RADIOGRAPHY TESTING LEVEL I

@The selection of the proper type of film to be used for the x-ray examination of a particular part depends on: \D |A. the thickness of the part. |B. the material of the specimen. |C. the voltage range of the available x-ray machine. |D. all three of the above factors.

@Radiographic sensitivity, in the context of the minimum detectable flaw size, depends on: \D |A. graininess of the film. |B. the unsharpness of the flaw image in the film. |C. the contrast of the flaw image on the film.

|D. all three of the above.

@Any of the body tissues may be injured by excessive exposure to X or gamma rays but particularly sensitive are: \D |A. blood. |B. lens of the eye. |C. internal organs. |D. all of the above.

@X-ray exposure may be due to: \C

|A. the direct beam from the x-ray tube target. |B. scatter radiation arising from objects in the direct beam. |C. both A and B above. |D. both A and B above plus residual radiation that exists for the first few minutes after the x-ray machine has been returned to the "off" position.

to improve the quality of the radiograph by preferentially reducing the effect of scatter radiation. |B.@Lead foil screens are used in radiography: \C |A. |C. . to reduce the exposure time. both A and B are reasons for using lead foil screens.

either a dark or light spot or area depending on the relative absorption ratio of the part material and the inclusion material.@The purpose of fixation is: \D |A. all of the above. to harden the gelatin. |D. @Unwanted inclusions in a part will appear on a radiograph as: |D. |C. |B. . to leave the developed silver as a permanent image. to remove all the undeveloped silver salts of the emulsion.

@The exposure of personnel to X. ^B. relatively inexpensive.@The radiation quality of a gamma-ray source is: |B. @A curie is the equivalent of: |B. 1.000 millicuries.and gamma radiation can be measured or monitored by means of: \D . lead. @The most common material used to provide protection against X-rays is: |D. VERY GOOD! Lead is very effective. determined by the isotope involved. and compact. YES! One thousand milli-(one thousandth) curies equal one curie. ^D.

but how about dosimeters? ^D. TRUE! The inverse square does not apply here and cutting the amount of X-rays produced would double the exposure time. ^A. dosimeters. ^C. but how about film badges? ^C. film badges.and gamma radiation. |B. RIGHT ON! Film badges. Yes. radiation exposure survey meters. how much time will be necessary to obtain one equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change to 5 milliamperes (all other conditions remain constant)? |C. |D. .|A. and radiation exposure survey meters are all used to measure or monitor the exposure of personnel to X. Yes. 80 seconds. @Assuming that a good radiograph is obtained at a setting of 10 milliamperes in 40 seconds. Yes. |C. all of the above. but how about exposure survey meters? ^B. dosimeters.

@A graph which expresses the relationship between the logarithm of the exposure applied to a photographic material and the resulting photographic density is called: |C.@A graph showing the relation between material thickness. YES! The plot of this function is a characteristic curve depending on film type and the radiation source. . kilovoltage. ^C. an exposure chart or technique chart. the characteristic curve. gamma radiation. @Short wavelength electromagnetic radiation produced during the disintegration of nuclei of radioactive substances is called: |B. and exposure is called: |B.

CORRECT! Gamma and X. 68 degrees F is considered the optimum developing temperature.radiation of the same wavelength are identical. . @A photographic image recorded by the passage of X or gamma rays through a specimen onto a film is called a: |B. but are produced differently. @The normal development time for manually processing X-ray film is: |D. YES! Just right. Actual time will vary between 5 to 8 minutes depending on other factors. CORRECTO MUNDO! A radiograph is the general term applied to all X. Radiograph. 5 to 8 minutes in processing solutions at 68 degrees F.^B. ^D.or gamma ray photographs. ^B.

@A sheet of lead with an opening cut in the shape of the part . YOU'RE RIGHT! Agitation is necessary to replenish depleted developer at the film's surface. the film should be agitated while in the developer. ^B. ALRIGHTY! 2T equals 2% and 4T equals 4% of the material's thickness. @When referring to a "2T" or "4T" hole in the ASTM penetrameter. ^C.@In order to achieve uniformity of development over the area of X-ray film during manual processing: |C. the penetrameter thickness. whether it's mechanical or manual is of no consequence. the T refers to: |B.

to be radiographed may be used to decrease the effect of scattered radiation which undercuts the specimens. ^A. the X-ray image is observed visually on a fluorescent . YES INDEEDY! Because it "masks" out everything but the object being radiographed. a mask. Such a device is called: |A. @Fluoroscopy differs from radiography in that: |C. may give not only different intensities but also different qualities of radiation. AYE! Many other factors besides kilovoltage and milliamperage determine X-ray intensity and quality. @Two X-ray machines operating at the same nominal kilovoltage and milliamperage settings: |D. ^D.

ABSOLUTELY! It is not a permanent record. O. ROGER! The selected portions should be from the lightest and darkest areas of the radiograph to measure the overall image contrast. ^C.! This is why it is called fluoroscopy. @The density difference between two selected portions of a radiograph is known as: |B. it provides an immediate indication of dosage. radiographic contrast. @An advantage of the pocket dosimeter type of ionization chamber used to monitor radiation received by personnel is: |B. @One requirement for keeping fluorescent screens in good condition is that they must: . ^B.screen rather than recorded on a film.K. ^B.

@In making an isotope exposure in an unshielded area. ^A. VERY GOOD! UV light depletes the screen of the available material used to intensify the X. 75 mR/hr.or gamma radiation is measured in: |C. What would be the dose rate at 24 feet? |A.or gamma radiograph. EXACTLY! Roentgens only refer to the ionization power of the radiation for one cubic-centimeter of air. PRECISELY! According to the inverse square law increasing the distance by 4 results in 1/16th the exposure. ^C. @When producing radiographs.|B. not be exposed to intense ultraviolet radiation. roentgens per unit of time. ^B. @The intensity of X. if the kilovoltage is increased: . you find the dose rate 6 feet from the source is 1200 mR/hr.

