iT^ Mo./o-



PapBi-FoIilmg ^ Gutting




Uq.. No.





Manual-Training Series, No.



By^ MacLeod,
Author of" Lessons on



Minerals," "Talks about



" Practical Drill Problems," " Reproduction tion Stories," " Composition Outlines."







1B92 to92


3 % 2^9J



Mart)) %vot\)txSy l^ublisbcr?






Electrotyped, printed, and bound
C. J.




instruc- pupils should be encouraged after a tion to form their own designs. They are given is merely as samples of what may be done^ and." Great care has been taken in the arrangement of topics so that they may come in natural succession. The benefits derived from this branch of ManNeatness and accuracy ual Training are manifold. are developed is. should not be considered as all that are necessary or desirable.PREFACE. that the the cutting and pasting^ while designing 3 . plentiful as they are. in the mere manual operations. gradually increasing in difficulty and awakening by terest in the their variety pupils. as stated more than once in the text of this little volume. an ever new in- minds of the The illustrations. T^HE - author of this little book has endeavored to present in a brief and simple manner the of development ing which is of that portion Manual Train- usually designated as "Paper-Folding and Cutting.

love of origi- color and arrangement. MacLeod. and there such a total lack of technical terms. and a cultivation of nality not to be surpassed by any other branch of school work. so much vogue known "Busy Work." The solid forms illustrated and explained in the latter chapters will be found to form a useful basis both for solid geometry and modeling in clay or wax.4 calls PREFACE. that the book of pupils of average tions may be placed in the hands intelligence. The first step in this study — simple in grouping of plane figures of occupations for at the present time. into action a knowledge of drawing. as in Although originally intended teachers. . the a guide for subject is is treated such a simple manner. little — forms as one of the class fingers. and its instruc- be understood and applied by them without difficulty.

a fine and the pencil medium hard. rag with which to press the cut designs after taught be can The art of folding and cutting paper and learned just as well with the coarsest wrapping 5 . it the necesI tive that each pupil be supplied with scissors. A ruler with a beveled edge is the are mucilage and glue of Various kinds factory.Paper-Folding and Cutting CHAPTER I. NECESSARY IMPLEMENTS. be about five inches long. and sharpened to most satispoint. decided that home-made paste of and water answered the purpose better than anything Bach pupil should be provided with a clean else. such as pencils. sary helps. accurate work. The scissors should numerous used for paper designs. rulers. etc. is imperaorder to have neat. after flour experiments. but the writer. paper. pasting. N paste.

is taken as a basis for all the simplest Squares of paper are furnished to the schools in many cities. but as the taste of the pupils is to be cultivated quite as much as skill in cutting. it is advisable to have the paper as pretty as can be obtained. A four-inch square is a convenient size for designs. For the benefit of those who can not obtain these squares. various colors represented in each package. THE SQUARE. and they can be bought at a The square designs. reasonable price at stationers. They are sold in packages of one thousand. the following simple method of folding and .6 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. paper as with paper of beautiful colors.

It will be readily seen that the accuracy displayed is in the folding and cutting a very important matter. a square be the result. % will No. making a right angle with the line X-Y. K For instance. -2. 2.THK SQUARE. 3. This completes the folding. and we have the paper in the shape repregiven. you will have a to Y. inches. Fold again as indicated in this figure by the dotted line E-F. and if you cut through the line H-K and open the paper. At the line H-K fold the paper over evenly. cutting a square is 7 A piece of paper of any Fold twice as represented in the dotted lines A-B and C-D in figure No. The size of the square is deter- mined by the distance from if that measurement is two four-inch square. sented in figure No. . FOLDING AND CUTTING. and the paper will assume the form shown in figure No. i. shape may be used.

ARRANGEMENT OF The portion of this delicate handling is the pasting of the design work requiring the most upon the paper or cardboard used as a background. A as very cient little paste will go a long way. an even edge will be the DESIGNS. but are held firmly over the line to be cut. In cutting take long. if the scissors as and much result. method produces an uneven edge. and not short. but lay it on a desk or table. of the cutting performed with one closing of the scissors as is possible. Press the folded paper evenly with the thumb and forefinger. few general hints A or may be found useful. be suffiend of the The . deep incisions. jerky ones. Fold from the body and not towards it.8 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. Do not fold the paper in the air. and as silver quarter of a dollar will much would cover a for the usual-sized design. The latter any solid surface.

as the design. should. blue and green. again and pressed for a few seconds with the clean The surface of Kg. . and red. ^ Each section of the rag ready for that purpose. not be allowed. with white as a background. and vice versa. Pale tints on a dark background. etc. two or more Such combinations as purple colors may be used.ARRANGEMENT OF DESIGNS. forefinger surpasses a brush as a 9 of applying means design should be carefully placed in one piece of it at a time taken up then position. It must then be placed in position it. pupils grow more expert in designing. At first it is wise to use but one color in the Later. No. design should be treated in the same manner COLORS. and the children should be shown combi- nations producing a pleasing effect. are very pretty. and and a thhi coating of the paste put on the under the paste. of course..

