You are on page 1of 36

Part 2: Approaches to learning and teaching in the mainstream classroom

Guidance Curriculum and Standards
Promoting inclusion and tackling underperformance

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN

Guidance for SENCOs, school strategy managers and inclusion managers
Status: Recommended Date of issue: 01-2005 Ref: DfES 0105-2005 G

Disclaimer The Department for Education and SkilIs wishes to make clear that the Department and its agents accept no responsibility for the actual content of any materials suggested as information sources in this document, whether these are in the form of printed publications or on a website. In these materials icons, logos, software products and websites are used for contextual and practical reasons. Their use should not be interpreted as an endorsement of particular companies or their products. The websites referred to in these materials existed at the time of going to print. Tutors should check all website references carefully to see if they have changed and substitute other references where appropriate.

Promoting inclusion and tackling underperformance

Part 2: Approaches to learning and teaching in the mainstream classroom

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN
The materials and how you might use them
These materials are designed to maximise the attainment of the growing number of pupils with special educational needs and disability within mainstream secondary schools who are working within national expectations but currently under-attaining. However, the guidance will also help you to reflect on the progress of all pupils in your school identified as having SEN. The materials are intended to help SENCOs align their work with other learning and teaching initiatives from the Strategy aimed at raising attainment for all pupils across the school. They aim to ensure that SENCOs are fully conversant with the Strategy’s approaches to learning and teaching as part of whole-school improvement. The SENCO is in a key position to identify the barriers to progress and challenges faced by identified pupils and to guide the work of departments in addressing these. Overall, the guidance consists of a file containing three booklets, a CD-ROM and a key messages leaflet. Part 1: Using data: target setting and target getting Part 2: Approaches to learning and teaching in the mainstream classroom Part 3: Managing the learning process for pupils with SEN

How to use these materials
Although these are guidance materials, you may wish to adapt them for training purposes or as PowerPoint slides or handouts for CPD. Tasks and reflection boxes can also be adapted to create activities for training purposes. Some of the key aspects of the three parts of the guidance will be available in the CD-ROM accompanying the final pack of materials. You might choose to work with the materials in the following ways. Within the LEA • The three booklets could provide material for the equivalent of a whole day’s training for SENCOs that could be jointly delivered within LEAs by SEN advisers, consultants and/or strategy managers. This would ensure consistency of messages about approaches to teaching and learning and raising attainment across the school. • All or part of the materials can be used for governors with responsibility for pupils with SEN. Governors will be better able to consider possible underperformance, value for money and the need for higher expectations for many pupils with SEN.


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Alternatively, the LEA SEN adviser and consultants may choose to work with a group of school SENCOs across a number of meetings if that best suits local circumstances. ASTs (advanced skills teachers) might also be involved. This would allow colleagues to establish and follow up the activities between sessions in their own schools and would provide powerful opportunities to share good practice.

Within a school cluster • The materials might be used by SENCOs and inclusion managers for a series of separate twilight sessions for a cluster of schools where subject leaders, SENCOs and inclusion managers are focusing on underperforming pupils, for example, a LIG collaborative.

Within your school • The three booklets could contribute to a whole-school Inset day where inclusion issues, targeting intervention or raising the attainment of particular groups of pupils are a major feature. SENCOs could share in using the materials, together with the school strategy manager and/or inclusion manager, to provide training for their colleagues across the school community. Each booklet would provide material for a session lasting approximately 75 minutes so that the materials could be used to provide three separate twilight sessions. The materials could be used by the SENCO with an SEN faculty or department as part of auditing, action planning and CPD.

NB: Although the materials are designed for SENCOs in mainstream secondary schools, you may wish to invite and involve key staff from local special schools and LEA services who will have a specific contribution to make to discussion. This would work particularly well when schools or units are working together to include pupils.


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Part 2: Approaches to learning and teaching in the mainstream classroom
Introduction 1 2 3 Approaches to learning and teaching Making best use of additional support within the classroom Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons 3 5 21 25

Introduction and rationale
‘Effective teaching for children with SEN shares most of the characteristics of effective learning for all children. But as schools become more inclusive, so teachers must be able to respond to a wider range of needs in the classroom.’ DfES Removing Barriers to Achievement 2004

One of the major barriers to achievement for pupils with SEN or a disability is being rendered dependent on adults to help them learn. Many pupils with cognitive and learning difficulties lack self-confidence. This results in an over-reliance on an adult to support them with their work. SENCOs should be alert to this because there is a significant risk of ‘learned helplessness’. Pupils need opportunities to apply their skills, working collaboratively with other pupils and independently. The development of these skills is likely to be a significant contribution to their future success. To become increasingly independent learners, pupils with SEN will need: • • • • • • independent tasks that have been clearly explained and modelled for them; clear guidelines and well-defined parameters; time limits and updates; prompts, both verbal and visual; scaffolded support in pairs or small groups; adult guidance to try out learning with collaborative support before having a go on their own.

Scaffolds are structures that guide and support thinking. They focus on and prompt for one idea at a time, thus reducing demands on the pupil’s working memory. They are intended to give temporary support for pupils as they progress to working independently over time. All pupils need to access a sequence that moves them from dependence on the teacher, through modelled, shared and guided group activities to a point where they are sufficiently skilled and confident to work independently on their own. The Strategy promotes teaching that represents that move from dependence on the teacher to independent application in the following way.
3 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale © Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

From dependence to independence: key principles
Components Starter Key principles This will usually introduce the lesson though a contextualising activity and/or some activity to activate or check on previous learning. It may also support pupils to revise and rehearse aspects of skills required for the specific text and task planned. This is useful to demonstrate a new aspect or revise something that all pupils have yet to master. The key point is that the teacher, as ‘expert’, does the modelling, explaining why choices are made aloud to pupils. In this way the thinking and decisions behind the work become explicit. The level of challenge here can be high because of the explanations that accompany the ‘doing’. This is useful when pupils need to be taught or reminded of something they do not fully grasp. Pupils are invited to contribute to shared work which allows for a differentiated approach through targeted questioning appropriate to need. Questions need to be planned and shared work is an ideal opportunity to pursue why, tell me more about … and how do you know questions that make the thinking and learning clear to all. Pupils are required to explain their reasoning just as the teacher has done during the modelled session. Talk partners are one way of allowing pupils to rehearse their ideas before offering them to the wider audience. This is an essential element in addressing individual needs in a small group context. Objectives can be adapted from those being addressed by the rest of the class. Guided sessions are an ideal way to personalise learning and can be used to catch pupils up or to push them on. Groupings are not permanent as pupils will be grouped according to a particular curricular learning need, not ability. The additional attention from a teacher in a small group is overwhelmingly popular with pupils.


