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Chapter 1: The Cell Cell Theory - All living things are composed of cells - Cell is the basic functional

unit of life - Cells arise only from pre-existing cells - Cells carry genetic information in form of DNA o Passed on from parent to daughter cell Methods and Tools Microscopy - Magnification: Apparent size of an object - Resolution: Ability to differentiate two closely placed objects - Compound Light Microscope o Parts: Diaphragm, Coarse and Fine adjustment knob o For non-living specimens (slice and stain kills it) - Phase Contrast Microscope o Allows for visualization of living organisms o Cant increase contrast by using dyes etc. - Electron microscope o Highest resolution o Requires death of organism (heavy metal staining involved) Autoradiography - Usage of radioactive decay - Film showing radioactive activity of stained components Centrifugation - Fractionation of cell into components based on density Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes - Bacteria - Plasmids: Small circular DNA o Replicate independently of nuclear genome o Can be transferred Eukaryotes - Different types of Eukaryotes o Plants: Contain chloroplasts Differences between Pro and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Bacteria Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals Cell wall present in all Cell wall only in plants and fungi No nucleus Nucleus Ribosomes: 30s and 50s Ribosomes: 40s and 60s No membrane bound organelles Membrane bound organelles Unicellular Uni or Multicellular

Eukaryotic Organelles Cell Membrane - Made of phospholipid bilayer o Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head o Studded with proteins and lipid rafts Control movement of solutes in ad out of the cell o Cholesterol: Regulates fluidity and stiffness of the membrane - Transport Protein: Control solute movements - Cell adhesion molecules (CAM): Cell- Cell recognition, cell differentiation and development - Fluid mosaic model Nucleus - Control center of the cell - Nuclear membrane/ envelope o Double membrane separating nuclear and cytosolic environment o Punctuated by nuclear pores: Allows selective 2-way exchange of materials - DNA Genetic Material o Organization: Into genes (coding region), wound in by histones to linear strands, then into chromosomes Ribosomes (Free or bound) - Production of proteins Endoplasmic Reticulum - Smooth: Lipid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons - Rough: Ribosome studded, involved in protein production Golgi Apparatus - Receives materials from ER - Repackaging into secretory vesicles and releases contents in exocytosis Vesicles and Vacuoles - Transport, store materials that are ingested, secreted, processed or digested Lysosomes - Endosomes (specialized vesicles that transport to lysosome) - Sequesters hydrolytic enzyme from rest of cells - Uses hydrolytic enzyme to breakdown materials - Causes cell death through autolysis Mitochondria - Inner Membrane o Contains numerous foldings known as cristae o Encloses the mitochondrial matrix - Outer membrane o Allows materials for respiration in - Semiautonomous o Contain own genes, replicate independently via binary fission o Can release enzymes in ETC during apoptosis

Microbodies - Peroxisomes: Creation of H2O2 (Used to break down fats, detoxify in liver) - Glyoxysomes: In germinating plants, converts fats to usable sugars Chloroplast - In plants, contain chlorophyll, generates energy Cell wall (Prokaryotes, Fungi, Plants) - Made of cellulose or chitin Cytoskeleton - Microfilaments: Made of Actin, can interact with myosin - Intermediate filaments - Microtubles: Hollow, made of tubulin, structural basis of cilia and flagella - Contribute to transport system and cell structural strength Movement Across Cell Membrane Simple Diffusion - No energy, higher to lower concentration gradient - Osmosis: Diffusion of water - Hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic Facilitated Diffusion (Passive Transport) - Intergral membrane proteins functioning as channels Active Transport - Movement against concentration gradient Tissues: Epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle Viruses - DNA/ RNA: Single/ double strand, linear/ circular - Obligate Intracellular parasites - Structure: Nucleic acid, protein coat (capsid), tail sheath, tail fibers