as represented L-M. 7. 10. 9. folded paper with figure No. Five pieces are to again the result. SIMPLE DESIGNS. small sections of the design will produce the designs represented by figures Nos. The square. folded twice diagonally and then once more. bringing longest folded sides together. 4. . which may be arranged to form the design illustrated in figure No. but instead of cutting parallel the folded side. the scissors Another design may be produced by one cut of by folding the square as directed for the designs just illustrated. the dotted line Now Compare your draw a line by and you parallel to the longest folded side. will A little variety in the arrangement of the four 5. cut obliquely. Arrange the latter around the cross as in diagram No. and 8. Cut through this line then have five pieces of paper. 5 11. as shown by the dotted line O-P in figure No. and a very effective design is formed. a cross and four triangles. which is is used as a basis for the the designs in this article. IN is shown all a design which is obtained by one cut of the scissors.lO PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. 6. CHAPTER figure No.

13. These triangles may also be placed in positions similar to those in the Still designs represented by figures Nos. II Another design may be made by the arrangement shown in illustration No. another design can be made by folding the paper as described. but the cutting short folded side as figure No. 8 and 9. 12. ii. gram No. a design of equal taste is formed. 14. there figure No. is a cross and four These may be arranged as in diawhile by placing them as shown in After cutting.SIMPI^E DESIGNS. must be parallel to the indicated by the line R-S. in small squares. .

line.12 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. It would require unlimited space to illustrate the numerous designs that can be made from a square. in order to explain . the square is represented as folded three times as in the previous designs. 15.for The mid- cutting reaches from the angle A to the dle of the short folded side. however. is advisable. The four triangles which in we have after cutting may be arranged around the central portion of the square in the styles figures Nos. 16 shown and 17. One more lesson. In illustration No. folded as mentioned and cut but once.

will be illustrated. designs. and as. 18. no matter how irregular. in a little while. figure 13 No. . An octagon is obtained by this cutting. it is necessary to Eg: MoJ. to The same line A-C is drawn from one folded side to the other so that the distance from A from C to B.SIMPLE DESIGNS. explain how the octagon can be obtained in a very simple manner. having this figure as a basis. Figure No. 19 shows a pretty combination of the octagon and small pieces B will be the as resulting from cutting a square as directed. The octagon can be cut just as easily from any shaped piece of paper.

and the children . It must be remembered that although paper-fold- ing and cutting are so-called mamial training exer- hand trainings the brain is not allowed be idle during these exercises.H PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. LINES AND ANGLES. that is. The square can be explained. angles. Short talks about lines. should form a part of every lesson. This can be done from the very begincises. to ning. and plane figures.

. After folding three times a three-sided figure is Fig. M. No. 9 taught that its four corners are called right angles.I. Id . 15 FTg..INES AND ANGLES.

the Tig. /^ . tlo.iU PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. Here teach the term is triangle^ and ex- plain that as one of the angles a right angle. obtained.

receives the name right-angled Various styles of triangles are seen in the different % ing the lines.-- designs. triangle 17 triajtgle. and the terms aaite to designate the angles in them. use the terms oblique^ vertical^ and pendicular until the children can distinguish them at a glance. also the isosceles triangle. 18 a chance occurs to teach the term octagon. Ho. /3 and obtuse may be used In talking of draw/<?. as seen . In figure No.LINES AND ANGLES.

When you have cut and opened the octagon. length. state that if all three sides were the same would be equilateral. the triangle .i8 in PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. A-B-C. and Show that such a triangle has two equa. sides. let the pupils count the number of triangles forming it.

K. .LINES AND ANGLKS.17. 19 Tiq.

20 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. Tig No. Fs'l^ci^. /f .

and the scissors. as in the former designs. F-H is two these between midway of the paper and G is points. that shown indicated by the dotted line. the edge another manner of cutting twice. In figure D-E Fig. center piece the around arranged triang. a design like The eight small in figure No. . a No. 20.les may be m each case format least half a dozen different ways. a variety of few of which will elaborite designs can be formed. DESIGNS FORMED BY CUTTING TWICE.DESIGNS FORMED BY CUTTING TWICE. 21 may be formed. and a star-shaped centerpiece result from these cuts. 22 shows ing a pretty design. the line be illustrated here. in Illustration No. Four squares. McM represents By cutting as the edge of the square. 21 CHAPTER folding the paper BY making two cuts with HI. four triangles.

another effect is produced. 23 and 24. 28. As a result we have a peculiar shaped center- piece and eight small triangles. Ingenious pupils many different ways of arranging the squares and triangles. 25 indi- Fcg-. A pretty and effective arrangement is shown in By turning the triangles around figure No. Two in will find designs formed from these pieces are shown illustrations Nos. The line I-K in figure No. No. and the dotted shows that an acute angle is to be cut out of the folded paper.22 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. ^/ line cates the edge of the paper. 26. in figure No. The latter may be being shown arrangement one arranged in many ways. .

