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Water tower and inlet
The inlet well is situated below the water tower and is the point where water leaves the reservoir. Valves within the tower allow water to be extracted at different depths depending on the reservoir level. These valves also enable water to be redirected into the river at times of low flows. When the reservoir is full, excess water flows over the spillway and joins the river via this route. A scour valve enables the reservoir to be drained of silt intermittently. The first treatment step involves a mesh cage that traps any debris or fish, preventing them from entering the works. Typically, the water flows against a second physical barrier, known as the cup screen. This has a finer mesh and will stop smaller particles flowing on to further stages. The flow of water is continuously monitored by computerised equipment.
Chemical coagulation and flocculation
River and reservoir raw waters contain dissolved colours and finely divided particles which do not readily settle or filter out. As a result, coagulants such as iron or aluminium salts or polyaluminium chloride are added to create a floc. The coagulants are added in the mixer channels and the water flows into the flocculators. Here, slowly revolving paddles gently mix the water and the coagulants encourage the impurities to stick together, making larger particles which are then easier to remove.
Dissolved air flotation
In the dissolved air flotation, DAF, tanks the floc is removed from the water. Water saturated with compressed air is forced into the bottom of the tanks of water. Air bubbles attach themselves to the floc particles, forcing them to the top of the tank where they form a blanket of foamy sludge. Scrapers move along the top of each tank to remove the sludge into channels. The sludge is either discharged to a sewer for treatment at the nearest sewage treatment works or stored and tankered off site. An alternative technique used at some works is the removal of floc by sedimentation – this process simply allows the particles to settle to the bottom of a tank.
GAC. a chlorine residual of between 0. due to the fine nature of sand. Activated carbon adsorption Due to its high surface area and a high affinity for organic compounds. Here the water is forced to flow along the channels for at least one hour to ensure disinfection is complete. chlorine is the primary disinfection agent.4 and 0. The service life of either form is determined by the concentration of organic compounds in the raw water. The chlorination process has to be secure for health and safety reasons and levels of chlorine leaving the works are monitored closely. will pass through the gaps between the grains. but has no residual effect ultraviolet light – needs no chemicals and is effective at killing bacteria but has no residual effect chlorine dioxide – sensitive to pH. The chlorine is added in the contact tank. the filters are kept clean by backwashing. The dirt particles. To retain the protective effect. Denitrification . Variations do occur such as rapid deep bed filters which allow pressure to be applied to the system. An alterative treatment is the use of powdered activated carbon. Water passes through one metre of the media and remaining pollutants are attracted to the surface of the carbon. an underground chamber consisting of channels. however. Alternative treatments include: ozonation – more effective against bacteria and viruses. taste and odour and total organic carbon. become trapped.5 mg/l is retained to the customer’s tap. Water is fed through the filters and.At a works there will be several filters which are half filled with sand. In the same way that sand filters work. Disinfection In the UK. Additionally both the size and nature of the media can be varied to optimise the removal of particles. To prevent them becoming blocked up. The carbon will be regenerated once used up. is used in a fixed bed. which is dosed as a slurry into the water and removed in a subsequent treatment process. carbon is used to remove trace organics. PAC. granulated activated carbon.
The latter require air valves at high points and wash outs at low points for occasional emptying of the main for repair or decontamination. limit. the relift pumping station and booster stations pump flows through a rising or pumping main. Biological denitrification also removes ammonia effectively. They provide gravity flow to customers’ properties on demand. To reduce energy use. the mains are disinfected and tested. Distribution network A distribution network transfers raw water to the treatment works and treated water to the customer. provide a stored reserve which allows for variations in demand throughout the day. or water towers in low lying areas. Each site has a wash out facility for occasional emptying and cleaning and they are maintained every five to 10 years.To keep drinking water below the European Union. Pipes sizes vary and can be up to 300mm in diameter. If it requires pumping. as well as catchment management controls. A service reservoir is built underground usually (hydraulic head permitting) with a gravelled roof for ease of maintenance. blending of sources or removal of nitrates may be practised. Wessex Water has a spine main running from west to east and a north to south link. . EU. alternative materials may be recommended. Some customers notice a change in taste when water is moved from one area to another. water flows by gravity where possible. To optimise water resources and to enable water to be transferred across the region. Denitrification may be by ion removal or biological denitrification although membrane processes can also assist. Where a risk of contamination arises. breakdown or contamination in a service reservoir. Ion exchange process uses brine and there is a waste brine stream which is disposed of to sewer. Each zone is linked to others so that in case of excessive demand. This involves an extensive network of pipelines which need to be maintained rigorously. Pipeline materials are determined by the water supply byelaws and are primarily made of UPVC. In construction. The treated drinking water is pumped to service reservoirs through underground pipelines. Service reservoirs. the supply can be maintained to customers.