Shared work

Guided work

Independent work This is useful when a task (linked to the lesson objectives) has sufficient challenge to reinforce or provide the next step, unsupported. Pupils can also work in pairs or groups on the task and may be supported by reference to prompts or ‘scaffolds’ (independent means without teacher/adult support, not just pupils working alone). Plenary This is useful at various stages throughout the episodes of a lesson as a means of allowing pupils to review progress and reflect on their learning. The final plenary is used to find out what next steps in teaching are required for the whole class and for individuals and groups within it. Like the shared session, the plenary provides an opportunity to assess specific pupils through their feedback and response to questions. This helps the teacher to decide who might benefit from some specific guided work in future lessons. It also gives pupils greater clarity about the next steps in their learning.

• • How much evidence do you see of the use of the principles outlined above in lessons in your school? To what extent are pupils with SEN or disability helped to work independently through a process with features similar to those described here?


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

1 Approaches to learning and teaching
Whole-class interactive teaching has been identified by researchers as being most effective in raising learning attainment. At classroom level the characteristics of effective teachers include: • • • • • • • • taking responsibility for ordering activities during the lesson for pupils (structuring the learning and teaching); giving pupils some responsibility for their work and independence during lessons; maintaining a high level of interaction with the whole class; providing ample, challenging work; maintaining very high levels of pupil involvement in tasks; creating a positive atmosphere in the classroom; giving high levels of realistic praise and encouragement; using a variety of approaches, strategies and techniques to engage pupils.

What do good inclusive teachers do?
Inclusive teachers believe that all pupils in all classes have an entitlement to effective teaching that raises their learning attainment. They plan lessons carefully so that all pupils: • • • are able to participate; can access the key learning at their own level; take some new learning away with them.

In successful lessons, pupils are made aware of: • • • • what is to be learned; how this fits in with what they already know; what the next steps in their learning will be; where the learning is going over time.

During lessons, inclusive teachers: • • • secure quality access to the key points of the learning for all; scaffold the involvement of pupils; hold all pupils into key learning.


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

• • • How successfully do you feel pupils with SEN are included in the learning at your school in the ways listed above? Is one department more successful than others? Think of one subject colleague who is particularly successful in including and engaging pupils with SEN. What are the key features of the planning, teaching and assessment that facilitate this?

In order to achieve this level of inclusion within subject classes, teachers need to consider the design of their lessons in meeting the individual needs of the learners within it.

Designing lessons
Teachers have responsibility for designing learning so that all pupils, including those with SEN:
See Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and learning in secondary schools Unit 1 (DfES 0424-2004 G).

• • •

are clear what they will be learning, what they will need to do and what the criteria are for knowing when they have acheived this; have relevant personal targets which they own and are working towards in the lesson; have links made to learning elsewhere in the curriculum or in intervention groups, helping pupils to transfer their knowledge and understanding in different contexts; are actively involved and engaged in the lesson, lesson starters and introductory activities that are fun, create links with prior knowledge and understanding and relate new learning to the ‘big picture’ in a range of strategies used in different episodes across lessons which promote a feeling of success; have their learning personalised through scaffolding and structured prompts so that they can access key learning at their own level; have frequent opportunities for purposeful interaction, ‘talk for learning’, through use of talk partners or structured small group tasks with supportive peers where pupils are encouraged to ask questions to clarify understanding; reflect openly together with others during lesson plenaries on what they have learned and how this fits with what is coming next; are able to succeed at their own level.

• •

• •

Clearly, identification of pupils’ needs will support the effective design of lessons to personalise the learning and ensure progress for pupils with SEN. SENCOs can help teachers with specific information about individual pupils’ learning needs.


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Considerations for lesson design
Learning objectives and intended outcomes How has the teacher modified these, where necessary, for some pupils?

Lesson design

Pedagogic approaches What teaching models has the teacher selected that meet the needs of pupils with SEN?

Learning and teaching strategies and techniques Has the teacher selected a range of strategies and pedagogic approaches to suit the learning objectives and needs of the pupils?

Conditions for learning – climate for learning and classroom organisation How has the teacher taken these factors into consideration when designing an inclusive lesson?

Holding pupils into learning
Inclusive teachers recognise that pupils learn in different ways, at different speeds and may need to be taught how to learn. SENCOs might support this in the following ways. Before the lesson Set up some pre-teaching You can: • deploy a teaching assistant with a group of pupils to pre-teach a concept, support reading of a text or to discuss key information before it is taught to the whole class in the lesson; set a specific homework task with work to do that will be reinforced in whole-class teaching in the next lesson.

During the lesson Target the support of other adults within the lesson episodes For example, you can: • • • • • develop with a teacher a short-term plan to show what the additional adults are required to do and which pupils they should focus on; include key information to be secured, specific language support via key vocabulary, phrases or sentence structures that support answers; give guidance on which groups to support at specific stages of the lesson; share assessment criteria for particular learning outcomes that relate to pupils’ targets; ensure that TAs reinforce and build on key learning and skills in other lessons.


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Set clear expectations and learning outcomes for individual pupils For example, you can: • ask teachers to refer explicitly to learning objectives at key moments through the use of mini-plenaries so that pupils are regularly reminded of the purpose and point of what they are doing; ensure that learning objectives are visible in the classroom for reference; ask teachers to support pupils to think and talk about how they are learning, not just what they are learning.

• •

Actively engage all pupils For example, you can: • remind teachers to set the context for each lesson’s learning within the ‘big picture’ of the whole scheme of work (this could be represented as a visual map on the wall or interactive whiteboard); ensure resources and materials enable pupils to join in at their level of challenge (rather than work that keeps them busy but is unchallenging); provide modified tasks; ensure that additional adults provide support by scaffolding learning so that pupils can complete tasks, for example, writing, thinking or speaking frames, sentence starters or prompt cards that remind pupils of what to do if unsure.

• • •

Use specific strategies and techniques For example, you can: • • • • suggest talk partners or classroom ‘buddies’; help teachers to pitch questions appropriately using Bloom’s taxonomy to promote thinking; suggest varying activities so that pupils are able to work in their preferred learning styles; consider where and how pupils with SEN should be grouped and seated for specific learning purposes.

