This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Version 1.0 December 2011

**Jorge Luis Bazán, PhD
**

Department of Sciences Pontifical Catholic University of Peru email: jlbazan@pucp.edu.pe Home Page: http://argos.pucp.edu.pe/~jlbazan/

1

Index Introduction

Page 3

1. Binary Regression 1.1. Binary Regression Models 1.2. Binary Regression with Asymmetric Links 1.3. Bayesian Inference in Binary Regression 1.4. Application: Beetles data set 1.5. Use of the BayesianModeling 1.5.1 Generate the syntax of the model 1.5.2 Bayesian estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs 1.5.3 Bayesian estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs in R

5 5 5 8 9 10 11 15 22

2. Item Response Theory 2.1. Item Response Theory Models 2.2. IRT models with asymmetric links 2.3. Bayesian Inference in IRT 2.4. Application: Math data set 2.5 Use of the BayesianModeling 2.5.1 Generate the syntax of the model 2.5.2 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs 2.5.3 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs in R

26 27 29 31 33 34 35 38 45

3. References

50

2

Introduction BayesianModeling is a java software development tool to generate syntax of several models of Binary Regression and Item Response Theory under a Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Subsequently, the syntax can be executed in the programs OpenBUGS (Spiegelhalter, Thomas, Best, Lunn, 2007), WinBUGS (Spiegelhalter, Thomas, Best, Lunn, 2003) or in R program (R Development Core Team, 2004) through the libraries R2WinBUGS and R2OpenBUGS (Sturtz, Ligges and Gelman, 2005), BRugs (Thomas, et al, 2006) and rbugs. This application is for your personal use and must not be used for any commercial purpose whatsoever without my explicit written permission. The application is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind. In order appropriately to implement the different models mentioned in the application, you it must read in detail the literature suggested in the references and must be familiarized with the Bayesian Inference using MCMC. BayesianModeling is thought for practitioners that given a data set they wish to know the syntax of diverse Binary Regression or Item Response models in bugs code, Theory usually non available in diverse statistical programs including the program R. This program write two files: a bugs model file for each one of this models considering adequate priors, lists with sensible starting values and size of the data set and a data set file in rectangular format, both readable in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. This basic application can be considered a different version of BRMUW (Bazán, 2010) which was developed as part of the projects DAI 3412, 4031 and 2009-0033 of Pontifical Catholic University of Peru with the purpose to disseminate models developed by the author. This application together with some models has been developed for three late years and throughout that time various people have collaborated in this project reason why I desire to express my gratefulness. Among them to the colleagues Oscar Millones, Christian Bayes and Miluska Osorio for theirs aid during the revision of the present version of the application and the user guide. I also am thankful to Martin Iberico, Margareth Sequeiros and Pedro Curich for the computational support in some of the stages of the project. Thank you very much to my family for its patience and support.

3

Installation instructions can be found in the included README file. BayesianModeling can run smoothly in any operating systems, such as Windows, Mac OS, Linux, in which the Java Virtual Machine and Perl are supported.

Java: Java SE Runtime Environment 1.6 or later. Perl: Perl v5.10 or later. RAM: ≥ 512M The BayesianModeling package was introduced at the II Conbratri-2011

(http://187.45.202.74/conbratri/).

4

1. Binary Regression 1.1. A Binary Regression Models Consider variables, assuming that a an intercept, is a assume that function (cdf). The inverse function a vector of independent dichotomous random and with probability , and

with probability

vector of covariates, where Moreover, denotes the

may equals , corresponding to design matrix with rows , and

vector of regression coefficients. Binary regression models where denotes a cumulative distribution

is typically called the link function and

is the linear predictor. Thus, a binary regression model is given by

When about

a cdf of a symmetric distribution, the response curve is has symmetric form . Examples are obtained when is in the class of the elliptical distributions as,

for example, standard normal, logistic, Student- , double exponential and Cauchy distributions. In the case that is the cdf of a standard normal distribution we obtain the probit link

and in the case that

is the cdf of a logistic distribution we obtain the logit link,

These links: probit and logit are implemented in BayesianModeling.

1.2. Asymmetric Links in Binary Regression As reported in the literature, symmetric links are not always appropriate for modeling this kind of data. Nagler (1994), Chen, Dey and Shao (1999) among others, showed the importance of appropriately choosing the link function and how sensitive is the inference if a symmetric link function is incorrectly used in the place of an asymmetric link. The problem appears when the probability of a given binary response approaches at a different rate than it approaches . Moreover, examples are listed in different

5

1985). 2001) are not available at the moment.textbooks (see. In this case. Dey and Shao (1999. Asymmetric links considered in BayesianModeling are those that are obtained considering other cdf like the following: these links are asymmetric logit and are known as scobit and power logit. Information of how to implement the Bayesian estimation of the binary regression using the cloglog. Prentice (1976). probit and logit links in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS can be seeing in the Example Beetles: logistic. it represents the distribution accumulated of a and . it is necessary to consider asymmetric links. . respectively. This link is considered in Bayesian Modeling. Nagler (1994). For a review of Where . for example. and include the logit link as special case when the parameter these links see Prentice (1976) and Nagler (1994). it does not depend on any unknown additional parameter and it does not include any particular case as a symmetrical link. probit and carries far estimates models of the Manual. Bolfarine and Branco (2006 and 2010). 2003) reporting situations where an asymmetric link is more appropriate than a symmetric one. where the cdf of the Gumbel distribution is considered as defined by Where the cdf is completely specified and. Chen. A very popular example of asymmetric link is the complementary log-log link or cloglog. Collet. this cdf can be represented in general by the following way: . and normal distribution bivariate with parameters . In BayesianModeling also are implemented three links that are based in the cdf of a skew normal distribution (see Azzalini. Nevertheless Bayesian approach to binary regression models considering other links as the discussed by Bazán. 6 .