^C. YOU BET! Just as in conventional photography movement blurs the image and reduces its sharpness. The combination of the two results in an underdeveloped radiograph.|A. ^A. @The accidental movement of the specimen or film during exposure or the use of a focus-film distance that is too small will: |C. OF COURSE! An increase in kilovoltage produces shorter wavelength X-rays which are less photo-reactive at the film. result in unsharpness of the radiograph. the subject contrast decreases. . underdeveloped. YEA! 58 degrees F is too cool and five minutes is barely enough developing time for 68 degrees F. @A properly exposed radiograph that is developed in a developer solution at a temperature of 58 degrees F for 5 minutes will probably be: |B. ^B.

increase the photographic action on the film largely by reason of the electron emission and partly by the secondary X-rays generated in the lead. @The sharpness of the outline in the image of the radiograph . 1 1/2 minutes. ^A. GOOD! One-third the X-rays means the exposure time must be tripled. ^B. What exposure time will be necessary to produce an equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change to 5 milliamperes and all other conditions remain the same? |B. TRUE! THey also reduce fogging due to scattered radiation.@A good radiograph is obtained using a milliamperage of 15 milliamperes and an exposure time of 1/2 minute. @Lead screens in contact with the film during exposure: |A.

100 mR/hr. @Which has the shortest wavelengths? |C. @An unshielded isotope source gives a dosage rate of 900 mR per hour at 10 feet. 100 kilovolt peak X-rays ^C. SURE! Sharpness is a measure of how well an object is defined against its background. the output is 1/9 of 900. Therefore. What would the unshielded dosage rate be at 30 feet? |C. Would 400 kilovolt X-rays be shorter or longer than 100 kilovolt X-rays? @Beta particles are: . ^C. YOU'RE RIGHT! According to the inverse square law the distance is 3 times as much and 3 squared is 9. CORRECT! These are the shortest. radiographic definition. ^B.is a measure of: |B.

@A radioactive source with an activity of one curie has: |D. ALRIGHTY! Electrons ejected from an atom's nucleus are known as Beta particles. @The formula for determining permissible accumulated personnel dose is: |C.000. but remember the total number of atoms in a gram of Cobalt-60 equals approximately 1021 atoms.|C. electrons. 5 (N-18) @The metal that forms the image on an x-ray film is: |B.000. YESIRREEBOB! This is a tremendous number of disintegrations. 370. ^D. silver. ^C.000 disintegrations per second taking place. AYE! Silver bromide is a light sensitive compound that . ^B.

RIGHT ON! The resolution of the lead B on the resulting radiograph indicates the amount of backscatter present during exposure. on edge or end. ^B. whether excessive backscatter is present. . ^B.reduces to black metallic silver after it is exposed to radiation or light and then developed. @The lead symbol "B" is attached to the back of the film holder to determine: |B. @Unexposed boxes of x-ray film should be stored: |B. CORRECTO MUNDO! Storing film in a vertical position greatly reduces the chances of pressure damage due to stacking.

Because of its penetrating ability. @Why is cobalt-60 used as a radiation source for medium-weight metals of thickness ranges form 1. Stainless steel.5 to 9 inches? |C. ^C. .33 MeV. determine the source strength (activity) at any time. O.@Penetrameters for _____ are considered Group 1 Materials and need not have an identification notch. ^C. and atomic decay is not recorded on a film log.17 and 1. @The purpose of a dated decay curve is to: |C. |C. AFFIRMATIVE! This is the logical choice because size and shielding are set.! Cobalt-60 emits highly penetrating X-rays of 1.K.

the purpose of the stop bath is to: |B. |B.@The cause for poor image definition could be: \D |A. screens and film not in close contact. too short source-to-film distance. Yes. ABSOLUTELY! All these factors will contribute to poor image definition. . but what about film graininess? ^B. neutralize the developer and stop the developing process. but what about too short a source-to-film distance? ^C. Yes. Yes. but what about not having your screen and film in close contact? ^D. ^A. |D. @During manual film processing. |C. all of the above. ROGER! The stop bath contains a weak acid that "stops" the developing action. film graininess. ^B.

@A thin metallic sheet (brass.) placed at the source to reduce effects of softer radiation is known as: |B. copper. PRECISELY! This is used to check and calibrate the radiographic equipment. This usually is measured in hundredths or thousandths of an inch. ^A. @The reason a "shim" is used in radiographic setup is to: |C. ^C. the geometric unsharpness value. VERY GOOD! By reducing the effect of the soft X-rays the resulting radiograph will be less foggy. @The focal spot size of an x-ray machine must be known in order to determine: |A. ^B. etc. EXACTLY! The exact size must be known. simulate weld reinforcement. . a filter. aluminum.

thus enabling a radiograph of equal contrast to be made of the thicker area. This may be accomplished by: |A. @The density of a radiograph image refers to: |D. monochromatic radiation. the degree of film blackening. ^D. ^A. variation is required to be shown on a single radiograph within a desired film density range. OF COURSE! By increasing the kilovoltage shorter more penetrating X-rays are produced. @A beam of radiation consisting of a single wavelength is known as: |C. GOOD! Monochromatic literally mans one (mono) color . increasing kilovoltage. YEA! The blackening is a result of clumps of black metallic silver. ^C.@A section with a significant increases in thickness.

(chromatic). Generally light and thus radiation are thought of as having a color (wavelength). @The primary parts of an atom are: |D. or the contrast and definition shoddy the imaging of the penetrameter hole is a measure of radiographic sensitivity. . sensitivity. TRUE! Even if the latitude of the radiograph is wide or narrow. YOU BET! These are the primary atomic parts there are many others which are very small. proton. ^C. neutron. electron. but do not concern us here. ^D. @The image of the required penetrameter and hole on the radiograph indicates that the radiograph has the required: |C.