After the lesson You can: • provide opportunities for over-learning. Some pupils will need to repeat or secure the learning they received in the lesson. This can be done through notes in pupils’ diaries, homework clubs and/or extra classes.

Task 1

Holding pupils into learning
Observe one or two lessons for a lower-attaining pupil with SEN whose progress in a core subject is slower than expected and who is currently under-performing. Discuss with the teacher and subject leader the features that you feel could help ‘hold the pupil into the learning’.


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

See Pedagogy and Practice Key messages (DfES 0125-2003).

Structuring learning
Although not all pupils with SEN or disabilities are low-attaining, some pupils with SEN will be among the group of low-attaining pupils who may benefit from lessons that are structured into a number of shorter episodes. Each of these episodes will need distinct outcomes shared with the pupils and may require a mini-plenary. Teachers will need to deploy a range of different pedagogic approaches and teaching strategies that address the type of objective and match the maturity of the pupils in order to meet learning needs. Suited to learning objectives concerned with: acquiring knowledge, concepts and understanding (know that, understand why or how), e.g. inductive thinking, concept attainment, scientific enquiry and cognitive growth. developing creativity, personal growth (explore, refine strategies to), exploring attitudes, values and perspectives on problems and complex issues (develop, be aware of), e.g. role-play, group investigation and social enquiry. acquiring new skills, learning procedures, applying ideas and developing knowledge (be able to, how to), e.g. direct teaching, mastery learning, social learning and simulation.

Pedagogic approach Information processing


Changing behaviours

Constructing learning sequences – scaffolding the learning
Learning objectives for pupils with SEN must be both age appropriate and conceptually relevant. SENCOs might support the learning design by considering the objectives relevant to the year group and subject and then tracking back the concept to an earlier level that will be appropriate for the pupil while ensuring that the context remains relevant to secondary-aged pupils and their interests. For English and mathematics, the Primary National Strategy Frameworks will help with this process. There is some divergence in research evidence about the most effective ways to teach pupils who make slower progress. One body of evidence describes impact from direct and structured learning, broken down into small sections that need careful teaching, practice and feedback. This does support many learners but it can risk assumptions about hierarchy in learning that may not be relevant to the different ways in which individual pupils learn. Pupils find it hard to transfer and generalise their learning to other contexts beyond the one in which the learning took place. Other research suggests approaches that aim to transform the learning so that pupils are able to make connections. Pupils need to know that not all learning is linear or predictable. They need to be able to understand relationships, similarity and difference. When learning is layered into smaller manageable objectives, many pupils with SEN need support to make part or whole relationships explicit in order to sustain meaning.


l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Sometimes pupils will need to be helped to ‘unlearn’ where misconceptions are blocking progress. This can be done through modelling by the teacher that makes explicit the thinking, mind-changing, selecting and rejecting, and decision-making that is part of the complexity of learning.

Lifting performance
Lower-attaining pupils benefit particularly by being shown what they are aiming for as it is easier, then, to see where the steps in learning link with other work as part of a ‘big picture’. Level descriptors within the National Curriculum (and GCSE grade criteria) match with an expected increase in pupils’ ability to move from basic description to higher levels of thinking. Bloom’s taxonomy describes a hierarchy of thinking levels similar to the one below, which is derived from it. It can be used to support planning and teachers’ use of questioning to develop the skills of pupils with SEN. What pupils need to do define, recall, describe, label, identify, match Links to thinking Pupils are more likely to retain information if it is needed for a task or linked to other relevant information. Do your questions in this area allow pupils to link aspects of knowledge necessary for the task? Comprehension questions require pupils to process the knowledge they already have in order to give answers. They demand a higher level of thinking and information processing than above. Questions in this area require pupils to use their existing knowledge and understanding to make sense of a new context. They demand more complex thinking. Pupils are more likely to be able to apply knowledge to a new context if it is not too different and if the teacher helps them to make the links. These questions require pupils to break down what they know and re-assemble it to help them solve a new problem. They are linked to more abstract, conceptual thought which is central to the process of enquiry. Synthesis questions demand that pupils select from and combine available knowledge to respond to unfamiliar situations or to solve new problems. There is likely to be great diversity in pupils’ responses. Pupils are expected to use their knowledge to form judgements and defend the positions they take up. These questions demand very complex thinking and reasoning.

See Unit 7 ‘Questioning’ in Teaching and learning in secondary schools (DfES 0430-2004 G).

Cognitive objective Knowledge

Comprehension explain, translate, illustrate, summarise, extend


apply to a new context, demonstrate, predict, employ, solve, use


analyse, infer, relate, support, break down, differentiate, explore


design, create, compose, reorganise, combine


assess, evaluate, appraise, defend, justify

10 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Task 2

Planning sequences of questioning to lift performance
Work with a colleague on planning a teaching episode which exploits a range of questioning and prompts to lift the performance of a pupil with SEN within one subject class. Use the grid on the previous page to structure your questions.

Task 3

Structuring the learning – putting it all together
Using the grid below, help plan and then observe a lesson that includes one or more pupils with SEN (it may be useful to focus on a lesson where you support or co-teach on a regular basis).

Lesson title Objectives and learning outcomes • What learning objectives do you plan to meet and what specific learning outcomes are you looking for?


Developing skills • How will you plan to develop literacy and numeracy and to support recall?

Questioning • How will questioning be used to support and extend pupils’ thinking?

Assessment • How will you plan to provide pupils with feedback about what they need to do to improve and how can you involve pupils in self- and peer-assessment?

Vocabulary • How will you introduce key words?

Resources • What is needed for this lesson to help support pupils in working independently when appropriate?

Episode 1: starter • What will this include: will it focus on literacy or numeracy?

Episode 2: introduction • How will you share your objectives and learning outcomes with pupils?

Further episodes • How will you plan to revisit key learning and how will you divide activities across the remaining episodes?

Final episode: plenary • How will you involve pupils in assessing and understanding what they have learned? What strategies do you need to consider to review learning with the pupils with SEN to aid recall and to help them transfer their learning into new contexts?

