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Dru Brahma-Concept & Idol -Arun Kumar Upadhyay, 9437034172/9583492387 www.scribd.com/Arunupadhyay, arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in 1.

Dru Brahma- Only r Jaganntha is called Dru Brahma. Skanda pura explains why He is called Dru-Brahma-(1) He exists within every being, like Dru (timber) is in every furniture. (2) Destroys sorrows of world (Dyati = destroys), (3) Gives eternal happiness (dadti = gives). (4) He creates world from himself as objects are created from wood, (5) His body is made of Dru as bodies of other beings are created out of vegetable products. - , - Some other mentions of are given below with meanings of Dru-Brahma ( /) - ( /) - ( /) - ( /) - ( /) - ( /) - ( /) - ( /) ( /) ( /) ( /) ( /) 2. Meaning- Here Dru = timber, tree, forest (included in wood/woods). Brahma is the source of world, creator in which it ultimately merges. All aspects of Brahma are indicated by different meanings & functions of Dru. Dru word has alternate root verbs(1) (/), (/)-D or D = to give, donate. (/) (/)-Dna, D = to break apart, tear. (/)-Do = to break into parts. (/)-D = to kill, be violent.

Thus, Dru means-(1) Wood or tree-which is cut to make furniture. As collection of trees, it is forest or woods. (2) Process of cutting tree or gift from tees as furniture. Carpenter. (3) Chain of objects in give & take relation. (4) Destroying original to create new things. Brahma is derived from two root verbs () (/, )-Bhi (Bmha) = to grow, to sound. (/) (/) Bh = to fill up, to hold, to nourish. Thus, Brahma means ever growing, creating and developing, holding all, vibration. World as a whole is infinite, then what is meaning of growth or increase. Any selected block of universe is always increasing in volume, that is called expansion of Universe. Steady state theory tells that universe has been always growing and it will ever remain so. Steady expansion would have made it thinner or less dense. But everywhere, matter is being created out of space. Its sequence is given in Taittirya upaniad (2/1) Sequence of creation is-(1) tm =Original conscious being. It had mind living in vacuumcalled vo-vasyasa-mana, (2) ka = vacant space, (3) Vyu = motion, (4) p = uniform spread of matter, (5) Pthiv = compact (= pthu) structure, (6) Oadhi = Plants. Normally, these are divided into 2 classes. Oadhi is annual plant which dies after fruit. Others are vanaspati. Here both are included. (7) Anna = Food. In general, it means anything which is consumed for existence. (8) Purua, which is same as (1), but a local form. Brahma-stra defines Brahma as entity from which this world was born etc (//) (//) This is expanded into 6 stages of world-creation, growth, decay - -- 3. Brahma as wood-Brahma has been defined as a wood/tree/forest in a question/answer form in 4 senses-1. Creator of world as conscious being like a tree, 2. Implement like wood for constructing world , 3. Forest as variety in creation, 4. Place of creation which holds it, 5. The chain or stages of creation. The question is in k veda (10/81/2,4). Question and answer both are in Taittirya brhmaa (2/8/9/6-7) ( //, ///, ///) = Which was that great forest, or which was that great tree from whose cutting, sky and earth were created ? The thinkers may ask the question in their mind as to who has created and who is holding the world like a tree ?

( ///) = Brahma was that forest and that tree by whose cuttings this sky and earth have been formed. By analyzing it in our mind, we have reached the conclusion that Brahma is the foundation of world built by Brahma. ( //, ///) = What was the foundation and starting material and its nature ? What was the process of creation and who was the creater ? 4. Tree as world-Brahma or the world is tree/wood/woods (forest) in following senses1. Chiti-Tree is a conscious being, but it only receives and feels the actions on it. It can not express them. Brahma is a Purua as per purua-skta. It is a conscious being. As nothing is beyond Brahma, all its thoughts are within itself like a tree. 2. Ever creating-Tree is constantly engaged in creation. It takes material spread in soil, atmosphere, rains etc. Spread of the material is sea of world in which this creator is situated. Similarly, Brahma is constantly engaged in creation. For that, it collects the material from spread matter called water. In this aspect, He is called Kapi=monkey. Here, ka=water, Pib = to drink. All creations are copy or model of the previous structure. Man is image of galaxy. Number of neurons in human brain is equal to number of stars in galaxy, which is again equal to number of galaxies in universe. In this respect, Bible, Genesis (1/27) tells that God created man after His own image. Similarly, son of man is like man, plant breeds another plant like it, etc. Thus the animal having tendency to copy is called Kapi (= copy). Source material is called V = which rains or radiates. Being source and created world bothBrahma is V-kapi. This is name of Jaganntha also as stated in Bhgavata Pura (10/1/20) ( //) When earth was suffering under atrocities, it went with Devas with Brahm as leader to Jaganntha who is Vsudeva (Place of world) and Vkapi (creating copies from source) also. That Purua (conscious being) was worshipped by Purua-skta by assembled persons. Vkapi is defined in Gopatha brhmaa (part 2, 6/12) , ... ( , /) That vibrating exudes particles, so it is V (which rains, Var = rain), kapi (= monkey, it drinks primordial waters and from that creates copies), that is how it is Vkapi. ditya (from which it began) is Vkapi. 5. Chain of creation-There is no new creation. Atoms of old existing material are reassembled as new matter. This is essence of Vaieika philosophy. Since nothing is created

