a story. writers and artists work together on a storyboard. artists and designers just as it would be for a film. A storyboard consists of rough sketches and technical instructions sequentially organized to depict each scene of the game." of the game must be sketched out.Making of Dungeon Siege II. a video game can have thousands of outcomes. 56 . But while a film has a single storyline.

Subtle touches like reflections in shiny surfaces and varied cloud patterns often go unnoticed by players. depending on the type of game and motion desired. The game programmers bring this figure to life by instructing the computer to move the character. the motions of a human actor are captured using a special suit of sensors to represent the control points of the character's skeleton. the more realistic the motion of the character will be. designers begin to create the characters. The more detailed this exoskeleton is. In some games (not Dungeon Siege II). Then. 57 . Several techniques can be used to do this. And often such details can propel the story forward: for example. Once the character design is finalized. but they help create a much more immersive environment. It's important for the artists to refine the characters as much as possible at this stage because it will be costly to make changes later. the character is basically a digital marionette.Creating the Characters As the storyboard is made. a twig snapping under a character's foot can signal approaching danger. a digital exoskeleton is created to define the character's shape and to give the computer the control points necessary to animate the figure. layers of "skin" are added. it's time to transform the sketches into controllable 3D characters. art director for Gas Powered Games. The sketches are first scanned into the computer. Rough sketches of major characters are drawn and redrawn until they are perfect. it takes about five days to design and program a character. followed by layers of color and texture. These movements then can be mapped onto the character's skeleton to produce ultra-realistic motion. The Game World One of the most important aspects of modern game creation is the environment. According to Steve Thompson. Next. Putting It All in Motion At this point.

and it also establishes the physics of the game world. Each polygon has a set of vertices to define its shape. shadows and textures the user sees on the screen. Each side of the box being wrapped is a blank polygon and the "paper" is an image of the texture to be applied." You can think of texture mapping much like wrapping a present. 58 . is the code. Code is the set of computer language instructions that controls every aspect of the game.As the power of home computers rapidly increases. A polygon is an area defined by lines. It's hard to imagine the game worlds that await us in the future. game developers are able to create ever more realistic and complex environments. Most games are written with custom code based on the C programming language. This allows games to have incredibly detailed 3-D environments that you can interact with in real time. detecting the interactions and collisions between objects and controlling their movement. This is the logic of the game. Most video game consoles and computers contain a special chip and dedicated memory that store the special images used for texture mapping and apply them to each polygon on the fly. Levels of detail that were unimaginable only a few years ago are now commonplace. and it needs information that tells it what to look like. The most commonly used method to transmit this information is "texture mapping. Code Unseen to the user. The majority of 3-D objects created for computer games are made up of polygons. Another important aspect of the code is the artificial intelligence component. A 3-D code engine is almost always used to generate the incredibly complex code necessary for all of the polygons. but making all of the game elements work together.

Marketing Games are big business. Once all of the major flaws are addressed. a detailed report is sent back to the developers and the error is corrected.Postproduction Once the game is complete. a "beta" version is released." Problems are prioritized in many ways. or "bugs. to minor issues which may or may not affect the game's release. Testing The job of the testers is to play the game repeatedly to find all the mistakes. a copy of the game is sent to the Entertainment Software Rating Board to be given a rating. When a problem is discovered. a blockbuster game like Grand Theft Auto: Vice City can cost between $3 million – $5 million to develop. review. Usually during this testing phase. According to the Entertainment Software Association. distribution. and it is tested to detect any major flaws in the game while they are still relatively easy to fix. fixed and re-released until the developers are satisfied that the game is ready for primetime. it enters the postproduction phase. often to a larger group of testers that sometimes includes the public. with an addition $10 million for promotion and marketing. 59 . These ratings are intended to give consumers an idea of the content of the game and its appropriateness for different age groups. The first version sent to testers is called the "alpha" version. The beta version is exhaustively tested. from "fatal" bugs which must be resolved immediately. marketing and finally. This phase includes extensive testing. All of this is done so that buyers will be willing to spend $15 to $60 (or more) to be immersed in the imaginary world that that game designers worked so hard to bring to life.