11 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Learning styles: helping to remove barriers to learning
A potential barrier to learning can arise from the mismatch between pupils’ preferred learning styles and the learning opportunities presented to them within classrooms. Many teachers feel frustrated by pupils who fail to engage, make little progress or appear to opt out, or by other pupils who becomes restless and disruptive in their lessons, particularly when other teachers report the same pupils to be ‘well motivated’ in their lessons. Through an understanding of learning styles, teachers can exploit and work to pupils’ strengths and build the capacity to learn. However, it is important that pupils work towards developing a range of approaches and are trained in the ground rules of each learning style, as advanced learners need to select from and employ a full range of approaches to different types of learning. To accommodate the preferred learning styles of pupils with SEN, teachers need support from the SENCO to: • • • • • have a clear understanding of what these are; know how to create a match between the nature of the learning and the learning style of the pupil; provide learning opportunities on a regular basis that address the full range of learning styles within the class; take account of pupils who have one main style, ensure that they can access the learning but encourage them to develop learning within other styles; provide some degree of choice of activity.

• • How much do you know about the preferred learning styles of the pupils with SEN for whom you are responsible? How could you find out more and how might you share this information with subject leaders and other colleagues?

12 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Task 4

Enhancing learning
What practical advice can a SENCO give so that teachers can enhance learning and overcome barriers to learning? Add three of your pupils with SEN to the following chart. Discuss possible solutions with colleagues.

Pupil’s learning need as identified

Possible solutions Advice from SENCO Subject teacher, in lessons Card sorts, sequencing, interactive whiteboard. Changes of activity and timer. Remind and ensure that Sam is aware of his short-term targets. Use prompts for key points and ask Satinder to draw and develop his own memory maps and to talk them through with a partner or TA. Involving Satinder in physical tasks may also help prompt his memory. Check classroom acoustics and position as you talk to/work with the class – use computer or OHP facing the class. Give Shofi a clear and active role during group work.

Sam is able, but has great difficulty in sitting still and concentrating. Satinder has great difficulty in remembering, retaining and recalling information.

Increase kinaesthetic learning activities. Consider length, activity and organisation of pupils of each lesson episode. Devise a visual concept map showing links as the topic builds up and refer to it to aid recall in each lesson.

Shofi has impaired hearing.

Ensure that he is seated so that he is able to hear and see your face during whole-class teaching. Ensure that he is included in groupwork and fully engaged in activity. Ensure that you follow advice from the teacher of hearing impaired.

13 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Assessment for learning: a whole-school approach
Many schools have chosen to develop areas of their work on assessment for learning as part of their whole-school improvement. When assessment for learning is well-established in a classroom, pupils are: • • • actively involved in their own learning; able to judge the success of their work and understand targets for improvement; able to take responsibility for their own progress.

If AfL is not a strong feature of classroom practice, pupils are less likely to develop the skills necessary to take charge of their own learning. If pupils do not readily talk about their learning and rarely take responsibility for their own progress, this can lead to disengagement with the learning process and sometimes to poor behaviour and low-level disruption in class.

Assessment for learning: a definition
‘The process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.’ from AFL Whole-school training materials (DfES 0043-2004)

The ten principles that underpin assessment for learning dictate that it: • • • •
See Assessment for Learning (AfL) folder ‘Whole-school training materials’ (DfES 0043-2004).

is part of effective planning; focuses on how pupils learn; is central to classroom practice; is a key professional skill; is sensitive and constructive; fosters motivation; promotes understanding of goals and criteria; helps learners know how to improve; develops the capacity for self- and peer-assessment; recognises all educational achievement. The Assessment Reform Group 2002

• • • • • •

14 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Strategies to support assessment for learning
Key characteristics of assessment for learning Sharing learning objectives with pupils Teaching strategies supportive to pupils, including those with SEN • • • Helping pupils know and recognise the standards for which they are aiming • • • • • • Involving pupils in peerand self-assessment • Share learning objectives at the beginning of lessons and at various points throughout, in language that the pupils understand. Use the objectives as the basis for targeted questioning during the lesson and in plenaries. Relate the learning to the ‘big picture’ of the topic. Show pupils work that has met criteria and explain why. Model what the work should look and sound like. Explain what you are looking for using clear success criteria and relate this to the learning objectives. Ensure that there are clear expectations about the pupils’ presentation of work. Provide displays that show ‘work in progress’ as well as finished pieces. Have prompts for success criteria on posters or in the back of books e.g. ‘to get a level 5 I need to …’. Give pupils opportunities to talk about what they have learned and what they have found difficult with reference to the learning objectives. Encourage pupils to discuss their work together focusing on how to improve. Ask pupils to explain their thinking and reasoning. Give time for pupils to reflect on their learning together. Give value via positive and specific oral feedback. In marking, relate to the success criteria: identify what the pupil has done well, what needs to be done to improve it and how this should be done. Identify next steps in learning. To boost confidence, identify the small steps so that pupils can see their progress for themselves. Develop an ethos of support and encouragement among the class. Reflect with pupils on their work and the learning processes involved. Reward efforts to contribute and think about what learning has been gained in the lesson.

• • • Providing feedback that leads pupils to recognise their next steps and how to take them • •

• Promoting confidence that every pupil can improve • • • •

Involving both teacher and pupil in reviewing and reflecting on assessment information

15 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Task 5

Classroom strategies for AfL
Identify two pupils with SEN whom you know well and highlight two or three strategies you would emphasise or add to those suggested on page 15. Select those that you feel would make a significant difference to the success of the pupils’ learning. In which lessons might this have a particularly powerful effect?

If your school is developing AfL as a whole-school commitment, reflect on how this is supporting the learning of pupils with SEN.

The importance of oral feedback: a learning dialogue
Oral feedback, offered both formally and informally, is particularly crucial to building the self-esteem of learners with SEN and those with a disability. Pupils need to know that they are partners in their own learning and jointly responsible for their own achievements. Oral feedback is likely to be the most regular and interactive form of feedback that pupils experience in the secondary classroom. The quality of teachers’ responses to pupils at various points in the teaching and learning can be a powerful force in motivating and moving pupils on. Engaging in a learning dialogue with pupils with SEN will enable teachers and the SENCO to improve learning and teaching because of the additional information they stand to gain about: • • • • • the attitudinal, environmental or learning barriers met by the pupil in lessons across the curriculum; what the pupils feel helps or hinders their access to learning; pupils’ views of their own learning strengths and weakness; gaps in knowledge, misconceptions and misunderstandings; pupils’ ownership and understanding of their learning targets.

The following chart shows some of the advantages and possible pitfalls to be avoided. Pupils with SEN and disability may be particularly susceptible to comments from a teacher about their difficulties as these give strong messages that can impact on self-esteem. Creating a learning culture where public comments to the whole-class focus on the necessity of mistakes and challenge as a vital part of new learning will allow all pupils to admit difficulties.