. or from a radioactive source. until a collision or gravity affects their course. ^B. ^A. primary radiation. is usually referred to as: |B. ^C. straight lines. YOU'RE RIGHT! They are also known as Bremsstrahlung (German for braking. increasing the source-to-specimen distance.@X-rays and gamma rays always travel: |C. @A large source size can be compensated for by: |A. YEP! By using the inverse square law doubling the distance decreases the radiation by 2 squared (2x2) or a factor of 4. @Radiation arising directly from the target of an x-ray tube or an accelerator. SURE! According to Sir Isaac Newton they will continue traveling in a straight line forever.) X-rays.

This body is called: |C. @What is sometimes used to change the alternating current from . a high atomic number. more dense elements and make excellent X-ray emitters. electrons are accelerated to a high velocity by an electrical field and then suddenly stopped by a collision with a solid body. target. ^B. @The best x-ray efficiency is produced when the target material has: |B.@To produce X-rays. ALRIGHTY! elements with high atomic numbers are the heavier. CORRECT! A target material at the anode then emits a spectrum of X-rays whose minimum wavelength is controlled by the kilovoltage. ^C.

^C. however their vibrating does not create the most image blurring.the high voltage transformer to direct current for the purpose of increasing the X-ray machine output? |A. which of the following occurs? |C. @If a fluorescent screen is accidentally exposed to unattenuated x-rays. RIGHT ON! If the screen were greatly effected by . Rectifier. @In a fluoroscopic inspection system using a 15 inch source-to-material distance and 2 inch material-to-screen distance. transverse vibration of which item will cause the most image blurring? |C. ^C. AYE! The source and screen are in a fixed position and should not vibrate. Material vibration. The screen is essentially undamaged.

attenuated or unattenuated X-rays their repeated use would be severely limited and this is not the case. but lacks the sensitivity of film. Lead glass. ^B. YES INDEEDY! These are needed to shield andprotect the operator from nonconverted X-rays passing through the screen. or other means for transmitting the fluorescent image without subjecting the operator to x-radiation. @A fluoroscopic installation utilizing fluorescent screen requires: |B. . @Which of the following is an advantage of a fluoroscopic system when compared to a radiographic system? |B. Live image presentation for immediate viewing. mirrors. CORRECTO MUNDO! A "real-time" radiographic system has many advantages including eliminating on going film and development cost. ^B.

scatter radiation. ^C. What about scatter radiation? ^B. scatter radiation. it is important to control: |A. geometry. ^D. |B. ^A. What about kilovoltage and milliamperage? ^C. |C.K. @In X-radiography. AFFIRMATIVE! Kilovoltage determines the minimum wavelength of the spectrum of X-rays produced. source kilovoltage and milliamperage. kilovoltage. What about geometry. and milliamperage are all important control factors in fluoroscopy. |D. Increasing kilovoltage . kilovoltage.! Geometry. the ability to penetrate the test object is governed by: |C. all of the above. O.@In performing fluoroscopic examination of a part.

gamma rays. ^B. ABSOLUTELY! Gamma rays are the result of the atomic disintegrations occurring in Cobalt-60. Gamma rays. ^A. @Which of the following types of radiation is emitted by cobalt-60 and used in nondestructive testing? |B. and alpha particles all have one thing in common-they are all: . @The term used to describe the loss of excess energy by the nucleus of radioactive atoms is called: |A. @X-rays. ROGER! It is the atomic decay (disintegration) that creates gamma rays which is energy lost by the material in the form of radiation. decay (disintegration).produces short wavelength more penetrating X-radiation.

ionizing radiations. EXACTLY! Compounds are composed of only molecules. ^C. and all protons are positive. ^C. One curie equals 3. VERY GOOD! All three are capable of ionizing (creating negative or positive ions) elements or compounds. @Atoms. specific activity. @Gamma and X-radiation interact with matter and may be . molecules. all electrons are negative. @The term used to express the number of curies of radioactivity per gram or ounce of source weight is: |C. ions.|D. PRECISELY! The specific activity is the curies per gram or ounce of material. and various subatomic particles which carry either a positive or negative electrical charge are called: |C.7 x 1010 atomic disintegrations per second. ^D.

YEA! This is an approximation it is actually one 64th or 1. OF COURSE! These are the only three absorption phenomena known. . What about Compton scattering? ^D. photoelectric absorption. |C. Compton scattering. What about positron-electron pair production? ^B. 2 ^D.56 percent. pair production. |D. What about photoelectric absorption? ^C.absorbed by: \D |A. @Approximately what percent of the original radioactivity is left after six half-lives? |D. |B. ^A. all of the above.

@The velocity of all electromagnet radiation is: |A. GOOD! The half-life is a measure of this decrease. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX RADIOGRAPHY TESTING LEVEL II @Low voltage X-ray tubes are generally fitted with windows made of: |B. beryllium. 186.000 miles per second. ^B. decreases with time. @The radiation intensity of a radioisotope: |B. @A monochromatic X-ray beam: . ^B Correct! Beryllium allows all but the longtest wavelength xrays to pass through it.

^C. CORRECT! The focusing cup. ALRIGHT! Cobalt is suitable for radiographing steel above 3-4 inches thick and has a rated penetrating power of 1. ^D. filament.|D. Cobalt-60 ^A.33 MeV respectively. YOU'RE RIGHT! Mono means one or single and chromatic refers to the color or wavelength. and cathode produce and direct the electron beam.17 and 1. @If it were necessary to radiograph a 7-inch thick steel product. is a beam consisting of a single wavelength. target. . which of the following gamma-ray sources would most likely be used? |A. @The general method of producing X-rays involves the sudden deceleration of high velocity electrons in a solid body called a: |C.

