TYRE MAINTENANCE TIPS

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Check tyre pressure twice a month and visually inspect them every day. Don’t overlook the spare wheel
Keep good tyre pressure gauge (pencil or dial type) I” your glove compartment.. Always check tyre pressure when tyres are cold While driving, heat causes lyre pressure to increase and gauge reading will be seen to be high. Keeping all tyres at 10% above recommended pressure reduces fuel consumption by about 2%. Underinflated tyres can increase fuel consumption significantly For every 2 psi (pounds per square inch) under inflatlon, fuel consumption increases by approximately 1% Unequal tyre pressures cause pull or drift to one side while driving. Radial tyres have less rolling resistance than crossply tyres and they can reduce your consumption by 3.5% in city driving and upto 10% on highways. Always use the same size tyres on each axle. Never mount radial and cross ply tyres on the same axle. If a car has two radial and two cross ply tyres, always mount tyres in the front and radials at the back.

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DRIVER ENERGY EFFICIENCY TIPS

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AND TYRE MAINTENANCE
Regular tyre maintenance and wheel alignment reduces fuel consumption and prevents undue tyre wear. Worn shok absorbers and weak springs can also contribute to the waste of fuel This leaflet provides information on wheel alignment and tyre maintenance

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10 Out-of-balance wheels cause vlbratlons, excessive wear of tyres and other parts. 11 Check tyre wear pattern at least once a month misaligned tyres increase fuel consumption by approximately 3%. If you get a flat tyre while driving, DO NOT STOP in the middle of the road. Pull off the road and stop as soon as safety allows. DO NOT TRY TO DRIVE TO THE NEAREST REPAIR SHOP, as this will destroy the tyre and damage the rim. Change the tyre immediately.

FACTORS AFFECTING FUEL CONSUMPTION The information in this pamphlet will help you in obtaining optimum mileage from your tyres and in reducing your monthly fuel expenditure

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This is one in a series of ENERCON Driver Energy Efficiency Tips for car owners and auto mechanics. This series presents basic Information on techniques for increasIng fuel efficiency in vehicles. For further information contact, Fuel Efficiency in Road Transport Sector Project. ENERCON Building. G-512. lslamabad.

ENERCON Building, G-512, Islamabad, Pakistan Tel: + (92-51) 9206005, 9207572 Fax: + (92-51) 9206003 E-Mail: root@enercon.sdnpk.undp.org A Global Enwonment Fac,l~ty GEF ) Project

Correctly aligned wheels extend tyre life and improve fuel efficiency They also help safe steering of the vehicle and comfortable ride

Wheel alignment is the adjustment of steering and suspension components so that car steers properly, tyres experience rmnimwr wear and fuel is used efficiently WHY D I S A CAR GO O T OF AL IGNMENT OE U Misalignment is caused by impacts from hitting potholes and bumps, loose steering or suspension and deterioration from aging of mechanism suspension parts. It is recommended that you have your car’s wheels aligned at least twice a year or every 10,000 km whichever is earlier.

IF A CA RV IBRATES s /\i 13, i-,:i R,i?J r v $l;i’E!LD :.f\iE;.S. WiC!. ‘vL*;-iEl_LiL ,l,IIGNIVli,YT c: LL R I-: ; ‘i,6I !- ;.x<~>;:! E,V?
Poor alignment usually does not cause specific speed vlbrations. This condition is normally attributed to the tyre and wheel assembly being out of dynamic balance Therefore, wheel balancing is recommended

Excessively worn wheel bearings, tie-rod ends, ball joints patched tyres, or bent and out-of-round tyre rims can cause tyre wobbling.

The expected life of a tyre can be reduced drastically if a vehicle has a severe misalignment condition.

It is recommended that tyres be rotated at every 00 km in order that they may wear evenly. After performing tyre rotation readjust each tyre pressure lo specifications.

On most vehicles alignment can be completed in approximately 30-40 minutes. HOW LONG SHOULD ALIGNMENT LAST? an alignment will hold for 8,000.10.000 km Naturally, if your vehicle suffers any severe shocks from hitting potholes, curbs, etc your alignment can be thrown off in a short time.

Uneven wear can be caused by many factors such as improper wheel balancing, worn shock absorbers, worn front end part alignment problems, etc The best advice is to take your vehicle for inspectlon to a workshop

Radial tyres can save fuel and last twice as long as cross-ply tyres. They improve road-holding capabilIty and maneuverability of your vehicle

THREE FACTORS IN ALIGNMENT: TOE-IN, CAMBER AND CASTER
WHAT IS TOE-IN? Toe-in is the condition when the front edges of the wheels are closer together than the rear edges. A saw-tooth or feathered edge tyre wear pattern shows that the tyre is subjected to road scuff as a result of improper toe-in.

IF A CAR HAS MACPHERSON STRUTS, WHAT WORK DOES THE WORKSHOP PEFLFORM ON IT? Bent struts can be corrected by using a strut straightener. Some struts also have a provlsion for adjustment which will correct wheel camber, however, toe will be adjusted in the normal way. WHAT IS WHEEL BALANCING? No tyre or wheel is completely round or uniform. Each tyre has heavy spots that can cause vibrations at high speeds. The wheel assembly should be dynamically balanced. This involves spinning the wheel to identify the heavy spot and then crimping lead weights to the rim to counter balance the heavy spot

WHAT IS CAMBER? Camber is the inward or outward tilt of the top of the tyre, as viewed from front of the vehicle. Excessive wear, on the edge of the tyre is generally the result of improper camber. Unequal camber, from side to side can cause pull or drift

HOW DOES TYRE PRESSURE AFFECT WEAR, RIDE, AND HANDLING? Underinflated tyres cause: (1) sidewalls and tread to buckle. thus reducing the area of the road contact patch (2) loss of traction ( 3 ) i n c r e a s e d f u e l consumption and excessive heat build-up, which causes rapld wear and early tyre failure. Proper inflation results in maximum road contact area, traction, and fuel economy. Over inflation again reduces the road contact area and traction, however fuel economy increases slightly.

Caster is the forward or the rearward tilt of the steering axis versus vertical. Caster adds directional stability to the vehicle and returns the wheels to a straight-ahead position on turns.

WHAT IS A RETREADED TYRE? It is a used tyre which has been given a new tread

HOW MANY TIMES CAN A TYRE BE: RETREADED
A cross ply tyre can be retreaded at least once, while radials can be retreaded 2 to 3 times

WHAT IS THE LIFE OF A RETREAD?
Depending on the quality of the tread compound and condition of the vehicle, retreads can last as iong as new tyres

C A N D A M A G E D TYRES BE RETREADED’? Yes. but tyres with broken beads. cracked sidewalls and excessively worn treads with holes or bare plies cannot be retreaded

HOW MUCH DOES A RETREAD COST?
The cost of a retread will vary from 30 to 40% of the price of a new tyre. W H E N SHOULD A TYRE BE RETREADED’? Ideally when the tyre wear marks show or when tread depth is approximately 1 to 2mm.

WHAT IS REGROOVING’
Increasing tread depth by removing rubber and reinforcement plies by a hand tool is known as regrooving. Tyres, if specified on sidewalls can be regrooved . Regroovng otherwise is dangerous and illegal.

All tyres whether n e w or retreaded must be balanced after mounting on the tyre rim.

TYRE WEAR PATTERNS

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