16 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Advantages of oral feedback Immediate and specific to context – teachers are able to deal with misconceptions as they occur Allows for an exchange of ideas and encourages independent thinking. ‘Why might we not agree with what Sam says?’ Ongoing and continuous part of lesson Planned plenary moments can structure learning and refer to, or reflect on, objectives

But (possible difficulties and pitfalls) Teachers must consider what they say carefully and note its effect on individual pupils Pupils may not take oral feedback seriously, may not listen or act on it Unplanned responses may be random Talk is ephemeral and may not be valued as an indicator of successful learning Some pupils may not be able to internalise or retain oral feedback

Can encourage, stimulate and enthuse Can be personalised with gesture and facial expression to enhance feedback Motivating to pupils

Some pupils may feel exposed and react negatively to public feedback Certain individuals can dominate talk and feedback – some pupils may need more supported ’thinking time’ Fast-paced feedback is not suited to all pupils Time for individual feedback within lessons is limited

The most constructive and helpful oral feedback is that which is both positive and specific so that pupils feel affirmed and are also clear about what is a positive step in their learning. Pupils with SEN may need a more regular personalised learning dialogue with an academic mentor, tutor or learning support assistant to help them keep on track. The impact and value for pupils of the ‘significant other’ adult cannot be overestimated.

Task 6

Giving specific and positive oral feedback
You can use the grid below to give further examples of feedback that might help or hinder the learning of one of your pupils.

Specific and POSITIVE For example, ‘Excellent, you used exactly the same measure to test both circuits.’

Specific and NEGATIVE For example, ‘I don’t think you have done that calculation correctly.’

Non-specific and POSITIVE For example, ‘Well done, but can you develop it further?’

Non-specific and NEGATIVE For example, ‘You are not making the most of this opportunity.’

17 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

• • How can you support teachers in understanding the impact of positive and specific oral feedback on the self-esteem of learners with SEN? What suggestions might you have for those teachers working with pupils who find it difficult to cope with positive comments?

Written feedback
By far the most frequently used method of monitoring progress towards targets is through marking pupils’ work. Written tasks, alongside oral questioning and opportunities for reflection and feedback, should encourage most pupils to develop and show understanding of what they have learned. Teachers may need to consider alternative methods for pupils to show what they know in some cases. Written feedback should focus on the learning objectives and the planned learning outcomes so that the criteria by which the work will be marked are transparent and the purpose shared with pupils and parents. It is crucial that pupils understand these expectations. Teachers can use: WALT: ‘We are learning to …’ WILF: ‘What I’m looking for …’ TIBs: ‘This is because …’ to help pupils organise their thinking in order to develop this understanding of the focus for learning within the lesson. Written feedback should identify what has been done well and what still needs improvement, through an indication to pupils of what the next steps towards the target might be. Opportunities should be planned for pupils to respond and to follow up comments as part of the overall learning process. ‘Next steps’ for some pupils will need to be supported through careful scaffolding and guided teaching. Requiring pupils to think for themselves in response to comments and encouraging opportunities for peer and self-assessment in marking to set, clear and agreed criteria will encourage critical self-reflection and greater independence.

Peer and self-assessment
There are many practical strategies tried and tested by teachers to promote the development of peer and self-assessment. However, pupils with SEN do not always have their voice heard. Their views are not always considered or developed as effectively as they might be to enhance learning independence. Teachers, pupils and parents all need to believe that the process of self-assessment can support learning. It is important that pupils are not left to their own devices and that the techniques are guided and modelled by teachers. Self-assessment will need to be developed with pupils over time and works best within a commitment to develop a consistent and systematic whole-school approach.

18 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

It has been found to be most effective when: • • pupils are made aware of the learning objectives and expected learning outcomes that are then reflected upon and reviewed within the lesson; pupils are central in the process of identifying what they have achieved and what they could improve.

Techniques could include: • showing pupils how assessment criteria have been met in examples, from anonymous pupils, through text marking and annotation on OHTs or a whiteboard; asking pupils to review another example against set criteria in pairs; following class work, providing pupils with a model answer and asking them to assess themselves against it.

• •

Pupils with SEN may need help in identifying gaps in their performance. This requires the development of an open classroom ethos so that pupils can admit to worries about their work, rather than develop avoidance strategies to mask it. Here are some examples of classroom strategies that promote the development of self-assessment which can be used to support pupils with SEN. Traffic lights Pupils can indicate directly on their work (with coloured pens or stickers) the extent to which they feel they have achieved the learning objective of the task and how secure they feel with their learning. • • • Green – achieved, confident Amber – some progress, elements of progress, some uncertainty Red – not achieved, confused

Thumbs up This is a quick strategy for gauging pupil response. Pupils hold their thumbs to indicate their perception of achievement and understanding. • • • up (‘great’; ‘got it’; ‘doing well’) sideways (‘think I’m OK’; ‘not sure’; ‘think I’ve got it’; ‘might need checking’) down (‘struggling with this’; ‘unclear’; ‘need help’)

Generic prompts for self-assessment This helps to develop pupils’ skill in regularly reviewing their own work and that of others. Teachers can display and use the prompt questions below. • • What areas of your work do you think could be improved and why? What did you find hardest and where can you get help?

Learning log Pupils are asked to review their own progress in relation to targets. • • • • What we did in (… subject …) this week. What I have found out or learned this week. What do I need to focus on next week (next steps in learning)? What have I done well this week?

For pupils with SEN the learning log might take the form of a diary shared with parents.
19 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching © Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Task 7

Strategies to develop self-assessment
Choose one of the ideas described above and try them out with a pupil with SEN in a class you typically support.

How might aspects of Assessment for learning help pupils with SEN who appear to be ‘learned helpless’ or very dependent on adults for their learning within class?

Reflection: action to improve learning
Reflect on tasks you have done and decide on one action that you intend to take to improve learning for pupils with SEN. Add this into the grid at the back of the booklet.

20 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Approaches to learning and teaching

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

2 Making best use of additional support within the classroom
Using teaching assistants to support pupils’ learning
Teaching assistants have a vital role to play in supporting pupils’ access, engagement and independence in a whole range of lessons. Schools will have arrangements in place to manage the deployment of teaching assistants and to support their CPD. (See Part 3 and the section on Managing additional intervention and support for the role of the SENCO in these materials.) In some schools there are two sorts of teaching assistants, although TAs are being increasingly employed on similar contracts and job descriptions.
For full list of Key Stage 3 interventions see the Intervention toolkit (DfES 0178-2003).

