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CHAPTER - I Formal education will make you a living; self education will make you a fortune Jim Rohn.

. Education is a discipline that remains with you even if you do not study it directly. You have been participating in its process since you went to school so you cannot say that you are unfamiliar with the questions and problems it presents. Think about your personal experience, adjust it to the methodology and you are sure to get excellent. Need and significance of the study Computer is very effective for teaching, learning, analysis and evaluation. Though the computer has flourished in many ways, there is another side in which the teacher is taught through conventional method. It has been observed that there are some defects or disadvantages in conventional classroom method of teaching and learning. In this type of teaching, students have to observe classroom under tight control and rigid supervision. It is highly laborious and time consuming. Many types of diversion occur due to various factors such as poor performance of the students, inadequate classroom climate, excess class strength, noisy situation

etc. the students can learn at their own convenience. There performance or the assessment will not be exactly correct. They cannot be active as compared to external disturbances in learning. Thus it has been found that Computer-Assisted Language Learning is a very much suitable method for the teaching and learning. The computer The computer is an electronic machine working on the principles of prolonged learning that aim at individualized instruction to meet the special needs of individual learners. The computer is a flexible as well as powerful devise. The computer is equipped with electronic circuits, Keyboards, Although it is called a dignified

recording and storage specialties.

calculating machine or a glorified calculator. It has unique capacity of memorizing heaps of information and reproducing or retrieving them whenever necessary. The procedure and language used for recording and retrieving information are specific and peculiar. Computer is known as electronic brain. The computer services take the decision about for instruction materials according to the entering behaviour of the learner. Other teaching machine simply presents the

instructional material systematically, but a computer has to decide and present the instructions materials according to the needs of learner.

Computer in Education The computer is now regarded of a super teaching machine. Its use in education has been tried as an innovation and it has proved its teaching efficiency in many developed countries. The computer has been helping the teacher in following areas. Evaluation of students performance and classification of children according to abilities. Preparation of time table and schedules. Allocation of learning materials according to individual needs and interest. Providing information / date for guidance and reference. Provision of direct interaction pupils and subject matter. Computer -Assisted Language Learning (CALL) The most exciting innovation in the Educational Technology is CALL. It is a development of systematic programmed learning and teaching machine. It is a self-instructional device with the principle of atomization. Computer-Assisted Language Learning is Computer applications applied to

traditional teaching methods such as drill, tutorial, demonstration, simulation and instructional games. It is an effective medium and an indispensable aid in the teaching-learning process. The instructional process carried out with the help of computer is known as Computer-Assisted Language learning but a different kind of instruction altogether. CALL in English Language Teaching The use of computer in teaching English is still in its infancy. However, the CALL method of teaching is bringing some exciting innovations in the field of English Language Teaching. They provide direct interaction between student and the subject matter to be learned. The engage the students in tutorial interaction and dialogues. In English language teaching, CDs on vocabulary, spelling, rhymes and sentence constructions have been programmed with illustrations. With the help of CDs, the students can learn correct spelling and vocabulary. Through multimedia kit, explanations are given orally and needed visuals are presented. Using this technology teacher can improve academic performance, enhance motivation and promote learning among the students. Importance of English Language The important of English Language of all languages in the world today, English deserves to be regarded as a world language. It is the worlds

most widely spoken language. It is the communication means of connection between the peoples of different nation. One person out of every for on earth can be reached through English. A very important reason for regarding English as a world languages is that the worlds knowledge in enshrined in English. Countries like Asia and Africa that were till recently under the British rule get their Scientific knowledge and technological know how from English books. English is target as a second language or third language that is to say almost all over the world, whether as mother tongue or as a foreign language English is being used one way or another. History of call CALL dates back to the 1960s when it was first introduced on University main frame computers. The Plato project, imitated at the

University of Lllinois in 1960 is an important landmark in the early development of CALL. Marty (1981) the advent of the micro computer in the late 1970s brought computing within the range of wider audience, resulting in a boom in the development of CALL programs and a flurry of publications of books on CALL in the early 1980s. Since the 1990s it has become increasingly difficult to categories CALL as it now extend to the use of blogs, wikis, social networking,

prodcasting, web 2.0 applications, virtual worlds and interactive white boards.