The triangles resulting from this cutting. No.^J.DESIGNS FORMED BY CUTTING TWICE. are so irregular that to have a satisfactory design they must be used in pairs. Hg. 23 No. eight in number. 28 also shows two cuts. starting from the edge of the paper L-M and forming an acute angle. .

Many ruler. make is a straight line. MEASUREMENT.24 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. In cutting the folded paper absolutely necessary. in order to E^^oZS .2^. pupils are extremely awkward in using the They do not place it correctly on their draw- % ings and fail to it Mo .

that the fractional measurements be accurately drawn. also puzzle young pupils.MEASUREMENT. should be shown how to draw lines whose lengths are estimated quarters or eighths of an inch. Small. They m . 25 lines should have a neat and perfect figure.

26 Ivittle PAPER-FOIvDING AND CUTTING. 29 shows the folded n-^ Mo. paper. Several different ways of placing the small pieces of paper are allowable. 30 we have the paper opened and arranged in a pleasing design.^s'. background will show through. more need be said about folding and cutting designs in which straight cuts are made. and it is a good idea to let the pupils exercise their own taste in the matter. The vacant be left as it space in the so that the center of the design may is. or the small piece of paper which has been cut from it may be cut into some fanciful shape and placed in the center of the . ting. the dotted lines indicating the lines for cut- In figure No. A couple of designs are here shown in which three cuts have been made. Figure No.

32 illustrates a simple arrangement of the pieces resulting from this style of cutting. . 31 three cuts are made as shown by the dotted lines. Figure No.MEASUREMENT. 27 In figure No. iTjr. space. SO. Ko.

" some one has and the truth of the statement is demonstrated in paper-cutting designs. CURVED " I^INKS.No. Curved is the line of beauty.28 PAPKR-FOIvDING AND CUTTING.32. A true eye and a steady ri-^. . written.

sharp cut. 29 hand are necessary to draw and cut such lines. and then cut slowly through A long. The compass may be used to advantage in many designs presenting curved lines. Figure No. draw lines such as are indicated by the dotted lines in this figure.CURVED I. such as was advised in the lines. 33 represents FgMjs paper square folded as for previous designs.INES. the Carefully fc^ No J^ .

Fig.30 PAPER-FOIvDING AND CUTTING. No. The the entire curve is be removed from the paper until Turn the paper slowly until cut. 3^ each portion of the line to be cut comes under the edge of the scissors. Considerable practice will be Rg No J6 . can not scissors should not now be used. designs with straight Hnes.

INES.Hoj/ Figure No. but the paper leg.CURVED I. N'o. 35. A design . 31 cut necessary before curved lines can be accurately by the pupils. 34 represents a design made by cutthe center space ting as shown in figure No. Ilo. representing one is shown in figure No. 33.J^ be cut into a circle and inserted in the center with A simple combination of curved lines pretty effect. Here cut from this space may is left vacant.

32 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. Through the open spaces in this design the background shows plainly. 36. In figure No. and then the whole figure is pasted onto a larger sheet of white drawing-paper. arrangement of the papers from this cutting may be seen in figure No. but the pasting more simple. The small pieces may be turned so that the curved sides face the centerpiece. A more complicated style of drawing and cutting is illustrated in figure No. Quite an elaborate effect is thus obtained in a simple manner. color that will . 37. being difiicult cutting. 38 the design is pasted first onto a four-inch square of a combine well with the cut paper. as the small pieces may be discarded. and quite a different effect will be produced.

34. centerpiece. No. this stage of designing is reached. in figure No. it is ad- visable to use but one color for the cut designs. 33 CHAPTER UNTIL with IV. that they exchange all pieces of similar size and shape for others all of the same color. COLOR COMBINATIONS. J the white as a background. the following method might be adopted: retain Eg. to vary the ex- ercise. If there are four small triangles and a Be sure. but allow the pupils to exchange the small pieces of the designs with one another. however. the centerpiece should be one color and the four small pieces should all be of the same color. the background might be white. and of a color that will combine well with the centerpiece.COLOR COMBINATIONS. For instance. Now. white as a background. the large portion of the design a pale .

¥0 interest will be added to the lessons by this change of programme. color. and at the same time the tastes of the pupils will be cultivated.I\/o. A little talk about primary and secondary colors will be instructive and in order. green and the eight little triangular pieces of a pale pink or some color that will harmonize prettily with the green. while these color combinations are being made.34 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. n^. little New .

can be so placed as to make very elaborate designs. some of the small pieces . be the result. 39 we have a drawing. 35 In figure No.COLOR COMBINATIONS. The placing of the small pieces of n<^hfo. when cut and opened. 40 illustrates one arrangement. which. Figure No.^^ paper may be reversed and another pretty design will If desired.

will be found very n^. discarded. satis- advised in the last lesson. may be The plan of exchanging papers. factory in this design. ^0. the centerpiece being of one color. four small pieces %. No. ¥'ji .36 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. ¥S. Three colors may be used.