The games of today have a very high degree of realism. software development. A video game designer must be aware of these characteristics to ensure their software is compatible with the console for which it's meant. A video game designer must have a strong set of skills. Computer animation and graphics also play a huge role in video games. Graphics is what the player actually sees on the screen. and game designers must have at least some skills in these areas. including programming. computer animation and computer graphics. while animation refers to bringing items within a game -. graphics and animation are its "body. Each brand operates in its own way using its own operating characteristics."Video game designers also need a thorough knowledge of the workings of various game consoles like Playstation 3.such as characters and background -. chip design and other factors that determine how a console operates. certificates and advanced degrees in areas such as computer programming. This means game designers must have some familiarity with operating systems. It needs much more than mere creativity with respects to graphics. technical schools and universities offer classes. video graphics and hardware essentials. This realism not only comes from graphics but also from the programming part. This suspension effect is a result of programming where the programmer determines who hard it should bounce.to life by putting them in motion. 60 . Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Xbox. computer engineering. If the software program is the "brains" of the game. For example when a car jumps and lands back on the road. its suspension bounces to show the impact.Qualification and skills needed to be a game developer Game development is probably the most complex sector in the whole graphics industry. Many colleges. It demands high amount of knowledge in programming and physics as well. To work in the world of video game design. Hence the knowledge in physics. Software contains the basic language that brings games to life. a game designer must be knowledgeable about computer programming and writing software. so much that at times its hard to distinguish real from fake even in games. Acquiring accredited training in these areas will show a prospective employer you are serious about your chosen field. Video games are essentially sophisticated computer software that runs a routine while also accepting commands and data from controllers. Many players tend to judge the quality of a video game based on realism and creative application of the graphics and animation.

Some of the more common printing technologies are:  Blueprint: . boards and even on objects like t-shirts. However with the rise in technology today all the designing happens on the computer and is then transferred for printing through printers.  Line printing: .Where pre-formed characters are applied individually. Printing is done on a lot of media. and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing.  Daisy wheel: . then to the printing surface.  Dot-matrix: .  Electro photography: . It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process. banners. key chains.  Laser: .Where toner is attracted to a charged image and then developed.  Heat transfer: . It is one of the oldest forms of publicity.  Gravure: .And related chemical technologies.Is an intaglio printing technique.Where ink is sprayed onto the paper to create the desired image. 61 .  Inkjet including bubble jet: . typically with ink on paper using a printing press. which turns black to form the printed image. where the image to be printed is made up of small depressions in the surface of the printing plate.Print Media Printing is a process for reproducing text and image.Which produces arbitrary patterns of dots with an array of printing studs. etc.A type of xerography where the charged image is written pixel by pixel by a laser. for example newspapers.Like early fax machines or modern receipt printers that apply heat to special paper. brochures.Where cubes of ink are melted to make ink or liquid toner.  Solid ink printer: .Where pre-formed characters are applied to the paper by lines. which is used even today.  Offset printing: .Is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket. In olden times the graphic designing of what is to be printed was done on specific material based on where the printing would occur.

A magazine is usually funded by advertisers. Different types of newspaper cater to various audiences and one can select the particular category accordingly. some daily papers focus on the stock exchange. A newspaper is usually divided into different segments. a magazine focusing on horses would target those who have interests in horses. Magazines: Magazines also offer advertisers an opportunity to incorporate various new techniques and ideas. A magazine is a publication which is published on a set schedule: weekly. from vendors and other distribution outlets. The most important story is usually featured on the front page. under a headline with a byline stating the name of the reporter who wrote the story. fortnightly. some focus on current affairs while others focus on sensational news stories. and through subscription by readers.Types of Print Media: Newspapers: Newspapers are the most popular forms of print media. and magazines focusing on housekeeping or women's health usually target women of a certain demographic. Newspapers are the most popular and easily recognizable form of print media. For instance. Magazines usually have a niche audience since they focus on a specific interest. monthly or quarterly. announcements. The client can make a choice of the particular magazine as per the product. outright purchase at magazine stands. The advertiser in this case can choose from a daily newspaper to a weekly tabloid. Magazines can be available in specific regions or cities. opinions. Advertisers then design press advertisements where in the size is decided as per the budget of the client. The newspapers with the most circulation usually generate the most revenue because advertisers are willing to advertise in them since they know they will get more value for their money. in the whole nation or even internationally. A newspaper is a useful means for the dissemination of information. advertisements. sports news. Magazines are one such form of print media that give a more specific target group to the client. Newspapers can be published daily or weekly and cover local and international news stories. 62 . cartoons and television listings. which is why it has remained popular despite the advancement in technology which gives people the option of reading their news online. Different types of newspapers cater to different readers. news.