CALL Typology Structural CALL (1970s 1980s) Communication CALL (1980s 1990s) Integrative CALL (2000 onwards) 1. Structural CALL 1970s 1980s Most CALL programs in Warschauer and Healeys first phase, behavioristic CALL consisted of drill and practice materials in which the computer presented a stimulus and the learner provided a response. The computer would analyze students input and give feedback and more sophisticated programs would react to students mistakes by branching to help screens remedial activities. Behavioristic approaches to language

learning have been rejected by most language teachers and the increasing sophistication of computer technology has led CALL to other possibilities. 2. Communicative CALL (1980s 1990s)

It is based on the communicative approach that prominent in the late 1970 and 1980s. In the communicative approach the focus is on using the language rather than analysis of the language and teaching grammar implicitly. He first CALL software in this phase, still provided skill practice but not in a drill format for example, pace reading text reconstruction and language games, but the computer remained the tutor. In this phase,

however, computers provided context for students to use the language such as asking for directions to a place. 3. Integrative call (2000 onwards) Integrative CALL start 2000 onwards tries to address these critisms by integrating the teaching of language skills into tasks or projects to provide direction and coherence. It also wincides with development of multimedia technology (providing test, graphics, sound and animation) as well as computer mediated communication (CMC). CALL in this period saw

definitive shift of the computer for drill and tutorial purpose (computer as a finite, authoritative base for a specific task) to a medium for extending education beyond the classroom. Multi media call Language teacher have been avoid users of technology for a very long time. Gramophone records were among the first technologies aids to be used

by language teachers in order to present students with recordings of native speakers voices and broad casts from foreign radio station were used to make recording on reel-to-reel tape recorders. Others examples of

technological aids that have been used in the foreign language classroom include slide projectors, video cassette recorders and DVD players. In the early 1960 integrated courses (which were often described as multimedia courses) began to appear. Web based CALL The emergence of the World Wide Web (now known as the web in the early 1990s marked a significant change in the use of communications technology for all computer users. Email and other forms of electronic communication had been in existence for many years but the launch of the first graphical web browser, mosaic in 1993 brought about a radical change in the ways in which we communicate electrically. List of following examples of web 2.0 applications that language teachers are using. Image storage and sharing Social book marking Discussion lists, blogs wikis social networking

Chat rooms MODs, MODs and moves (virtual words) Broadcasting Audio tools Video sharing applications and screen capture tools Animation tools comic strips movies etc. Mashups

Statement of the problem. The investigator has selected the present study with the aim of Learning English language very easist way to used CALL methed among IX students inValayappatty at Namakkal district. Therefore, it has been entitled as Effectiveness of computer Assisted language learning on ninth standard students OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS Effectiveness Use of a plan for instruction or presentation which causes a desired changed in learners behavior (Good,1945)

CALL method Computer assisted language learning is search for and study of application of the computer in language teaching and learning (levy 1997). Here, the investigator uses computer software packages for English language teaching on ninth standard lesson. Ninth standard students Refers to the students who are studying in ninth standard students. Objectives of the Study 1. To find out the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method in English teaching. 2. To compare the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method and traditional method in English language teaching.

3. To compare the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method and traditional method in teaching English among boys 4. To compare the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method and traditional method in teaching English among girls.

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Hypotheses 1. There will be significant difference between the experimental group and control group with regard to post test achievement. 2. There will be significant difference between means of pretest achievement and post test achievement scores of experimental group. 3. There will be significant difference between the means of post test scores of experimental group and control group among boys. 4. There will be significant difference between the means of post test scores of experimental group and control group among girls. Method to be used The method used for the study is Experimental method non equivalent group pretest-post test method. Sample This study to be conduct in Valayappatty Government Higher secondary School located in Namakkal district. Samples consist of 60 IX Standard students.

Tools to be used

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Computer software packages for the lesson Keralas Secret Treasure and the poem The Blind Boy developed for the ninth students. Achievement test in English ( Pretest Post test) STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO BE USED Mean Standard deviation t Test ANCOVA DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The investigator has delimited his study in Government Higher secondary School, Valayappatty located in Namakkal district at Tamilnadu . CALL method of teaching and learing was introduced for the study. The investigator has delimited himself with the IX students.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE STUDIES IN ABROAD REVIEW OF LITERATURE 01 Introduction Once a topic has been decided upon, it is essential to review all relevant material which has bearing on the topic. It is necessary to show how the problem. Under investigation related literature is one of the first steps in the research process. It is a valuable guide to defining the problem, recognizing

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its significance, suggesting promising data gathering devices, appropriate study design and source of date. Aggarwal [1966] states The state of related literature implies locating, reading and evaluating reports of research as well as reports of casual observations and opinions that are related to the individuals have planned research report In the words of John.w.Best [1977] A brief summary of previous research and the writings of recognized experts provide evidence that the researcher is familiar with what is still unknown and untested. Since effective research must be based upon past knowledge, this step helps to eliminate the duplication of what has been done and provides useful hypotheses and helpful suggestions for significant investigations The review of related literature implies locating, studying and evaluating reports of relevant researches. Study of published articles, going through related portions of Encyclopedias and research abstracts, study of pertinent pages out of comprehensive books on the subject and going through related manuscripts if any. It helps the researcher to acquire up to date information about what has been thought and done in the particular area from which he intends to take up a problem for research. It also helps a researcher in getting a deep knowledge to the design of the study. With the help of this the research worker can find out what is already known, what

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others have attempted to find out, what methods of attack have been promising or disappointing and what problems remain to be solved. It

enables the researcher to know the means of getting to the frontier in the field of his research. It furnishes him with indispensable suggestions about comparative data, good procedures, probable methods and trail techniques. It provides ideas, theories explanations, hypotheses or methods of research valuable in formulating and studying the problem. It presents pointless repetition of research. It helps in locating comparative data useful in the interpretation of results. It contributes to the general scholarship of the investigator.