^A. the atomic number. @The fact that gases. ionize and become electrical conductors make them useful in: |D. 9 inches of steel or its equivalent. YES! The thickness.@A Cobalt-60 gamma ray source has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |C. radiation detection equipment. when bombarded by radiation. atomic number. @The absorption of gamma rays from a given source when passing through matter depends on: |A. @The velocity of electrons striking the target in an X-ray tube . and material density all effect the absorption of both gamma and X-rays. density. and thickness of the matter.

the voltage difference between the cathode and anode. Thus fast film tends to be grainier. YES! A 15MeV X-ray betatron is a linear accelerator whose beam strength is 12 times that of Cobalt the next most penetrating source on this list.is a function of: |C. RIGHT ON! The voltage potential between the cathode and anode is responsible for electron velocity. ^A. @The uneven distribution of developed grains within the emulsion of a processed X-ray film causes the subjective impression of: |A. ^C. @Of the following. 15 MeV x-ray betatron. . CORRECT! Also note the faster the film the larger the individual silver salts (grains). ^C. graininess. the source providing the most penetrating radiation is: |C.

cathode. O. @The focal spot in an X-ray tube: |D. @In an X-ray tube.K. ^D. should be as small as possible without unduly shortening the life of the tube.! A smaller focal spot creates a narrower beam of Xradiation and raises the definition of the radiograph. the filament and focusing cup are the two essential parts of the: |B. .@The gamma-ray intensity at one foot from a one curie source of radioactive cobalt-60 is nearest: |A. 15 roentgens per hour. ^B. ABSOLUTELY! The filament is the source of the electrons and the focusing cup aims them onto the target anode.

Cesium-137 ^D. curies per gram. VERY GOOD! The curies per gram is the measure of specific activity.000. ^C. a roentgen. @Which of the following isotopes has the longest half-life? |D. ^B.001293 grams of dry air is known as: |C. . One curie equals 37. CORRECT! 0.@The quantity of radiation which will produce.001293 grams of dry air is equivalent to one cubic centimeter of dry air at sea level. @The specific activity of an isotopic source is usually measured in: B. PRECISELY! Cesium-137 with a half-life of 30 years in the longest of this group. one electrostatic unit of electricity in 0. by means of ionization.000 disintegrations per second.

by definition: |B. @The slope of a straight line joining two points of specified densities on a characteristic curve of a film is known as the: |C. low contrast. YES! X-ray films with a narrow latitude by definitions are high contrast. ^B. average gradient. The other 97% is released as heat. heat. ^D. @An X-ray film having wide latitude also has. . EXACTLY! For example: only 3% of a 300 keV X-ray tube's total energy is converted to X-rays.@The primary form of energy conversion when electrons strike a target in an X-ray tube results in the production of: |D.

@An X-ray tube with a small focal spot is considered better than one with a large focal spot when it is defined to obtain: |B. better definition. but less photographically active and produce high contrast . GOOD! Because 97% or more of the energy of an X-ray tube is given off as heat circulating oil is used for cooling. ^B. YOU BET! Shorter wavelength X-rays are more penetrating .@The purpose for circulating oil in some types of X-ray tubes is: |D. ^C. to dissipate heat. decrease the wavelength of the radiation used. TRUE! The smaller the focal spot the better the definition. @One method of reducing radiographic contrast is to: |C. ^D.

they emit electrons when exposed to X. @Thin sheets of lead foil in intimate contact with X-ray film during exposure increase film density because: |D. @X-ray tubes are often enclosed in a shockproof casing in order to: |B. YOU'RE RIGHT! Do to the high voltages involved an electrically insulated casing is required to protect the operator. CORRECT! These electrons are photographically active and intensify the exposure and increase the darkening of the film. ^B. protect the operator from high-voltage shock.radiographs. ^D. .and gamma radiation which help darken the film.

@In X-ray radiography.@An X-ray tube is rated for a maximum of 250 kVp. 250. an autotransformer. This change may be accomplished by: |B. What does the "p" stand for? @A voltage selector consisting of an iron core transformer with a single winding having a series of taps at various points on the winding is called: |C. Effective voltage! Not conventional radiographic term. This tube may be operated at a maximum of: |A. YES! The half wave rectifier converts the ac to pulsing dc current. alternating current must be changed to pulsating direct current in order to satisfy the need for unidirectional current. .000 volts peak voltage. ^B. ^B. rectifiers.

equals .. computed as 2.5 inch steel has a thickness of: |D.5 inches. or 50 thousandths of an inch. ^A. what . Correct! yes the valve tubes are used to convert ac to pulsing dc current.05 inches or 2 percent of 2. It is necessary to change the source-to-film distance to 24 inches. ^D. @A good cobalt-60 radiograph is made on a 3 inch steel casting using an exposure time of 10 minutes and a source-to-film distance of 36 inches.05 or 50 mils. @Valve tubes are used in X-ray equipment to: |A.@When radiographing to the 2-2T quality level. CORRECT! 50 mils.5 x . provide necessary rectification. an ASTM penetrameter for 2. 50 mils.

squared equals 9. ^A. Yes! 3 ft.4 minutes. 4 /9 = 4/9 x 10 = 4.444. Yes! The electrical discharge of static electricity exposes crystals. and 2 ft squared equals 4.. adjusting the filament heating current. CORRECT! This increases the number of electrons produced . they are probably caused by: |C. ^C. ^B. static charges caused by friction. black bird-foot shaped marks which are known not to correspond with any discontinuities appear at random on radiographs. @When sharp.. 4.exposure time would produce a similar radiograph if all other conditions remain the same? |B. @The adjustment of tube current in conventional X-ray tube circuits is made by: |A.