or destroyed, this is called Avyaya purua. Avyaya = in-exhaustible. Vyaya = expenditure. Here, atom is not of physical matter only. Dravya (material) is of 9 types in Vaieika stra 1/2/5-Pthiv (solid), pah (liquid = moving in boundary), teja (energy), vyu (air = flow beyond boundary), ka (space), kla (time), dik (direction), tm (soul), mana (mind). In physics, 3 states of matter, plasma are known. Space and time also have quantization, but dik, tm, mana are not defined. These also contribute to creation-i.e. empty space, consciousness, and 10 dimensions of world. The chain of creation is a tree in which the sap is collected from soil by its roots, goes through stem, branches and leaves. Chain of transformation and of thought also has these stages-root (source), branches, leaves (conclusion). Source is called up and branches are downwards-this is reverse tree , ( /) ( /) =The tree with roots at top and branches downwards is called eternal tree. (Avattha = a+va+ttha, va = tomorrow, Avattha is that which will not remain tomorrow. But this avattha is eternal ). It also means pippala = pib+phala = fruit for which there is desire. Pippala has become Apple in English version of Bible (story of Adam-Eve). The bodies enclosed in a boundary (chhanda) are transient like leaves. Only the person knowing this eternal tree can know the vedas. All matter or beings are Purua. The form enclosed in a boundary is kara-purua which decays steadily. Its functional identity is hidden (kastha) called Akara-purua. The chain of changes makes the total constant-called Avyaya-purua. Final source is same in all times, places and directions and is beyond perception-Partpara-purua. Perception of change in purua is kla (time). That also is of 4 types-Nitya kla (eternal time) always decays the matter. This decay is one way process, it can not be reversed. Some changes are in cyclic order which is cycle of creation called yaja. This time can be measured and is used in equations of physics-this is janya (creative) kla. Constituent material in avyaya purua does not change-its time is Akaya-kla. The details are explained in chapter 2 of book-Vedic View of r Jaganntha. Some examples areCosmic chain-The complete universe is Svayambh-maala = self -created enclosure. This is same (satya = truth) in 3 ways-all places, times and directions. So it is satya-loka also. Loka means world and man both. This has collection of 1011 galaxies which are eggs (aa) of the Brahma = universe. So it is Brahma. As the largest brick of world, it is Paramehmaala. Its creative field is 10 times the size called Krma (= which does work). As region of radiation, it is called Goloka in Brahma-vaivartta-pura, prakti khaa, chapter 3. Brahma has 1011 stars like sun and is an image of Brahma. Its central rotating disc is

kagang (milky way). Field of sun is called solar system. The zone in which bodies will be in orbit around sun and contribute to creation is maitreya-maala, earth (place of creation) of solar system, or kratu (creator). This is 105 times size of sun. The region in which light of sun is more than the back-ground of galaxy is 230 times size of earth as stated in vedas. Within field of sun, the intermediate zone in sphere containing moon orbit is called Chndra-maala. This is zone of medium heat where life forms are possible. At its center, lies planet earth called Bh-maala. Human life-Physical body is kara purua which is always decaying. The identity of man remains fixed from birth to death-called akara-purua. Chain of identity in successive lives is Avyaya purua. Within the same life also chain of forms is avyaya. Body of man or any animal is formed by materials collected by plants from surroundings of soil, air, water, light in sky. Thus they are dru-brahma (created from tree). As soul of world also, Jaganntha is Dru-Brahma. 4. Chain of thought and process-In mathematical logic, chain of reasoning is called thoughttree. Chain of processes in Graph-theory or in System theory or in work-time-study are also called tree. In Bible, Genesis, chapter 1, also the apple tree has been called tree of wisdom. More correctly, it is tree of thought. Tree of thoughts and processes is eternal. Each action has its root in thought-called sankalpa (kalpa = creation). Planning or design is prakalpa. Actual creation is kalpa. Since it is by thought only, kalpan means imagination. Process of resultant work is in many parts in many directions like branches of a tree. Result of the group of actions is called fruit. In all languages, fruit means both-result of action and product of a tree. There is desire before fruit of action, and after success or failure, there are more desires. This starts new chain of action. Thus, the chain of thought-action-result is unending. If man is obsessed with fruits, he will be in eternal bond. Thus we pray for cutting this tree of action in nti-pha of upaniad- ( /) I am cutter of the (world) tree. My fame is like top of mount (k astha = hill top or hidden identity of akara). I am eternally pure nectar like the creator sun. I am shining treasure. I am pure intellect washed with amta (nectar, eternal). This is realization of sage Trianku in vedas. The tree is further explained at many places, e.g. in Muktikopaniad, chapter 2 (, ) Pra (life, energy) is controlled by vsan (attachment of mind, desire). Fluctuations of pra create more vsan. These are created in chitta (mind) like seed (bja) and sprout (ankura). There are two seeds of tree of thought-fluctuations of pra and attachment. If only