In these three links. Branco and Bolfarine (2006) named as BBB skew probit. the implemented links in the BayesianModeling are the following: If . 2001) that also is implemented in BayesianModeling. so we has negative asymmetry (positive). Bolfarine y Branco (2006 and 2010) and as especial cases of this general formulation. is the shape parameter that controls the asymmetry. 7 . the CDS skew probit considers a kind of mixes of normal where the measure of mix is the positive normal distribution with density function given by . with obtain the standard asymmetric probit link (Bazán.This links were proposed by Bazán. have for negative values (positive) of These three models can see also as belonging to the kind of mixes of eliptic distributions proposed by Basu and Mukhopadhyay (2000) given by: . Bolfarine y Branco 2006 y 2010). . Where is the cdf of a variable in and is an eliptic distribution. named here as Standard skew probit. If . If . For instance. Dey and Shao. obtain the asymmetric probit link proposed by Bazán. obtains the asymmetric probit link proposed in Chen et al (1999) named as CDS skew probit. Another interesting case when mixture of the positive normal with H the cumulative distribution function of the logistic distribution it is considered as skew logistic or skew logit (see Chen. with being the function of density of the standard normal.

the parameters of interest are assumed like random variables and so is need establishes a priori probability distributions that reflects our previous knowledge of its behavior. For skew associated with the asymmetric link. In the present work. For Power Logit and Scobit probit and skew logit The logit. the likelihood function is given by Where is the cdf of an asymmetric distribution indexed by the shape parameter . Bayesian Inference is facilitated with the use of different MCMC methods implemented in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS software using a minimum programming. probit. 2009). scobit and power logit links consider this likelihood function. we consider priors that they are vague proper priors with known distributions but variance big as well as independence between priors (see Nzoufras. Combining the likelihood function and the priori distributions we can obtain the posteriori distributions of the parameters of interest. In relation with the shape parameter associated ( and . In the Bayesian Inference.3. cloglog. Bayesian Estimation in Binary Regression Considering the distribution Bernoulli for the variable response.1. For more details about the use of these software for Bayesian Inference and usual Binary regression 8 . where With as indicated above. thus is assumed and this case is considered for with to be large. . . however skew probit and skew logit links consider other versions of the likelihood function considering augmented versions that are discussed in the specific references of these models. In Binary Regression models there is consensus about the prior specification for regression coefficients. with the link: for Scobit and Power logit models is assumed ) and for skew probit models In addition is assumed independent priors as .

The variables used in beetles. An introduction to MCMC methods is given in Gilks. DPpackage. The group of data is denominated as beetles.models we suggest the book of Congdon (2005). bayesm.txt that is found in this downloads of the program. skew probit (CDS. Congdon (2010) and Ntzoufras (2009).4. 2007). for most of the models presented here. also References to justify the model and the choices of priors are showed. However. Bayesian Inference for some traditional Binary models considering R packages as arm. Application: Beetles data set The BayesianModeling program generates the necessary syntax for the Bayesian estimation of several models of binary regression.txt are: y: 1 if the beetle died after 5 hours of being exposed to carbon disulfide. generated from any statistics program or from Excel. scobit. 1. In BayesianModeling. Richardson. power logit. LaplacesDemon. using diverse methods MCMC. The Binary regression models implemented in BayesianModeling classified according to its links are: • Symmetric: probit. skew logit. there is no program that generates codes for WinBUGS or OpenBUGS with exception of BRMUW (Bazán 2010) a previous version of this program in Spanish. and Spiegelhalter (1996). MCMCpack are available. logit. BBB and standard). when a specific code is generated for a Binary regression model. 0 otherwise 9 . In contrast. • Asymmetric: cloglog. in the WinBUGS program (see Spiegelhalter et al. For this only is necessary to have a text file with the data. In the columns normally appear the names of the variables in the first line and in the first column should appear the response variable. All codes for Binary regression models are established considering the likelihood function presented here and considering the priors suggested with the exception of the skew logit and skew probit models which use an augmented likelihood function version. probit and extreme value models of the WinBUGS. 1996) or OpenBUGS (Spiegelhalter et al. As example consider the group of data Beetles: logistic. BUGS codes for all Binary regression models presented here are facilitated using BayesianModeling. Also.

. 1 x 1. . .5.x: concentration of carbon disulfide that a beetle was exposed The data file has the following structure y 1 1 .5.txt described in the previous section. Dey and Shao.6907 . Use of BayesianModeling 1. 2001).6907 1. More details in Bazán. 1.1 Use of the BayesianModeling to generate the syntax of the model We will use the BayesianModeling to implement the model of binary regression with skew logit link for the data beetles. To start using the program you must Open your data file before of choose the models for them. 1. Go to File > Open 10 . Bolfarine y Branco (2010) 1.8839 As an application example we consider the following model Where corresponds to the skew logit link (see Chen. .

Select the data set file you want work.dat) 3.csv.2. . The program can open data file in ASCII format (. To select the model you want Click on Binary Regression button or Go to Models > Binary Regression 11 .txt and . Navigate to the directory that contains your dataset files.

This will open the dialog box “Binary Regression Data”. select the dependent variable and covariates variable you want.4. 5. select All. Click and drag the variables. Afterward. Also. 12 . In the example. you must to indicate if will use all the data or only a part of them considering the options in Cases. In this case y and x respectively.

click Models. Both files are readable in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. Then. In this case Skew Logit Model and Binary Regression Data. corresponding for the selected models and for data. Here you must to select the models that will be used. This will open the dialog box “Binary Regression Models”.6. 7. in this example only select the model skew-logit and do click in OK. 13 . Two type of files are generated.

To generate new models for other data is recommended to restart the program and follow the steps presented.txt and Skew Logit Model.txt for its subsequent use. 14 .These two files will have to be saved with format txt. is to say Binary Regression Data.

Here we detail the steps that must be followed to perform the Bayesian inference in WinBUGS. For details. see Chapter 4 of Nzoufras (2009) 1.5.1.2 Bayesian estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBUGS As we have seen the BayesianModeling generates two files. Open the files with the syntax of the model and the previous generated data by the BayesianModeling in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. 15 . one that contains the model of binary regression with the link selected and another that contains the data set. Both files with txt format have to be opened in the WinBUGS or OpenBUGS program to make the correspondent analysis of inference.

This will open the dialogue box “Specification Tool”. 3. In the below left corner has to appear “model is syntactically correct” that indicates the syntax of the model is properly formulated.txt. 16 . Select the word model highlighting it with the cursor and do click in check model.2. Click in Model > Specification having active the window of the file Skew Logit Model. 4.

17 . Select in the file of the model the line under Data.5. In the below left corner appears “data loaded” indicating that the data have been read. list and do click in load data.

18 .6. In the data file Binary Regression Data.txt select the names of the variables x and y and do click in load data.

7. 19 . In the left corner below has to appear “model compiled”. Once specified the number of chains to generate (in this example 1 chain) do click in compile. The dialogue box “Specification tool” specifies the number of chains that want to generate in the box of text “num of chains”.