Figure No. x\rranged simply on a white back- . VJT combination of curved cuts.COLOR COMBINATIONS. y'<^. arranged over a contrasting color. a pleasing effect will be produced. 41 shows a /7^. discarded If the small pieces are and the elaborately cut centerpiece is /7^ No. 37 of similar shape of another color and the four remain- ing pieces of a third color. No.

use the small tri- Ilg. add greatly . 44. figure No. will design. it PAPER-FOIvDING AND CUTTING. A The triangles can be arranged in many ways.Mo-'/^t angles resulting from these cuts. much more An easy ar- Tangement of these triangles is shown is figure No. has the appearance indicated by illustration Straight cuts and curves both appear in 43. It is advisable to No. small star or circle placed in the center of the where the background shows. as a elaborate design can thus be formed. 42.38 ground.

represented in By led to that point easy degrees the pupil has been where he can without hesitation It is make a multiplicity of cuts. 48. 45. Another combination of straight and curved lines is shown in figure No.COLOR COMBINATIONS. to the small octagon in the center of the cutting is Rather figure No. 46. Call the attention of the pupils figure. suggested that this design also be placed over a square of a contrasting color as represented in figure No. . with a four-inch square of another color placed under it. Opened and arranged as in iUustration No. a very beautiful figure is produced. 39 to the effect. complicated 47. and then the whole design pasted on white paper.

angles that recall the first . BY this time pupils possessing an atom of origisay. therefore when their originality has full play the results obtained from Some scholars can produce designs of great beauty with apparent ease. All children do not possess the Kg. ORIGINAL DESIGNS. 50.40 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. while others. CHAPTER V. different pupils will vary greatly. No. No. have nothing to offer but commonplace lines and lessons on this subject. after steady work and patient plodding. nality will be anxious to try a design "all their own." as they and I should counsel the teacher to indulge this desire. ^9 Ti^. same artistic taste and skill.

it is an excellent plan to FtgNo SI few designs at the end of each lesson and keep them as samples of the work done.SHOW-WORK. 41 SHOW-WORK. They may select a be used to decorate the walls of the class-room. As an incentive to the pupils and an encouragement in their artistic labors. or I would suggest that the arranged in a scrap-book .

See figure No. lilac leaf. naturally dull pupil should be occasionally encourage- ed by having his conscientious efforts (even if plain and unattractive in effect) selected and placed among the designs reserved for special inspection.42 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. 49 represents a into pretty designs. As both sides of a conventional leaf is are exactly the same. 50. half of it being outlined. The teacher can now make use to some extent of the lessons in free-hand drawing. and these same leaves and flowers may be cut from folded paper and formed Illustration No. and the same leaf convenNo. Conventionalized leaves and flowers have probably formed a portion of the free-hand instruction. 51 in which the same lilac leaf is used. The paper is folded as in . Explain right here the difference between a natural leaf and a contionalized is shown in figure ventional one. the folded paper so arranged that a drawing of but one half of the leaf is made. true to nature. LEAF DESIGNS.

52. or a star or square may be placed in of purpose It will serve the twofold of the design. Care must be exercised not to cut through the stems by mistake.LEAF DESIGNS. a small circle. and the midrib of the leaf placed on the longest side of the folded triangle. all 43 is preceding lessons. The stems all point toward the center of the paper. such as is shown in this the center figure. the hiding the creases in the stems and adding to . the design appears as If the stems are weak represented in figure No. folded so in the center where the paper has been many times. Opened and arranged upon a square of paper of a harmonizing color.

con- of two squares of paper of different colors. The square of paper placed under the leaves may. and cut as shown in figure No.44 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. 54. Opened and placed over color. 53 which. beauty of the design. and then one . The elaborate design pictured in figure It No. 55. be arranged in a similar position to that in the former design. 56 sists is obtained in a very simple manner. it a square of a contrasting forms the design seen in figure No. when drawn on folded paper for cutting. with the corners beneath the tips of the leaves. if preferred. appears as indicated in illustration No. Another simple leaf is shown in figure No. folded 54.

or all the veins may . a pleasing combination. may be omitted. but be drawn. the result the leaves is is very effective. and with white as a background.EAF DESIGNS. The veining of individ- a matter that depends upon the it ual taste of each teacher. In the designs pictured is here the principal vein drawn. 45 paper placed above the other in such a manner that all In delicate tints that form eight leaves can be seen.I.

must be ^exercised in cutting and pasting the stems. 60. which are so slender and leaf designs great care have so many creases that they are easily torn. The ivy leaf represented in the next figure. A IN No 57. color all is A square of paper of a contrasting In placed under the leaves as a background. No. will be found both simple and graceful for designing purDraw as illustrated in figure No. . it is represented in figure No. CHAPTER VI. pretty design formed of these leaves is shown in the next drawing. having poses.46 PAPER-FOLDIJ^G AND CUTTING. 58. Arranged on the folded paper as explained in the previous lesson. LEAF DESIGNS. figure No. 57 we have a more difficult leaf. 61.

The square may be Ug.^y the same position as in the previous design if so de- sired. A conventionalized maple leaf next claims . again. 62 we have one arrangement paper. a square of another color is placed in used as background. Here. 47 of the folded the points of the leaves touch the edges of In cut No.Mo. Ti^.LEAF DESIGNS.Ss^ ivy leaves.

No rig- MM ornamental designs. 63. It is so pretty in and is made up of such graceful curves that a design formed of such leaves can not help but be pleasing. 67 and when opened a pretty centerpiece will appear which will add greatly to the beauty of the design. Illusour attention. 64. The long stems may be shortened by drawing at their base as shown in figure No. 65 shows the leaves unfolded and spread additional decoration is needed. . 66 represents a leaf of the oxalis. See figure No. itself N06O tration No. which from its peculiar shape is very effective as a basis for in position. Draw as indicated in figure No.48 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. Figure No.

49 Figure No. In this design. •^^. A combination of leaves is shown in the next design. U shown. 68 shows the design formed from this drawing. a contrasting square of paper used as a background will add much to the general effect. No.LEAF DESIGNS. as in all the others here Eg.No6S The necessity for careful greatly increased but the appearance drawing and cutting is when completed .

.50 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. But one style of leaf is used in the design. When opened and pasted as illustrated in figure No. 69. compensates for the extra trouble. one leaf being consider- ably smaller than the other. See figure No.

draw one on the folded paper as ngN. If eight leaves of the same size are . this 5^ design is very elaborate and looks even more difficult than it really is.LEAF DESIGNS. 70.

shown will When opened the leaves in the next design./O: If a circle of darker color be placed under the leaves a very figure No.52 PAPER-FOIvDING AND CUTTING. showy effect is produced. 73. form a circle as represented The long. 71. as shown in . delicate stems are shortened by drawing the centerpiece as indicated in the illustration. in figure No. i7^ ^o.

. K^.^^o.LEAF DESIGNS.g f/o 7JZ.yJ^ . 53 F.

was the one that. IN the previous designs illustrated in these lessons on folding and cutting paper. an explanation given how the figure cut. the square has been used as a basis. ever. has already been shown. and above all other considerations. the octagon. POLYGONS. cities where such work is desired in the schools. and could be obtained. colored paper.54 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. hexagon. may be easily We will now take the pentagon. vSquares are simple to cut and easily fold- ed. heptagon. CHAPTER all VII. andi Explain to the pupils the derivations and meanings of these words so that they will thoroughly understand what you are talking about. This was considered wise for several reasons. in many size. to consider plane figures It is time now. howhaving more than four One. cut in squares of a con- venient sides. .

shown m Then with the folded side down. 74. and there should be no . and do not press the it down is firmly until you have divided folded oblong precision into three exactly equal parts. as figure No. fold the paper once across.POLYGONS. from the center A. but figures can be cut from paper of for any size or convenience the squares. fold the paper as illustrated by the dotted lines in this drawing. For the hexagon. Fold the paper carefully. such as we will first cut them from we have been using all along. Much necessary. 55 These shape.

and then double the paper over until it presents the appearance shown in figure No. or hexagon. forming an isosceles triangle Cut through the same length as C-A. 77). line B-C. a perFor the pentagon. 76 shows the result of our folding and cutting.56 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. 75 represents the folded paper. B-A is this dotted line and open the paper^ Illustration No. Now draw the that is. 78. and a part equal to half of one of these sections. Fold the squares as for the hexagon (see figure No. undue haste. No. we fold so as to have two equal parts. fect six-sided figure. Form the isosceles triangle as in the previous polygon by drawing . for instead of folding into equal parts. even greater care is necessary.

7f. The eye must be trained. 79. a pentagon Similar fold- appears as represented in figure No. 80 shows the direcand figure No.POLYGONS. through B-C. In all probabilbe needed before perfect polygons will be cut. Uo Illustration U No. 81 the appearance of the paper when folded. 57 Opening the folded paper. Figure No. ing is required to cut the heptagon. parts. 82 shows the result. Cut through the line B-C. sections are folded and then a portion equal to half of one of these tion of the folds. Three equal ^o. After ity many trials will .

It will drawn on one of the folded be readily seen that anything triangles forming the j^o. Very beautiful designs can be formed from these polygons. POLYGONS AS A BASIS FOR DESIGNS. polygon. take irregular-shaped pieces of paper and fold and cut them. design based upon the pentagon. n. The same orna- . 83 shows a simple the design is cut. with the squares.58 practicing PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. will be repeated on the other triangles when Figure No.

When .POIvYGONS. and an intelligent child may get pretty ideas from them. 86 shows the folded hexagon with very simple drawing upon it. fd. These polygons of the pupils. afford a large field for the originality Church and cathedral windows are often designed from these shapes. and in illustration No. composed entirely of straight lines. In figure 84 a more elaborate design is shown. 85 the heptagon was the basis. cut from the hexagon. Xo. 59 mental drawing appears five times. Figure No.

and the paper design pressed into the dampen- jVo ^(0 ed surface. 87. trasting color A circle. do not whole class to greater efforts. a very effective design is formed. He should have a larger square of paper and it and cut in plain view of the scholars. repeat. from these polygons.6o PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. blackboard be moistened by passing a damp sponge over it. Occasionally allow a pupil to arrange a design on the board and it will stimulate the I Again.^S As fold far as possible the teacher should work with the If the pupils. cut from paper of conand placed under any designs formed much to the appearance. cut and arranged as in figure No. have this lesson too entirely . adds J^o. it will adhere for quite awhile.

6l of the hand^ " but make the brains do their Have all the terms used during share of the work. but The leaf designs used for the squares in a former lesson will be particularly graceful in designs based instance. Disthe lesson defined and thoroughly understood. do make the pupils find them. and lead the pupils to make comparisons between the different polygons.POLYGONS. not indicate the incorrect places. For maple repeated six times as in the center. When the latter are irregular and out of pro- portion. manual or ''^ cuss lines and angles at length. the stems meeting would form an elaborate figure. leaf. . would be in a hexagon. the ivy or it upon these polygons.

62 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. CHAPTER BORDERS. as far as squares are concerned. in fact. subject of THE and polygons VIII. it is by no means exhausted but if . paper-cutting. may be said to be ijzexhaustible^ the teacher has carefully read and applied the .

represented. each an inch wide.BORDERS. the inner division will be slightly smaller than the others. ders it 63 is prettier to fold the paper into six divisions. for if you fold one division and the others around it. so that it measures three by two inches. Now you must. fold this into three parts. with a simple design drawn upon it. be the same size. all the divisions will n^.ifo. by carefully measuring with the eyes and Fold in accordion fingers. The drawing is made up entirely of straight lines. and will be found simple and useful to a beginner. Figure No. pleating it By folding as in fact. First fold the slips of paper in half. 88. With a background .f/. In figure No. 89 represents the folded paper. style as in shown in No. 90 the open paper is shown.

this way a very is showy produced. Curved lines alone are used. The border resulting from Jio. It would be advisable to practice drawing and cutting borders . 93. 94 this border is shown. In illustration No.p drawing and cutting as indicated is remarkabl}^ pretty and will be found to be a favorite with most pupils. but the result well worth the trouble. is of a contrasting color the appearance much im- proved. 91.64 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. See figure No. six inches long and placed under the cut work. Careful drawing is required for the next design. and in effect is two inches wide. A strip of is dark paper. A shown combination of straight and curved lines in illustration No. is and 92 shows the opened paper.

96. /Jf LEAVES FOR BORDERS. the result of cutting as shown by the dotted lines being the elaborate border represented by figure No.BORDERS. can now make use of leaves for decorative borders and find them quite as attractive as in former A conventional leaf is used as the basis of the next design. with a small ornamental figure as connecting link between the leaves. We designs. A difficult is illustrated n^g-JTcfif- figure No. be allowed desien full The and in pupils' originality should play. many of the designs given for squares may be adapt- ed to borders. See figure No. 95. no more difficult 65 than this for several lessons. . Hp N'o.

-^^ principal figures of the design._-J7 ^-I ^ ^- ^ ^--. or the amusing experience of a certain city pupil may be repeated. The pupil carefully drew and cut an elaborate design. PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. Right here I pupils not to forget the connecting links must caution both teacher and between the ru-^'^-~-J7*^-. when to . He opened the paper with considerable pride. expect- ing to be highly complimented for his skill.66 97.

There must '-- .BORDERS. his consternation he found that instead of a border he had only a number of pretty figures.

and an odd and The border thus pretty effect will be produced. a great variety of may be cut. loi. The leaves of the oxalis and maple.68 leaves PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. and using different leaves. each space for the A curved leaf being two by one and a half inches. Tt'^'Mo. In figure No. 102. formed is shown in figure No. 99. will be found graceful in border designs. For class-room decoration an oblong of . Taking these designs as models. Variety may be produced by folding the slips of paper in a more or less number of parts. may be used for borders. The ivy-leaf a general favorite. illustrated in a former chapter. These leaf designs wi'll be greatly beautified by placing dark slips of paper under them so that the edges of the leaf will stand out in bold borders relief. /a-z. line runs elaborate from leaf to leaf. Fold the paper in the same way and draw a leaf crosswise as shown in figure No. 100 the border formed of these leaves is shown. and may be drawn In this case the as shown in representation No. coming is naturally. ^aper is folded in four equal parts.