one seed decays, both are destroyed (26-27). Two seeds of the tree of thought are-vtti (traits) and vratati (resolves). One is just vibration of pra and the other is firm resolve. Summary of this is in Gt (15/2-3) , (, ) = Branches of this tree of thought are spread up and down growing due to attachment of mind with objects. Lower branches originate from the root due to bond of actions. Form of this tree is not seen, or its start, end or foundations. This firm rooted tree is to be cut with sharp weapon of non-attachment. 6. Jaganntha as Dru-Wooden idol of r-Jaganntha has been described in two kh (branches) of k veda ( , //) (Syaa commentary)-That wooden idol (of Jaganntha) made without human effort exists on coast of ocean (in great land of Utkala). Worship that idol, which is not destroyed by anybody. On its support only, one can achieve the highest state. ( , ///) = The wooden super-human idol (of Jaganntha) seen at sea coast gives highest state on its worship. Some persons have objected that this verse cannot have meaning related to Jaganntha as it is Alakmghna skta. That is not a contradiction but corroboration. Final effort to remove poverty or gain Lakm is by prayer to Jaganntha only. Firstly, all our acts are like play of dice as results are always uncertain. Secondly, Jaganntha is work, implement, result and even self of each being. The skta with meaning is quoted below- - -- , - - = Alakm is non-giving (aryi), bad-mouthed (ka also means one eyed), deformed limbs (vika), always angry (sadnve), blind to truth. It may go to hills (giri) otherwise will be destroyed (1). Qualities of alakm destroys man here (this world) and there (after death) also from the source (Bhra) itself. Brahmaaspati (element of galaxy, wisdom) with its sharp intellect will remove that miser. (2) That super-human Dru (wood, Jaganntha) floats in deep ocean of world. Attain that difficult wood to cross the ocean. (3) When light comes from east (sun rise, dawn of knowledge) violent and harsh tendencies as enemies of Indra

are destroyed like droplets in water. (4) Collect Go (cow, creative sources) for all around and place agni (leader, fire, compact objects) at required places. That provides food to Devas. Then who can defeat them? (5) Alakm has 3 meanings-(1) lack of wealth which is meant in this skta, (2) Invisible wealth like happiness, health, love etc. This is called r also. Visible wealth is Lakm (laka = to see). They are also called Vimal (without mala, so unseen), Kamal (object earned through Kara = hands). Both have been called wives of Jaganntha- (- , . . /), (3) Wealth is not shown in wasteful ceremonies by gentlemen- ( /). Cosmic meaning-The root material of universe is rasa (uniform)-Taittirya upaniad (2/7/2). Its spread is ocean. By collecting that material, creation of 5 structures of world is done. Chain of creation, is tree, material is wood, many diverse chains are forest. The place or foundation for creation is earth or coast where sea ends. By going from earth upwards in tree, we reach the highest form of Svayambh maala. Geographical meaning-On earth surface, India was the centre of civilization as it has suitable climate and all verities in all times of history. Thus it was named as Ajanbha (navel of God). Seen from south, it is a triangle. From north, it is semi-circle. Due to moon like shape, cold Himalayas, and source of world knowledge like light of moon, Bhrata was called Indu (= moon). This was incorrectly pronounced as Inde (India in English) by Greeks as per Huensang (See Vedic View of r Jaganntha, chapter 4). Joining lower triangle of India with semi-circle at top, we get shape of heart, which is shape of India only. Jaganntha lives in heart of every being (Gt, 18/61). So, he is at Pur which is centre of old Bhratavara in two directions north-south and east-west. In Puras, there is story that the physical body of Ka was killed by Jar abara at Gujrat coast whose remains floated in form of wood in ocean and came to Orissa coast where Jaganntha idol was made out of it. Internal meaning-The spinal column in human body is the reverse tree with roots in brain and branches down wards. Jaganntha resides here in heart region. Human heart and Puriboth are called heart region in tantra. In the ratha (car) of human body, Jaganntha is Vmana (dwarf) in the heart. By seeing this Vmana in ratha, we get emancipation. Yaja meaning-Place of creation is forest. Process and stages are branches. Implement and materials are wood. By analysing, the head of yaja as the conscious being, we realize God. Vidy meaning- In ocean of world, tree of thought-action and fruit is to be cut to cross the ocean of bondage of world. These 5 meanings are in Taittirya upaniad (1/3)-Adhiloka (worldly), adhijyotia (cosmic), adhividy (knowledge), adhipraj (beings), adhytma (internal).

