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R. E. HARTE

1. Introduction Let K denote either the real field R of the complex field C. The Hahn-Banach theorem can be stated in the following form:

THEOREM 0. Let E be a vector space over the field K, and q : Es>R a seminorm on E. Then, for each vector subspace EQ of E, and each linear mapping ifjQ : EQ-+K which satifies the condition

**there exists a linear mapping I(J : E->K with the properties
**

tp(ic)

= lf,0(x),

xeEQ,

(2)

\t(x)\^q(x),

XGE.

(3)

The condition (1) in Theorem 1 states that the linear functional ip0 is bounded, in absolute value, at each point by the seminorm q; property (2) of the functional ifj is that it is an extension of ifj0, and property (3) states that it is bounded, on the whole of E, by the same seminorm q. The apparently special case of Theorem 0 for real spaces, in which E is a normed space and

q(x) = \x\ sup{|«A0(2/)|: yGE0, \\y\\ ^ 1}, XEE,

was established by Hahn [1; p. 217] in 1927, and independently by Banach [2; p. 212] in 1929, who also generalized Theorem 0 for real spaces, to the situation in which the functional q :E^>R is an arbitrary subadditive, positive homogeneous functional [2; p. 226]. Theorem 0 was not established for complex spaces until 1938, when it was deduced from the real theorem by Bohnenblust and Sobczyk [3], and by Soukhomlinoff [4], who also deduced the analogue for vector spaces over the quaternions. In this paper, we generalize Theorem 0 to modules over a Banach algebra A: the proof yields in particular a variation of the classical proof of the complex theorem, and the theorem for quaternions. Our generalization is related to the extension theorem of Bonsall and Goldie [5; p. 13], and interacts fruitfully with the theorem established by Nachbin [6; p. 30].

Received 24. February, 1964.

[JOTJKNAL LONDON MATH. SOC, 40 (1965), 283-287]

linear in the usual sense for real or complex vector spaces. is an A -seminorm.a2-by = (a1'a2. as a mapping p :M-+R which satisfies the condition 0 <^(o 1 -m 1 +a 2 -m 2 ) <|a 1 b(m 1 )+||a 2 ||^(w 2 ). a vector space over the field K (that is. The algebra A itself is an example of a left A -module. over the field K. 185-186]. For example. that is. and the dual norm on the module A'. p. on an A -module. with a product. A (Ze/iC) A-linear mapping is a mapping. (1) . HABTB 2.284 R. Modules over a Banach algebra Let A be an arbitrary Banach algebra [7. 3.4-linear mapping is in particular JT-linear. and p :M-+R an A-seminorm on M. for each A-submodule Mo of M. in particular. for each av a2 in A and each mls m2 in M. effectively. given by the formula p { | > | | a | < l } . and so is the dual space [9. and an . K is a subalgebra of A). • :AxM->M. which satisfies the conditions = a i (a2-a1) . which satifies the condition. for each a1} a2 in A and each ml9 ra2 in Jf. in the usual sense. A'. ra2 in JW. 2] as an abelian group. Let M be a left module over A. Then. p. E. A {left) A-module is defined [8. T :M->N say. It follows from the definitions that an A -module is. be A'. THEOREM 1. we shall identify the identity with the number 1 of the field K (so that. and a if-seminorm is just a seminorm. b}.ava2eA. and each A-linear mapping <f>0: M§-+A' which satifies the condition meM0. + say. M. the norm of the algebra A is an A -seminorm. An extension theorem be A'.m1 = a2 for each av a2 in A and each % . pp. An ^4-seminorm is a fortiori a JT-seminorm. 2] with an identity. from an A -module M into an A -module N. We introduce the definition of a (left) A-seminorm. with the product • :A xA'->A' defined by the formula (a1. a i£-module).

B A N A C H THEOREM 285 there exists an A-Knear mapping <f> :M->A' with the properties (2) <f>(m) = (f>0{m). <£0(m)>.\\al^. <f>(m) is a bounded linear mapping. Theorem 1 is certainly a generalization of Theorem 0. aeA. Therefore. meM. since the condition (1) of Theorem 0 is satisfied. Introduce the linear mapping ifjo:Mo->K formula «/ro(m) = <1. because for each mv m2 in M. = (a.of Theorem 0 . from A to K. In particular. aeA. because the normed iT-module K' is isometrically isomorphic to K. (3) denned by the Proof. and has the property (3) of Theorem 1. a-(f>0(m)> = <a. \\(f>(m)\\' = 8u-p{\ifj(a-m)\:aeA. Since p is an ^4-seminorm on M. meM. we may define a linear mapping <f>{m) :A->K by the formula (a.A GENERALIZATION OF THE H A H N . aeA. then A' is isometrically isomorphic to A. there exists a linear mapping t/t :M->K. with the properties (2) and (3) of Theorem 0. and each a1. 2 -w 2 ). by Theorem 0. aeA. Theorem 1 therefore effects the deduction . <f>(m)} = tp(a-m). that is. a\\^. l}^p{m). Finally. <f> is therefore a mapping from M into A'. Theorem 1 reduces to Theorem 0. meMo. both as a ^T-module and as an A -module. a 2 in^4. <f>0(m)y. and therefore meM. <f> is also A -linear. aeA. if K = R and either A = C or A is the division algebra of quaternions [4]. meM0. ). Also. (a. <f>(m)eA'.a1-<f>(m1)+a2'<l>(m2)y.l=>p(a-m) ^p{m). In the particular case A = K. For each m in M.<j)(m)y = ip(a'm). — < 1 . 4. <f> has the property (2) of Theorem 1: if meM0. Thus.

Suppose that the normed space F. We remark that the proof of Theorem 1 makes no appeal to the completeness of the Banach algebra A. and let G be the normed A -module of bounded A -linear mappings from A into F.4] of the theorem for complex vector spaces. this mapping is also left A -linear. meMQ. we consider first the special case in which A — K = R. and need not be a Banach algebra). pp. and each A-linear mapping O0 : MQ^-G which satifies the condition there exists an A-linear mapping 0 : M-> G with the properties O(m) = O0(m). HAETE for complex spaces. The proof of the extension theorem of Bonsall and Goldie. The extension theorem [5. THEOREM 2. from the theorem for real spaces. has the "binary intersection" property [6. and vector spaces over the quaternions. in the sense of Bonsall and Goldie [5]. Then. 6]. . than our proof of Theorem 1. they confine their attention to those which take their values in the left ideal of A which is the image of A' under the mapping induced by the trace. Then. Theorem 2 now follows. 7]. Let M be a left module over A. and p :M^-R an A-seminorm on M. p. E. In our case (the algebra considered by Bonsall and Goldie need not have an identity. and the idea of a trace. and of the analogous theorem for vector spaces over the quaternions. 30].286 R. More generally. p. which possesses at least one element e with the property that e -A is dense in A. and Theorem 2 follows by the proof of the " extension property " of F [6. in full generality. 13] is now very similar to Theorem 1: in particular. by exactly the argument used to deduce Theorem 1 from Theorem 0. for each A-submodule MQ of M. is rather closer to the original proofs [3. p. it possesses an effective right trace [5. and I an indebted to the referee for the observation that Theorem 1 can be generalized to left modules (specifically assumed to be vector spaces over the field K) over a real or complex normed algebra A. if the algebra A " represents its linear functional ". p. from this special case. the extension theorem of Nachbin [6] is a direct generalization of the original proof of the theorem for real spaces [1.2]. in this case G = F. 30-32]. over the real field R. as follows from the proof of Theorem 6 [5. although Bonsall and Goldie consider A -linear mappings into algebra A. ) lie ^ P ( m ) > To prove Theorem 2. and this induces a one-to-one linear mapping of the dual space A' into the algebra A.

Banach. H. Soukhomlinoff. 223-239. 1961). Northcott. E. 5 F. E.A GENERALIZATION OF THE H A H N . Heine Angew. 1-14. Sonczyk. A. 3 H. . 353-358. W. 91-93. C G. University College of Swansea. Irons.S. 214-229. Hahn. " Uber lineare Gleichungssysteme in linoaran Raumen ". 7. "Extensions of linear functionals on complex linear spaces ". F... Soc. 157 (1927). F. Bull. Sborrik. 8. " Sur les fonctionelles lineaires (I) (II) ". J. A. 1 (1929). 4 O. as stated above. Rickart. References 1. S. Math. ISiachbin. " Algebras which represent their linear functionals ". " t)ber Fortsetzung von linearen Functionalen in linearen komplexen Raumen und linearen Quaternionraumen". American Math. Bohnenblust and A. and the category of " locally convex " modules and continuous ^-linear maps. General theory of Banach algebras (Van Nostrand. Introduction to functional analysis (John Wiley. Soc. 211 -216. Soc. 49 (1953). in a sequel. N. (1938). 44 (1938). Goldie. American Moth. we are considering in more detail the concept of a " topological module ". 68 (1950). Homological algebra (Cambridge. 6. 9. Bonsall and A. 1958). The extension theorems. Studia Math. 2. Proc. Taylor. " A theorem of the Hahn-Banach type for linear transformations". L. Cambridge Phil. 28-46. Mat. 1960). are equivalent to the apparently slightly more special cases in which we consider bounded A -linear mappings from normed modules. C.B A N A C H THEOREM 287 5.

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