Yes! The short wavelengths pass through with minimal attenuation. 10 mil thick steel. filter out "soft" radiation to provide a more homogeneous X-ray beam. The longer wavelengths "softer" X-rays create scatter radiation and film fog.01 inches or 2 percent of . ^D. VERY GOOD! 10 mils. @Filters used at the port of the X-ray tube: |D.5 inches. @In comparison with lower-voltage radiographs. ^B. high-energy radiographs show: |B. CORRECT! High penetrating short wavelength X-rays are less photographically active.and is a function of amperage. greater latitude. is the equivalent to . @An ASTM penetrameter for use when inspecting a one-half inch thick steel plate to the 2-2T quality level using a 15 inch source-to-film distance would be made of: |C. . ^C.

|D. |C. Remember. ^A. the quality of the beam. both A and B above. neither A nor B above. What about the quality of the X-rays produced? ^C.@The kilovoltage applied to an x-ray tube affects: \C |A. At least one is correct. EXACTLY! The longer wavelength "soft" X-rays increase scatter radiation and can fog the resulting radiograph. ^A. |B. by absorbing the longer wavelength components of the primary beam. PRECISELY! Kilovoltage controls the wavelength of the X-rays produced which affects both the quality and intensity or penetrating power. . ^D. kilovoltage controls the minimum wavelength of the X-ray spectrum produced. @Filters placed between the x-ray tube and specimen tend to reduce scatter radiation undercutting the specimen: |A. What about the intensity of the beam? ^B. the intensity of the beam.

also: |B. TRUE! Thulium-170 and radium are rarely used. GOOD! The range of thickness over which densities are satisfactory for interpretation is known as latitude. . directly proportional to the size of the focal spot and inversely proportional to the source-to-object distance. ^B. @The range of thickness over which densities are obtained that are satisfactory for interpretation is a measure of the: |C. @The amount of unsharpness or blurring of a radiograph is: |B. provide some image intensifying action. iridium-192 or cobalt-60. ^C. ^B. such as lead and lead antimony. @Almost all gamma radiography is performed with: |B. screens of high atomic number.@Besides serving as a filter. OF COURSE! By releasing electrons that photographly react with the film. latitude of a radiograph.

. @X-ray films with large grain size: |C. the thickness and composition of the x-ray tube port. ^B. the time the material has been in the reactor. have higher speeds than those with a relatively small grain size. YES! More Cobalt-59 is converted to Cobalt-60.@Images of discontinuities close to the source side of the specimen become less clearly defined as: |B. film graininess increases. ^A. @The inherent filtration of an x-ray tube is a function of: |A. @As the effective energy of the radiation increases up to about 250kV: |A. SURE! The increase in material between the discontinuity and the film reduces the definition. @The specific activity of cobalt-60 depends on: |A. the thickness of the specimen increases.

CORRECT! By cooling the target anode rotation allows higher voltages or loads to be used without over heating and melting the target. tungsten. RIGHT! Tungsten is commonly used because of its density and high melting point. increase the permissible load. @The purpose for including a disc-shaped target that rotates rapidly during operation in some x-ray tubes is to: |C. @A device which is basically a combination of magnet and transformer designed to guide and accelerate electrons in a circular orbit to very high energies is called a: |C.@The most commonly used target material in an x-ray tube is: |D. betatron. . ^D. ^C.

^D. if source strength is equal the higher specific activity source will be smaller and weigh less. ^A. . be of smaller physical size than the source with a lower specific activity. CORRECT! Specific activity is measured by curies per gram. ABSOLUTELY RIGHT! X-ray tubes contain a vacuum. @Two serious obstacles to high-sensitivity fluoroscopy are: |B. thus.@Two isotopic sources of a given strength have two different specific activity values. The source with the higher specific activity value will: |A. an ionization chamber. the limited brightness and large grain size of fluoroscopic screens. @A gas-filled region located in an electrical field created by electrodes across which a potential difference is applied forms the major portion of: |D.

^B. @In general. One method for increasing brightness utilizes one of the following which converts light energy from the initial phosphor surface to electrons which are accelerated and focused onto a smaller fluorescent screen. |C. ^D. CORRECT! Any other angle increases the geometric distortion . @A general rule governing the application of the geometric principles of shadow formation states that: |D. the central ray should be as nearly perpendicular to the film as possible. @In fluoroscopic testing. a fundamental difficulty is the relative low brightness level of the images. CORRECT! The limited brightness and grainy image make fluoroscopy less sensitive. to preserve spatial relationships. the quality of fluoroscopic equipment is best determined by: |B. Image amplifier or intensifier. penetrameter sensitivity measurements.

of the object being radiographed. but what about the atomic number of the material? ^B. the kilovoltage is increased. ^A. . @The radiographic absorption of a material will tend to become less dependent upon the composition of the material when: |A. neither A nor B. |C. Yes. the source of radiation must be extremely small. @In order to utilize the principles of geometric enlargement (placing the film at a distance from the specimen): |B. the thickness and density of the material. the atomic number of the material. CORRECT! ^D. CORRECT! This would increase definition. both A and B above. but what about the thickness and density of the material? ^C. There is at least one correct answer. ^B. |B. Yes. @The x-ray absorption of a specimen depends on: \C |A. |D.

The purpose of this sheet of lead foil is: |B. the exposure factor. @X-ray exposure holders and cassettes often incorporate a sheet of lead foil in the back which is not in intimate contact with the film. to protect the film from backscatter.^A. . the size of the focal spot and the efficiency of the cooling system of the anode. @A lead sheet containing a pinhole may be placed halfway between the X-ray tube and the film in order to: |A. @The formula (milliamperes X times)/(distance squared is: |D. CORRECT! Shorter wavelength X-rays are produced and their alternation is more dependent upon material thickness. @The load that can be handled by an x-ray tube focal spot is governed by: |B. determine the approximate size of the focal spot.

@When radiographing steel with a thickness less than one inch: |B. to decrease the effect of scattered radiation undercuttin the specimen. it may be advantageous to pack lead shot around a specimen. The purpose for doing this is: |D. CORRECT! Raising KV produces shorter wavelength X-rays and the lead screens filter out the less penetrating shorter wavelengths. a 250 kV X-ray machine would give greater radiographic . cooling by circulation of water or oil in the anode.@The most common way of cooling the anode of a high-power X-ray tube is: |C. @The mottling caused by diffraction when radiographing fairly large-grained metallic specimens can be reduced and in some cases eliminated by: |C. @In certain cases. raising the kilovoltage and using lead foil screens. ^C.