but offset printing turns out higher quantities for less cost. a brochure usually uses higher-quality paper. A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. The message in a poster has to be brief and eye-catching as it targets a person on the move. Brochures: Brochures give detailed information about the product. although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. more color. These target a specific group of audience and give information on the product. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements. churches. which are brochures based on other people. Businesses may turn out small quantities of brochures on a computer printer or on a digital printer. and result in eight panels or more. Clubs. Some newsletters are used as a means for making money because they are sold directly to subscribers. and tourist information. A newsletter is a publication which usually deals with one topic which its subscribers find useful and which is distributed on a regular basis. Brochures are often printed using four color process on thick gloss paper to give an initial impression of quality. 63 . businesses and associations regularly produce newsletters to provide information to their members. Brochures are most commonly found at places that tourists frequently visit. Then there are pamphlets that you can find in health clinics and hospitals that give help and advice to do with your health. employees and customers.Newsletters: Newsletters also form an important part of print media. societies. Another type of brochure is interpersonal brochures. and is folded. Brochure racks or stands may suggest visits to amusement parks and other points of interest. A brochure (also referred to as a pamphlet) is a type of leaflet. Compared with a flyer or a handbill. such as museums. These are mainly distributed at events or even at the main outlet when a consumer needs to read in detail about the product. Booklet brochures are made of multiple sheets most often saddle stitched (stapled on the creased edge) or "perfect bound" like a paperback book. major shops. Posters: Posters are forms of outdoor advertising.

We tend to judge a products quality and reliability according to the quality of the advertisement. graphic design is really not an expense. advertisements. Sell your messages to customers more convincingly Graphics in any form be it in the form of web sites. trademarks or even simply things like the packaging is always the 1st impression on a perspective customer. A powerful tool for business. Make sure the impression you are making is the right one. This is the reason firms functioning in every field pay a lot of attention to every aspect dealing with graphics in the firm. Make your business stand out from your competitors' 3. but in the success of your business. Improve your image and strengthen your brand 2. It is the graphics industry that creates an interface between the people and the firm. Proper design has the power to: 1. website or even packaging material. Human behavior is such that people tend to believe more of what they see. We’ll also see how each function affects the firm directly and indirectly. It is an investment – not only in looking good. Let us now look at a few functions of corporate firms that are handled by the graphic industry. It is like the front face of the firm. It is the difference between customers choosing you and choosing your competitors. logos.Importance Of Graphics In The Corporate World Design is not an expense – it is an investment Graphic design is not just the difference between beautiful and boring. 64 . Your image is the only thing potential buyers can connect with.

In simplest words advertising is introduction. But real aim of advertising is to make general public and potential buyers aware of goods. Before going on the importance of advertising. Hence in most cases this is like the 1st impression of the products. Many people think that advertising a product means to sell it. For E. Besides this people tend to judge a product according to the advertisement. products and services available under a brand. For E.G even today most people remember ―maggi Noodles‖ as a ―two-minute noodle‖ because the initial ads emphasized more on this aspect. complimenting and positively favorable presentation of goods and services to a group of people by an identified sponsor. Advertising can be define as a paid form of non – professional but encouraging. In most cases products are seen or noticed by the public for the first time in advertisements. In simple terms an advertising agency is a branch of the advertising agency itself. While some firms prefer to make and publish the ads themselves. hence people think of the product as a simple one with not much features too. general public and end users to be aware and familiar with the brands and their goods and services. many are opting to consult advertising agencies. 65 . For any product to flourish in the market. they feature small time actors with simple dialogues. This 1st impression goes a long way in the minds of the people. vicco turmeric cream ads are simple and plain. we would have an introduction to advertising first. It let the potential buyers.g. thus when we see the ad we think of Olay as a good brand as well. customers and general public aware of product.1. On the other hand Olay cosmetic ads are produced on large budgets with high profile celebrities. to consumers and general public. Advertisements Advertising is a favorable representation of product to make consumer. Advertising agencies are third party firms that specialize in all the functions of making and advertisement. of services and goods. advertising about it is necessary.