69 paper of a deep tint. and serves at the same time as a sample of the pupils' taste and skill in paper-cutting. forms a pretty wall ornamentation. . with cut Dorders placed one under the other at equal distances.BORDERS.

LEAVING borders. the ornamental squares. compass. ruler. and stiff. In all Also the best paste solid forms the that can be obtained. The implements necessary are pencil. lessons relating to the cutting of paper so as to itself make form should be before the class as a model.PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING.IDS. and we now take quite an important step forward in our paper-folding and cutting. CHAPTER SOI. white drawing-paper. polygons. geometrical forms. IX. We will develop in paper numerous solid. These .

71 of wood.SOLIDS. /^^ clay. or the pupils may make own models of _/ Eg. . No. at reasonable their forms may be bought. made prices. clay-modeling being a portion of manual training paperthat usually either precedes or accompanies Before any drawing is commenced the cutting.

//. 103. jfp.) JT^J^. instance. has stood on four as face-s in succession. These four faces will be seen to be in a straii^ht line. Let the pupils then turn .72 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. take a cube as model. pupils should be led by skillful questioning to form For ideas of how the drawings should be arranged. /fi^c Questions — shape of How many faces has it? What is the each face? How many angles altogether? " What kind of angles?" Then place the cube on one until it it of its faces and turn it is. Tl^. that you would a wheel. (See figure No.

In folding.SOLIDS. and practice and patience will be neces- sary before success will be acquired. The development of these forms is by no means easy. keep one square entirely free of paste and keeping the thumb and finger pressed against the edges to be pasted. In fact. 104. A two-inch square a convenient call Now faces examine the model again and the attention of the pupils to the position of the remaining square and then complete the plan. avoided. 104. The finishing requires great delicacy of touch. Haste is to be others. the writer might a column with "Don'ts. first. 73 draw four equal squares No. as seen in No. as is shown in figure size. The wall-pocket . The little flape indicated by the dotted is lines are to hold the paste fold all the when the paper cube cut and folded. Do not squeeze the figure or fill it will collapse." but the intelligent teacher will in one lesson learn what to do and what to avoid in this department of Do not expect many perfect figures at paper-folding. in a row.

74 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. 108. PRISMS. and the position of the squares forming the top and latter figure the front of the is box The bottom of the box will be readily understood. see that the four narrow sides form a continuous line. represented in figure No. ornamented with From the cube to tjie a cut design in colored paper. box is shown in next figure. and the box shown in In the figure No. . 105. No. and bottom were two-and one-half-inch squares and A plan for an oblong the sides were an inch high. box form shown in illustration No. 106. are modifications of the cube. 109. In this case the top plan is shown in figure No. 107 is an easy By turning the model the pupils may be led to step.

figure No.No z/^- and must be drawn as shown in illustration No. would naturally follow here. The same directions that were given for pasting the cube will apply to the prism. in. being an elongated cube. and the plan is complete. 112 is made by leaving one of the oblong faces of the prism open.PRISMS. The box shown in figure No. if the pupils can form . The four oblong faces (see line. 75 The square prism. no) will be seen to be in a straight T^^. The squares are next drawn. See anything else from the prism.


Draw flaps for pasting. to the intersection of arcs. 11 the corners of the oblongs selected. J^^'c. . //^.PRISMS.g. as indicated by the Tt.



dotted lines.



three sides of these triangular

bases are equal, the prism


be described as an
All triangular prisms

"equilateral triangular prism."






no further explanation

will be needed.

The plan


Two a right-angled triangular prism is here shown. third side equal, the of the sides of the triangle are

being considerably longer.


faces of the prism

must correspond
ular prism


width with the lengths of the

sides of the triangle.


modification of the triang-


in the triangular

in figure No. ii6.


sides are an inch high,

box represented and

the plan



in figure

No. 117.






prisms to pyramids is a natural and simple In figure No. ii8 we have a representation
Place your model of this form
the points

of a square pyramid.

side by side with the square prism, already discussed,


let the pupils



to each,

also the respects in

which the models


will observe that each of the

models has a square base and four sides, but in the case of the prism these four sides are oblongs, while in the pyramid they are In triangles, joined so as to form a common vertex.

drawing the plan on paper it will, therefore, be understood that there must be four triangles, equal in all respects, and one square which serves as the base. The preliminary steps for drawing the plan of any pyramid are shown in figure No. 119. The straight line A-B is first drawn, the length of the sides of the pyramid. Then with a radius equal to the length of the line describe an arc of considerable length, as shown by C-D. Examine illustration No. 120 and you will see what the next steps are. Decide how wide the triangular sides of the pyramid are to be at

SOLID FORMS. and you then have the plan for the For the base of the four sides of your pyramid. Draw . From these points of intersection as centers. their bases 8l as to and arrange your compass so have a radius of the desired length. and cut and paste as in previous forms. With this radius place your compass on B and draw arcs cutting C-D. and with the same draw two more arcs and connect the by straight lines with point A. pyramid select the base of either triangle and erect radius. the narrow edges for pastPyring. thereon a square. formed points so Draw straight lines from point to point for the bases of the triangles.