69.sensitivity than cobalt-60. It is desired to increase the density to 2. The antilogarithm of log 0.0 in this area. it is found that the difference in log E between a density of 0. in an approximately exponential manner with the thickness of the material.0 is 0.8.76 is 5.8 in the region of maximum interest. |B. .0? |C. soft X rays are usually employed. By reference to a characteristic curve of the film. a kilovoltage range of 5 to 50 kV is usually employed.8 and 2. @In the microradiographic technique: \D |A. @A radiograph made with an exposure of 12mA per minute has a density of 0.6 mA per minute @The absorption of radiation by a material varies: |D.76. What must the new exposure time be to produce a radiograph with a density of 2.

all three of the above choices are correct. the shape of the characteristic curve of an X-ray film: |B. and any material between the tube and housing is: |D. @For practical purposes. inherent filtration. ^A. Yes. |D. the radiographic procedure must be able to define the 2T hole in a penetrameter which is 2 percent of the thickness of the specimen. Yes. Yes. but what about the primary use of soft X-rays? ^C. the wall of the tube housing.|C. is independent of the quality of X. but what about a KV range of 5 to 50 KV? ^B. But what about the kilovoltage range? ^D.or gamma radiation. . the photographic material is often finer grained than an ordinary X-ray film. CORRECT! @In order for a radiograph to have a penetrameter sensitivity of 2-2T or better: |B. @The term which describes the total absorption of the useful beam caused by the X-ray tube wall.

but what about increasing the voltage? . CORRECT! This is followed by an equal amount of time for hardening. decrease the exposure time. |B. clearing time.@The interval between the time a film is placed in a fixer solution and the time when the original diffuse. using a filter at the X-ray tube and increasing the exposure time. Yes. ^A. |C. yellow milkiness disappears is known as: |A. ^A. |D. increasing the kilovoltage. both A and B are methods for correcting excessive subject contrast. but what about using a filter? ^B. @Excessive subject contrast caused when the thickness range in the test specimen is too great for the radiation quality used may be corrected by: \C |A. Yes.

and graininess of film are possible causes of: |B. CORRECT! ^D.^C. @Improper geometric factors. poor definition. you need to increase the exposure time. change operators periodically. poor contact between film and lead foil screens. If the voltage is increased with a resultant increase in the energy of radiation while all other conditions remain the same: . @Which of the following X-ray generators would produce the narrowest cone of X-radiation? |C. No. @In fluoroscopy the most common means for minimizing operator fatigue is to: |D. 25MeV @A radiograph is taken at a voltage of 500 kV.

^B. @A radiograph of a steel weldment is made using a 15 MeV betatron. @A basic difference between a radiograph and a fluoroscopic images is: |B. failure to use a lead screen during exposure. there will be little significant change in the graininess of the film. is the product of radiation intensity and time.|D. . A possible cause for such mottling is: |C. there is an overall film mottling. CORRECT! It is also less sensitive. When the radiograph is developed. @The quantity of radiation striking a unit area of film: |A. the fluoroscopic image is a positive whereas the radiograph is a negative transparency.

. penumbral shadow. @Because of geometrical factors such as source size. there can be a lack of perfect sharpness at the edges of indications.@Which of the following factors will not materially influence the image density of a radiograph? |B. CORRECT! The size of the film is not a factor influencing film density. source-to-specimen distance and specimen-to-film distance. The size of the film ^B. @A 1. 5 inches of steel or its equivalent. The unsharpness caused by geometrical factors may be referred to as the: |B.000 kVp X-ray machine used in conjunction with a lead foil screen has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |C.

^D. @The reason the exposure time must be increased by a factor of four when the source-to-film distance is doubled is: |C. CORRECT! Targets made from elements with high atonic numbers are more efficient and high operating temperatures require a high melting point. CORRECT! This is known as the inverse square law.@Two factors which greatly affect the suitability of the target material in an X-ray tube are: |D. ^C. @The approximate radiographic equivalence factors for steel and . the intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source to the film. atomic number and melting point.

5-inch plate of copper.4 x 1. ^B.0 and 1.4 respectively. CORRECT! Or .7 inches of steel ^A.copper at 220kV are 1. @Films that are left between lead screens too long in a high-temperature and high-humidity atmosphere may: |B. CORRECT! Fogging occurs because of a chemical change in . CORRECT! Adjusting the KV increases or decreases the penetrating power of the X-rays produced and thus the resulting image contrast. what thickness of steel would require about the same exposure characteristics? |A. 0. Kilovoltage ^C.0 @Which of the following technique variables is most commonly used to adjust subject contrast? |C.5 x 1. If it is desirable to radiograph a 0. become fogged.

^A. scattered radiation. CORRECT! The instrument used to measure film density is called a densitometer. @Subject contrast is affected by: \D |A. an H & D curve. What about the thickness of the specimen being radiographed? . thickness differences in specimen. How about scattered radiation and its fogging effect? ^B. photographic density. @A curve relating density with the logarithm of exposure or of relative exposure is called: |C. |C. all of the above. @The quantitative measure of film blackening is referred to as: |B.the silver bromide crystals. |D. ^B. radiation quality. |B.

CORRECT! A geiger counter is more sensitive and gives an immediate indication of radiation. Concrete ^B. A Geiger counter ^C. @Which of the following instruments would exhibit the best sensitivity and most likely be used to detect small leaks in a radiation barrier? |C. CORRECT! @The Code of Federal Regulations requires that all shipping containers for radioisotopes: |B. the use of lead to provide protection may present serious problems. If this should be a serious problem. which of the following materials would most likely be used as a substitute? |B.^C. be fire resistant. What about radiation quality? ^D. CORRECT! Concrete is not only effective. @At voltages above 400 kV. but inexpensive as .

@A special radiographic method requiring two radiographs taken during separate exposures from two different positions to give the visual impression of a three-dimensional display when viewed in an optical device simultaneously is referred to as: |C. stereoradiography. CORRECT! Stereo means two. @A qualitative term often used to indicate the size of the smallest detail which can be seen in a radiograph is: |A. @The slope (steepness) of a characteristic curve is a measure of: |D.well. radiographic sensitivity. ^C. @The depth of a discontinuity may be estimated by making two exposures on a single film from two different positions of the . film contrast.