It facilitates general people to buy advertised brands. Advertising does not give a proper awareness of brands but a nice introduction of companies as well. Good advertising helps to increases sale and assist salesman to sale goods and services. 66 . help and make most of your advertising cost by promoting your brand on right place by appropriate means at suitable time for apt duration. Advertising. on the other hand. in fact. Many of the firms have their own department of advertising whose aim to advertise the company’s merchandise and services to the potential buyers and make general consumers aware of different aspects of their brand. many organizations depends upon advertising agencies for promoting their brands and services with are available under their roof for the consumers’ disposal. By means of it organizations can give proper information about their brands to the costumers and consumers. Advertising can form a connection between company and customers. It won’t be wrong in calling advertising a mean communication between companies and their customers. Organizations are supposed to pay a certain amount to those agencies for the promotion of their brand name. While. Advertising agencies have expert consultants and executives to make proper strategies to promote your brands. They are always there to suggest. Potential buyers are more interested in buying those brands which are advertised in an attractive manner. Attractive advertising increases the demand of public which directly boost sales of brand. is proper promotion of the products not selling of item.Let us now look at the importance of an advertising agency.

However now all this can be done from home or anywhere in the world where a computer and internet connection is available. he’s more likely to invest in that firm. However they’ll be very few articles about how web sites made it easy for us to use the internet in the first place. From purchasing a product to lodging a complaint about it.G a person visiting a web-site which takes time to load and does not respond in time is likely to leave the site even though the products are of good quality. For E. Web-designers are responsible for making these web pages. While feedbacks and suggestions had to be mailed by post.2. Hardly anyone would prefer using the internet in that case. Buying and selling had become easy not only because of the internet but also because of the changing trends in web site layouts. Just like advertisements people tend to just the firm based on the quality of the web-site the visit. everything can be done over the internet. People had to spend their own money to make phone calls in order to complain. Imagine having to do that even today. We may have read a lot of articles about how the internet has revolutionized the way commercial buying and selling takes place. On the other hand when he visits a site that gives him a pleasant surfing experience. Now just hovering over an image of a product will open a fly-out showing all the necessary details on the product. People had to visit a number of stores to purchase products. 67 . Web-site The web-site is one of the most popular interfaces between customers and the firm. Traditionally there was little scope of interaction between the firm and the people. This is the main reason why some site flourish so well while others eventually wither off. Initially commands had to be typed in text and sent over the internet and information would return in the same text form. It is web sites that made it easy for everyone to use the internet. They have to keep them self in the viewers place n create a web site that would be convenient for the final viewer.

Thus it is a most efficient way to get potential customers from all over the world through internet marketing. You cannot stop competition in any business but at least make your identity so that your potential customers are given a chance of comparing and subsequently buying your products or engaging your services with the help of professional business website. then you have something international that overcomes the limits between countries and continents.Let us now look at a few benefits a firm can have by owning a web site. Dynamic Website Design. Then you can explain to them why your products are great or how excellent and reliable your services are and. Your web site is your online shop and it is open for 24/7. Professionally design Websites can easily fit on CDs and their content can be presented as the company’s virtual business card or as the company’s portfolio. Flash Web Site Design.  Websites have no boundaries as far as place or region or country is concern. There are various types of website designing such as Static Web site Design.  Having a website means your business is open and reachable round the clock and throughout the year.  Through website designing you will get identity.  There are approximately 970 million Internet users. content can be changed very easily. global presence and good business channel once you make entry in the www (World Wide Web) and promote the website through web marketing. SEO Website. This is like going for a business exhibition on internet.  There are competitions in every business. The type of website depends on the type of your business. potential customers are inclined to know more about you. also satisfying them by showing your work profiles. Static websites are more search engine friendly websites for internet marketing India.    In website.   If you own small company and you want to explore globally than website is the only effective media to connect people by creative web design India with web promotion. It is international. You can get good ranking in search pages by writing SEO friendly copy writing in your website. Hybrid Websites Design. 15% of the world's population. 68 . Website transmits your message in a few seconds. If you have a SEO friendly website.  Static websites are generally text base. If you have a website.