2.02 Importance of review of related literature In the words of Good, The key to the vast store house of published literature may open doors to sources of significant problems and explanatory hypothesis and provide helpful orientation for definition of the problem, back ground for selection of procedure, and comparative date for interpretation of results. (Johm.V.Best., James.V.Khan, 1993, P-155) In order to be truly creative and original, one must read extensively and critically, one must read extensively and critically, as a stimulus to think.

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Besides enlarging the knowledge about the topic, writing a literature review will give the investigators to gain and demonstrate skills in two areas. 1. Information seeking The ability to scan the literature efficiently using manual or computerizes methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books.

2. Critical Appraisal The ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies; A literature review must do these things, 1) It enables the researcher to define his problem. The knowledge of related literature brings the researcher up to date on the work which others have done and thus to state the objective clearly used concisely. 2) It helps the researcher to avoid unfruitful and useless problem area. 3) It helps the researchers to avoid duplications of well established facts. 4) It helps the researcher to understand the research methodology which refers to the way; the study is to be conducted. 5) It helps the researcher to known about tool and instruments which proved to be useful in the previous studies. 6) The final and important specific reason for reviewing the related literature is to known about the recommendations of previous researchers listed in their studies for further research.
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One of the essential aspects lf research process is the review of related literature. It plays a crucially role in planning of the study. Review if the related literature, besides, allowing the researcher to acquaint himself with current knowledge in the field or area in which he is going to conduct his research, serves the following specific purpose. 1. By reviewing the related literature the researcher can avoid unfruitful and useless problem areas. He can select those areas in which positive finding are very, likely to result and his endeavors would be likely to add to the knowledge in a meaningful way. 2. Through the review of related literature the researcher can avoid unintentional duplication of well established findings. It is no use to replicate a study when the stability and validity of its results have been clearly established. 3. The review of related literature gives the researcher an understanding of the research methodology which refers to the way the study is to be conducted. It helps the researcher to know about the tools and

instruments which proved to be useful and promising in the previous studies. The advantages of the related literature are also to provide insight into the statistical methods through which validity of results is to be established.

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4. The final and important specific reason for reviewing the related literature is to know about the recommendations of previous researchers listed in their studies for further research. 2.03 Classification of the studies The investigator has classifieds the studies reviewed in to two major sections namely. A. B. Indian studies Foreign studies

STUDIES IN ABROAD Bationo (1991) conducted a study on Effectiveness of CALL to teach foreign language. The major objectives of this study are to learn about the effects of three forms of immediate feedback on the learning of a foreign language computer based tutorial. The investigator has selected two students for the study. The researcher has found out that integrated

distributive computer network system was more effective than traditional instruction in increasing four languages skills and language achievement for low achieving students and another finding was that integrated distribute computer network system has positive effects on students motivation, attitude, instructional basic persistence and the organization, quantity and quality of student writing.

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Spencer, Mark Leonard (1995) conducted a study on the factors influencing teacher use of computer aided learning. The major objectives to find out what factors are influential in their computer use and reasons for taking the training course. The investigator selects 150 students from

three schools. The major findings of this study are the investigator has found that several factors were related to computer use available resources, administrator support, educational levels teacher compentenence in CAL and available budget money.

Nagata (1997) conducted a Study on computer assisted metalinguistic instruction to teach grammatical structure. The main objectives of this study are to find out the better use of computer to teach English grammar. The samples for the study consist of fourteen, second year college students studying Japanese. The important findings of the study are the computer exercises with Meta linguistic feed back helped students understand compux grammatical concepts. Neetta (1998) conducted a Study on computer-based grammar

instruction and teacher instruction. The main objectives of this study are to find out the use of computer assisted language learning and English language learning. The study was conducted on fifty three students at college level. The effective finding of this study revealed that computer grammar
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instruction was reported to be effective instruction and to some case more effective than study. Cox (1999) conducted a study on The factors while support or prevent teachers from using ICT in their classrooms. The factors like providing professional support to teachers through internet, giving more power to the teacher in the school, allowing greater access to computers for personal use, making teachers administration more efficient were found to be important in influencing teachers to use ICT in class rooms.