. The method is referred to as: |D. @Constant agitation of the developer during the development process by means of mechanical stirrers or circulating pumps may: |C. preferential flow of developer along certain paths. The depth of the discontinuity is computed from the shift in the shadow of the discontinuity with respect to the images of fixed markers on the front and back of the specimen. the fixer solution accumulates soluble silver salts. the parallax method of depth location. cause undesirable. CORRECT! This contamination results in the diminishing activity of the solution. ^C. @The activity of the fixer diminishes after being used for a period of time because: |C.X-ray tube.

^C. or other sources of ultraviolet radiation will: |B. photoelectric absorption. the hourly flow of water in the wash tank should be: |B. four to eight times the volume to of the tank. |D. |B. neither A nor B. Compton absorption. At least one is correct.@In processing radiographs. ^A. |C. both A and B. sunlight. become discolored and lose some of its brilliance. @Attenuation of gamma rays in the energy range commonly used for testing takes place through: \C |A. @A zinc cadmium sulfide fluoroscopic screen which is continually exposed to bright daylight. . CORRECT! ^D. Photoelectric absorption is also possible. What about Compton absorption? ^B.

the characteristic curve grows steeper and moves to the left. it is applicable to comparatively thick or highly absorbing specimens. ^C. @Lead screens are used for almost all exposures when using: |C. @As the development time increases: |A. CORRECT! High voltages are necessary to accelerate the electrons fast enough in order to produce the shortest wavelength most penetrating X-ray possible. high-voltage radiography. ^C. @A distinctive characteristic of high-voltage radiography is: |C. have little effect on the shape of a characteristic curve.@Increasing the X-ray or gamma-ray energy will: |D. CORRECT! This eliminates most of the shorter less penetrating wavelengths that are produced when using .

@When other operating conditions are held constant. @Which of the following glasses would most likely be used as an X-ray barrier window on fluoroscopic equipment? |B. a change . @The maximum practical speed of scanning a test object for conventional fluoroscopic inspection has been estimated to be: |D.high-kilovoltage. Lead glass ^B. @The fact that each solid crystalline substance produces its own characteristic X-ray pattern is the basis for: |D. X-ray powder diffraction examination. CORRECT! The attenuation properties of lead give the glass shielding features. about 3 inches per second.

@A special form of scatter due to X-ray diffraction effects in . What is the primary factor that prevents this from being exactly proportional? |A. ^D.in tube current causes a change in radiation intensity emitted from an X-ray tube. Backscatter. This is most likely due to: |D. the intensity being approximately proportional to tube current. @When viewing a radiograph. a lead "B" is placed on the back of the film to measure back scatter radiation. CORRECT! Radiation scattered onto the back of the film cassette causes this. The voltage and voltage waveform of an X-ray machine transformer varies with load. an image of the back of the cassette superimposed on the image of the specimen is noted.

If the radiation level on the source side of a 1. @The half-value layer of lead for cobalt-60 is approximately 0. CORRECT! Calculated as 64 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 8 @Which of the following is not a factor in determining subject contrast? |C. . 8 R/hr. the radiation level on the opposite side is: |A. ^A. Type of film used ^C.5 inch. CORRECT! The type of film used has inherent contrast qualities known as "film contrast" which has no relation to subject contrast. a radiograph of mottled appearance.a specimen with large grains will result in: |B.5 inch lead plate is 64 R/hr.

@If an exposure time of 60 seconds and a source-to-film distance of 4 feet is necessary for a particular exposure.5625 x 60 = 93.75 or 94 seconds. what exposure time would be needed for an equivalent exposure if the source-to -film distance is changed to 5 feet? |B. . @In order to increase latitude so that thick and thin portions may be radiographed at reasonable viewing densitiesNsimultaneously: |C. ^C. CORRECT! Since latitude is an inherent property. the only way to increase it is to use two films with different speeds. CORRECT! According to the inverse square law 5 squared/4 squared = 1. as is film contrast. the film cassette may be loaded with two films of different speeds. 94 seconds ^B.

two to three times the original quantity of developer. The 50 kV exposure would have a lower contrast and a greater latitude than the 40 kV exposure ^C. CORRECT! Once two or three replenisher supplements have exhausted the developer it becomes too contaminated to revive. . which of the following statements would be true? |C.@Developer solution should be discarded when the quantity of replenisher added equals: |B. ^B. @If a specimen were radiographed at 40 kV and again at 50 kV with time compensation to give the radiographs the same density. CORRECT! Because the kV X-rays are harder and have less photoactive capabilities.

@In million-volt radiography. CORRECT! And it's measured as curies per gram. filtration at the tube: |D. ^D. @The energy of gamma rays is expressed by which of the following units of measurement? .@A 250 kVp X-ray machine used in conjunction with a lead foil screen has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |B. @The degree of concentration of the radioactive material in a gamma-ray source is referred to as: |A. ^A. CORRECT! Filtration of such a powerful X-ray beam at the tube offers no improvement in the radiographic quality. offers no improvement in radiographic quality. 2 inches of steel or its equivalent. the specific activity of the source.

tube current should be increased. CORRECT! Part thickness. ^B. the voltage range of the X-ray machine. the material of the specimen. What about the material density of a specimen? ^B. @While using an X-ray tube for radiography.|D. material. the: |B. and voltage range of the X-ray machine all influence film selection. Kiloelectron volt (keV) or million electron volt (MeV) ^D. CORRECT! KeV and MeV are measurements of gamma ray energy. @Film selection for an X-ray exposure depends on: \D |A. all of the above. ^A. To do so. the operator wishes to increase the radiation intensity. |D. |C. thickness of the part. CORRECT! Raising tube current or milliamperage increases . What about the thickness of the material? ^D. |B. What about the voltage range of the machine? ^C.

|B. CORRECT! @Mottling due to diffraction can be reduced and in some cases eliminated by: \C |A. What about absorbing longer wavelength radiation? ^B. absorb the longer wavelength scattered radiation. ^A. |B. . What about intensifying the photographic effect of the primary more than the scattered radiation? ^C. using lead foil screens. all of the above. @Lead screens are put in direct contact with the film to: \D |A. intensify the photographic effect of the primary more than the scattered radiation.Xray intensity. increase the photographic action on the film. What about increasing the photographic action on the film? ^D. |D. |C. raising the kilovoltage.