Flash sites are very useful to represent your product or service in innovative way. You can opt to go for a dynamic website which will automatically change your content based on changes to your business.  To get maximum benefit of website you need to design web site by professional Web Design Company and have web optimization by professional SEO Company. news. Today. articles. 69 . important messages. like stock items.  Dynamic websites can be used for various applications. company employees can login to update and report data directly in and from the project’s database. They gained vast exposure and have increased their sales revenue by developing professional website design and search engine friendly website. Flash web sites are for entertainment. Flash site gives unique and novel look to your web site. many businesses depend on their website. prices. stock status. whereby from login pages. game. services and more. visual and flash animation.   Hybrid website is mixer of static and flash sites. Hybrid site is useful when you wish to make search engine friendly website with text. animation or visual effects.

Converting first time buyers into loyal customers should be the main goal of your business and packaging is the door to it. Packaging should definitely be included in the 4 major P’s of marketing (product.3. would you buy a plain looking item or something excitingly packaged that makes anyone drool? 70 . Without attractive packaging. Most consumers judge a product by its packaging before buying. So it is logical to say attractive packaging is crucial in order to get the first time buyers to buy your products. Sometimes packaging is so important that it cost more than the product itself in order to lure the consumers to buy it. Having attractive packaging doesn’t mean you should neglect quality either. promotion and price). Packaging Packaging is a very important marketing strategy to glamorize your product in order to attract the consumer’s attention. who would buy it in order to try it? Your first step to enter the market is crushed if the packaging is ugly. place. Ask yourself this question. you need to make high quality products in order to have repeated sales. Packaging is one of those crucial steps that is often neglected in business. In fact.

value function and appearance. 71 . prototyping. The latest digital technology provides designers a number of options to communicate. Product Designers conceptualize and evaluate ideas and themes they find profitable. The products are designed keeping in mind the needs of the user and utility of the product. They make these ideas tangible through products using a systematic approach.4. manufacturing. needs and interests. The product designer must have a good idea of the concept and should be able to refine the concept as he goes along. Some of the commonly used methods include sketching. industrial designer and design engineer and should be able to use the rules of good design with a view to create good products. Many industrial designers use systematic design methodologies to satisfy their creative ability. research. They have a good knowledge of engineering and are well versed with the concepts of industrial design. The designer should be able to work on creating the product after looking into all aspects of the product. The discipline covers the entire range of activities from concept. The designer should be able to put all the activities relating to the launch of the product in a schedule and be able to work within the schedule with a minimum cost and budget overrun. model making and testing. The product must be good in design. Product designers are equipped and skilled to visualize a concept and bring it to reality. The product must directly relate to and be compatible with human characteristics. The designer should be creative and have analytical ability. Product design Product Design combines ergonomics with product and business knowledge to generate ideas and concepts and convert them into physical and usable objects or services. The product should be user friendly. A product designer plays diverse roles. The designer has to be a marketing manager. comparative product research. It must be useful to both user and manufacturer. efficient and should look good. visualize and analyze ideas. product manager. testing to product launch.

films and videos. and everything in between. logos. advertisements. package and promote. Visual Art or Commercial Art. ink and paper but more and more now rely on computer aided technology and the latest design software to enhance their work. 72 . the work profile could encompass designs for websites. display. A good graphic artist would be one with an exposure to a wide range of media and communication techniques. shape and form is essential. A graphic artist needs to be independent and self motivated and possess the imagination and creativity to deal with a range of subjects and products.Life of a graphic designer Graphic arts refer to the artistic interpretation and creation of design through artistic expression. graphic art is the art of visualizing ideas. brochures. computers. drawings and models. print material. a comprehensive knowledge of theory and methodology is required to excel in this type of career. Many graphic designers still use traditional tools such as pencil. In addition to this. household appliances. Graphic artists use their creativity and talent to design. hands-on experience is necessary along with a portfolio full of ideas and work. Since the aim of a graphic designer is to enhance the image and salability of a product. stationery. posters. techniques. He or she uses a diverse range of media to create designs and visually convey a message or an idea to the public. cars. Graphic designers need to evaluate their customer’s needs and must be adept at all sorts of sales and marketing strategies. Therefore. and other promotional materials. Graphic artists are required to hold a Graphic Arts degree or a diploma in Graphic Design. A graphic artist is also often referred to as a graphic designer. books and newspapers. He or she will be fluent in handling all sorts of tools. A close attention to detail and an instinct for color. food products. designing sets for theatre and film and even furniture design. Graphic design is seen everywhere in the world around us – from books and magazines. In other words. Responsibilities could also include overseeing layouts during printing of magazines. advertise. clothing.