Katoka, Ko (2000) conducted a study on computer for English language learning in Japanese schools. The study was conducted on

180 students at college level. The major findings revealed that the use of computer can offer more authentic examples of English language in the of newspaper, broad cast, media etc. Stokers (2001) conducted a study on The role of ICT in Education states, ICT has made more of an impact on education than most teachers realize. Unfortunately not all students are online, but the percentage is growing in an increasing diversity of places and social strata. In their

educational environment, students tend to incorporate technology in their preparation at all levels primary, secondary and tertiary. The article points

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out those younger teachers are more willing to integrate technology in their teaching than older ones. Younger teachers are more familiar with the new trends in technology and more interested to use it. Where as older teachers feel frustrated by the new technology and take too much time to learn and use it. Yen (2002) conducted a study on Gender differences in teachers computer acceptance. The important findings of this study indicated that significant gender difference exists in teachers computer acceptance. Males were more ready to accept influence of computer in teaching than females. The male teachers appeared to be more techno savvy than their female counterparts. Ktoridou, Zarpetea and Yiangou (2002) conducted a study on Teacher attitude towards technology. The teachers participated in the

study admitted that although they were informed about possible integration of technology in teaching they did not actually apply it in class. The teachers exhibited a negative attitude to technology integration lack of training, lack of experience; lack of time to prepare and lack of computer access were the factors that the teachers considered as reasons for using technology in the class in the future. Leavy (2002) conducted a study on Caught in net technology and teaching language course. Exposes out the benefits of the new technology.
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It brings students closer to the reality of another language and another culture. Presented in the right ways, it can be extremely motivating because it allows students the independent, highly necessary for learning. Motivation in turn brings about more willingness to research to discover and learn. Computer accesses were the factors that the teachers considered as reasons for using technology in the class in the future. Postholm, M.B (2006) the teachers role when pupils work on task using ICT in project. This article shows how teachers perform their role, and how they act and talk when pupils work on task using ICT in project work. Data were collected in three class rooms in three schools of the lower secondary school level in Norway. In the three class rooms, 63 girls and 55 boys together with 12 teachers worked in three teachers team. The data were collected through observation, tape recordings, video recordings and log book entries and a constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. The author suggests that student teachers and practicing teachers may need to be convinced that the teacher role cannot be replaced by computers and that has a key role to play after the computer enters the classroom. REVIEW OF LITERATURE STUDIES IN INDIA Das (1996) conducted a study on the Effectiveness of computer assisted learning materials (CALM) on Rhymes in different modes. The study was conducted to develop computer software on rhymes in text,
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graphics text, text music and music recital modes and to study the effectiveness to CALM prepared in different modes for learning the rhymes. The effective finding of this study found that composite modes of presentation may not ensure higher cognitive language learning intelligibility of a message is a function of sender, massage, medium, mode receiver and the environment. Yadav (2000) conducted a study on The effectiveness of the computer software for learning English language. The major findings of

this study are most of the students were found to have positive reactions towards the software and teachers welcomed the media integrated approach towards learning. Yadav (2004) conducted a study on Development of an IT enabled instructional package for teaching English medium students of Vadodara city. The objectives of the study were to develop an IT-enabled instructional package for teaching English grammar, to implement it and to determine its effectiveness it terms of achievement of the students and opinions of students and English teacher. This study revealed that IT-

enabled instructional packages ensured significant gains in the achievement of students and the students and teacher were found to have favourable opinion towards IT-enabled students to learn kinds of sentences, namely,

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interrogative, assertive, affirmative, negative, imperative, order, commands and exclamatory. Rathud (2004) conducted a study on Identification of the gaps amongst teaching style and learning styles at secondary level and bridging these gaps through technology. This study revealed the utility of

various media, namely computer, multi media, projecting and non projecting media to address the needs of teachers and learners. P. Sitharthan and S. Uma (2004) conducted a study on E mail communication an emerging perspective in ELT. The effective e-mail communication involves far more than simply knowing how to use your email program. S. Soundiraraj (2004) conducted a study on Cartoons in the language classes. The positive features of cartoons and it also show how they can be exploited for developing speaking and writing skills of the learners. It ensures that the use of cartoons will motivate the learners and that it will make them participate actively in language class room. Dr. N.L.N. Jayanthi (2004) conducted a study on Use of multimedia in teaching English. Multimedia teaching must be accepted that computer skills should be adopted both by the teachers and the students if they really desire to acquire a good command on the four language skills.

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A. Vinoth (2004) conducted a study on The role of the language teacher in the wake of call. The IT revolution is changing our way of

life. Computer assisted language learning is learner friendly; if frees the teacher for more important work like planning. Rathod (2005) conducted a study on Development and

implementation of an information technology based instructional package for English grammar to Gujarati medium students of Standard VIII of Jamnagar city. The developed instructional package was found to be effective for teaching grammar. The students were found having positive reactions towards IT based instructional backage. Ambedkar. V (2005) conducted a study on Effectiveness of computer assisted English language learning at higher secondary level. (CAELL). The major objectives of the study were to find out the

effectiveness of the computer software package CAELL and to find out the relationship if any, between the achievement of the pupils and their attitude towards CALL of the three treatment groups. He has selected 150 students for this study. The findings of the study were among the three treatment groups the computer with teacher support group has the most significant effect on the pupils achievement in grammar. The pupils belonging to the computer group and the control group do not differ significantly in their