Two birds on this tree are tm (Adam) and Jva (Eve). We have to follow the un-attached tm to meet Paramtm (Jaganntha) ( //, //, /, //) = Two birds live at center of tree together with friendship. Of them, one eats the pippala with taste and the other merely watches without attachment. Purua is chain of past-present-future. By rising from lower structure of gross forms step by step, we reach the immortal. Same is the journey of soul from earth to higher worlds. Within human body also, we have to start from mldhra at base of spine to sahasrra at top of head along the tree of spinal chord (details at pages166-168 of Vedic View of r Jaganntha). 7. Summary-Thus, dru is the correct feature of Brahma in all acts defined in Brahma-stra (1/1/2)-creation (place, process, material, implement, creator), chain of action or thought, dissolution of world, transient(leaves) and permanent features of tree. Brahma without action Is simply Brahma (nirviea). Seen as its action-Dru-Brahma is the only correct and complete definition. The chart is given below1. Thought-action-result are root-branches-fruit. 2. Forest is variety of creation and thought chains. 3. Tree is conscious and always growing like Brahma. 4. Product of trees form the body of all animals. 5. Any material of creation is wood, its spread is ocean. 8. Physical symbols-Padma-pura, Uttara khaa, 115/21-23 has stated that Avattha, Vaa, Pala are forms of Viu, iva, and Brahm. Kriyayoga Khaa, chapter 12 gives details of Avattha. (, /) Atharva veda 5/4/1-10 give detail qualities of avattha tree specially in treatment of leprosy. There are many references to this tree ( //) ( //) (, /) ( , /) (, /) ( //) ( //) ( //)

() ( //) ( //) ( //) Pala tree is Brahm ( //) ( ) - /) ( ///) ( ///) iva is vaa (Ficus = fig) tree. In k (10/102), Praghana = Drughaa has been used to indicate joined group of trees which are formed by aerial roots hanging from tree and growing into independent trees. It is also associated with Vabha (= Bull,)-vehicle of iva and Kapard (iva with matted hair = ja)-In short, Viu is avattha = pippala (Ficus religiosa) ( //) ( /)- Viu as Pippala tree- In Gt (10/26) also, Ka has said that He is avattha among the trees. In general, it indicates the world tree and combination of the three parts-root is Brahm, stem is Viu and leaves or crown is iva. But specifically, it indicates Viu, who keeps the world in same state. Leaves of the tree are freely hanging as different parts of the world are having separate lives. Each point of the world has consciousness, and each neuron in mind is freely vibrating at its place. Pippala and other ficus trees secret milk like substance and their parts are nutritious. Thus the root source of world as rasa (uniform substance), independence of all beings and consciousness of each point is indicated by the tree. Its leaves have complicated nerve design like neurons of brain. iva as Vaa-iva has symbol of Vaa (Fig or Ficus tree) whose botanical name is Ficus Bengalensis. The aerial roots of this tree make a separate tree-similarly each structure of world gives rise to similar creation-having material (or genetic in plants, animals) links. As knowledge, iva is the first Guru (Teacher). By giving knowledge to student, the teacher makes him like himself. The original ficus tree similarly gives rise to many similar trees linked with it. Druma-s (tree) from the original Druma is called Dumadum. In Bhubaneswar, place of Lingarja has all the aspects of this tree. Forest of the tree of thought (Kalpa) is Ekmra (number one among trees-kalpa tree) Knana (forest). Root of the vaa is Baragarh, its stem

is Yajmra (Jagamara, tree of yaja, name of fire also which carries offers to gods, it is sperm of iva ). Crown is Baramu, secondary trees are Dumadum-All these are parts of Bhubaneswar. There are Dumdum at every place of iva-Dumdum airport near Dakiewara of Kolkata, Dumdum near Kmkhy in Asam, Damadam sahib or Damdami Taksal near Haramandir (Golden Temple) of Amritsar, Dumk near Baidyanth dhma, Dumiy near Somntha (a block in Rajkot district of Gujrat). Brahm as Pala-Formless Brahma creates the world by 3 gua-s of Prakti. Similarly, coded (word) knowledge is Vedas. From root Atharva veda, 3 others were created-k, Yajuh, Sma (Muaka upaniad 1/1/1-4). Thus,Tray (triplicate means four vedas-one root + 3 branches. Creation of world or word-both are indicated by pala tree whose 1 stem gives 3 leaves. Hence, branch of this tree is used in the ritual for starting education. Brahm is born from lotus coming out of Viu. Lotus remains un-attached from water from which it is born. Similarly created world appears separate from the Brahma. Kamala, padma (names of lotus) are thus linked with all -seat of Sarasvat is padmsan, all parts of Viuhis hands, feet, eyes, mouth are lotus. Specifically, places of Brahm are Pukara. Original Pukara is 120 west of Ujjain (Viu pura, 2/8/26) and at 350 north where maximum day length is 16 hours, double of night of 8 hours as per Vednga jyotia. Central place of Jaganntha is Gangsgara (where Gang river merges)-now called Bay of Bengal. From this ocean, wooden piece had come, which became his idol. On all sides of this sea, 4 weapons of Viu are located. Chakra is Pur itself, called Chakrnk in Padmapura, Rma-avamedha chapter. Chakratrtha is a part of Pur town. ankha (conch) is Kambodia whose local name Kambuja means conch. Gad (mace) mace is the south part of Thailand upto Singapur, elongated like a mace. This mount has been called Kumuda (Kumunda, Kurar = Kurile, Vaikanka = Bangkok, Mlyavn = Maly in Viu pura 2/2/27). Hence, the mace has been called Kaumodak. The big reptile here is called Komodo dragon. North part is Maipura (an old state since Mahbhrata time- parts in Burma , India both). This is also name of the chakra in navel, maipadme hum-is the main Bauddha mantra. This is the lotus from navel of Jaganntha from which Brahm was born. East part of Triviapa (Tibet) is Brahma-viapa. The water falling in this land is drained by Brahmaputra river. The land east of the river and Maipura is Burma (Brahma) which has been now named as Myammar (Mah-Amara = Brahm). There were 7 Brahm in human form, this Padmanbha Brahm was the 7th as per Mahbhrata, nti parva (chapters 348, 349). Thus Lotus is offerred to Brahm, Viu, iva-all. Tulas is for Viu only. iva is offered Bael (Aegal marmelos) and Bhnga (Canabis). Their details are in puras. Three leaves of bael destroy 3 sorrows of world-called 3 la of iva.

9. Making of idols- In Satya-yuga, Indradyumna was a king in solar dynasty. A saint told him about Nlamdhava being worshipped at Nlchala in Ora (Odisha). That sage with matted hairs disappeared after telling the story. As wished by king, his priest went with his younger brother Vidypati to search for Mdhava. Vidypati reached the big forest in aradvpa on Mahnad river bank. abara king Vivvasu received Vidypati and assured him to show Mdhava next morning. Vidypati did not touch food or water before seeing the lord. Seeing eagerness of Vidypati, the abara king got him bathed in Rohi-kua and seated under kalpa tree (bunyan), then showed him Nlamdhava being worshipped by devas. Then Vidypati returned to Avanti, the capital. Viu and Brahm sent Nrada to king Indradyumna who set out with prince, priest, Vidypati and followers near Nlamdhava. King Glava of Viraja on Vaitara bank had established the idol of Nlamdhava (Nldrimahodaya, 5/6-8)- But when Vidypati had returned to Mlav, that day itself Nlamdhava had disappeared and was covered with golden sand of the coast. So the king was unable to see him ( /-) The shocked king Indradyumna was told message of Brahm by Nrada and Viu also assured through heavenly words. Hari (Viu) was worshipped by the king with 1000 avamedha yajas. Pleased with this, Hari himself took the form of Vivakarm and secretly made the idols of dru (wood). Brahm himself established the god idols on Vaikha ukla 8th, thursday, puya star ( , /, , ) r Balabhadra was on left and r Jaganntha was on right. In the middle was Subhadr. King Indradyumna was immensely pleased. The worship of r Jaganntha sarted after 5th deva-asura war by Indradyumna was disturbed many times. In middle ages, it was disturbed by Bauddha influence and it was underground. ankarchrya placed wooden idols on Vaikha ukla 10th in Yudhihira aka 2655 (483 BC). Padmapda was the first chrya (pontiff). Before wooden idol by Indradyumna, it was made of Indra-nla mai (blue sapphire) by Svyambhuva Manu (29,102 BC). Then it was hidden in sands before the glacial floods of 10000 BC by Vaivasvata-Yama in about 11000 BC. Indradyumna was after the floods. He should be after abhadeva in 9500 BC and before Ikvku in 8576 BC. Bodhisattvas were harassing public

here to stop worship by vedic methods. When ankarchrya challenged them for debate, they ran away to Nepal where king Vdeva-varman (547-486 BC) forced them to enter into dialogue with ankara. They were defeated and accepted vedic path. Nepal King also helped to reconstruct Jaganntha temple due to which he was given right to worship Jaganntha as a king, which continues till today. On taking charge as king of Nepal, each king comes to worship Jaganntha. Due to grace of ankara, Nepal king was blessed with a son who was named ankaravarman (486-461 BC), in honour of ankarchrya. All the kings of India, specially those controlling Orissa have been worshipping lord Jaganntha with ratha-ytr. Huensang has described the grand ratha-ytr of king Haravardhana of Kannauja in 643 AD which was a function, which was repeated after many years. From ephemeris of S Kannu Pillai, it is seen that as per rya Siddahnta year of Nava-kalevara (only festival to be repeated after many years) was in 635 (21st June) and 643 AD (23rd June) as per rya-siddhnta. As per Srya siddhnta, followed by Brhmasphua-siddhnta of Brahmagupta in 628 AD, it will be in 637 and 642 AD. In Moghul period also, King Ramsingh of Jaipur, Rajsthan was doing Rathaytr in 18th century. Even in Orissa, kings of Mayurabhanja and Parlakhemundi were organizing the ytr, though the proper place is Pur only. 10. New Idols-Wooden idol of r Jaganntha etc are built afresh at the time of each Navakalevara (new body) When it is leap month in ha, then the three god forms of Jaganntha, Balabhadra, Subhadr take new body, i.e. nava-kalevara. When in Krtikeya period, after fall of Abhijit from north pole position, year started from Dhanih, it was from start of rains in c.16,000 BC. Later on, start of year was no longer in rains, then it was adjusted to ha month when rains started at start of Vikrama era in 57 BC. It might have been in other months at Matsya birth (9533 BC), beginning of Ikvku rule (8576 BC), Paraurma (6297 BC), Rma (4433 BC), or Kali era (3102 BC) which have no record. Main idea is that it indicates the start of yuga of k jyotia of 19 years. In each yuga God takes new forms ( /) = God appears in each yuga to protect the good, destroy the evil and establish dharma. Sometimes, Nava-kalevara is after 8 or 12 years also. In that year when there will be extra or inter-calary month in ha, the physical forms of 3 devas are in position to re-surrect from Jyeha prim (full moon) to ha amvsy. On next day at new moon of ha new youth of the 3 is seen by public. In midnight of ha ka 14th, Daitpati (In charges of divinity in tradition of abara king Vivvasu), take out the Brahma essence from old idols by putting silk cloth cover on their eyes. This is placed in a bound cloth (Brahma-poal) in hearts of the idols of Jaganntha, Balabhadra and Sudarana (Disc weapon of Jaganntha).

It is below the left eye of Subhadr idol. It is in a cavity of 12 yava (= inch) cube called Brahma-kohar. After taking out the packet, cover is removed from eyes and it is placed on golden seat. Old sandal and Tulas (holy basil) of the packets is replaced by new. Then again eyes are covered and they are placed in cavities of new idols. This is called ghaaparivartana (change of body or pot). It is surprising that old sandal-tulas are found in same form in which they were placed 19 years ago in the idols. It is believed that the persons doing this change of pot do not remain alive for long. So, only old persons are selected. For placing Brahma in Jaganntha, the person is Swain-Mahptra, 2 Dsa-Mahptras for Balabhadra and Subhadr and 1 Pati-Mahptra for Sudarana. First of all, the Brahma matter was placed in the idols by king Indradyumna himself. The new idols of Jaganntha, Balabhadra, Subhadr, Sudarana-after joined with Brahma, are brought from KoiliVaikuha (place of construction, Koil = temple in Tamil) to Aasara (rest) room in chariots. In same chariots, the old idols are to Koila-Vaikuha. This is done by Daitpatis during night. Koila-Vaikuha is north of r-mandira (also called Jaganntha temple). In that temple, last rites are done of old idols of Jaganntha, Balabhadra, Subhadr, Sudarana, their srathi (charioteer), horses, side devas, parrot, gate-keeper, flag-post, bed etc. On 10th day, after completion of rites, their impure period is over and they cut their nails, hairs and take bath in Mrkaeya pond. Ladies also cut their nails. On 12th day, saints and Brhmaas are invited for eating mah-prasda (food prepared in temple). Daitpatis start searching the tree for making new idols on Chaitra ukla 10th day. On that day noon, idols of Jaganntha, Balabhadra, Subhadr are garlanded. After worship with incense, these idols are given by Pj-pa to Pati-Mahptra. This is called j-ml (garland of command). Pati-Mahptra (Vidypati) gives these garlands to main Daitpatis. Daitpatis are divided into 4 groups for searching tree. They are called Ba-grh (receivers of wood). They are in family line. Dsa-Mahptra search the tree for Balabhadra (Baaba = big tree) and Subhadr (middle tree). Dait searching tree for Jaganntha is SvinMahptra (family title) and the work is called Mahprabhu-ba (wood of the great God). On getting the garland, symbol of command, persons in search of tree are given a formal letter of permission from the temple. As authorization, they are given headgears (Sirop). Persons for miscellaneous works like making of temple, rest shade, food, carpenter etc are also given clothes. Then they proceed in a procession with music to the palace of Gajapti (literally lord of elephants) king of Pur. Only, Daitpati as descendant of Vivvasu enters the palace. Living symbol of Jaganntha is king of Puri. He welcomes them by giving coconut, betel-nut, rice, gold in a dish through Rjaguru. This is raja-j (permission of king). Then the procession proceeds to Jaganntha-vallabha maha. The search party takes night-rest here. Here, they are joined with Brhmaas, keeper of books. Next morning vana-

jgapada-ytr (trecking to forest) starts. About 100 persons join this-Vidypati, Daitpatis as descendants of Vivvasu, Yaja doing Brhmaas, chrya (preceptor), Rjguru, priest of temple, carpenters, masons, sepoys, cartmen, searchers (Lenk) etc. They reach Kkaapur, about 60 kilometers from Pur and place the Sudarana with goddess Mangal there. The goddess is bathed with water of 100 pitchers, worshipped with clothes, ornaments and a red flag is placed on top of the temple. This is called baa-singra-vea (grand makeup). Paitas recite Durg-sapta-at. chrya, Rjaguru, Brhmaa and Patimahptra recite Svapnavat-mantra before sleep. The goddess indicates the direction of desired tree in dream. Sometimes, it is indicated by the direction in which the garland of goddess falls. Other Daitpati and servants take rest in Deul maha. As commanded in dream, the persons in 4 groups proceed to search the tree. Signs of trees are given in Indra-nla-mai Pura. All the trees for idol are of neem (margosa). Signs in tree for Jaganntha idol-This should be near iva temple or cemetery, of black of dark red colour, 7-12 hands high, straight and well formed and with 4 branches. At the root of tree, there should be ant-hill. It should be near tri-junction of roads, or surrounded by 3 mountain tops or near river or pond. There should be maha, temple, or place of sages nearby. On stem of tree signs of Viu-ankha (conch), chakra (disc), gad (mace), padma (lotus) should be visible. Trees of bael, sahda, or varuna should surround it. It should be without any climbing creepers and guarded by snakes. There should be no bird nest. No branch should be damaged by lightning or winds. Signs for Balabhadra tree-White tree with 7 branches, crown is like hood of snake. Stem has signs of Balabhadra-hala (plough), msala (crushing rod). Signs for Subhadr tree-Tree with 5 branches, with yellow bark and with lotus mark. Signs for Sudarna tree- Reddish tree with 3 branches and with mark of disc. These trees are adopted for idols and Sudarana brought from temple is placed near them due to which evil ghosts run away. Then ground is worshipped and yaja is done by authorized chrya with Nsinha mantra. Tree is bathed and worshipped with sandal paste, vermilion etc. Then the garlands of command are placed on respective trees (garland from Jaganntha idol to tree for him, and so on). The axes of gold, silver and iron are worshipped and selected trees are touched with that. Then the trees are cut from root and felled in east, north or north-east direction. Felling in south or west direction is inauspicious. Bark is removed and wood is chiseled in rectangular shape. It is covered with Pa cloth and the remaining wood is buried under ground. The trees for idols are found in regions around Puri, Khurda, Cuttack etc. This has been seen in 1912, 1931, 1950, 1966, 1977 and 1976. It is not necessary that they will be in a particular area only. These trees start emanating sandal like good smell for many years and

are guarded by snakes. They inspire good thoughts. Respect for them arises due to command of gods in dream also. Attempts to damage or sale the trees fail. Small carts are made to carry the wood to r-ketra. Arms of the cart are of 8 hand length. Its wheel are from bunyan, beam is from tamarind and axle is from kendu tree. Wood for idols is tied in 4 wheeled carts with silk cloth. The procession of carts is brought with songs and drums etc. in the sequence-Sudarana, Balabhadra, Subhadr, Jaganntha. Near Ahar-nl (drain for food waste of temple), there is temple of lama-cha. The team rests for the night there. Next morning, people of Puri welcom them to town with misic etc. Woods are placed in temple before snna-yt (trip for bath). Hari had appeared on Jyeha prim (full moon), so the idols are given bath on that day ( /) On Snna (Jyeha) prim, the idols are kept on pedastal for bath. Water is brought from the golden well in front of tal goddess temple. Total of 108 pots of water is used for bath-35 for Jaganntha, 33 for Balabhadra, 22 for Subhadr, and 18 for Sudarana. Then the wood for idols is brought to Koili Vaikuha through north gate and kept in newly made dru-l (house for wood). Construction starts in a shed (nirma-maapa). Loud songs are sung so that sound of construction is not heard. Due to extra month of ha, gods are not seen for 1 1/2 months after snna-prim. Construction work is done for 2 weeks and Brahma matter is placed in them. Then in the second ha, purification and colouring of idols is done. As per Mdal-pji (chronological records) of 1650, hands of Jaganntha are 84 yava long. His idol also is 84 yava long, so he appears round shape. Each hand is of 42 yava of which 20 yava part is invisible due to attached with head and 22 yava is seen. Head-36 3/4 yava Neck- 12 yava Heart- 09 yava Waist-10 1/2 yava Balabhadra idol is shaped like a conch. Length of his hands are 36 3/4 yava, out of which 13 3/4 yava is linked with head and 23 yava is visible. Head from snake crown to lips- 31.5 yava Neck - 10.5 yava Heart and lotus- 15 3/4 yava Feet - 26 1/4 yava Total 84 yava Idol of Subhadr is of lotus shape. Head- 19 3/4 yava

Heart - 03 1/4 yava Waist - 19 3/4 yava Feet - 09 3/4 yava Total 52.5 yava As per definition 1 angula (digit) is of 6 or 8 yava. But it is symbolic and the tradition of Pur takes it as 1 inch or 2.54 cm. From the woods brought from forest, a piece is taken out for pra-pratih (charging it with soul). This is called nysa-dru (wood for ceremony). This nysa-dru is divided into 4 pieces. After Brahma-matter is placed in cavities of idols, opening of cavity is purified with these and it is closed in main (second) ha ka 14th midnight. To complete the idols, 7 paints are given. Wood is like bones, they are smeared with scented oil as rasa (juice). Then body is tied firmly with silk thread of dark red colour as nerves. Then as skin, there is paste of sandal powder, kastr (musk from deer) and dhpa (a scented wood). Then strong fabric layers are tied and on last layer paste of rice is put which is like seed of men. Then the idols are painted with prescribed procedure. Painting is complete with colouring of eyes on main ha ukla 1st (new moon). After bathing it, new youth (nava-yauvana) is seen by people. Next day, on 2nd tithi (generally with puya star), ratha-ytr starts. Details are described in Skanda pura, Tithi-tattva, Niraya-sindhu, Smti-kaustubha etc. 11. Secrecy of rituals-The above description is compiled from many journals of Govardhana-Pha, Pur. However, all details are not available in any printed book. Even manuscripts are in personal custody of the persons involved in searching wood and constructing idols. Their names are also guess work only. r Ravinryaa Ratha-arm, son of great scholar pandit Sadiva Ratha-arm, authority on Vstu has indicated that 2 main books are Puruottama-chandrik and Vanajta-chandrik. Even classical texts have stated that original idol construction in time of king Indradyumna also was done with high secrecy in 15 days. Any person trying to see it would face death. Some passages are quoted below from Vmadeva-samhit and Nldri-mahodaya. - , -

() , , References- Only original references of vedas, pura, mahbhrata, atapatha brhmaa, upaniad have been given. Mahbhrata and its part Gt are available from Gt Press, Gorakhpur (UP). All vedas and puras in original are by Nag Publishers, Delhi-110007. 188 Upaniads are by Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi-7. 108 upaniads are by Chowkhamba, Delhi-7, or Varanasi (UP).