General teaching assistants Teaching assistants are often allocated to subject departments to give general support to teachers and pupils within the subject, for example, in English lessons. These assistants are valued colleagues and usually attend department meetings and training. TAs often also run and teach intervention programmes such as Literacy progress units or Reading challenge both inside and outside the class teaching time.

Learning support assistants LSAs were originally funded to support named pupils either individually (for those pupils who need support to minimise a disability or those with more severe learning needs) or in small groups. Sources of funding came from the SEN budget for support to pupils with learning needs who required ‘additional or different’ intervention. In addition, funding has been available from the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant (EMAG) to support underperforming minority ethnic pupils.

Learning mentors Schools within Excellence in Cities zones have additional support in the form of a number of learning mentors who support pupils with behaviour problems or those who are otherwise disengaged. They are sometimes available to support pupils’ learning within classrooms, although they also have a wider remit in supporting families. Increasingly, schools have worked to pool and manage this support to ensure that all teaching assistants are part of a team to support pupils’ learning as part of a whole-school approach to tackling underperformance. Some schools have appointed Inclusion managers whose responsibility is to draw this support together to tackle underperformance of all identified groups in a range of ways. However, it may be possible that individual assistants or mentors are managed separately by a subject leader, SENCO or EMA coordinator.

21 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 2: Making best use of additional support within the classroom

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Clearly the role of additional adults is more effective when they are involved in the thinking and planning about how individual pupils can be involved and engaged in the lesson. At the very least, the supporting adult will need to know the learning objectives, the expected learning outcome and the task and activities planned for the pupils in the lesson.

Task 8

The deployment of teaching assistants
At your school identify the following and discuss. • • • • • • • Who deploys and manages the team of teaching assistants at your school? Do they have different titles and roles? Do they have different line managers according to their role? Are all of them employed on a similar basis or contract? Do they all work within classrooms with groups of pupils? Do they all contribute to intervention for pupils outside the classroom? Who monitors the impact of their work with individuals or groups of pupils?

Other adults in the classroom
You may be fortunate enough to have a range of adults supporting learning in classrooms in your school and in extra curricular activities. Crucially, the success of any additional support will depend on good communication and working relationships between the following personnel. • • • • • • • • • Senior managers (for example, Inclusion and/or Key Stage 3 Strategy managers) SENCO Subject leaders Class teachers Specialist support teachers Teaching assistants Learning mentors Therapists Subject technicians (as in science, ICT, MFL and/or practical subjects)

Effective additional adult support is: • • • • • aimed at increasing pupils’ inclusion in the learning of the peer group (and should not result in isolating them further); common practice within the class where the teacher and TAs commonly work with a small group of pupils as part of lesson design; discreet so that pupils are not overwhelmed or embarrassed; selective – used at particular times for specific purposes within the lesson, linked to learning and withdrawn for some of the time; focused on maximising pupils’ independence through engaging them and building confidence;

22 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 2: Making best use of additional support within the classroom

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

• •

planned wherever possible – the teacher and additional adult will at least have shared planning or discussed the lesson and their roles beforehand; informed – delivered by adults who understand the pupils’ individual needs, know pupils’ targets, the learning objectives and learning outcomes expected, and how to help the pupils achieve them; skilled – trained adults who have a good understanding of the subject and teaching and learning strategies employed; alert to the class teacher’s agreed ‘ground rules’ (for example, for talk in the classroom); able to contribute towards the assessment for learning of particular pupils through observation and feedback to the teacher and pupil; not about encouraging a dependency culture (as in ‘I’m waiting for my helper’).

• • • •

Roles for additional adults supporting lessons
Additional adults in the classroom are not required to spend the entire lesson ‘glued to the sides’ of identified pupils. In fact, this runs counter to the need to encourage pupils to support each other within the inclusive classroom and to be as independent with their learning as possible. Once acquired, ‘learned helplessness’ is very difficult to overcome and can be a very real handicap. Additional adults have a wider role and range of responsibility and should be viewed by the pupils as equally skilled as the teacher. A skilled teaching assistant will be able to ‘step into a teacher’s shoes’ if a classroom incident requires this. Before the lesson • • Going through the shared text extract in advance of the lesson. Rehearsing skills, sequences, prompts that will be called upon during the lesson.

During the lesson At the front • • • • • Working collaboratively as a ‘double act’ with the teacher. Jointly modelling speaking and listening pair tasks. Scribing on the board or flipchart. Setting timer on interactive whiteboard. Signing.

From the sidelines • • • Using an observation checklist linked to criteria, targets for participation, or assessment of progress. Using visual prompts as reminders of work or behaviour. Note mistakes and misconceptions.

Sitting alongside • • Helping pupils to use equipment, learning resources or visual/tactile aids. Accessing the lesson: checking that provided equipment facilitates the pupils’ learning; scribing on individual whiteboard; rehearsing language; clarifying concepts. Reinforcing teaching concepts and drawing attention to relevant features.

23 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 2: Making best use of additional support within the classroom

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

• • • • •

Checking that pupils have interpreted instructions and are clear about next steps. Encourage participation using questions and prompts suggested by the teacher. Rehearsing answers to ‘think’ or ‘explain’ questions for plenary sessions and supporting pupil or group in feeding back to the rest of the class. Helping make links between skills learned in intervention groups (for example, Learning Challenge) outside the classroom to the learning within it. Reminding pupils of targets and helping them to assess their own work and that of their peers.

In targeted intervention groups, in and out of the lesson • • • • Leading a guided group with a specific focus for a small group of pupils within the lesson. Working on materials to consolidate pupils’ understanding of key skills or points in targeted intervention groups outside the lesson. Helping pupils to relate to and transfer skills and knowledge from one lesson context to another. Coaching pupils in the skills needed for cooperative group work by describing, modelling and praising.

Task 9

Mapping additional support
Map all the additional adults available to support pupils in different ways within your school. Note the following. • • Which classes and subjects do they support on a regular timetabled basis? Which intervention groups do they teach or support outside the classroom?

Map this against the pupils with SEN in classes and in intervention groups in the school. Does a coherent picture emerge?

Reflect on tasks you have done and consider one action that you intend to take to enhance the support given by additional adults in mainstream classrooms. Add this into the grid at the back of this booklet.