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attitude towards computer and also it shows a significant different between the pupils of computer with teacher support group and computer group. Khirwadkars (2006) conducted a study on Information and communication technology in education an integrated approach. Revealed the fact that ICT is becoming an integral part of educational reforms and innovation at secondary schools. The main suggestion of study was to integrate technology to the teaching learning process effectively. The present situation fails to integrate technology, pedagogy and content effectively. Non availability of proper infrastructure facilities was found to be the main barrier regarding ICT integration. Mamu.A. Barbhuiya (2008) conducted a study on Students attitude towards using computer for language learning A survey. This survey analyses the attitude, opinions and suggestions of a group of technical students on the use of computer technology for language learning. The survey conclusively points out that in the technical institutions adequate emphasis must be laid on computer technology in the teaching of language skill in English. Gupta and S.K. Garg (2010) conducted a study on A study of effectiveness of computer assisted teaching in linguistic comprehension of the students. To compare the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching and traditional teaching in linguistic comprehension of the students. 180
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students consisting of (90 boys and 90 girls) representing English medium schools Saharanpur city was drawn from 06 schools by random sampling method. It can be concluded from the study that, computer has made its own impact in every area and now a days it has become necessary with the help of this machine life has become faster and its versatility has made it important and essential in every field. S. Leela Gnanalet and Dr.K.S. Rama Krishnan (2010) conducted a study on Effectiveness of multimedia programme in teaching environmental education A study. To find out the effectiveness of computer multimedia program in the teaching of environmental education at the secondary level. This study is used to compare the effectiveness of computer multimedia program in the teaching of environmental education with that of the traditional method of teaching environmental education. The sample of this study consisted of 60 students studying in ninth standard under the matriculation syllabus at Chennai District included both boys and girls. The effective findings of this study shows there is a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in the learning of environmental education at the post test level. The students learning with help of the multimedia program fared better in environmental education than the students learning through the conventional method.

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P. Ponraj, Dr. R. Siva Kumar (2010) conducted a study on Computer assisted instruction in Zoology in relation to learners personality. To develop and validate CAI software for teaching Zoology for XI standard students. To find out whether there is any significant difference between the students achievement scores in Zoology of the control group and experimental group pretest and post test. The investigator found that CAI provides greater opportunities for the students to learn. It is better than the traditional method of learning. It brings a new kind of experience for the students in higher secondary schools. There for the investigator desires that number educational institutions should teach Zoology by using CAI and make the process of teaching and learning more effective. K. Uma Maheshwari, P. Samma Reddy and Gyanmudra (2010) conducted a study on Title Assessment of ICT literacy among high

school students. The major Objectives of this study are to find out the differences if any in ICT literacy among the high school students of rural and urban school. It also gives more importance to find out the difference if any in ICT literacy among the high school students boys and girls. These studies also give more attention to find out the difference if any in ICT literary among the high school students of Government and private schools. This study shows there is a significant difference in the mean scores of ICT literacy among the rural and urban high school students. The ICT literacy of

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urban students is significantly better than that of rural students and it also shows a significant difference in the mean score of ICT literacy among class IX students of government and private schools. The ICT literacy of students of private schools. Dr. P.N. Ramani (2004) conducted a study on One size does not

fit all a case for computer based English learning packages. Computer based English learning packages to suit various contexts and needs. The reasons for preferring them are enumerated. An overview of computer based applications is presented CALL materials are useful in catering to individual learner needs.

CRITICAL REVIEW The investigator had reviewed the studies done in India as in abroad which are related to the present study Effectiveness of computer Assisted language learning on ninth standard students The investigator reviewed Indian literature of about 28 years back and also foreign literature from last years back. The investigator has got 15 Indian studies and 13 foreign studies related to his problem. The researcher from India and abroad, had taken high school, higher secondary school college level students as sample for their studies. Most of the Indian and foreign studies are related to the apparently no study has been

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found to find the Effectiveness of computer Assisted language learning on ninth standard students. Therefore the investigator has selected 60 samples for the study. The present study differs from the studies discussed above in terms of variables, area and sample. The investigator has also made up his mind to take gender in non equivalence experiments method. So the investigator was impressed to probe into a study of the kind, in finding the Effectiveness of computer Assisted language learning on ninth standard students. In this context, the present study is found to be relevant and therefore she entitled his study as Effectiveness of computer Assisted language learning on ninth standard students CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Introduction

Research can be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalization, principles or theories, resulting in prediction and possible ultimate control of events (John W.Best, 1999, p.20). Michael, V.P. (2000) defines Research as a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information for some purpose. Research is always directed towards solution

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to some problems. It develops the curiosity about the unknown and it is a procedure from known to unknown. The ultimate goal of any research problem is to find out the cause and effect relationship among the variables. Educational research is concerned with the development and testing the theories of how students behave in an educational setting. The success of an educational research depends on the systematic adoption of the scientific method.