It is a good idea in studying the formation of pyramids to always compare each pyramid with a prism having a corresponding number of sides. and the hexagon. amids the is may have any number of sides. 121 shown the diagram of a triangular prism. Six equal triangles form the sides. The hexagonal pyramid is shown in No. In No. 122. and with half . the base. use the compass as directed in the last lesson for the triangular prism. this is the first time we have been required to draw a hexagon it will be in order to give a short and simple method for this drawing. line as Draw a straight shown in the next illustration.82 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. Three and an equilateral triangle triangles form the sides. To draw the equilateral triangle. a plane As figure having six equal sides. forms the base. but in all cases manner of proceeding is the same.

123. manner to just described. The hexagon is drawn in the To find the point which is circle. be used as the center of the proceed as if .SOLID FORMS. 124 the plan for the hexagonal pyramid is to be seen. and the base of one of them forms one of the sides of the hexagon for the base of the pyramid. cut the circumference on each side as indicated in figure No. Six triangles are drawn with a common vertex. Connect the points of interthe radius. 83 With and each end of the line as a center in turn. the length of this line as a radius draw a circle. In representation No. same section by straight lines and a perfect hexagon will be the result.

equilateral triangle. . Draw the large triangle first. See figThe next figure shows the plan for solid. this an equilateral triangular pyramid. you were drawing an vious chapter}) as a central point.84 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. 125. {See pre- Then take the intersection of arcs and the length of the bases of the triangles as a radius. It is very simple. a triangular pyramid are called the pyramid ure No. When is the triangles forming the sides and base of all equilateral. and do not change the radius until the figure is complete. and requires no special explanation. then arrange your compass so as to have a radius equal to half of one of the sides of this large triangle.

Jfo. %. 85 n^ M yj. /^c^ .SOLID FORMS.

/s¥. K^g.Jfo./JS . Bff.-tL.86 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING.

/^/ . 87 n^ M.SOLID FORMS.

•By the explanations given for prisms and pyrato this time. the result being very effective. M. combining prisms.88 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. cubes./Jit COMBINATIONS OF SOLID FORMS. From mids up vance. and pyramids. In illustration No. 127 is shown a cube and square pyramid combined. 11^. The next figure represents . very pretty forms can be obtained. the teacher will be able to ad- making these forms with any number of sides.

If. you draw the plan for a square prism you Also you may will have still another combination. 89 the plan for such a form combination. in place of the cube.SOLID FORMS. omit the odd square at the lower part of the plan for .

each face an equilateral Such a solid is triangle. 129. When folded you will have a handsome figure. A solid which has eight equal faces. Eight equilateral triangles are at their bases. and the plan is shown in the next figure. two of them being joined Draw . which looks more difficult than it is in reality K<gNo /J/ —a cube connecting two square pyramids. represented in figure No. is called an octahedron.90 PAPIER FOLDING AND CUTTING. the cube. and instead draw another plan for a square pyramid. drawn.

and prolonging the arcs in which each set of four triangles is drawn.M/dd. until the By using Fog. plan No. 131 is the plan for a solid with eight triangu- rf /V-^^- M. 130.SOIvID FORMS. the triangles being isosceles. /cS>^ lar faces. the flaps for pasting as indicated by the dotted In No. . not equilateral. 91 lines.

ITo. A twenty-sided No. complete. such as is shown in figure No. These have altogether twelve equilattriangles./^^ form a solid solid.92 circle is PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. and folding is represented in the next figure. cut and pasted. solid is illustrated in . and the plan for drawing. 133. Each of the sides is an equilateral triangle. will Fig. This is known as a dodecahedron. yon will eral triangles. 132. cutting. also completing the hexagon in each circle.

as a matter of course. tion remaining is called a frustum. the porIn figures Nos. but. R. 93 FRUSTUMS. /jr respectively frustums of 135 and 136 are represented The upper a square prism and a hexagonal prism. upper part of a pyramid is cut off. If the % jic.-Nc/ef^face of a frustum is the same shape as the base of the is pyramid.SOLID FORMS. The . smaller.

137 you will see frustums are drawn on paper for the purpose of how fold- /T^ K. /c// ing and pasting. Proceed as if to draw a pyramid. shown. the the upper face.94 PAPER-FOLDING AND CUTTING. The diagram illustrated here will fold into a frustum of a triangular pyramid. . Draw an arc the distance from the vertex that you Draw straight lines as desire the frustum to be cut. which form the upper edges of the new figure. By examining diagram shown in figure No. is nearer the top of the pyramid the cutting the smaller is made. and draw the upper face projecting from one of these edges.





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