Elizabeth Jiménez, CEO GEMAS Consulting and Advocacy
Examine the role of an English learner’s primary language in learning to read in English View the interview with Dr. Gil Garcia, Editor of English Learners; Reaching the Highest Level of English Literacy
Includes pedagogical practices such as background building, frontloading vocabulary and language functions, and using graphic organizers to enhance higher order thinking
Participate in a demonstration of the language experience approach for English learners
Terminology to Know
L-1, L-2 Frontloading vocabulary Prior knowledge Language experience approach Language functions Graphic organizers
The 4 Domains of Language
Listening Speaking Reading Writing (receptive)
Reading is a receptive domain of language
Like all language work. Mora 2008
. speaking ﬂuency.
Did You Know…. listening comprehension.?
Syllabic awareness develops before phonemic awareness (PA) since syllables are deﬁned-boundary and rhythmic sound units
Phonemic awareness develops ﬁrst
Source: J. they have ﬁve years of vocabulary. and grammar upon which to build new reading/writing skills
Research correlates strong phonemic awareness skills with success in learning to read
How do you think this applies (or doesnʼt apply) to English learners? Look at the next slide and think about how it applies. it is about making meaning
When English speaking children come to kindergarten.
for the teaching of reading.English Learner Literacy
When English learners come to school in kindergarten. they have a language which can be used or rejected. 1991
. Build on what students know!
Reading skills transfer
Common Underlying Language Proficiency
Dr. they supposedly speak neither English nor Spanish.
Pause the video
There is a popular notion that describes some bilingual children as ʻnon-non.ʼ According to some language proﬁciency tests.
The Role of L-1 in Learning to Read in L-2
Students only learn to read once
What students know in one language contributes positively to learning a new language. Why might that appear to be the case? Jot down your ideas. Jim Cummins.
Editor of English Learners Reaching the Highest Level of English Literacy.Dr. 2003. Gil García
Statement about teaching reading and writing to English learners
What advice would you give to teachers of English learners?
Interview with Dr. International Reading Association
Dr. Gil García
What are the greatest challenges for reading teachers of English learners?
What is scaffolding. Gil García
What are the differences between kindergarten and high school beginning English learners?
Interview with Dr. and why is it so important for English learners learning to read in English? Can you give us some examples?
.Interview with Dr. Gil García
What are the most effective strategies for teaching reading comprehension?
Interview with Dr.
family and community reinforce effective practices?
English Literacy Includes Writing
Writing is an expressive language domain
The sounds of English are called phonemes and the letters that represent them in the written system are graphemes
Sound and spelling correlation in English is much looser than some other languages that have a language academy to rule on questions of language and spelling
English spelling has many exceptions to the rules.Interview with Dr. Spanish is far more consistent
Not all languages use a writing system with letters to represent individual sounds
Phoneme to Grapheme Relationships
Phoneme One-to-one relations /1/ / 2/ /1/ Many-to-one relations /1/ /2/
Source: Jill Kerper-Mora
One-to-many relations a b
. Gil García
How do the school.
Source: McCormick 1988
. reading. art. dough. hoe.
Language Experience Approach is an accepted beginning reading method that is especially useful for older English learners. boat /s/. -ough. -ow.
3. Vocabulary and language structure less of an issue.
Some English learners. know. -eau. Beau. including some adults. and language. you can read it. It provides reading material that is predictable and readable because it uses the learners' natural language. It brings together writing.English Phoneme to Grapheme Correspondence
One-to-one /m/ > m /n/ > n Examples Mom no One-to-many /o/ > o.
2. /sh/ /k/ Examples electricity electrician electric Many-to-one -c-
LEA for Older English Learners
Some English learners arrive with very advanced levels of literacy in their home language.
Language Experience Approach for English Learners
1. It is learner-centered and demonstrates that the learners' thoughts and language are valued. -oe. If you can think and say it. arrive with little or no home language literacy so they must learn to read while also learning English. -oa Examples No.
read a story to the group. including the name of each individual who contributes something
. One bear is a papa. Ask the group to retell the story or describe the experience
3. re-read the sentence with the group.”
Juana said. One bear is a mama.”
Juan said. “The bears say to the girl to go. “The papa and the mama and the baby say goodbye. then together re-read the whole thing from the beginning
5. fold origami
2. “Three bears live in a house. As you capture each sentence. pop popcorn.”
Maria said.5 Steps to Language Experience
Teresa said. “One girl she sleeps.”
Gaby said. “One bear is a baby. distribute them to students to match up
Give each student a metal ring with those words
Select a phonics skill or letter recognition skill to teach and practice
The Three Bears
Maria said. Create a shared ʻexperienceʼ . “One girl is in the house of the bears. Write down the group retelling.eg. Do a group editing session
Extending the Language Experience Approach
Have students follow up by drawing a storyboard of the events in their story
Select some high-frequency words to teach
Make ﬂashcards with those words.
High Frequency Words
The Sound of the Letter ‘B’
Ask what other words do we know that begin with ʻbʼ
. “Three bears lived in a house.” “One bear is a baby.” “The girl is in the bearsʼ house.” “The bears tell the girl to go. One bear is a mama bear and One bear is a papa bear.The Three Bears
Once upon a time. the mama and the baby say goodbye.”
“The papa.” “The girl is asleep.
International Reading Association
. 1988. you can read
b) create a shared experience
c) group dictation
d) group edit and word work
McCormick. G.G.Topic Review
a) reading and writing
b) challenges for EL students
c) what teachers can do to help ELs read
Language Experience Approach
a) what you can think and say. 2003. English Learners Reading the Highest Level of English Literacy. New York: University Press of America. Thomas W. Delaware.
Garcia.Theories of reading in dialogue: An interdisciplinary study.