The success of any research depends largely upon the suitability of the method, the tool and the techniques used for the collection of data. The validity of the findings also depends upon the methods and hence methodology occupies a very important role in any type of research. 3.02 Methods of research Research methods are of almost important in a research process. A preplanned and well described method will provide the researcher a scientific and feasible plan for attaching and solving the problem under investigation. Three main categories of research methods are 1. Historical Method 2. Survey Method 3. Experimental Method Historical Method In these researcher deal with what one was?. The educational historian may seek either to produce an accurate description of unique events that

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have happened In the past or to suggest through the survey of these events fruitful generalization from prior experiences that may act as controls for behavior is to produce evidence that will help us profit by the experiences of the past in the solution of current problems. Survey Method The survey method gathers data from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. It is concerned with the generalized statistic that result when a data are abstracted from a number of individual cases It is essentially cross sectional. According to John W. Best (1959) The survey is extensive and cross sectional dealing with a relatively large number of cases at a particular time and yielding statistic that are abstract from particular cases.

Experimental Method In these the researchers deal with what can be when certain factors are controlled. When the certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. The focus is on cause and effect relationships. As defined here deliberate manipulation is always a part of the experimental method. Nature of the survey method 1. It deals with the present. 2. It is oriented towards the determination of the status of given phenomena rather than isolating causing factor accounting for its existence. 3. It generally based on cross sectional samples. 4. It has a fact- finding approach. 5. It studies significant relationship among phenomena.

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Purpose of the survey method 1. It provides necessary information which helps the administrator for making decisions. 2. It provides necessary information and plan for improvement. 3. It interprets synthesis and integrates data and points out their implications. 4. It is only method through which the researcher can obtain the opinion, attitude and suggestions for improvement. 3.03 Method adopted in the present study Experimental method is used in this study. It involves clearly defined objectives.

3.04 Administration of the tool The tool was nearly printed and the investigator himself visited the schools and administered the tool with the permission of the Head of the institutions and the help of the teachers. For part - I the students were instructed to answer the personal data sheet. For part II and part III the students were instructed to give their responses by putting a tick mark against one of the choices. There was no limit for responding to the item. This chapter deals with the methodology of the study and here briefly out lines the statement of the problem, title of the research, method of the study, tools used, population, sample, data collection, scoring, statistical techniques used etc. Research is characterized by patient and unhurried

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activity. It is rarely spectacular and researcher must expect disappointment and discouragement as they pursuer the answer to difficult questions. Research is actually a voyage of discovery. It is always directed towards solutions to problems. It develops curiosity about the unknown and it is a procedure from known to unknown the ultimate goal of any research work to find out the cause and effect relationship between variables it is an intellectual activity in which systematic analysis is done. METHOD ADOPTED FOR THE PRESENT STUDY The present study is an attempt to determine the effectiveness of computer assisted learning on ninth standard students. adopted experimental method for the present study. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experimental method is a scientific method. It is oriented towards future in the sense that the researcher is seeking to evaluate something new. It is a process of contribution to the already acquired fund of knowledge. Thus, the experimenter operates under the basic assumption that the research situation he wishes to evaluate has never existed and does not exit. According to Mouly (1984), Experimentation can be considered as a technique of deliberately staging situation designed to force the nature to The investigator

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provide yes or no answer to specific hypothesis concerning the phenomenon under discussion. According to W.S. Monore, (1976), experimentation is the name given to the type of educational researcher in which the investigator controls the educative factor to which a child of group of children is subjected during the period of enquiry and observes the resulting achievement. There are four essential characteristics of experimental research. 1. Control 2. Manipulation 3. Observation 4. Replication STEPS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 1. Identifying the problem The problem should be amenable to experimentation. The variables to be investigated should be defined in operational terms. 2. Reviewing the literature

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After selecting the problem, the related literature and experiments should be reviewed and the method of approach or the experimental design to be pursued should be planned and out lined. 3. Formulating hypotheses and deducing their consequences The problem has to be converted into a hypothesis or hypotheses that can be verified or refuted by the experimental data. 4. Drawing up the experimental design This section should place primary emphasis on the questions of control, randomization, replication, place of the experiment, duration of the experiment, selecting or constructing and validating instruments to measure the outcomes of the experiment and conducting pilot or trail run test to perfect instrument or design.