At least one is correct. ^B. none of the above. This will reduce mottling. ^A. ^C. CORRECT! Both will reduce mottling by decreasing the amount of diffraction. but if kilovoltage is already at its peak. source-to-specimen distance. and specimen-to-film distance. |D. Raising the kilovoltage and increasing X-ray penetration power will also reduce mottling. @Because of geometrical factors such as source size. penumbral shadow. Mottling is caused by the defraction of less penetrating longer wavelength X-rays. The unsharpness caused by these factors may be referred to a the: |B. both of the above. using lead foil screens will also reduce mottling.|C. there can be a lack of perfect sharpness at the edges of indications. ^B. . CORRECT! By controlling these factors the penumbral shadow can be reduced and sharpness increased. ^D.

a change takes place in the silver . quality by kilovoltage. are easily damaged by which of the following? |B. quality. @When X rays. light. CORRECT! Sunlight and ultraviolet light drain the amount of fluorescent material available for visible light production during radiography. to enable the operator to obtain the intensity. gamma rays. CORRECT! Intensity is controlled by milliamperage. @Fluoroscopic screens. and duration of exposure desired. ^B. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight ^B. or electrons strike the photographic emulsion.@The main purpose of the X-ray generator controls on the equipment is: |B. as mounted and used. and exposure duration by a timer or switch.

how may mR will ten curies produce at the same distance? |D.halide crystals. what three factors must be considered in selecting a source-to-film distance? |D. CORRECT! All three are important quality factors. latent image. geometric unsharpness ^D. . @If one curie of iridium-192 produces a dose rate of 5900 mR per hour at one foot. CORRECT! This is a chemical change which is not apparent until the film is processed. 59. This change is referred to as: |C. ^C. specimen thickness. Source size. @With respect to quality. CORRECT! Since the distance is equal a ten curie source is exactly ten times as intense as a one curie source.000 ^D.

. @A larger physical size source may produce an equivalent quality radiograph if: |A. and is irregular in shape. ^A. CORRECT! This in essence reduces its physical size as it appears from the viewpoint of the specimen. CORRECT! Tungsten is more dense and attenautes the beam more than the surrounding material resulting in a very light image.@On a radiograph of a pipe weld there is a very light irregularly-shaped small image in the weld. ^C. This image would most likely be due to the presence of: |C. the source-to-film distance is increased. tungsten inclusion.

^B. CORRECT! And thus increases the atomic weight by one.@A light image of a backing "B" on a processed radiograph is probably caused by: |B. which of the following conditions occur? |C. @When a faster speed film is substituted for a slower one to improve the economics of the exposure. CORRECT! The resulting image is grainier. backscatter. a neutron. ^B. The image resolution will be reduced ^C. @Cobalt-59 becomes cobalt-60 when it is placed in a nuclear reactor where it captures: |B. . CORRECT! A lead backscatter is attached to the back of the film to measure backscatter and when exposed results in a light image.

@For a given change in the radiation exposure, film contrast is the inherent ability to show: |A. a difference in density. ^A. CORRECT! It has nothing to do with graininess although faster (large grain) films usually have lower contrast than slower (fine grain) films.

@The ability of a material to block or partially block the passage of X rays and gamma rays is referred to as: |C. absorption. ^C. CORRECT! Also referred to as attenuation.

@Source size, specimen thickness, and source-to-specimen distance are the three factors that determine the: |D. unsharpness recorded on the radiograph. ^D. CORRECT! All three are factors directly related to image sharpness.

@The range of specimen thicknesses that can be adequately recorded on the radiograph is referred to as the: |B. latitude of the radiograph. ^B. CORRECT! Latitude is the range of thicknesses that can be adequately recorded on the radiograph.

@Approximately how long would it take for a 10 curie cobalt-60 source to decay to 2 1/2 curies? |C. 10.6 years ^C. CORRECT! Since the half-life of Cobalt-600 is 5.3 years it would take two half lives to reduce a 10 curies source to a 2.5 curie source.

@The "photoelectric" effect involves: |C. complete absorption of a photon. ^C. CORRECT! Part of the photon energy is used in ejecting an electron and the remainder imparts velocity to the ejected electron.

@Radiographic undercutting is caused by: |A. side scatter. ^A. CORRECT! It is also caused by internal scatter and can present problems when radiographing irregularly shaped objects.

@The developer solution is: |B. alkaline. ^B. CORRECT! The stop bath is acid.

@A general rule governing the application of the geometric principles of shadow formation states that: |D. the central ray should be a nearly perpendicular to the film as possible, to preserve spatial relationships. ^D. CORRECT! Any angel other than 90 degrees increases geometric distortion of the images on the radiograph.

@An X-ray film having wide latitude also has, by definition: |B. low contrast. ^B. CORRECT! Narrow latitude films have high contrast.

@The projected area of the target of an X-ray tube is called: |C. effective focal spot. ^C. CORRECT! The effective focal spot is either equal to or less than the actual focal spot.

@The slope of the H & D curve of a radiographic film is called: |C. gamma or gradient.

|B. fluorescent screen exposures. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

@An iridium-192 gamma-ray source has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |A. 30 years. CORRECT! Its rays have an average penetration power of 664 keV.@The half-life of radioactive cesium-137 is nearest: |C. 30 years. 3 inches of steel or its equivalent. @The half-life of radioactive cesium-137 is nearest: |C. CORRECT! Its rays have an average penetration power of 664 keV. @An iridium-192 gamma-ray source has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |A. 3 inches of steel or its equivalent. ^C. ^C. .

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