Today, good Graphic Design Programs mix creativity with technology and business skills. Course material should include (among others) – Web page design, Flash, Typography, JavaScript, Web Animation, Photoshop, Illustrator, Pre-press Operations, Internet Management, Marketing, Computer Fundamentals, and Desktop Publishing.

Graphic designers have the choice to work alone or as a part of a large design team. They could opt for consultancy services or freelance work if they do not want to be tied down to a particular design studio or advertising agency. Media opportunities for graphic artists could be found in print, packaging, movie, video, television or radio. Graphic artists can be employed by magazines or newspapers, books, advertising agencies and graphic design firms as well as non-profit organizations, governmental agencies, companies and for specific events.

A career in design could lead to various positions in the field of graphic arts such as Art director, Directors - state, motion picture, television, radio, Visual artists, Animators, Children book illustrators, Commercial and industrial designer, Fashion designer, Interior designer, Set designer, Painters and illustrators, Cartoonist, comic book artists, Camera operator, television, video or motion picture operators, Desktop publisher, Composing room supervisor and Online producer.

And as the years go by, jobs for graphic designers are only expected to rise and individuals with experience in animation and Web design will have the best opportunity to qualify for the newer job positions being created in the fields of technology. A career in graphic design is assuredly fast growing and one that is becoming more and more competitive with every passing day. People now recognize the earning potential of such a career and the flexibility and independence offered by the choices within this field. Whether you work full-time in a small studio or large agency or freelance full-time on your own terms, the bottom line is that graphic arts is a great choice for people who need to express themselves creatively and earn well at the same time.

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Freelancing
Many graphic designers work on freelance basis, which means they’re not employed by any company. They work independently and take orders from clients. It is a good option as you’re not working under anyone had there’s 100percent freedom and flexibility. However there are cons as well. Following are a few pros as well as cons in freelancing.

Ultimate Flexibility of Time

When it comes to freelancing, people generally have the idea that freelancers get to do what they want, whenever they want it. With nobody to monitor them, it’s understandable why people think of freelancing that way. In fact, it is in all likelihood that this is the idea that leads most people to take up freelancing. Other than deadlines to follow, there are usually no other time limitation as to how you wish to get your work done. Instead of following a rigid 8-to-5 working schedule, you can now work during any time of the day. What this means is that late sleepers who function best during the wee hours of the night can finally avoid the drag-yourself-out-of-bed syndrome. And what does this translate to? Greater job satisfaction and higher productivity. Besides, what’s really benefit is no more calls and complicated sick leave application to do while you’re really sick. You no longer need to suffer from your bad cold under the office temperature which is strictly 18 degrees Celsius. You won’t get scolded or looked down by cold-blooded manager simply because you are ill. You’ll thank yourself for being freelancer while resting on the bed.

Your Own Working Environment How’s the world without co-workers? You can customize your working environment to any style you like (heck, we even got showcase for you to refer)! You can do any entertainment you like, says, playing rock music with the volume turn way up or stop for a break any time to catch your favorite sitcom. You have the entire house for

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yourself instead of a cramped cubicle! No other office work can afford such control over your working condition. The other goodness is you can avoid the damned office politics. When there are workers around you competing for promotions, it’s inevitable that we will get ourselves tangled with politics. But if you’re working alone, the only one you’re competing with is yourself and the market for freelancers. As the proximity of competition for the latter is too far to be felt directly, such stress would somehow affect you to a lesser extent.

Better Income Control You can save a lot of income by working from home, can’t you? Commuting time and cost for work are no longer applicable to you, except those times when you might need to meet clients. You can also cut back on child care services since you are now able to stay home with your children. Instead of depending on work appraisals by your superiors for promotions and increments of pay, your income is now only at the mercy of your own efforts. How hard you work will determine how much you can earn. Rather than having your advancement being encumbered in office politics, you can now determine your own income. You’re your own boss, don’t you remember it?