Then do click in gen inits. 20 . Select the line under Inits in the file of the model and do click in load inits.8. model initialized”. In the left corner below has to appear “initial values generated. This generates the initial values for the Bayesian Estimation.

9. Do click in Model > Update 21 .

12. click on "coda" on the Sample Monitor Tool. by considering the dialogue box “Sample Monitor Tool”. In addition. this has to be done for each parameter. obtain a trace plots of the chains doing click in history button. which will open the dialogue box “Sample monitor tool”.5. In the example is beta and delta.3 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OPENBUGS in R As we have seen in the previous section with the two files that generates the BayesianModeling can implement the Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or 22 .10. for this go to Inference > Samples. you must to specify the parameters to be monitored. you can: calculate posterior statistics of the parameters doing click in stats button.This will open the dialogue box “Update tool ”. In the text box node type the name of the parameters and then do click in set. Repeat the step 10 as necessary to generate more iterations. In the text box Update Tool type the number of iterations that are required and afterwards does click in update. 11. 1. If you want to save the actual values for further analysis.Then. an estimation of the posterior density doing click in density button and other more statistics of the chains can be calculated using this dialogue box.

txt would remain as model { for(i in 1:n) { m[i] <.1)I(lo[y[i]+1]. sep="". dec=".txt) datos <. et al.txt".0E-3) } delta ~ dunif(-1.) } for (j in 1:k) { beta[j] ~ dnorm(0.txt and the skewlogitModel. up[2]<-50. lo[2]<. 1.-50.m[i]+delta*sigma*V[i] zs[i]~dlogis(muz[i].txt.white=TRUE) 23 . up[1]<. load the library R2WinBUGS.2)) sigma<-1/sqrt(1-pow(delta.". Read the data (the file beetles. Also Bayesian estimation can be implemented by using R2WinBUGS or R2OpenBUGS (Sturtz. Here we will need the file Beatles. na.2)) lo[1]<.beta[1] + beta[2]*x[i] muz[i]<.read.up[y[i]+1]) V[i] ~ dnorm(0. header=TRUE. We copy all the syntax before “Inits” and save it in a file. by example as modelbr. Ligges and Gelman.strip. Then the file modelbr.txt for this Example is in F:\MILUS\beetles.1)I(0.table("F:/MILUS/beetles. packages for Running WinBUGS and OpeBUGS from R respectively or BRugs (Thomas. with the following commando: library(R2WinBUGS) 2. } To implement the Bayesian estimation in R we follow the following steps to use the library R2WinBUGS.1) lambda<-delta/sqrt(1-pow(delta.strings="NA". 2005).1.0. installed previously.OpenBugs programs. 2006) a collection of R functions that allow users to analyze graphical models using MCMC techniques.txt syntax of the model generated in the BayesianModeling.0.0. In R.

n.chains = is the number of chains to be generated.k).save=c("beta". Create a program that generates the initials values typing: inits<-function(){list(beta=rep(0. If we type out in the line of commands of the R a summary of the simulation is obtained 24 . Here will explain in brief the syntax of the command Bugs parameters."lambda").to. Finally with the command bugs implements the Bayesian estimation. n.to.file="F:/MILUS/modelbr.k=k)) 4.chains=1. n.iter=44000.txt".3.5)} 5. program = estimation is the program that will be used to implement the Bayesian With the following command the Bayesian estimation is implemented and the simulations are saved in the object out.program="WinBUGS") 6.file = is the direction where finds the file of the model n.list(datos). n.inits.parameters. Create a list that contain the data and the information of the size of the data set typing: n=nrow(datos) k=ncol(datos) data<-c(as.save = is a vector with the names of the parameters of the model which simulations we wish to save. model.delta=0. n. out<-bugs(data. model.burnin=4000.iter = is the number of the total iterations of each chain.list(n=n.burnin = is the number of iterations to be discharged as burn-in.

3 15.0 lambda 0.txt".9 beta[2] 35.0 1.> out Inference for Bugs model at "G:/MILUS/modelbr.directory. n. the latter makes use of function openbugs and requires the CRAN package BRugs.7 1035.5% 25% 50% 75% 97.7 986. fit using WinBUGS. pD = Dbar-Dhat) pD = -9. The directory that contains the WinBUGS executable.4 -62.thin = 40 n.sims = 1000 iterations saved mean sd 2. Also you can specify the program to use.1 0.8 -64.bugs. it will be used as the default. 25 .3 0.2 3.2 38. Finally. either winbugs/WinBUGS or openbugs/OpenBUGS.directory is not NULL.2 0. If the global option R2WinBUGS. 7.9 35.7 1024.3 and DIC = 1020.0 DIC info (using the rule.3 -60. 1 chains.5% beta[1] -62.2 36.7 deviance 1029. You can specify Bug.0 DIC is an estimate of expected predictive error (lower deviance is better).7 1.4 33. to greater details about the command bugs you can obtain help typing in the line of the commands the following ?bugs Note.1 -55.8 -1.0 1044. each with 44000 iterations (first 4000 discarded).6 31.1 -67.0 1040.2 -0.

and Observations The Two-Parameter IRT model satisfies the property of latent conditional independence. 1. Item Response Theory models Consider data collected of persons who have each given responses on different items of a test. to the discrimination and the difficulty of the item . and some occasions it is interpreted as the latent ability of the person . A Two-Parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) model one-dimensional and binary is a system in which for each person latent variable model has a unidimensional monotone . i. is called the item characteristic curve (ICC) and is a latent lineal predictor associated with the latent trait of the person the item parameters for the item . are two parameters that represent. is the conditional probability given to respond correctly to item . Item Response Theory 2. the items are scored as 1 if correct and 0 if no.2. for a person response variable satisfies the property of latent monotonicity. the to the different items are conditionally independent given the latent is one-dimensional latent.e. 26 . defined by the following expressions: where is the manifest variable which model the binary response of the person that answer to the item . respectively. because is a function strictly no decreasing of . The items have binary outcomes. is the value of the latent variable or trait latent for the person . it is..

