You are on page 1of 25

INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION (IPA)

REGULAR COURSE, SOLO CENTRAL JAVA, 4-8 JUNE 2012

22. Genetic Classification of Petroleum Systems

by: Awang Harun Satyana

Three important geologic factors control the accumulation of petroleum in the subsurface and, thus are essential to the existence of viable petroleum systems:
1. 2. volumetrically adequate petroleum generation, occurring during or after the time of trap formation; favorable migration-drainage geometry, leading to the focused movement of hydrocarbons into traps rather than to dispersion and loss of hydrocarbons in either subsurface migration waste zone or up to the surface; the existence of volumetrically adequate traps, capable of retaining their petroleum charge from the earliest time of trap filling to the present day.
Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

3.

Two Subsystems of Petroleum System


1. A generative subsystem provides a certain supply of petroleum during a given time span. Generative subsystems are essentially controlled by chemical processes, consisting of biochemical transformation of dead organisms into kerogen during the source depositional stage and thermochemical kinetics, which control the transformation of kerogen into petroleum. A migration-entrapment subsystem gathers petroleum from the mature source rocks and distributes it in a manner that may lead to either concentration of petroleum into economic accumulations or loss of petroleum due to dispersion and destruction. Migration-entrapment subsystems are predominantly controlled by physical processes, including the buoyant rise of petroleum in water, fluid flow and capillary pressures in porous media, and pressure-temperature-composition relationships affecting phase behavior before and during petroleum entrapment.
Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

2.

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Purpose of Genetic Classification


Describe and predict the relative charging potential of petroleum systems and, thus segments of petroleum basins, Describe geographic location of zones of petroleum occurrence or plays in basins.

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Genetic Classification of Petroleum System


1. Combining qualifiers from each of the following three categories: (1) charge factor (supercharged, normally charged, undercharged), (2) migration drainage style (vertically drained, laterally drained), and (3) entrapment style (high impedance, low impedance). 2. Application of these working concepts should help to significantly reduce geologic risk, particularly in new ventures-type exploration.

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Genetic Classification of Petroleum System


1. The charge factor is estimated on the basis of the richness and volumetrics of mature source rocks. The source potential index (SPI), which combines source rock richness and thickness into a single parameter is introduced. The migration drainage style is determined from the structural and stratigraphic framework of a basin. Recognition of the dominant migration style helps to predict the location of zones of petroleum occurrence in relation to the hydrocarbon kitchens. The entrapment style, which is also dependent on the structural framework and the presence and effectiveness of seals, describes the degree of resistance (impedance) working against dispersion of the petroleum charge.
Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

2.

3.

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Migration Drainage Styles


1. Short-range lateral migration along permeable carrier beds and vertical migration through fault and fracture zones are the most commonly observed mechanisms of petroleum charging into traps. The petroleum accumulations in most basins are commonly found over or immediately adjacent to hydrocarbon kitchen. In fact, most commercial petroleum accumulations result from short lateral-migration distances (less than 30 km). Low-angle lateral migration is physically less efficient that vertical migration. The buoyant force of an oil filament of fixed length and volume is several times higher for purely vertical displacement than for lateral upward transport along a gently dipping carrier bed. Consequently, lateral migration is more demanding on the amount of oil needed to create an adequate buoyant force capable of breaking through capillary pressure barriers in the carrier unit (Illing, 1939). Fault and fracture systems that are persistently reactivated by tectonic movements may serve as highly efficient avenues for vertical migration of petroleum.

2.

3.

4.

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Migration Drainage Styles

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Entrapment Styles
1. The degree of structural deformation and seal integrity are the two key factors used to qualify entrapment styles. Together, these factors control the degree of impedance working against the natural tendency for petroleum to become randomly dispersed and lost in sedimentary basins. High-impedance systems are characterized by laterally continuous seals coupled with a moderate to high degree of structural deformation. Low-impedance systems are characterized by either a high degree of regional seal continuity and low degree of structural deformation, or low degree of regional seal effectiveness, coupled with a high or low degree of structural deformation.
Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

2.

3.

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)

Demaison and Huizinga (1991)