The Price of Freedom: Self-discipline Nothing is absolutely good in this world, so it’s not surprising that such freedom comes with a price. Setting income expectations is an essential initial step, but getting it is another thing. You’ll need higher than average level of self-discipline and motivation to keep your business going, and more if you want it to flourish. A lack of supervision by a boss can result in such circumstances when you just take your freedom for granted. After you got used to the idea of being free and powerful over your work, you get complacent. This is when you start getting sloppy in your work and miss deadlines. As this is indeed a recurring issue with most freelancers

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Another issue with going solo as a freelancer is that you feel isolated if you’re working alone day in. there will still be trying times when you feel dreadful about certain aspects of your work. but the issue can be possibly solved by online forum. I still think it might be a bad idea to combine work with life. This is also why motivation is hard to sustain as a freelancer.‖ With all due respect to his wisdom. or you ensure that the satisfaction from work can boost your personal life or vice versa. unless you look forward to working quietly by yourself every day. With your home as your office. A short-term alternative is you can do a self review and appreciate the advantages of freelancing when you are feeling very alone. Just imagine that the moment you wake up. Even if you have the passion for what you’re doing. you need to be proactive and resourceful. the bad news is freelancer’s life is mostly a mix of work and personal life. any problem you face in either your personal life or work life might affect another significantly. 76 . day out. Well. Unity of Work & Life Confucius once said that ―Choose a job you love. and your office as your home. It will be good to maintain good social support outside of your work. You have to be serious in tackling the issue of loneliness as it is mostly the root of depression that drags down your life satisfaction like there’s no tomorrow. The problem is that you don’t have co-workers or an experienced mentor to consult with. you’re already at work! Either you get your work and personal life balanced. which means you have to know where and how to acquire the necessary skills.Solitude & Independence When you’re running a one-man show. Sometimes the client might require you to do beyond what you’re familiar with. and you will never have to work a day in your life.

The Chronicles of Narnia. amid others. the Indian animation industry is poised to grow by. an international business consulting service provider. This fact shows how promising and opportunistic this field is going to be. about 23% in the next four years! This means that the value of the industry that was estimated at 18. Nickelodeon. Hungama TV. All in all. What also works in the favour of the growth of the animation industry is the anticipated phenomenal growth of an allied industry . The primary growth of the industry results from the increased volumes of outsourced work that the country's animation studios have received. Production for films including the Lord of the Rings. From merely being a country that helps Hollywood studios make animated films. The industry is short of people with quality skills. Cartoons that were strictly in the domain of Cartoon Network are now a regular feature of many channels including POGO. and Spiderman 3 have taken place here during the last few years.the gaming industry .Future to come According to a recent report by Pricewaterhouse Coopers International Limited.5 billion in 2009 will be a whopping 54 billion by 2014. Disney XD and Disney Channel. 77 . This income has mainly come about as a result of the growing reputation of India as a quality place to outsource animation work to. Some of the films that will be made during the coming years include Walt Disney's Zokkomon and Krayon Pictures' Delhi Safari. the growth of the industry means that the time is perhaps the ripest it has been in recent years for students interested in dabbling with the virtual world. the Harry Potter series.that is expected to grow by about 36 per cent in the next four years. we are now witnessing several Desi production houses evince interest in making such films.

It is a creatively fulfilling industry. The animation industry is like any other industry.Professionals feel that the Government has to form a body like the UGC (University Grants Commission) to standardize animation courses in the country like the US . it will reap rich dividends. It will also help provide the Indian animation industry that needs about 25.000 and 3 lakhs based on the duration of the course and any possible affiliations that the institute may have with foreign universities. a job here is easy to find.000 skilled employees in the coming year to get only the best skilled candidates. Courses in this industry can cost anywhere between 10. if one is prepared to spend time and gather experience. Professionals from the field also suggest that a student interested in making a career in this industry take up courses in animation or game development after finishing Class 12. As long as a candidate is genuinely interested. 78 . Opportunities for students are abundant in the industry as things are definitely looking upbeat. this is because a number of small time institutes are coming into existence in order to take advantage of the growing demand of this field. The animation industry may not seem too accommodating initially. willing to learn continually and have a desire to contribute creatively.

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