24 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 2: Making best use of additional support within the classroom

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

3 Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons
A recent scoping study reviewed the national and international research literature for effective teaching strategies and approaches under the four areas of need outlined in the 2001 SEN Code of Practice. • • • • Communication and interaction Cognition and learning Behavioural, emotional and social development Sensory and/or physical

While there is far less research evidence for pupils at secondary stage compared with primary, the key findings suggested that a combination of strategies produces more powerful effects than a single strategy. There was considerable overlap between the area of need, teaching approach and strategy and a growing awareness that a combination of approaches was more effective than a belief that one model of learning justifies a single model of teaching. The majority of pupils with SEN benefit from mainstream education if they also have the additional support of targeted intervention. All pupils need opportunities to work with others in small and large groups. All pupils also need to develop the skills of working independently and these skills become increasingly important to future success as pupils move up the school. Collaborative working is known to enhance achievement because working and talking with others as they work encourages higher-level thinking as it encourages pupils to ‘think aloud’ about their own learning. There is clear evidence that lower-attaining pupils learn more effectively in mixed-ability settings because working together develops communication skills and social skills such as adaptability, tolerance, and turn-taking. However, many pupils (and not just those with SEN) need support to develop these skills through establishing group ‘ground rules’ and through modelling and guidance from the teacher. It is desirable that most learning for pupils with SEN and those with a disability takes place in the social context of the mainstream classroom. Whether or not to withdraw pupils from the classroom environment can be the cause of controversy and debate. This is particularly the case at secondary level where teaching timetables and subject schemes of work or exam syllabuses are a major organisational factor. Pupils, teachers and parents may have views on ‘entitlement’ that will need to be considered. However, there are times when the learning needs of pupils demand a different learning environment. Both withdrawal and in-class support have learning and organisational advantages and disadvantages. In a small-group context outside the classroom, there is some evidence that pupils are able to concentrate more effectively, cover more ground and make good progress. Within-class support allows more opportunities for learning to be reinforced as it is less detached from the curriculum.

25 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 3: Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Targeted support in order to improve the attainment of a range of pupils’ learning needs should be provided through your school’s intervention plan. This should integrate and include provision for all groups of under-performing pupils within the school and it is likely that this will include gifted and talented pupils, those learning English as an additional language, mobile or minority ethnic pupils, groups of under-attaining boys (or girls) as well as those with SEN. The provision and scale of intervention provision will vary from school to school according to the pupil population. A wide variety of materials to support pupils is currently available in schools.

The intervention toolkit
Target group Summer schools Pupils needing to accelerate their progress from level 3 to level 4 at the start of Year 7 (or later in Key Stage 3) Brief description Summer schools provide a substantial sequence of sessions giving continuous support in literacy and/or numeracy for targeted pupils. They introduce pupils to their new school and accelerate their progress from level 3 to level 4. The purpose of this guidance is to help schools consider what more they can do to ensure curriculum continuity between the primary and secondary curriculum, so that pupils new to secondary schools get off to a flying start. Six units: Spelling (0475/2001); Phonics (0477/2001); Writing organisation (0473/2001); Information retrieval (0474/2001); Reading between the lines (0476/2001); Sentences (0066-2003). The units are designed for use with small groups of six to seven pupils as an intensive short-term programme. Level 2 foundation units: Phonics (available on Key Stage 3 website); Handwriting and presentation (DfES 0223-2004); Running reading records (available on Key Stage 3 website). These foundation units are aimed at those pupils working within level 2 on entry to Year 7. They provide progression into the Literacy progress units or may be combined with them. Fifteen units of work arranged in topics which are designed to be used in the autumn and spring terms. Not all pupils will need to experience all the units. They may be used for whole-class teaching or with small groups. Three units of 12 lessons: Preparing for the progress tests; Narrative writing; Reading for meaning and information. These units add to but do not replace the Literacy progress units. The lessons are planned and resourced so they may be taught to whole classes. Units of level 3 to 4 lessons and 12 consolidation lessons. The lessons may be used for whole-class teaching or with small groups. The consolidation lessons may be used during the year as a key lesson at the end of a topic or for revision. A flexible scheme based on one-to-one coaching of pupils. Materials consist of: information for school organisers; support pack for coaches; photocopiable resources and video showing the programme in operation. Resources Making links: guidance for summer schools and Year 7 support programme (DfES 0244-2002). Curriculum continuity (DfES 0116-2004 G).

Curriculum continuity

Year 7 pupils

Literacy progress units

Year 7 pupils at level 3 and needing to make swift progress to level 4

Key Stage 3 Literacy progress units Level 2 foundation units

Springboard 7 Year 7 pupils at level 3 and needing to make swift progress to level 4 in mathematics Critical teaching units in English Critical teaching units in mathematics Reading Challenge Year 7 pupils at level 3 and needing to make swift progress to level 4 English

Springboard 7 (DfES 0049-2001).

Targeting level 4 in Year 7: English (DfES 0103-2003, 0104-2003, 0105-2003). Targeting level 4 in Year 7: mathematics (DfES 0085-2003, 0142-2003, 0291-2003). Reading Challenge: Handbook for school organisers (DfES 0293-2003).

Year 7 pupils at level 3 and needing to make swift progress to level 4 mathematics Weak level 3 readers in Year 7 and level 3 or 4 readers in Year 8

26 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 3: Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Target group Writing Challenge Weak level 3 writers in Year 7 and level 3 or 4 writers in Year 8

Brief description A flexible scheme based on one-to-one coaching of pupils. Materials consist of: information for school organisers; support pack for coaches; photocopiable resources; and video showing the programme in operation. A flexible scheme which is based on one-to-one coaching of pupils. Materials consist of: support for diagnosing difficulties, coaching units, support for coaches and those managing the programme. Focused support for individual pupils based on one-to-one coaching. Five topics: organising yourself; working on your own; working with others; homework and working in different subjects. A set of 10-minute class activities to focus on the key scientific ideas. The suite includes loop games, dominoes, sentence and explanation builders, short, focused teaching sequences, four mini-booster lessons and teacher’s notes. The materials can be used at any time and with whole classes or small groups. Booster kits for English, mathematics and science consist of advice on organisation, booster lesson plans and resources, leaflets for pupils and parents.

Resources Writing Challenge: Handbook for school organisers (DfES 0314-2003). Mathematics Challenge: Handbook for school organiser (DfES 0200-2003). The Learning Challenge (DfES 0393-2003). Science intervention materials (DfES 0077-2004).