where is called the link function. the conjoint density of the vector of multivariate responses . The parameters of difficulty and of discrimination represent the location and inclination of the item. When it used this parameterization. are not expected. respectively. the previous parameter of difficulty can be obtained doing in the obtained result. . for a probit link function and empathizing this can be named as 2P model. This parametrización is very important from the computational point of view since it facilitates the computational time of convergence. with given the vector of latent variables can be and the vector of parameters of the items written as: The proof of this result is direct by considering the latent conditional independence. The parametric space for the than by the usual take values in is arbitrary and to be the same as Another parameterization very common for the predictor linear latent is . Generally. being inclination of the ICC in the point and a proportional value to the is the point on where the ICC has its maximum slope. This model is known in the psychometric literature as normal ogive model which corresponds in the context of Generalize Linear Models. The first IRT binary model was introduced by Lord (1952) with an ICC given by being the cdf of a standard normal variable. this parameterization is preferred in the Bayesian Inference and also in BayesianModeling. 27 . In The Two-Parameter IRT model. and . is the same for each case and Also is assumed that responses are independent between persons. Values as parameter the line real.

parameters IRT get this item correct by chance. in the language of the generalized linear models.On the other hand. when probit or logit links are considered we have 3P or 3L IRT model respectively. In its simplest version could take and consider an ICC of the form This is called of one-parameter IRT model and when probit or logit links are considered we have 1P or 1L IRT model respectively. which depend basically of as it considers the ICC. to a logit link function. where denotes the cdf of a logistic variable. Birbaum (1968) considered a ICC given by . The version of three parameters for this model establishes that the probability that the person hit the item is given by: 28 . This induces. The IRT model with logit link The IRT model with logit link or logistic model is probably the model more used in IRT. This model is known as the logistic model and empathizing the link is named here as 2L model. If model. Particular cases The IRT model admits diverse formulations. In a general way we could consider an ICC of the form Where the parameter indicates the probability that very low ability individuals will is the distribution function. This is known as the . and three-parameter IRT model. Again. the model is reduced to the two.

this is the case of the logistic and of normal ogive models.where usually is assumed that although some authors consider also the value for approximating this model to the normal ogive model. As particular cases have The last model of a parameter. news IRT models with asymmetric links are considered also in BayesianModeling which are presented in the next section. However. This asymmetry is necessary in many cases for a better modelization of answers with a low proportion of 0´s or 1's. is knows as well as the Rasch model but it has own interpretations and derivations (see for example Fischer and Molenaar. 1P. as it has observed Samejima (2000). The skew normal ogive model The skew normal ogive model was proposed by Bazán et al (2006) assuming that the probability of success considering the abilities and the item parameters associates it given by: 29 . By considering this links. IRT Models with asymmetric links In the traditional IRT models. the asymmetric ICC are considered symmetrical. 2P and 3P IRT models. these models are symmetric IRT models. 2. The BayesianModeling program allows implementing the code in WinBUGS for the models 1L. Then will show three of these models. 2L. In addition. 3L.2. Bazán et al (2006) and Bolfarine and Bazán (2010) asymmetric ICC can be incorporated considering a new parameter of item that controls the shape of the curve. 1995).

the probability of correct response . assume that the probability of correct response considering the abilities and the item parameters associates it given by where is the cdf of the logistic distribution indexed by the parameter . the normal ogive model (2P) is obtained. The LPE and RLPE models Logistic positive exponent (LPE) was proposed by Samejima (2000). but as indicated in Bazán .where and is a parameter of asymmetry. named Reflection Logistic positive exponent (RLPE) was formulated by Bolfarine and Bazán (2010). 2010) and for this reason the model can be named also two-parameter skew probit or 2SP IRT model. A reversal version. In the first case. These models. Bolfarine and Branco. the probability of correct response has a slow growth for low values . For LPE model and for RLPE model and . In this formulation the link considered is the BBB skew probit link (see Bazán. On the other hand. Is because this behavior that has a quick growth for low values of the latent variable this parameter is interpreted as a penalization parameter for item. respectively. 30 . Main details about this model can be reviewed in Bazán et al (2006). this characterize by And the second case by: These correspond to the cdf of the Scobit distribution and Burr of type II. evaluated in Depending that function of distribution specifies will have 2LPE or 2RLPE IRT models. if . Notice that if et al (2006) if of latent variable . When only difficulty parameter is considered we have the 1SP IRT model. studied in Bolfarine and Bazán (2010). is the latent linear predictor denote the cdf of a skew normal distributions with function of density being the pdf of a standard normal variable.

The Logistic (logit). In traditional 31 . however skew probit IRT consider other version of the likelihood function considering augmented version that is discussed in the specific references of this model. In the present work. Branco and Bolfarine (2006). the likelihood function for IRT model in the three-parameter IRT model is given by Where is the cdf of an asymmetric distribution indexed by the parameter associated with the asymmetric ICC. LPE and RLPE consider this likelihood function. Branco and Bolfarine (2006). Thus. 2009). Particular cases and extensions considering one-parameter or three-parameters are possible. Combining the likelihood function and the priori distributions we can obtain the posteriori distributions of the parameters of interest. More details of this model can review in Bolfarine y Bazán (2010). 3LPE and 3RLPE are another IRT models implemented in BayesianModeling. we consider priors that they are vague proper priors with known distributions but variance big as well as independence between priors (see Nzoufras. In WinBUGS. In the Bayesian Inference. 1RLPE.3.Note that but it holds that or or and y are asymmetric In both models can also interpret like a parameter of penalty or bonus of similar way to the case of the model of skew normal ogive model given by Bazán. the implementation of this procedure is not direct because it requires of a correct specification of the indicator variables. 1LPE. Main details can find in Bazán. the parameters of interest are assumed like random variables and so is need establishes a priori probability distributions that reflects our previous knowledge of its behavior. Normal ogive (probit). Bayesian estimation in IRT Considering the distribution Bernoulli for the response variable. 2.

2011) and Matlab package: (IRTuno: Sheng. Valdivieso and Calderón (2010). Bazán. there is no program that generates codes for WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. and ) . An introduction to MCMC methods is given in Gilks. thus is assumed for . Richardson. Fox (2010). IRTm2noHA: Sheng. Bolfarine and Leandro (2006). 2008b. 2010) are available. Congdon (2010) and Ntzoufras (2009). and Spiegelhalter (1996). and ) . IRTmu2no: Sheng. Fox (2010). correspond to the prior distributions of item parameters In the special case of size of small samples we suggested the use of the following prior specification with and ( and ) where correspond the positive normal or Half-normal distribution.( ). Sahu (2002). Also. with ( and . However about item parameter there is several proposals. Johnson and Albert (1999). where .IRT models priors are discussed in Albert (1992). This is facilitated using BayesianModeling. Here is assumed independent priors as Where is a pdf of normal distribution and and . Patz and Junker (1999). . Bazan.For LPE and RLPE models .For Ogive skew normal model Bayesian Inference in IRT models is facilitated with the use of different methods MCMC implemented in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS software. The IRT models implemented in BayesianModeling classified according to its links are: 32 . Bayesian Inference for some traditional IRT models using R package (MCMCpack: Martin. For traditional IRT models Bugs codes are available by example in Curtis (2010). for most of the models presented here. Quinn and Park. respectively. However. Dey and Zumbo (2004). 2008a. Rupp. For more details about the use of these softwares for Bayesian Inference we suggest the book of Congdon (2005). In IRT models there is consensus about the prior specification for latent trait. ( .

3RLPE). Bolfarine and Leandro (2006). All codes for IRT models are established considering the likelihood function presented here and considering the priors suggested with the exception of the skew probit IRT models which use an augmented likelihood function version. generated from any statistics program or from Excel. 2. 2P.• Symmetric: logistic (1L.pe/umc/admin/images/publicaciones/boletines/Boletin13. RLPE (1RLPE. Number of item of Math data 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 33 . consider a data set of 14 items from a Mathematical test developed by the Unity of Measurement of the Educative Quality of Peru for the National Evaluation of the sixth degree of 1998 which were applied to a sample of 131 students of sixth degree of high socioeconomic level. 2SP).gob. also References to justify the model and the choices of priors are showed.minedu. using diverse MCMC methods. 3L). when a specific code is generated for a IRT model. The released items are a sampling from a test that appears published in the following link: http://www2. Branco and Bolfarine (2006) and Bazán. skew probit (1SP. 3P). usually appear the names of the items in the first line. 2LPE. 2RLPE.pdf In the table appears the identification corresponding to the number of item with the number in the UMEQ test. probit (1P. 2L. In BayesianModeling. For this only is necessary to have a file of text with the data. • Asymmetric: LPE (1LPE. As an example. These data have been used in Bazán. Application: Math data set The program BayesianModeling generates the syntaxes necessary for the Bayesian estimation of several models of the Item Response Theory.4. for posterior use in WinBUGS (see Spiegelhalter et al 1996) or OpenBUGS (Spiegelhalter et al 2007) program. In each column. 3LPE).

1 . . . . I12 0 0 . . 1 I02 1 1 . Go to File > Open 34 . . . . . .. . . 1 As an example of application we consider an IRT model with asymmetric link. 1 I03 0 1 . where skew normal cdf. .. is a parameter of penalty and denote the 2. .. . . . . .1 Generate the syntax of the model 1. . Branco and Bolfarine (2006). . For more details of this application... 0 I06 0 1 . this is a two-parameter skew probit IRT model (2SP) .Number of item in the UMEQ test 1 8 9 11 12 13 21 25 32 5 17 30 2 10 The data file can be found in the file zip of the program and has the following structure: I01 1 1 . Use of the BayesianModeling We described the use of the BayesianModeling to implements the 2SP IRT model to the data of MathData. .. . . 0 I13 0 1 .dat described in the previous section.. 0 I04 1 1 . 1 I14 1 1 . . . 0 I07 1 1 . .5. 1 I05 1 1 . in this case we consider the skew normal ogive model with parameters of difficulty and of discrimination.5. 2. review Bazán..

3.2. Click Item Response Theory 35 . Open the file with the data set.

This will open the dialogue box “Item Response Data”. 5.4. As well as to indicate if will use all the data or only a part of them. 36 . Then select the items that will be used.

37 . Here have to select the models that will be used. 6. in this example only select the 2SP model and click OK. Then click in Models to open the dialogue box “Item Response Theory”.In our case will select all the variables as items and then click in All.

BayesianModeling generates two files. 2. (Item Response Data).2 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBUGS For a appropriate analysis of Bayesian inference of the model generated make the following. Both files in format txt have to be saved to be opened in the program WinBUGS or OpenBUGS to do the appropriate analysis of Bayesian inference. This generates two data files: the file with the syntax of the model chosen in WinBUGS (Skew Probit 2SP Model) and another file with the syntax of the data. one that contains the model of Binary regression with the link selected and another file that contains the data set.5. 38 .7.

39 . txt. 2. Open the files with the syntax of the model and of the data previously generated by the BayesianModeling in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. Having activated the window of Skew Probit 2SP Model. This will open the dialogue box “Specification Tool”.1. click Model > Specification 3.

In the left corner below appears “data loaded ” indicating that the data have been loaded. Select the model. the line under data and do click load data.txt file. 40 . Select in the Skew Probit 2SP Model.4. highlighting the word model and click check model. In the left corner below has to appear “model is syntactically correct” that indicates that the syntax of the model has been properly formulated 5.

In the data file select the list of the variables that are placed in the first row and click load data.6. 41 .

8. In the dialogue box “Specification tool” indicate the number of chains that want to generate in the text box “num of chains”. Then click gen inits. Select the line under Inits in the file of the model and click load inits.7. In the left corner below has to appear “model compiled”. model initialized” 42 . This generates the initial values for the Bayesian estimation. In the left corner below has to appears “initial values generated. Once specified the number of chains to generate (in this example 1 chain) do click compile.

In the text box updates enter the number of iterations that requires and then click update.9. 43 . Click Model > Update 10. This will open the dialogue box “Update tool”.

In the text box node type the name of the parameter and then click set. for this go to Inference > Samples. 44 . an estimation of the posteriori density and others statistics of the chains can be calculated using this dialogue box. 12. 11. a historical of the chains clicking history. can calculate posteriori statistics of the parameters clicking stats.While the program does the iterations. in the left corner below will appear the following message “model is updating” until the iterations finish when the following message “4000 updates took 61 s” appears. Repeat the step 10 generating more iterations that now have being saved by the WinBUGS or OpenBugs. which will open the dialogue box “Sample monitor tool”. this has to be done for each parameter. In the dialogue box “Sample Monitor Tool”. Then should specify that parameters need the program save.

. . . .3 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OPENBUGS in R As we have seen in the previous section with the two files that generates the BayesianModeling can implement the Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs programs. I12 0 0 . 0 I13 0 1 . 1 I14 1 1 . et al.. 45 .e. 2005)... . . . . . 1 I04 1 1 . .. .. Ligges and Gelman. For this will need the original text file with the data in columns: I01 1 1 . .. .1) and the syntax of the model generated in BayesianModeling will have to copy only the syntax of the model.. .. . . 1 i. . 2006) a collection of R functions that allow users to analyze graphical models using MCMC techniques. . 1 I03 0 1 . 1 I02 1 1 . packages for Running WinBUGS and OpeBUGS from R respectively or BRugs (Thomas. Also Bayesian estimation can be implemented by using R2WinBUGS or R2OpenBUGS (Sturtz.5. . 1 .2.dat (See section 2. 0 1 1 . In the example below implement the 2SP model. .5. . . the file called MathData. 0 I05 0 1 . . . 0 I06 1 1 . . .

5.5.0.0. Leandro.1.0.5.5.txt would remain 46 .0.0.5.5. Journal of the Inter-American Statistical Institute.5. (2006).j] Zs[i.0.0.0. M.5.5.0.-50.5.5.5.5. A.1-delta^2)I(0.0.0.5.5.5.0. #Bayesian Analysis.0.5.5.0.b=c(0.5.0.5. 861-892.0.0.0.0.0.0.. 0.ime.0.0.5.0.j] ~ dnorm(muz[i.5.0.5.0.5.0.theta=c(0..0.5.0.0.5.5.j]+1].0.0. A skew item response model.0.0.0.up[y[i.0.j]+1]) V[i.5. lo[2]<.5.0.5.0.0.1.b[j] .0.1.0.0.5.0. 0.5.5)) #Bazán.0.5. R.0.5.5.0.1. #Estadística.5.5.0.5.0.5. L.0.0.5. 0.5.1.0.0.5.5.0.0.5.0.j]-delta[j]*V[i.0. 0.0.5.0. k=14) #load your data in other file Inits list(a=c(1.0.0.0.5.0.0) up[1]<.5.0.0. H.0.0.0.1.mean(b[]) #Bazan et al 2006 delta[j] ~ dunif(-1.5.5.0.5.5.0.0.0.5.0.0.0.5. for this example modelirt.0.0.0.0.5.0. 0.5.5.0.0.0.5.5.txt. 0.0.0.) # difficulty centred in zero bc[j] <.0.0.1.5.5.0).0.5.0).5.5.pdf #Bazán.0 ## Zs*|y=0~N(-delta*V+m.0.5.5.5.0.0.5.0.5.5.5.model{ for (i in 1:n) { for (j in 1:k) { m[i.0.5.5.0.1/(1-pow(delta[j].0.0.0.5) # discrimination a[j] ~ dnorm(1.0.0.0.5.0..0.5.0.0.0.0. 0.1) preczs[j]<. #Available in http://www.2)) lambda[j]<-delta[j]*sqrt(preczs[j]) } lo[1]<.0.usp.0.0.0.0.5.5.5.5.1.1-delta^2)I(-50. J.5.0.0.0.5.0.5.0.j] ~ dnorm(0.0.0.0. 1742.0.5.0.0.0.5.0 .0.0.5.5.1.5.1.0.0.5. Branco.0. This should copy the syntax before “data” and save it in a file.5. Sensitivity analysis of #prior specification for the probit-normal IRT model: an empirical study.0.5.5.0.5.0.5.0.50) mu<-mean(theta[]) du<-sd(theta[]) } } data list(n=131.0.0.0.0.5.0.0.5.0.0.0.5.5.0.5.0.0.0.j]<-m[i.0. J.0.0.0.0.5.0.5.2)I(0.0.0).0.0.0.preczs[j])I(lo[y[i.0.0.0.0.1.0.0. Then the file modelirt.5.0.5.0.0.0.5.5.0.5.5.0.5.0.5. & Bolfarine (2006).j].0.0.0.1.5.5.5.1) } #items priors for (j in 1:k) { # usual priors #Bazan et al (2006) # difficulty (-intercept) with prior similar to bilog b[j] ~ dnorm(0.j]<-a[j]*theta[i]-b[j] muz[i.5.5.5.0.0.) } } #abilities priors for (i in 1:n) { theta[i]~dnorm(0. 1.0.0. up[2]<-50 ## Zs*|y=1~N(-delta*V+m.5.0.5.0.0.1.0.5.0.0.5. D.1)I(0.5.5.0.5.5.0.0.5.0. Bolfarine. 58(170-171).5.5.5.delta=c(0.br/~jbazan/download/bazanestadistica.0.0.0.5.0.0.5.5.5.5.

1) } #items priors for (j in 1:k) { # usual priors #Bazan et al (2006) # difficulty (-intercept) with prior similar to bilog b[j] ~ dnorm(0.j]<-a[j]*theta[i]-b[j] muz[i.mean(b[]) #Bazan et al 2006 delta[j] ~ dunif(-1.1-delta^2)I(0.2)) lambda[j]<-delta[j]*sqrt(preczs[j]) } lo[1]<. Create a list that contain the data and the information of the number of persons and items using the following command n=nrow(datos) k=ncol(datos) data<-list(y=as.n=131.dat".j] ~ dnorm(muz[i.0) up[1]<. dec=". up[2]<-50 ## Zs*|y=1~N(-delta*V+m.strings="NA".k=14) 47 .1-delta^2)I(-50.) } } #abilities priors for (i in 1:n) { theta[i]~dnorm(0.strip.j] ~ dnorm(0. Read the data (the MathData.j]+1].j] Zs[i.j].j]<-m[i.b[j] .matrix(datos).1) preczs[j]<.white=TRUE) 3.dat) datos <.up[y[i. download the library R2WinBUGS with the following command: library(R2WinBUGS) 2.0.2)I(0.5) # discrimination a[j] ~ dnorm(1. header=TRUE. Remember to install it previously. lo[2]<.) # difficulty centred in zero bc[j] <.1)I(0.0 ## Zs*|y=0~N(-delta*V+m.j]-delta[j]*V[i.dat file for this example is placed in the folder F:\MILUS\MathData.preczs[j])I(lo[y[i.0.50) mu<-mean(theta[]) du<-sd(theta[]) } } Then.table("F:/MILUS/MathData. to implement the Bayesian estimation in R will follow the next steps to use the library R2WinBUGS.read. In R.1/(1-pow(delta[j]. na.".-50.j]+1]) V[i. sep="".model{ for (i in 1:n) { for (j in 1:k) { m[i. 1.

3 0.8 1.7 a[13] 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.txt".0 a[2] 0.1 1.6 a[5] 0.6 1.2 0.iter = is the number of total iterations of each chain.8 0.4 0.6 2.5 0.0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.1 0.5% a[1] 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0. model.3 0. n.4 0.k). Create a program that will generate initial values.4 0.4 0. n.6 0.theta=rep(n.2 0.6 1.3 0.delta=rep(0.b=rep(0.3 0.5 0.5% 25% 50% 75% 97.to.2 0.0 1.6 1.8 1.2 0.burnin=4000.1 48 .2 0.5 a[10] 0.2 0.7 a[9] 0.3 0.iter=24000.6 a[3] 0.3 1.to.2 0.4. Finally the command bugs implements the Bayesian estimation.0 0.0 0.3 0.burnin = is the number of iterations that will be discharged as burn-in.4 0. program = is the program that will be used to implement the Bayesian inference n. Here will explain in brief the syntax of the command bugs parameters.1 0. n.9 a[11] 1.3 0.3 0.7 a[7] 0.9 0.7 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.3 0. n.2 0.save = is a vector with the names of the parameters of the model which simulations want to store.k). n.thin = 20 n.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 1. Then the following command implements the Bayesian estimation and the simulations are stored in the object out. inits <.5 0.1 0.9 a[14] 0.file="F:/MILUS/modelirt.file = is the name of the file where the model is saved. model.k). each with 24000 iterations (first 4000 discarded).0 0.9 0. fit using WinBUGS.6 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.chains=1.1 0. program="WinBUGS") 6.1 0.2 0. out<bugs(data. 1 chains. n.4 a[12] 0.sims = 1000 iterations saved mean sd 2.3 0.0 0.inits.save=c("a".burnin = is the number of iterations that will be discharged as burn-in.txt".2 0.0 a[6] 0.chains = is the number of chains that will be generated.9 a[4] 0.6 0.4 0.5))} 5.5 a[8] 0.3 0.6 0.0 1."delta").4 0.4 0."b". n. If type out in the line of commands of R obtain a summary of the simulation > out Inference for Bugs model at "F:/MILUS/modelirt.function(){ list(a=rep(1.6 1.parameters.3 0.

0 0.9 -0.9 delta[4] -0.6 -1.4 -1.9 deviance 3855.7 0.9 -0.1 0.9 0.1 0.4 0.4 -1.2 b[10] -1.1 0.6 0.9 -1.5 -0.0 0.1 0.2 -0.5 -0.9 -0.3 0.3 0.0 b[14] -1.0 b[13] -0.5 1.9 -0.5 -0.7 -1.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.6 -1.9 delta[11] -0.0 0.6 0.9 -0.3 -2.3 0.7 -0.4 0.5 delta[1] 0.5 -1.7 -1.0 b[7] -1. Note that for now we just asked for monitoring the parameters a.8 -0.1 0.2 0.4 -1.9 delta[12] 0. You can specify Bug.6 -1.1 -1.directory.3 -1.4 0.9 delta[8] -0.7 -3.7 DIC is an estimate of expected predictive error (lower deviance is better).3 0.0 -0.4 -1.5 -0.1 0.9 -0.4 0.0 -0.1 0.6 -1.5 -0.9 delta[13] 0.9 delta[9] -0. execution may be delayed! 49 .4 0.5 -0.0 b[3] 0.2 0.4 -0.9 -0.1 0.4 -1.9 -0.0 b[2] -0.4 0.1 0.8 1.4 1.1 0. either winbugs/WinBUGS or openbugs/OpenBUGS.0 b[11] -1. But if it requires could ask for .0 0.5 -0.4 0.6 -2.5 b[5] -1.2 -0.1 0. b and delta.0 delta[7] -0.5 -0.4 -0.4 1.1 0.8 -0.4 -0.1 0.5 -0.4 -0.0 0.6 1.0 3904.0 and DIC = 3803.0 0.8 -0. the latter makes use of function openbugs and requires the CRAN package BRugs.4 -1.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 b[12] 0.5 -0.b[1] -0.7 b[4] -1. pD = Dbar-Dhat) pD = -52.5 -0.0 DIC info (using the rule.3 0. 7.3 -1.3 0.0 -0.0 0.2 b[9] -0.0 delta[2] -0.0 0.6 0.2 0.0 delta[14] -0.6 0.1 0.4 -0.directory is not NULL.9 -0.4 0.6 -0.8 -1.4 0.9 delta[6] 0.9 delta[5] -0.8 66.0 -0.9 -0.2 0.3 0. If the global option R2WinBUGS.5 0.1 0.6 -0.0 3865.9 0.0 0.3 -1.2 0.5 -1.9 delta[3] 0.1 -0.7 0.5 -0.1 b[6] 0.5 -1.2 -0. for more details in the command bugs can consult Help writing in the line of commands ?bugs Note.7 -1. The directory that contains the WinBUGS executable.8 delta[10] -0.0 3963.5 b[8] -1.9 -0.9 3814.5 -1.9 -0. In addition.7 -2.3 3703.0 -1.5 -0.0 0.0 -0.3 0.2 0.3 0. because of the large number of parameters in IRT models.0 0.4 0.9 0. Also you can specify the program to use.6 -2. it will be used as the default.9 0.4 -1.6 0.6 -2.0 0.3 0. Finally.2 -0.3 -1.3 -1.5 0.0 0.7 -0.2 0.7 0.9 -1.0 -0.5 -2.6 -2.4 0.8 -0.0 0.6 -1.bugs.

pe/~jlbazan/download/ManualdeusoBRMUW. 17-42.Theory and Methods.pdf Bazán.” Communications in Statistics . 861.References Albert. Version 1. Enfoque bayesiano en modelos de Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem. Bayesian Computation with R. Bolfarine H. BK Mallick (eds.pe/~jlbazan/download/bazanestadistica.pdf Bazán JL. Journal of the Inter-American Statistical Institute 58(170-171).pe/~jlbazan/download/Reportef27.edu.” Bayesian Analysis.” Estadística. SK Ghosh. “Generalized Linear Models: A Bayesian Perspective”.892. Serie B.pucp. Bolfarine H Leandro AR (2006).0. Bazán JL (2010).” In DK Dey.pdf 50 .pe/~jlbazan/download/gspversion14. Reporte de Investigación. JL. URL http://argos. Branco MD (2010) “A framework for skew-probit links in Binary regression. Manual de uso de BRMUW. PUCP. 39. Branco MD (2006).pucp. URL http://argos. Departamento de Ciencias. 678-697 Bazán JL. URL http://argos. Bolfarine H. Department of Statistics. Mukhopadhyay S (2000).edu. Nro 25. “Binary response regression with normal scale Mixtures links.). New York: Marcel Dekker.edu. University of São Paulo.pucp. Valdivieso L. Bazán JL. Bolfarine H (2006) “A skew item response model.pucp. Branco MD.edu. Technical report (RT-MAE-2006-05). Software. PUCP. Departamento de Ciencias. Calderón A (2010). 1. URL http://argos. A generalized skew probit class link for binary regression. J (2009). Springer Verlag Basu S.pdf Bazán JL. “Sensitivity analysis of prior specification for the probit-normal IRT model: an empirical study.

Fischer G. Tao J. Spiegelhalter D (1996).” Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin. 51. The Nerthelands: Springer-Verlag. New York: Springer. Chapman & Hall/CRC. FL. Collet D (2003). Louis TA (2000). In FM Lord. New York: Addison-Wesley. USA. (2001). “Bayesian analysis of binary data using Skewed logit models. Shi NZ (2009). 1-34. Fu ZH. Bayes and Empirical Bayes Methods for Data Analysis. Dey D. Boca Raton. and applications. “Bayesian estimation of the logistic positive Exponent IRT Model”. Molenaar I (1995).” Journal of Statistical Software. 35. Chapman & Hall.” Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation. Bazán JL (2010). 36(1).Birnbaum A (1968). 51 . Second Edition. London. Chapman & Hall. Some Latent Trait Models and Their Use in Infering an Examinee's Ability. Shao Q-M. Journal of Educational Behavioral Statistics. Congdon P (2010). London. Boca Raton. Congdon P (2005). 6. Rasch Models Foundations. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods. Chen MH. Curtis MS (2010) “BUGS Code for Item Response Theory. Wiley. Bayesian Item Response Modeling: Theory and Applications. CRC. recent development.835. “Bayesian estimation in the multidimensional threeparameter logistic model. 201-202. Fox JP (2010). 819 . MR Novick (eds) Statistical Theories of Mental Test Scores. 693-713 Carlin BP. 79. Bolfarine H. Chapman & Hall / CRC. Modelling binary data. Richardson S. Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice. Bayesian Models for Categorical Dates. Gilks W.

” American Journal of Political Science. Vienna. Ntzoufras I (2009). Albert J (1999). Prentice RL (1976). Park. 52 . 65(3): 319-335. Quinn KM.R-project. 24. Dey DK. “Adaptive rejection sampling for Gibbs sampling. Austria. BW (1999). R Development Core Team (2004). “To Bayes or Not to Bayes. Wiley Series in Computational Statistics.” Psychometrika. 32(4). Wild P (1992). Junker.” Journal of Statistical Software. “MCMCpack: Markov Chain Monte Carlo in R. Lord FM (1952).Gilks. A theory of test scores. New York: Psychometric Society. RJ. 230-255. Hoboken. “Logistic positive exponent family of models: Virtue of asymmetric item characteristic curves. New York: Springer-Verlag. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Sahu SK (2002). 146-178. “A Generalization of the probit and logit methods for Dose response curves”. 72: 217-232. Samejima F (2000). 41: 337-348 Johnson V. Bayesian Modeling Using WinBugs. “Scobit: An alternative estimator to Logit and Probit. 424-451. //www. WR. JH (2011). Ordinal Data Modeling. “Bayesian estimation and model choice in item response models”. Biometrika. 761-768.” Structural Equations Modeling.” Journal of Educactional and Behavioral Statistics. 38(1). URL http: Rupp A. Patz. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. from Whether to When: Applications of Bayesian Methodology to Item Response Modeling. Journal Statistical Computing Simulation. Martin AD. USA. “A straightforward approach to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for item response models. Nagler J (1994). 42(9): 1-21.org. Zumbo B (2004).” Applied Statistics. 11.

Thomas A. Best NG. Thomas A. Best NG. WinBUGS Version 1. 53 .Sheng Y (2008a).cam.” R News. 1 Version i). Cambridge. Cambridge. Journal of Statistical Software. Thomas A. 34(3). UK: University of Cambridge. Sturtz. S. 1-16.mrc- bsu. Gilks. “Making BUGS Open. 12–17. Sheng Y (2008b). Cambridge.2. Lunn D (2003). “A MATLAB Package for Markov Chain Monte Carlo with a Multi-unidimensional IRT Model. (2005).0. Sheng Y (2010). 1–19. 25(8).org/doc/Rnews/. MRC Biostatistics Unit. Gelman A.ac. 1–15. WR (1996) BUGS 0. URL http://CRAN. Spiegelhalter DJ. 28(10). “Markov Chain Monte Carlo Estimation of Normal Ogive IRT Models in MATLAB. Bayesian Estimation of MIRT Models with General and Speciﬁc Latent Traits in MATLAB.uk/bugs/.5 examples (Vol.R-project. O’Hara B. Lunn D (2007).” Journal of Statistical Software. 12(3). URL http://www. 1-27. Ligges U. OpenBUGS User Manual version 3. Ligges U.” Journal of Statistical Software. Best NG. Thomas A.4 Users Manual. Spiegelhalter DJ. “R2WinBUGS: A Package for Running WinBUGS from R. 6(1). Spiegelhalter DJ. Sturtz S (2006). MRC Biostatistics Unit.” Journal of Statistical Software.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Econometrics I 1
- Modeling count data
- statugsurvival
- 100 Data Science in R Interview Questions and Answers for 2016
- Brian Neelon R Programs
- Panel Lecture 01
- A Generalization of the Logistic
- Fitting Linear Regression in SPSS and Output Interpretation
- 4882 Dropout Training as Adaptive Regularization
- Stata _ FAQ_ Computing the Chow Statistic
- TRB2003-000137
- Agrodep Tn 05
- Ho Randfixd
- Appendix
- 0521867061 - Andrew Gelman - Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel~Hierarchical Models [2006]
- G4e12
- Pls-sem
- l83
- v30b03
- Weight of Evidence Formula Guide.pdf
- QM HW 10
- Rasch 3 Minutes
- Cost Behavior Analysis and Justifications of Segmented Reporting
- Exploring Yelp Data Set
- chapter 3
- 322033071
- CFA With Worklife
- SurvivalPart7
- Analysis of Epidemiological Data Using R
- Chapter 14 Fixed Effects Regressions Least Square Dummy Variable Approach (EC220)
- Ba Yes i an Modeling User Manual

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd