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Version 1.0 December 2011

**Jorge Luis Bazán, PhD
**

Department of Sciences Pontifical Catholic University of Peru email: jlbazan@pucp.edu.pe Home Page: http://argos.pucp.edu.pe/~jlbazan/

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Index Introduction

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1. Binary Regression 1.1. Binary Regression Models 1.2. Binary Regression with Asymmetric Links 1.3. Bayesian Inference in Binary Regression 1.4. Application: Beetles data set 1.5. Use of the BayesianModeling 1.5.1 Generate the syntax of the model 1.5.2 Bayesian estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs 1.5.3 Bayesian estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs in R

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2. Item Response Theory 2.1. Item Response Theory Models 2.2. IRT models with asymmetric links 2.3. Bayesian Inference in IRT 2.4. Application: Math data set 2.5 Use of the BayesianModeling 2.5.1 Generate the syntax of the model 2.5.2 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs 2.5.3 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs in R

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3. References

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Introduction BayesianModeling is a java software development tool to generate syntax of several models of Binary Regression and Item Response Theory under a Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Subsequently, the syntax can be executed in the programs OpenBUGS (Spiegelhalter, Thomas, Best, Lunn, 2007), WinBUGS (Spiegelhalter, Thomas, Best, Lunn, 2003) or in R program (R Development Core Team, 2004) through the libraries R2WinBUGS and R2OpenBUGS (Sturtz, Ligges and Gelman, 2005), BRugs (Thomas, et al, 2006) and rbugs. This application is for your personal use and must not be used for any commercial purpose whatsoever without my explicit written permission. The application is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind. In order appropriately to implement the different models mentioned in the application, you it must read in detail the literature suggested in the references and must be familiarized with the Bayesian Inference using MCMC. BayesianModeling is thought for practitioners that given a data set they wish to know the syntax of diverse Binary Regression or Item Response models in bugs code, Theory usually non available in diverse statistical programs including the program R. This program write two files: a bugs model file for each one of this models considering adequate priors, lists with sensible starting values and size of the data set and a data set file in rectangular format, both readable in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. This basic application can be considered a different version of BRMUW (Bazán, 2010) which was developed as part of the projects DAI 3412, 4031 and 2009-0033 of Pontifical Catholic University of Peru with the purpose to disseminate models developed by the author. This application together with some models has been developed for three late years and throughout that time various people have collaborated in this project reason why I desire to express my gratefulness. Among them to the colleagues Oscar Millones, Christian Bayes and Miluska Osorio for theirs aid during the revision of the present version of the application and the user guide. I also am thankful to Martin Iberico, Margareth Sequeiros and Pedro Curich for the computational support in some of the stages of the project. Thank you very much to my family for its patience and support.

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Installation instructions can be found in the included README file. BayesianModeling can run smoothly in any operating systems, such as Windows, Mac OS, Linux, in which the Java Virtual Machine and Perl are supported.

Java: Java SE Runtime Environment 1.6 or later. Perl: Perl v5.10 or later. RAM: ≥ 512M The BayesianModeling package was introduced at the II Conbratri-2011

(http://187.45.202.74/conbratri/).

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1. Binary Regression 1.1. A Binary Regression Models Consider variables, assuming that a an intercept, is a assume that function (cdf). The inverse function a vector of independent dichotomous random and with probability , and

with probability

vector of covariates, where Moreover, denotes the

may equals , corresponding to design matrix with rows , and

vector of regression coefficients. Binary regression models where denotes a cumulative distribution

is typically called the link function and

is the linear predictor. Thus, a binary regression model is given by

When about

a cdf of a symmetric distribution, the response curve is has symmetric form . Examples are obtained when is in the class of the elliptical distributions as,

for example, standard normal, logistic, Student- , double exponential and Cauchy distributions. In the case that is the cdf of a standard normal distribution we obtain the probit link

and in the case that

is the cdf of a logistic distribution we obtain the logit link,

These links: probit and logit are implemented in BayesianModeling.

1.2. Asymmetric Links in Binary Regression As reported in the literature, symmetric links are not always appropriate for modeling this kind of data. Nagler (1994), Chen, Dey and Shao (1999) among others, showed the importance of appropriately choosing the link function and how sensitive is the inference if a symmetric link function is incorrectly used in the place of an asymmetric link. The problem appears when the probability of a given binary response approaches at a different rate than it approaches . Moreover, examples are listed in different

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it does not depend on any unknown additional parameter and it does not include any particular case as a symmetrical link. 1985). . for example. 6 . In this case. it represents the distribution accumulated of a and . where the cdf of the Gumbel distribution is considered as defined by Where the cdf is completely specified and. 2003) reporting situations where an asymmetric link is more appropriate than a symmetric one. Asymmetric links considered in BayesianModeling are those that are obtained considering other cdf like the following: these links are asymmetric logit and are known as scobit and power logit. probit and logit links in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS can be seeing in the Example Beetles: logistic. This link is considered in Bayesian Modeling. and normal distribution bivariate with parameters . Dey and Shao (1999. In BayesianModeling also are implemented three links that are based in the cdf of a skew normal distribution (see Azzalini. For a review of Where . this cdf can be represented in general by the following way: . probit and carries far estimates models of the Manual.textbooks (see. and include the logit link as special case when the parameter these links see Prentice (1976) and Nagler (1994). Nevertheless Bayesian approach to binary regression models considering other links as the discussed by Bazán. Bolfarine and Branco (2006 and 2010). Nagler (1994). it is necessary to consider asymmetric links. Information of how to implement the Bayesian estimation of the binary regression using the cloglog. 2001) are not available at the moment. respectively. Collet. Prentice (1976). A very popular example of asymmetric link is the complementary log-log link or cloglog. Chen.

. In these three links. Branco and Bolfarine (2006) named as BBB skew probit. the CDS skew probit considers a kind of mixes of normal where the measure of mix is the positive normal distribution with density function given by . 7 . the implemented links in the BayesianModeling are the following: If . with being the function of density of the standard normal. Where is the cdf of a variable in and is an eliptic distribution. If . For instance. Bolfarine y Branco (2006 and 2010) and as especial cases of this general formulation. If . with obtain the standard asymmetric probit link (Bazán. obtain the asymmetric probit link proposed by Bazán. so we has negative asymmetry (positive). Another interesting case when mixture of the positive normal with H the cumulative distribution function of the logistic distribution it is considered as skew logistic or skew logit (see Chen.This links were proposed by Bazán. obtains the asymmetric probit link proposed in Chen et al (1999) named as CDS skew probit. 2001) that also is implemented in BayesianModeling. is the shape parameter that controls the asymmetry. Bolfarine y Branco 2006 y 2010). have for negative values (positive) of These three models can see also as belonging to the kind of mixes of eliptic distributions proposed by Basu and Mukhopadhyay (2000) given by: . Dey and Shao. named here as Standard skew probit.

scobit and power logit links consider this likelihood function. Bayesian Inference is facilitated with the use of different MCMC methods implemented in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS software using a minimum programming. In the present work.3. thus is assumed and this case is considered for with to be large.1. For more details about the use of these software for Bayesian Inference and usual Binary regression 8 . where With as indicated above. In Binary Regression models there is consensus about the prior specification for regression coefficients. In relation with the shape parameter associated ( and . the parameters of interest are assumed like random variables and so is need establishes a priori probability distributions that reflects our previous knowledge of its behavior. Bayesian Estimation in Binary Regression Considering the distribution Bernoulli for the variable response. . . For Power Logit and Scobit probit and skew logit The logit. with the link: for Scobit and Power logit models is assumed ) and for skew probit models In addition is assumed independent priors as . Combining the likelihood function and the priori distributions we can obtain the posteriori distributions of the parameters of interest. cloglog. however skew probit and skew logit links consider other versions of the likelihood function considering augmented versions that are discussed in the specific references of these models. the likelihood function is given by Where is the cdf of an asymmetric distribution indexed by the shape parameter . 2009). For skew associated with the asymmetric link. we consider priors that they are vague proper priors with known distributions but variance big as well as independence between priors (see Nzoufras. probit. In the Bayesian Inference.

skew logit. 2007). • Asymmetric: cloglog. Also. LaplacesDemon. BUGS codes for all Binary regression models presented here are facilitated using BayesianModeling.4. in the WinBUGS program (see Spiegelhalter et al. In the columns normally appear the names of the variables in the first line and in the first column should appear the response variable. bayesm. The variables used in beetles. generated from any statistics program or from Excel. The Binary regression models implemented in BayesianModeling classified according to its links are: • Symmetric: probit. also References to justify the model and the choices of priors are showed. All codes for Binary regression models are established considering the likelihood function presented here and considering the priors suggested with the exception of the skew logit and skew probit models which use an augmented likelihood function version. 1996) or OpenBUGS (Spiegelhalter et al. In contrast. Congdon (2010) and Ntzoufras (2009). when a specific code is generated for a Binary regression model. An introduction to MCMC methods is given in Gilks. using diverse methods MCMC. However. BBB and standard). there is no program that generates codes for WinBUGS or OpenBUGS with exception of BRMUW (Bazán 2010) a previous version of this program in Spanish. As example consider the group of data Beetles: logistic. Bayesian Inference for some traditional Binary models considering R packages as arm.models we suggest the book of Congdon (2005). for most of the models presented here. Richardson. scobit.txt that is found in this downloads of the program. logit. 0 otherwise 9 . In BayesianModeling. and Spiegelhalter (1996). DPpackage. skew probit (CDS. Application: Beetles data set The BayesianModeling program generates the necessary syntax for the Bayesian estimation of several models of binary regression. The group of data is denominated as beetles. probit and extreme value models of the WinBUGS. MCMCpack are available. power logit. For this only is necessary to have a text file with the data. 1.txt are: y: 1 if the beetle died after 5 hours of being exposed to carbon disulfide.

Go to File > Open 10 . Dey and Shao. Bolfarine y Branco (2010) 1. 2001). .txt described in the previous section. To start using the program you must Open your data file before of choose the models for them.5. . .x: concentration of carbon disulfide that a beetle was exposed The data file has the following structure y 1 1 .5. . 1.6907 . More details in Bazán. 1.6907 1.8839 As an application example we consider the following model Where corresponds to the skew logit link (see Chen.1 Use of the BayesianModeling to generate the syntax of the model We will use the BayesianModeling to implement the model of binary regression with skew logit link for the data beetles. Use of BayesianModeling 1. 1 x 1.

Select the data set file you want work. Navigate to the directory that contains your dataset files. The program can open data file in ASCII format (.csv.2.dat) 3. . To select the model you want Click on Binary Regression button or Go to Models > Binary Regression 11 .txt and .

select the dependent variable and covariates variable you want. Also. In the example. Click and drag the variables. 12 . In this case y and x respectively. Afterward. This will open the dialog box “Binary Regression Data”. 5. select All. you must to indicate if will use all the data or only a part of them considering the options in Cases.4.

In this case Skew Logit Model and Binary Regression Data. in this example only select the model skew-logit and do click in OK. This will open the dialog box “Binary Regression Models”. 13 . corresponding for the selected models and for data. click Models. Both files are readable in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS.6. 7. Two type of files are generated. Then. Here you must to select the models that will be used.

txt for its subsequent use.These two files will have to be saved with format txt. To generate new models for other data is recommended to restart the program and follow the steps presented.txt and Skew Logit Model. 14 . is to say Binary Regression Data.

one that contains the model of binary regression with the link selected and another that contains the data set.5. 15 . Both files with txt format have to be opened in the WinBUGS or OpenBUGS program to make the correspondent analysis of inference. Here we detail the steps that must be followed to perform the Bayesian inference in WinBUGS. Open the files with the syntax of the model and the previous generated data by the BayesianModeling in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS.2 Bayesian estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBUGS As we have seen the BayesianModeling generates two files. For details. see Chapter 4 of Nzoufras (2009) 1.1.

Click in Model > Specification having active the window of the file Skew Logit Model. 4. This will open the dialogue box “Specification Tool”. Select the word model highlighting it with the cursor and do click in check model.txt.2. 16 . 3. In the below left corner has to appear “model is syntactically correct” that indicates the syntax of the model is properly formulated.

17 .5. list and do click in load data. In the below left corner appears “data loaded” indicating that the data have been read. Select in the file of the model the line under Data.

txt select the names of the variables x and y and do click in load data. In the data file Binary Regression Data.6. 18 .

19 . Once specified the number of chains to generate (in this example 1 chain) do click in compile. The dialogue box “Specification tool” specifies the number of chains that want to generate in the box of text “num of chains”. In the left corner below has to appear “model compiled”.7.

model initialized”. Select the line under Inits in the file of the model and do click in load inits. 20 .8. In the left corner below has to appear “initial values generated. This generates the initial values for the Bayesian Estimation. Then do click in gen inits.

9. Do click in Model > Update 21 .

3 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OPENBUGS in R As we have seen in the previous section with the two files that generates the BayesianModeling can implement the Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or 22 . 1.10. click on "coda" on the Sample Monitor Tool. which will open the dialogue box “Sample monitor tool”.This will open the dialogue box “Update tool ”. by considering the dialogue box “Sample Monitor Tool”. If you want to save the actual values for further analysis. an estimation of the posterior density doing click in density button and other more statistics of the chains can be calculated using this dialogue box. 12.5. In addition. 11. obtain a trace plots of the chains doing click in history button.Then. In the example is beta and delta. for this go to Inference > Samples. this has to be done for each parameter. you must to specify the parameters to be monitored. Repeat the step 10 as necessary to generate more iterations. In the text box Update Tool type the number of iterations that are required and afterwards does click in update. you can: calculate posterior statistics of the parameters doing click in stats button. In the text box node type the name of the parameters and then do click in set.

read.1)I(0. Also Bayesian estimation can be implemented by using R2WinBUGS or R2OpenBUGS (Sturtz. sep="".". lo[2]<. We copy all the syntax before “Inits” and save it in a file. up[2]<-50.2)) lo[1]<.1)I(lo[y[i]+1].) } for (j in 1:k) { beta[j] ~ dnorm(0. na.m[i]+delta*sigma*V[i] zs[i]~dlogis(muz[i].txt) datos <. header=TRUE.1.0.0.txt". up[1]<.strip.white=TRUE) 23 . In R.2)) sigma<-1/sqrt(1-pow(delta.txt.txt and the skewlogitModel. dec=". 2005).0.table("F:/MILUS/beetles. 2006) a collection of R functions that allow users to analyze graphical models using MCMC techniques.beta[1] + beta[2]*x[i] muz[i]<. } To implement the Bayesian estimation in R we follow the following steps to use the library R2WinBUGS. et al. load the library R2WinBUGS. installed previously.0E-3) } delta ~ dunif(-1.txt syntax of the model generated in the BayesianModeling.up[y[i]+1]) V[i] ~ dnorm(0.OpenBugs programs.txt would remain as model { for(i in 1:n) { m[i] <. Ligges and Gelman. 1. Then the file modelbr.-50. Read the data (the file beetles. with the following commando: library(R2WinBUGS) 2.txt for this Example is in F:\MILUS\beetles.1) lambda<-delta/sqrt(1-pow(delta. Here we will need the file Beatles. packages for Running WinBUGS and OpeBUGS from R respectively or BRugs (Thomas. by example as modelbr.strings="NA".

Finally with the command bugs implements the Bayesian estimation.list(n=n.program="WinBUGS") 6.chains = is the number of chains to be generated.burnin=4000.5)} 5. program = estimation is the program that will be used to implement the Bayesian With the following command the Bayesian estimation is implemented and the simulations are saved in the object out.k=k)) 4.burnin = is the number of iterations to be discharged as burn-in. model. out<-bugs(data.txt".save = is a vector with the names of the parameters of the model which simulations we wish to save. n. n.3. model.to. Here will explain in brief the syntax of the command Bugs parameters. If we type out in the line of commands of the R a summary of the simulation is obtained 24 ."lambda").file="F:/MILUS/modelbr.inits.delta=0.k).parameters.list(datos).save=c("beta". n.iter=44000.to.file = is the direction where finds the file of the model n.iter = is the number of the total iterations of each chain. n. Create a list that contain the data and the information of the size of the data set typing: n=nrow(datos) k=ncol(datos) data<-c(as.chains=1. Create a program that generates the initials values typing: inits<-function(){list(beta=rep(0. n.

9 beta[2] 35.8 -64.2 -0.9 35.0 1040.directory is not NULL. Finally.7 deviance 1029.1 -55.1 0.2 3.3 15.6 31.3 -60. 1 chains.3 and DIC = 1020. fit using WinBUGS. n.5% 25% 50% 75% 97.0 1. 25 .7 986. either winbugs/WinBUGS or openbugs/OpenBUGS.bugs. it will be used as the default.directory.0 DIC info (using the rule.1 -67. pD = Dbar-Dhat) pD = -9. the latter makes use of function openbugs and requires the CRAN package BRugs. Also you can specify the program to use.sims = 1000 iterations saved mean sd 2.0 DIC is an estimate of expected predictive error (lower deviance is better).4 33.2 38. 7.2 36.0 lambda 0.3 0.7 1. each with 44000 iterations (first 4000 discarded). The directory that contains the WinBUGS executable.0 1044.7 1024. If the global option R2WinBUGS. to greater details about the command bugs you can obtain help typing in the line of the commands the following ?bugs Note.thin = 40 n.txt".4 -62. You can specify Bug.2 0.> out Inference for Bugs model at "G:/MILUS/modelbr.5% beta[1] -62.8 -1.7 1035.

1. and Observations The Two-Parameter IRT model satisfies the property of latent conditional independence. The items have binary outcomes. defined by the following expressions: where is the manifest variable which model the binary response of the person that answer to the item . the items are scored as 1 if correct and 0 if no. are two parameters that represent. is called the item characteristic curve (ICC) and is a latent lineal predictor associated with the latent trait of the person the item parameters for the item . for a person response variable satisfies the property of latent monotonicity. respectively. i. and some occasions it is interpreted as the latent ability of the person . A Two-Parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) model one-dimensional and binary is a system in which for each person latent variable model has a unidimensional monotone . to the discrimination and the difficulty of the item . Item Response Theory 2. is the conditional probability given to respond correctly to item .. 26 . Item Response Theory models Consider data collected of persons who have each given responses on different items of a test. is the value of the latent variable or trait latent for the person .2. because is a function strictly no decreasing of . it is.e. the to the different items are conditionally independent given the latent is one-dimensional latent.

with given the vector of latent variables can be and the vector of parameters of the items written as: The proof of this result is direct by considering the latent conditional independence. for a probit link function and empathizing this can be named as 2P model. is the same for each case and Also is assumed that responses are independent between persons. The first IRT binary model was introduced by Lord (1952) with an ICC given by being the cdf of a standard normal variable. The parameters of difficulty and of discrimination represent the location and inclination of the item. When it used this parameterization. This parametrización is very important from the computational point of view since it facilitates the computational time of convergence. . being inclination of the ICC in the point and a proportional value to the is the point on where the ICC has its maximum slope. In The Two-Parameter IRT model. This model is known in the psychometric literature as normal ogive model which corresponds in the context of Generalize Linear Models. Generally. 27 . this parameterization is preferred in the Bayesian Inference and also in BayesianModeling. the conjoint density of the vector of multivariate responses . The parametric space for the than by the usual take values in is arbitrary and to be the same as Another parameterization very common for the predictor linear latent is . and . the previous parameter of difficulty can be obtained doing in the obtained result. respectively. are not expected. Values as parameter the line real. where is called the link function.

Particular cases The IRT model admits diverse formulations. Again. This induces.On the other hand. If model. which depend basically of as it considers the ICC. This is known as the . The IRT model with logit link The IRT model with logit link or logistic model is probably the model more used in IRT. when probit or logit links are considered we have 3P or 3L IRT model respectively. In its simplest version could take and consider an ICC of the form This is called of one-parameter IRT model and when probit or logit links are considered we have 1P or 1L IRT model respectively.parameters IRT get this item correct by chance. to a logit link function. the model is reduced to the two. Birbaum (1968) considered a ICC given by . The version of three parameters for this model establishes that the probability that the person hit the item is given by: 28 . and three-parameter IRT model. where denotes the cdf of a logistic variable. This model is known as the logistic model and empathizing the link is named here as 2L model. in the language of the generalized linear models. In a general way we could consider an ICC of the form Where the parameter indicates the probability that very low ability individuals will is the distribution function.

IRT Models with asymmetric links In the traditional IRT models. 2. By considering this links. This asymmetry is necessary in many cases for a better modelization of answers with a low proportion of 0´s or 1's. Bazán et al (2006) and Bolfarine and Bazán (2010) asymmetric ICC can be incorporated considering a new parameter of item that controls the shape of the curve. In addition. The BayesianModeling program allows implementing the code in WinBUGS for the models 1L. 2P and 3P IRT models. this is the case of the logistic and of normal ogive models. 3L.2. is knows as well as the Rasch model but it has own interpretations and derivations (see for example Fischer and Molenaar. 1P. Then will show three of these models. news IRT models with asymmetric links are considered also in BayesianModeling which are presented in the next section. these models are symmetric IRT models. 1995). The skew normal ogive model The skew normal ogive model was proposed by Bazán et al (2006) assuming that the probability of success considering the abilities and the item parameters associates it given by: 29 . However. 2L. the asymmetric ICC are considered symmetrical. As particular cases have The last model of a parameter. as it has observed Samejima (2000).where usually is assumed that although some authors consider also the value for approximating this model to the normal ogive model.

this characterize by And the second case by: These correspond to the cdf of the Scobit distribution and Burr of type II. In this formulation the link considered is the BBB skew probit link (see Bazán. Bolfarine and Branco. The LPE and RLPE models Logistic positive exponent (LPE) was proposed by Samejima (2000). named Reflection Logistic positive exponent (RLPE) was formulated by Bolfarine and Bazán (2010). but as indicated in Bazán . A reversal version. the probability of correct response . Main details about this model can be reviewed in Bazán et al (2006). the normal ogive model (2P) is obtained. 2010) and for this reason the model can be named also two-parameter skew probit or 2SP IRT model. 30 . For LPE model and for RLPE model and . studied in Bolfarine and Bazán (2010). In the first case. respectively.where and is a parameter of asymmetry. if . evaluated in Depending that function of distribution specifies will have 2LPE or 2RLPE IRT models. On the other hand. the probability of correct response has a slow growth for low values . is the latent linear predictor denote the cdf of a skew normal distributions with function of density being the pdf of a standard normal variable. Is because this behavior that has a quick growth for low values of the latent variable this parameter is interpreted as a penalization parameter for item. Notice that if et al (2006) if of latent variable . These models. When only difficulty parameter is considered we have the 1SP IRT model. assume that the probability of correct response considering the abilities and the item parameters associates it given by where is the cdf of the logistic distribution indexed by the parameter .

In WinBUGS.3. 2009). the implementation of this procedure is not direct because it requires of a correct specification of the indicator variables. Main details can find in Bazán. 2. The Logistic (logit). More details of this model can review in Bolfarine y Bazán (2010). Branco and Bolfarine (2006). In traditional 31 . In the present work. 1LPE. Branco and Bolfarine (2006). however skew probit IRT consider other version of the likelihood function considering augmented version that is discussed in the specific references of this model. Bayesian estimation in IRT Considering the distribution Bernoulli for the response variable. In the Bayesian Inference. the likelihood function for IRT model in the three-parameter IRT model is given by Where is the cdf of an asymmetric distribution indexed by the parameter associated with the asymmetric ICC. 1RLPE.Note that but it holds that or or and y are asymmetric In both models can also interpret like a parameter of penalty or bonus of similar way to the case of the model of skew normal ogive model given by Bazán. Particular cases and extensions considering one-parameter or three-parameters are possible. LPE and RLPE consider this likelihood function. we consider priors that they are vague proper priors with known distributions but variance big as well as independence between priors (see Nzoufras. the parameters of interest are assumed like random variables and so is need establishes a priori probability distributions that reflects our previous knowledge of its behavior. Combining the likelihood function and the priori distributions we can obtain the posteriori distributions of the parameters of interest. Normal ogive (probit). Thus. 3LPE and 3RLPE are another IRT models implemented in BayesianModeling.

Sahu (2002).For LPE and RLPE models .For Ogive skew normal model Bayesian Inference in IRT models is facilitated with the use of different methods MCMC implemented in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS software. and Spiegelhalter (1996). and ) . 2010) are available. Congdon (2010) and Ntzoufras (2009). Here is assumed independent priors as Where is a pdf of normal distribution and and . for most of the models presented here. with ( and . 2008a. correspond to the prior distributions of item parameters In the special case of size of small samples we suggested the use of the following prior specification with and ( and ) where correspond the positive normal or Half-normal distribution. 2008b. thus is assumed for . ( . IRTm2noHA: Sheng. Dey and Zumbo (2004). respectively. However. Quinn and Park. Bayesian Inference for some traditional IRT models using R package (MCMCpack: Martin. Patz and Junker (1999). Johnson and Albert (1999). and ) . However about item parameter there is several proposals. Fox (2010). Valdivieso and Calderón (2010). Bazan.( ). An introduction to MCMC methods is given in Gilks. . Bazán. In IRT models there is consensus about the prior specification for latent trait. Fox (2010). IRTmu2no: Sheng. where . Rupp. there is no program that generates codes for WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. 2011) and Matlab package: (IRTuno: Sheng. Richardson. Also.IRT models priors are discussed in Albert (1992). For traditional IRT models Bugs codes are available by example in Curtis (2010). The IRT models implemented in BayesianModeling classified according to its links are: 32 . This is facilitated using BayesianModeling. Bolfarine and Leandro (2006). For more details about the use of these softwares for Bayesian Inference we suggest the book of Congdon (2005).

In each column. 2SP). 2RLPE. As an example. Number of item of Math data 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 33 .pe/umc/admin/images/publicaciones/boletines/Boletin13. for posterior use in WinBUGS (see Spiegelhalter et al 1996) or OpenBUGS (Spiegelhalter et al 2007) program. 3RLPE). RLPE (1RLPE. 3L). In BayesianModeling.minedu. consider a data set of 14 items from a Mathematical test developed by the Unity of Measurement of the Educative Quality of Peru for the National Evaluation of the sixth degree of 1998 which were applied to a sample of 131 students of sixth degree of high socioeconomic level. 3P). when a specific code is generated for a IRT model.gob. 3LPE). The released items are a sampling from a test that appears published in the following link: http://www2. also References to justify the model and the choices of priors are showed. Bolfarine and Leandro (2006). Branco and Bolfarine (2006) and Bazán. probit (1P.4. • Asymmetric: LPE (1LPE. 2. All codes for IRT models are established considering the likelihood function presented here and considering the priors suggested with the exception of the skew probit IRT models which use an augmented likelihood function version. 2LPE. using diverse MCMC methods.pdf In the table appears the identification corresponding to the number of item with the number in the UMEQ test. skew probit (1SP. Application: Math data set The program BayesianModeling generates the syntaxes necessary for the Bayesian estimation of several models of the Item Response Theory. These data have been used in Bazán. generated from any statistics program or from Excel. 2P. 2L. usually appear the names of the items in the first line.• Symmetric: logistic (1L. For this only is necessary to have a file of text with the data.

. in this case we consider the skew normal ogive model with parameters of difficulty and of discrimination. . I12 0 0 . . . is a parameter of penalty and denote the 2. . . Use of the BayesianModeling We described the use of the BayesianModeling to implements the 2SP IRT model to the data of MathData. 1 I14 1 1 .. 1 I02 1 1 .dat described in the previous section. . .. Go to File > Open 34 . 1 I03 0 1 . this is a two-parameter skew probit IRT model (2SP) . 1 I05 1 1 . . . 0 I06 0 1 . where skew normal cdf...Number of item in the UMEQ test 1 8 9 11 12 13 21 25 32 5 17 30 2 10 The data file can be found in the file zip of the program and has the following structure: I01 1 1 . . . 0 I07 1 1 . . . . . . 0 I04 1 1 . . . 2. . ..5. . . 0 I13 0 1 ... For more details of this application.. 1 .5. 1 As an example of application we consider an IRT model with asymmetric link. review Bazán. Branco and Bolfarine (2006).1 Generate the syntax of the model 1. . . .

2. Open the file with the data set. Click Item Response Theory 35 . 3.

Then select the items that will be used. 5. 36 . This will open the dialogue box “Item Response Data”. As well as to indicate if will use all the data or only a part of them.4.

Then click in Models to open the dialogue box “Item Response Theory”. 6. 37 . in this example only select the 2SP model and click OK. Here have to select the models that will be used.In our case will select all the variables as items and then click in All.

7. 2. Both files in format txt have to be saved to be opened in the program WinBUGS or OpenBUGS to do the appropriate analysis of Bayesian inference.2 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBUGS For a appropriate analysis of Bayesian inference of the model generated make the following. 38 . one that contains the model of Binary regression with the link selected and another file that contains the data set. (Item Response Data).5. This generates two data files: the file with the syntax of the model chosen in WinBUGS (Skew Probit 2SP Model) and another file with the syntax of the data. BayesianModeling generates two files.

2. Open the files with the syntax of the model and of the data previously generated by the BayesianModeling in WinBUGS or OpenBUGS. click Model > Specification 3.1. txt. 39 . This will open the dialogue box “Specification Tool”. Having activated the window of Skew Probit 2SP Model.

txt file. Select in the Skew Probit 2SP Model. In the left corner below appears “data loaded ” indicating that the data have been loaded.4. In the left corner below has to appear “model is syntactically correct” that indicates that the syntax of the model has been properly formulated 5. the line under data and do click load data. highlighting the word model and click check model. Select the model. 40 .

6. 41 . In the data file select the list of the variables that are placed in the first row and click load data.

Once specified the number of chains to generate (in this example 1 chain) do click compile. This generates the initial values for the Bayesian estimation. Select the line under Inits in the file of the model and click load inits. 8. model initialized” 42 . In the left corner below has to appears “initial values generated.7. Then click gen inits. In the left corner below has to appear “model compiled”. In the dialogue box “Specification tool” indicate the number of chains that want to generate in the text box “num of chains”.

43 . In the text box updates enter the number of iterations that requires and then click update. This will open the dialogue box “Update tool”. Click Model > Update 10.9.

an estimation of the posteriori density and others statistics of the chains can be calculated using this dialogue box. In the dialogue box “Sample Monitor Tool”.While the program does the iterations. 44 . can calculate posteriori statistics of the parameters clicking stats. which will open the dialogue box “Sample monitor tool”. this has to be done for each parameter. In the text box node type the name of the parameter and then click set. for this go to Inference > Samples. a historical of the chains clicking history. 12. Then should specify that parameters need the program save. Repeat the step 10 generating more iterations that now have being saved by the WinBUGS or OpenBugs. in the left corner below will appear the following message “model is updating” until the iterations finish when the following message “4000 updates took 61 s” appears. 11.

. .5. . . 2005).. . Ligges and Gelman.1) and the syntax of the model generated in BayesianModeling will have to copy only the syntax of the model. 1 i. .e. . 0 1 1 . 0 I05 0 1 . packages for Running WinBUGS and OpeBUGS from R respectively or BRugs (Thomas. . . .3 Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OPENBUGS in R As we have seen in the previous section with the two files that generates the BayesianModeling can implement the Bayesian Estimation using WinBUGS or OpenBugs programs. . et al.. 0 I06 1 1 . . 0 I13 0 1 . . .. . . . 45 . . . I12 0 0 . Also Bayesian estimation can be implemented by using R2WinBUGS or R2OpenBUGS (Sturtz. .2.dat (See section 2. . . 1 I14 1 1 . . . In the example below implement the 2SP model.. 2006) a collection of R functions that allow users to analyze graphical models using MCMC techniques. 1 . For this will need the original text file with the data in columns: I01 1 1 .5. 1 I03 0 1 . .. 1 I02 1 1 . ... the file called MathData.. 1 I04 1 1 .

0.0.0.5..usp.j]-delta[j]*V[i.0.0.0.0.ime.0.0.5.5.5.5.0.0.5.5.5. 0.5.5.0.0.1) preczs[j]<.0.5.0.0.1.0.5.5.0).5.1.5.0.0.5.5.preczs[j])I(lo[y[i.0.5.0.0.txt. M.5.5.0.0.0.0.0.0. J.0.0.0.5.5.1.5.5. 0.5.0. k=14) #load your data in other file Inits list(a=c(1.5.0.0.0.0.0. R. #Available in http://www.5.5.5.5.5.5.0.1.5.0.5.0.5.1.0.5.0.0 .0.0.5.0. Leandro.0.0.5.0.0.5.0).1-delta^2)I(0.5.0.0.0. J.0.0.0. #Estadística.5.0.5.5.1.0.0.0.5.0.0.1.0.5.0.5.5.5.5.5. A skew item response model.0. Journal of the Inter-American Statistical Institute..b[j] .0.0.j] ~ dnorm(0.0.5.0.5.0. Bolfarine.0.0.0.5.1) } #items priors for (j in 1:k) { # usual priors #Bazan et al (2006) # difficulty (-intercept) with prior similar to bilog b[j] ~ dnorm(0. D.0.0. 0.5.0.5.0.0.0.5.0.5.0. 861-892.5.0.0.0.0 ## Zs*|y=0~N(-delta*V+m.0. This should copy the syntax before “data” and save it in a file.1.theta=c(0.0.0.1-delta^2)I(-50.5.1.5.5.2)I(0.5.0.5.5. 1742.0. H.0.5.0.5.0.5.0.0.0.0.1/(1-pow(delta[j]. up[2]<-50 ## Zs*|y=1~N(-delta*V+m.0.br/~jbazan/download/bazanestadistica. L.0.5.5.0.up[y[i.0.5.0.j] Zs[i.0.5.5.0.b=c(0.5.j]+1].0.5.0.0.0.0.0). 1. for this example modelirt.5.0.5.pdf #Bazán.0.1)I(0.5.1.0.5.0.0.0.0.0.0.5.5.5.0.0. A.5.0.5.0. Then the file modelirt. (2006).0.5. Branco.mean(b[]) #Bazan et al 2006 delta[j] ~ dunif(-1.5.5.0.0..0.0.5.0.5.0.5.0.0.0) up[1]<.5)) #Bazán.0.0.0.0.0.5.0.0.5.0.-50.0.5.0.5.1. 0.) # difficulty centred in zero bc[j] <.0. lo[2]<.0.0.5.0.0.txt would remain 46 .1.5.0.5. 0.0.5.5.0.0.5.5.0.0.0.5.5.5.0.5.j]<-a[j]*theta[i]-b[j] muz[i.5. #Bayesian Analysis.5.5.5.5.0.delta=c(0.0.5.0.0.0.0.5.5.0.0.2)) lambda[j]<-delta[j]*sqrt(preczs[j]) } lo[1]<.0.0.0.0.0.j].5) # discrimination a[j] ~ dnorm(1.0.0.5.0.) } } #abilities priors for (i in 1:n) { theta[i]~dnorm(0.5.5. & Bolfarine (2006).5.0.5.0.j]+1]) V[i.j]<-m[i.5.0. 0. Sensitivity analysis of #prior specification for the probit-normal IRT model: an empirical study.j] ~ dnorm(muz[i.5.0.5.0.0. 0.0.50) mu<-mean(theta[]) du<-sd(theta[]) } } data list(n=131.0.5.5.0.0. 58(170-171).0.5.0.0.0.5.5.5.0.5.5.5.5.0.model{ for (i in 1:n) { for (j in 1:k) { m[i.0.0.0.0.0.1.

j]<-a[j]*theta[i]-b[j] muz[i.0.white=TRUE) 3. download the library R2WinBUGS with the following command: library(R2WinBUGS) 2.model{ for (i in 1:n) { for (j in 1:k) { m[i.0.0) up[1]<.j]+1]) V[i.j] Zs[i.". dec=".2)) lambda[j]<-delta[j]*sqrt(preczs[j]) } lo[1]<.) } } #abilities priors for (i in 1:n) { theta[i]~dnorm(0.0 ## Zs*|y=0~N(-delta*V+m.dat file for this example is placed in the folder F:\MILUS\MathData.dat) datos <.j]+1]. header=TRUE.2)I(0.k=14) 47 .1-delta^2)I(0.-50.j] ~ dnorm(muz[i.5) # discrimination a[j] ~ dnorm(1. to implement the Bayesian estimation in R will follow the next steps to use the library R2WinBUGS.j] ~ dnorm(0. lo[2]<.read.) # difficulty centred in zero bc[j] <. 1.preczs[j])I(lo[y[i. Read the data (the MathData. Remember to install it previously.1) } #items priors for (j in 1:k) { # usual priors #Bazan et al (2006) # difficulty (-intercept) with prior similar to bilog b[j] ~ dnorm(0.j]. na.1-delta^2)I(-50.1) preczs[j]<.dat".matrix(datos).j]<-m[i.1)I(0. In R.b[j] .table("F:/MILUS/MathData.mean(b[]) #Bazan et al 2006 delta[j] ~ dunif(-1. sep="". Create a list that contain the data and the information of the number of persons and items using the following command n=nrow(datos) k=ncol(datos) data<-list(y=as.strip.up[y[i.50) mu<-mean(theta[]) du<-sd(theta[]) } } Then.1/(1-pow(delta[j].j]-delta[j]*V[i.strings="NA".n=131. up[2]<-50 ## Zs*|y=1~N(-delta*V+m.

0 a[2] 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.5% 25% 50% 75% 97. n.7 a[13] 0.3 0. Create a program that will generate initial values.9 1.5 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.9 a[14] 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.3 0.b=rep(0.7 0. each with 24000 iterations (first 4000 discarded).7 a[7] 0. 1 chains.5 0.5% a[1] 0.burnin = is the number of iterations that will be discharged as burn-in.5))} 5.4 a[12] 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.0 1.save = is a vector with the names of the parameters of the model which simulations want to store. inits <.2 0. n.5 a[8] 0.0 1.txt". If type out in the line of commands of R obtain a summary of the simulation > out Inference for Bugs model at "F:/MILUS/modelirt.0 0.2 0.6 1."b".inits.8 1. fit using WinBUGS.1 0.k).3 0.0 a[6] 0.iter = is the number of total iterations of each chain.0 0.6 0.1 0.4 0. Then the following command implements the Bayesian estimation and the simulations are stored in the object out.burnin=4000.1 0.6 2.theta=rep(n. model.1 1. model.file="F:/MILUS/modelirt.2 0.5 0.3 0.5 0. out<bugs(data.sims = 1000 iterations saved mean sd 2.3 0.to.2 0.3 0. n.3 0.chains=1.delta=rep(0.2 0.6 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.6 1.7 a[9] 0.to.5 a[10] 0.6 0.4.iter=24000.4 0.2 0.2 0.6 a[3] 0.1 1. Here will explain in brief the syntax of the command bugs parameters.6 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.6 0. program="WinBUGS") 6.4 0.k).3 1.4 0.file = is the name of the file where the model is saved. n.3 0.txt".3 0.thin = 20 n.0.8 1.9 0.save=c("a".1 48 .6 1.2 0. n."delta").burnin = is the number of iterations that will be discharged as burn-in.4 0.function(){ list(a=rep(1.9 0.3 0.1 0. program = is the program that will be used to implement the Bayesian inference n.parameters.6 a[5] 0.4 0.k). n. Finally the command bugs implements the Bayesian estimation.1 0. n.chains = is the number of chains that will be generated.9 a[4] 0.9 a[11] 1.

4 -1.1 0.4 -1.8 -0.9 -0.0 0.0 b[3] 0.5 -0.7 -1.6 1.0 -0.5 0.4 -1. In addition.1 -1.8 -1.4 -1.5 -1.9 -0. If the global option R2WinBUGS.0 0.5 0. because of the large number of parameters in IRT models.6 0.0 and DIC = 3803.2 b[10] -1.0 b[11] -1.1 0.7 0.1 0.9 -0.6 0.5 0.6 -0.7 -0.0 -0.3 0.5 -0.5 -0.1 0. b and delta.3 0.5 -0.5 b[5] -1.9 -0.0 0.4 0.2 -0.9 -1.1 0.3 0.5 -1.7 -1.4 -0.5 -0.9 delta[3] 0.0 3963.3 -1. it will be used as the default.2 0.5 -1.4 -1.5 b[8] -1.2 -0.8 1.7 -1. Also you can specify the program to use.2 0.9 delta[8] -0.9 -0. execution may be delayed! 49 .0 b[7] -1.6 -1.8 delta[10] -0.1 0.1 b[6] 0.0 0.5 -0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.9 delta[4] -0.6 0.1 0.0 -0.0 3904.5 -1.6 -2.9 delta[9] -0.9 0.0 delta[2] -0.3 0.9 -0.6 -2.3 -1.0 0.9 delta[5] -0. You can specify Bug.5 1.0 0.4 -1.6 0.7 -2.2 -0.0 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.8 -0.0 0.4 0.2 -0.1 0.5 -0.5 -0.4 0.3 -1.4 -1.5 -0. for more details in the command bugs can consult Help writing in the line of commands ?bugs Note.0 0.2 0.5 -0.0 b[14] -1.7 DIC is an estimate of expected predictive error (lower deviance is better).2 b[9] -0.9 -0.1 0.0 b[13] -0.3 0.6 -1.3 0.9 delta[13] 0.3 -1. But if it requires could ask for .4 0.4 1.3 -1.0 0.5 b[12] 0.0 0.0 -0.0 -0.4 -0.3 0.1 -0.9 -0.bugs.5 -0.5 -0.4 -0.8 66.9 0.4 -0.7 b[4] -1.9 delta[11] -0.b[1] -0.1 0.4 1.directory.5 -2. 7.6 -2.3 -2. Finally.5 -0. the latter makes use of function openbugs and requires the CRAN package BRugs.1 0.7 0.0 delta[7] -0.4 0.9 deviance 3855.9 -0.9 delta[12] 0. The directory that contains the WinBUGS executable.0 b[2] -0.4 -0.0 DIC info (using the rule.directory is not NULL.6 -1.1 0.0 delta[14] -0.6 -1.5 -0.0 -0.4 0.4 0.5 -0.6 -0.7 0.9 0.5 delta[1] 0.4 0.9 0.8 -0.0 0.0 0.9 delta[6] 0.5 -0.6 -1.1 0.2 0.9 -0. either winbugs/WinBUGS or openbugs/OpenBUGS.1 0.9 -0.8 -0.5 -0.0 -1.0 0.5 -0.3 0.4 0.1 0. pD = Dbar-Dhat) pD = -52.3 3703.7 -0.9 -1.0 3865.9 3814.9 -0.6 -2.4 0.7 -3. Note that for now we just asked for monitoring the parameters a.

Nro 25.pe/~jlbazan/download/Reportef27. J (2009).” Communications in Statistics .Theory and Methods. URL http://argos. Department of Statistics. Bolfarine H (2006) “A skew item response model. Manual de uso de BRMUW. Bolfarine H. Enfoque bayesiano en modelos de Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem. PUCP.pdf Bazán JL. Bolfarine H Leandro AR (2006).pe/~jlbazan/download/ManualdeusoBRMUW. “Binary response regression with normal scale Mixtures links.pucp.pdf Bazán JL. Branco MD (2010) “A framework for skew-probit links in Binary regression.pe/~jlbazan/download/bazanestadistica.edu. 39. New York: Marcel Dekker.edu. Branco MD (2006). URL http://argos. Departamento de Ciencias.pucp. Technical report (RT-MAE-2006-05). Software. 678-697 Bazán JL. SK Ghosh. URL http://argos.References Albert.0.892. Branco MD. “Sensitivity analysis of prior specification for the probit-normal IRT model: an empirical study. Calderón A (2010).” Bayesian Analysis.” In DK Dey. Mukhopadhyay S (2000).pucp. Serie B.edu. Springer Verlag Basu S.pdf Bazán.pdf 50 .” Estadística. Bazán JL. 861.). “Generalized Linear Models: A Bayesian Perspective”. University of São Paulo. Departamento de Ciencias. 1. Bayesian Computation with R. A generalized skew probit class link for binary regression. PUCP.pucp.edu. Journal of the Inter-American Statistical Institute 58(170-171). Bolfarine H. Version 1. Bazán JL (2010). URL http://argos. Reporte de Investigación. Valdivieso L. 17-42.pe/~jlbazan/download/gspversion14. BK Mallick (eds. JL.

Fischer G. Some Latent Trait Models and Their Use in Infering an Examinee's Ability. In FM Lord. Collet D (2003). Dey D. MR Novick (eds) Statistical Theories of Mental Test Scores. Fu ZH. New York: Addison-Wesley. FL. Bazán JL (2010).” Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation. recent development. USA. “Bayesian estimation in the multidimensional threeparameter logistic model. 6. 35. Fox JP (2010). Second Edition. CRC. 36(1). The Nerthelands: Springer-Verlag. Curtis MS (2010) “BUGS Code for Item Response Theory. Shi NZ (2009). Boca Raton. Chapman & Hall. Chapman & Hall / CRC. “Bayesian analysis of binary data using Skewed logit models. 1-34. Richardson S. Tao J. 51. Congdon P (2010). Journal of Educational Behavioral Statistics. Rasch Models Foundations. Molenaar I (1995). Bayesian Item Response Modeling: Theory and Applications. Wiley. Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice. London. Congdon P (2005). Gilks W. Chapman & Hall. Bayes and Empirical Bayes Methods for Data Analysis. Modelling binary data. 201-202. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods. Louis TA (2000). “Bayesian estimation of the logistic positive Exponent IRT Model”. Boca Raton. Bayesian Models for Categorical Dates. (2001). 819 . Chen MH.” Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin. Spiegelhalter D (1996). Shao Q-M. New York: Springer.835. 51 . London.Birnbaum A (1968). and applications.” Journal of Statistical Software. Bolfarine H. 693-713 Carlin BP. Chapman & Hall/CRC. 79.

RJ. Vienna. Martin AD. Junker. Patz.” Journal of Statistical Software. BW (1999). URL http: Rupp A. from Whether to When: Applications of Bayesian Methodology to Item Response Modeling. 24. “Logistic positive exponent family of models: Virtue of asymmetric item characteristic curves. Prentice RL (1976). “Bayesian estimation and model choice in item response models”. Dey DK. 424-451. 42(9): 1-21. Albert J (1999). New York: Psychometric Society. //www. Zumbo B (2004). “A straightforward approach to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for item response models. Lord FM (1952). Quinn KM. Journal Statistical Computing Simulation.” Journal of Educactional and Behavioral Statistics. 41: 337-348 Johnson V. R Development Core Team (2004). 65(3): 319-335. “MCMCpack: Markov Chain Monte Carlo in R. “A Generalization of the probit and logit methods for Dose response curves”. Ntzoufras I (2009).” Applied Statistics. 72: 217-232. Wiley Series in Computational Statistics. 230-255. Ordinal Data Modeling. Bayesian Modeling Using WinBugs. “Adaptive rejection sampling for Gibbs sampling. JH (2011). Samejima F (2000). New York: Springer-Verlag.” American Journal of Political Science.org. Nagler J (1994). Austria.R-project. A theory of test scores. 146-178. “Scobit: An alternative estimator to Logit and Probit. 11. 38(1). WR. Park. Sahu SK (2002). Biometrika.Gilks. Hoboken. 52 . R Foundation for Statistical Computing.” Structural Equations Modeling. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. “To Bayes or Not to Bayes. USA. Wild P (1992). 761-768. 32(4).” Psychometrika.

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