5. Defining the population It is necessary to define the population precisely so that there can be no question about the population to which the conclusions are to apply. It may consist of selecting a sample of subjects to represent a given population and grouping or pairing subjects to secure homogeneity. 6. Carrying out the study
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It is necessary here to insist on close adherence to plans and experimental design. This will involve controlling variable or non-

experimental factors, applying the experimental factor or factors and keeping a careful record of steps in the procedure. 7. Analyzing and interpreting the outcomes The result pertaining to the factors under study should be clearly noted. The danger of other extraneous uncontrolled factors affecting the experiment should be properly recognized and avoided. The analysis of data demand expert use of statistical procedures. Only then the analysis become the basis for valid interpretation. 8. Drawing up the conclusion The conclusion of the study must be restricted to the population actually covered care must be taken not to over generalize theresults. The results also pertain only to the conditions under which they were derived. Care must be to restrict the conclusion to the conditions actually present in the experiment. 9. Reporting the results The study should be reported in sufficient detail so that the reader can make judgment as to it adequacy.

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Variables in experimentation A variable, is any factor, trait or condition that can exist in differeing amount or types. Kerlinger says, Variable is a property that takes on different values. An experiment usually has three kinds variables. i. ii. Independent variables Dependent variables

i. Independent variables independent variable is the one that is changed by the experimenter or presumed because that will produce a change in the dependent variable. In this study computer assisted language learning is the independent variable. ii. Dependent variable The Variables presumed effect or consequences resulting from changes in the Variables independent variable.
Achievement in Method of English Language Hereteaching in this study, achievement of students in learning language is learning Independent Dependent Variables

the dependent variable.

Conventional method

Computer 38 assisted language learning (CALL method)

Experimental Design Experimental design is the blue print of the procedures that enable the researcher to test hypothesis by reaching valid conclusions about relationships between independent and dependent variables. Although there are a number of combinations of the various experimental procedures, the basic designs are: 1. The single group design.

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2. The parallel group design. 3. Non equitant 4. The rotation group design 5. The factorial design Here the researcher adopted the non equivalent group design for conducting the experiment. Non equivalent group For this study, the investigator use the non equivalent group design to find out the effectiveness of CALL in English language learning. For this the investigator adopted pre test and post test of non equivalent group, in which the experimental and control groups were intact class room groups. Two divisions of standard IX in the same school were selected as the experimental and control groups.

40

Standard IX

Experimental Group Pretest Control Group Non equivalent group design

Same lesson through conventional method

Computer assisted language learning (CALL method)

41 Post test

The sample selected for the study a. Selection of the class The investigator selected standard IX in which the study has to be conducted. b. Selection of the group The present was conducted on 30 nineth standard students of Govt. Hr. Sec. School, Valayapatti. Two divisions IX A and IX B was selected IX

42

A students were taught by CALL technique and IX B students were taught by conventional method. c. Selection of the topic The topic selected for teaching was computer assisted language learning on ninth standard students. Tools used for the study 1. Computer package on particular topics. 2. Lesson transcripts according to conventional method. 3. Pretest and post test or achievement test in English.

b. The sample selected The sample consisted of 60 students from Govt. Higher Secondary School, Valappatti, Namakkal District. Two divisions of standard IX each having 30 students were selected. The details regarding sample selected for the study are given in table. Experimental procedure To test the entry behaviour of the pupils a pre test was conducted to the experimental and control groups before teaching the particular topic in
43

English text book lesson. The experimental group was taught through the CALL technique. This group was taught through computer approach, to explain each concept of the lesson a variety of picture, still graphics, animations moving picture and also tamil translation. The control group was taught using the traditional text book method. After teaching the experimental group and group the investigator conducted a post test. The pre test and post test scores of experimental and control groups were tabulated and analysed by statistical methods. Pre test Prior to the commencement of the experiment, the investigator conducted a pre test for two groups in adjacent periods. The achievement test prepared was administered on both the groups before teaching the topic. The score were subjected to statistical analysis. Teaching the experimental group After administering the pretest, the experimental group was taught by using lesson transcripts based on CALL method. Teaching the control group

44

After conducting the pre test, same topic with the prescribed text books in the conventional way by the investigator herself and it also took 20 days time. Post test conducted After completing 20 days teaching for the experiment and control group, the final achievement was measured by administering a post test. The test used for the pre test was used for the post test also. The test was administered to both the groups in adjacent period. Statistical techniques adopted The following statistical techniques were used in the present study. 1. Mean 2. Standard deviation 3. t test 4. Analysis of variance 5. Analysis of covariance 1. Mean Mean is the most stable and it suitable for statistical calculation.

45

fd C Arithmetic mean = A + N

Where

A F D N C

= = = = =

Assumed mean of the score obtained. Frequency of each class interval Deviation of scores from the assumed mean Total frequency Class interval of the frequency

2. Standard deviation Standard deviation is most widely used measure of dispersion. It is used in so many statistical operations. Standard deviation is a more accurate and justified measure of dispersion.