Mathematics Challenge

Weak level 3 pupils in Year 7

Learning Challenge

Pupils needing to accelerate their progress, particularly those with poor learning, thinking and study skills Year 8 and 9 pupils needing to move from level 4 to level 5

Science intervention

Year 9 booster lessons

Year 9 pupils needing additional support to help them achieve levels 5 and 6 in Year 9 national tests

Year 9 booster kits: English, mathematics and science (DfES 0712-2002; 0015-2002; 0017-2002).

Academic or learning mentors

Any under-achieving pupils

Mentors provide one-to-one support for underachieving pupils. Mentoring is academic rather than pastoral. It may involve: reviewing performance and setting targets; discussion, tuition and coaching support; coordination of support. A range of guidance materials can be found at ‘learning mentors’ in the School Improvement and Excellence section of the Standards Site ( sie/eic/eiclearningmentors/Guidance/). Access and engagement is a set of subject-specific booklets designed for subject teachers when working with pupils learning EAL. Grammar for writing: supporting pupils learning EAL is designed to be used by EMA teachers and/or English teachers with guided groups of pupils to support them in writing more formally. Access and engagement at Key Stage 3 (DfES 0645-2002). Grammar for writing: supporting pupils learning EAL (DfES 0581-2002).

Access and engagement and Grammar for writing

Pupils learning English as an additional language. Year 7 and 8 pupils working at levels 3 and 4 who need additional support with academic English

27 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 3: Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Targeted intervention and making the links
What we expect pupils with SEN to learn depends on the key learning objectives for individual lessons within the curriculum for each year group, as well as the medium-term objectives set out in their targets within curricular areas or in individual education plans (IEPs). Any targeted intervention provided outside the classroom must focus on teaching and reinforcing the skills that are required for pupils to participate more effectively within lessons. It will be important that all adults working with the pupils are clear about what is expected and that the learning that has taken place is communicated to all those who teach the pupil. Teachers can then start to make links and draw on what the pupil has learned and should know, or be able to do, so that pupils begin to transfer their learning from one context to another. The major issue for the pupils making good progress in targeted intervention outside the classroom has been the lack of opportunity to apply what they know to their learning in classrooms. This is a result of pupils’ poor generalisation and transfer skills but also because staff who teach pupils in different subjects do not always know what pupils have been taught in interventions and do not make a point of using and applying this within the class.

Task 10

Making learning links
Track and shadow the targeted intervention provided for two or three pupils (these might be pupils receiving the same or different interventions). Follow and observe the pupils into a couple of core subject lessons and help them make the links to what has been learned outside the lesson. Consider the following. • • • How do additional adults in the classroom usually help pupils with SEN to link their learning? How are pupils helped to make the links when there is no additional support from adults? What systems, devices, or prompts might be used to communicate to teachers what pupils are learning in interventions outside the subject classroom? What are the implications for improvement?

28 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 3: Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Case study
Maximising learning from literacy progress units
One inner-city girls’ school is seeing clear evidence from early identification of pupils’ literacy needs in Year 7. Conversion rates for pupils across the three years of Key Stage 3 are now well above the national average for pupils entering at levels 3 and 4 in English. A member of the English department leads the teaching of pupils in small groups and is timetabled accordingly. Level 3 pupils are withdrawn from a range of lessons for 20 minutes at either the start or end of lessons. Two years ago there was considerable resistance to this from other subject leaders. However, the SMT reinforced and supported the need for improved literacy skills in raising attainment in subjects across the curriculum. The pupils have become very proficient at quickly moving from lesson to intervention group and back again with the least disruption to teachers and their peers. ‘Buddies’ are assigned to pupils so they can quickly fill them in on any missed learning. All staff and parents are kept informed about which units the pupils are working on. An A4 sheet gives an outline of what pupils have learned and staff are asked to prompt and call upon this knowledge from pupils in their lessons (lower-attaining pupils are carefully assessed and targeted by the English teacher and not all pupils do all units). English is taught to mixed-ability classes and challenging texts are used. High expectations are set and teachers feel that the targeted intervention of LPUs enables lower-attaining pupils to access the lessons more successfully. Two years on, the whole school has now been able to gauge the benefits to pupils of this intervention work across Year 7 and resistance has disappeared. Attainment is rising in subjects across the school. This year the whole school has a current focus on improving writing. All departments have decided on a particular text-type, vital to writing in their subject, and have identified opportunities within schemes of work to teach these specifically. The Key Stage 3 English ‘teaching sequence for writing’ is being used in all departments across the school. The literacy coordinator is also an assistant headteacher so the focus is kept central to other developments for school improvement by the senior leadership team.

In your school: • • • • Are interventions designed to support the pupils’ learning inside and outside the classroom? Is this well-coordinated so that learning starts to join up for the pupils? What are the systems for communicating the focus and success in learning in the intervention group to all who teach the pupil in subject classrooms? Are links made so that the pupil is helped to transfer learning from one context to another in order that learning can be meaningfully transferred and generalised? What is the SENCO’s role in this?

29 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 3: Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Next steps
This booklet has set out some of the challenges for approaches to learning and teaching for pupils with SEN and disability included in the mainstream secondary classrooms at your school. The following space is for you to consider actions you will take as a result of some of the tasks and reflections you have engaged with thoughout the booklet. The implications for the SENCO’s management role are considered in the booklet included in the pack with this guidance entitled Part 3: Managing the learning process for pupils with SEN. Three actions I intend to take Whom do I need to involve? What is the timeline for implementing this? How will we know that we have been successful?

30 l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 3: Bridging learning from support interventions to learning in subject lessons

© Crown copyright 2005 DfES 0105-2005 G

Copies of this document may be available from: DfES Publications Tel: 0845 60 222 60 Fax: 0845 60 333 60 Textphone: 0845 60 555 60 e-mail: Ref: DfES 0105-2005 G © Crown copyright 2005 Produced by the Department for Education and Skills If this is not available in hard copy it can be downloaded from:

The content of this publication may be reproduced free of charge by schools and local education authorities provided that the material is acknowledged as Crown copyright, the publication title is specified, it is reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. Anyone else wishing to reuse part or all of the content of this publication should apply to HMSO for a core licence. The permission to reproduce Crown copyright protected material does not extend to any material in this publication which is identified as being the copyright of a third party. Applications to reproduce the material from this publication should be addressed to: HMSO, The Licensing Division, St Clements House, 2–16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ Fax: 01603 723000 e-mail: