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BIOL 215 4/3/13 Regulation of Metabolism What are the four sources of glucose used by cells?

Diet Catabolism of endogenous storage molecules Biosynthesis Autotrophic Synthesis What are the three fates of glucose? Use in respiration or storage (glycogen and starch) or fermentation What process does the cell use when it needs energy? What does this process produce? Glycolysis; breaks down glucose to make ATP/ carry out aerobic respiration When the cells energy needs are met, what process will the cell use? Glycogenesis; makes glycogen molecules What is the enzyme that controls this shift? Phosphoglucomutase; Glucose-1-phosphate (glycogenesis) to glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis) Fermentation When do we use fermentation? In anaerobic conditions What are the two main types of fermentation? Ethanol fermentation, lactate fermentation When would we (AKA mammals) use fermentation? After strenuous activity, the lungs and circulatory systems cannot keep up with the high metabolic activity of the muscles which creates an anaerobic condition. Illustrate the main function of the Cori Cycle.

Where do molecules enter the metabolic cycle? Proteins: Carbs: Fats:

Photosynthesis Write a general chemical equation for the final products of oxygenic photosynthesis. 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Where does photosynthesis occur in plants? Chloroplast Label the parts of the chloroplast.

Name where each of the following is located in the plant cell: a) Energy transduction complexes: thylakoid membrane b) H+ ions are pumped into the thylakoid lumen c) Site of oxygen production: thylakoid lumen d) H+ flow through the ATPase into the chloroplast stroma e) Site of ATP production by the chloroplast ATP synthase: chloroplast stroma f) Calvin Cycle: chloroplast stroma

Fill in the Blanks Each chlorophyll molecule has a central __porphyrin__ ring with a strongly hydrophobic __phytol__ side chain attached. The alternating __double bonds__ in the ring are responsible for absorbing visible light. The ring contains a __magnesium__ ion that affects electron distribution in the ring. How does photoexcitation work in pigment molecules? How does this relate to photochemical reduction? When a photon is absorbed by a pigment such as chlorophyll the energy of the photon is transferred to an electron, which is energized from its ground state in a low-energy orbital to an excited state in a high-energy orbital. A photoexcited electron is not stable and must either return to its ground state or undergo transfer to a relatively stable high-energy orbital, usually in a different molecule. The transfer of the photoexcited electron to a high-energy orbital in another molecule is called photochemical reduction. Lets Review! Colors of light most useful in photosynthesis are A. green, yellow, and orange B. red, white, and blue C. infrared, red, and yellow D. red, violet, and blue E. x-rays and gamma rays The breakdown of fatty acids involves the action of Coenzyme A in a process known as oxidation. A fatty acid 18 carbons long would go through ________ -oxidation cycles. A. B. C. D. E. 3 6 8 9 13