= C

fd
N

fd N

C d d2

= = = =

Standard deviation Class interval Deviation of scores from the assumed mean Squares of the deviation of scores from the assumed mean
46

f N 3. t - test

= =

Frequency of each class Total frequency

The t test has a wide number of application in statistics. In can be used to test the significance of difference between the means of two independent groups. By using the mean and standard deviation of two groups, t value is calculated. The calculated t value is compared with table value of t at 0.05 level.
M M 1 2 1 1 + N N 1 2

t=

Where

x2 + x2 1 2 N 1 + N 1 1 2

M1, M2 are the means of first and second group. N1, N2 are the number of cases in groups. 4. Analysis of variance The variance is analysed to obtain the F ratio. Therefore, analysis of variance and F-test are used interchangeably. But when we have more then two samples, it will be very difficult to find out whether the means of all the samples differ significantly using that test. To test the differences among all
47

the means at the same time, the analysis of variance and the corresponding test of significance based upon F distribution is used.
F ratio = Mean variance of between groups Mean variance of within groups

5. Analysis of covariance Analysis of covariance represents an extension of analysis of variance that tests the significance of difference between means of final experimental data by taking into account the correlation between the dependent variable and one or more co-variants or pertinent control variables and by adjusting initial mean differences in the groups. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS After the collection of data. The data has to be processed and

analysed in accordance with the outline laid down from the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. Analysis and interpretation are central steps in the research process. The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measurements along with searching for patterns of relationship that exit among data groups. The purpose of analysis is toe summarize the collected data in such a way that they provide answer to the questions that triggered the research.
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Interpretation is the search for the border meaning of research findings. Though interpretation, the meaning and implication of the study become clear. Analysis is not complete without interpretation and

interpretation cannot proceed without analysis. Both are thus interdependent. The major objective of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of CALL approach in teaching IX th standard English. In order to determine the efficiency of popular method, the investigator has to test it in a group. Thus the investigator adopted the experimental method for the study. Further it is necessary that the new instructional technique that is CALL approach has to be employed for the teaching of a particular topic in the subject. Two non equivalent groups each consisting of 50 students, were selected for experimentation. The experimental group using the

conventional method of teaching. The pre test post test score obtained by the pupils were collected and analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The details of analysis and interpretation of the collected data are given in this chapter. The data pertaining to the experimental group and control group were subjected for the following statistics. 1. Calculation of measures of central tendency and dispersion. 2. Test of significance of the difference between the means.

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3. Analysis of co-variance. The details regarding the analysis are given below under the following heads. 1. Performance of pupils in experimental and control groups. a. Before the experiment b. After the experiment 2. Genuiness of difference in performance 3. Comparison of the effectiveness of mind CALL approach over the conventional method based on the post test scores of experimental and control groups (using ANOVA). 1. Performance of pupils in experimental and control group a. Before the experiment Before starting the experiment, an achievement test was administered to both the experimental and control groups. The pre test scores obtained pre test scores of the control group and experimental group mean, standard deviation, t test, ANOVA were calculated. The values of various statistical calculations are given in the following Table 4.1

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Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at pre test level for Total sample Group Computer assisted method Traditional Mean 15.20 14.00 SD 4.92 5.13 N 30 30 Mean Difference 1.20 t 0.9 3 p Sig.level

0.359

NS

The obtained t value (0.93) is not significant at any level. This shows there is no significant difference between the means of pretest scores of the experimental and control groups. This result shows that the two groups do not differ significantly with respect to their pretest achievement scores. Figure 4.1 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at pre test level for Total sample

15.4 15.2 15 14.8 MEAN 14.6 14.4 14.2 14 13.8 13.6 13.4

15.2

14

Computer assisted method

Traditional

Tenability of the hypothesis

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The t-test between the means of experimental and control group revealed that experimental and control group do not differ significantly with regard to pre test achievement scores. Hence the hypothesis is rejected.

Table 4.2 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at pre test level for Boys

Group

Mean

SD

Mean Difference

Sig. level

Computer assisted method Traditional

12.92

3.82

12 3.36 2.0 8 0.05 1 NS

9.56

3.43

52

The obtained t value (2.08) is not significant at any level. This shows there is no significant difference between the means of pretest scores of the experimental and control group boys. This result shows that the two group boys do not differ significantly with respect to their pretest achievement scores.

Figure 4.2 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at pre test level for Boys

14 12 10 MEAN 8 6 4 2 0

12.92

9.56

Computer assisted method

Traditional

53

Tenability of the hypothesis The t-test between the means of experimental and control group boys revealed that experimental and control group boys do not differ significantly with regard to pre test achievement scores, hence the hypothesis is rejected.

Table 4.3

Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at pre test level for Girls Mean Difference

Group Computer assisted method Traditional

Mean

SD

Sig.level

16.72

5.06

18 0.82 0.53 0.598 NS

15.90

4.55

21

54

The obtained t value (0.53) is not significant at any level. This shows there is no significant difference between the means of pretest scores of the experimental and control group girls. This result shows that the two group girls do not differ significantly with respect to their pretest achievement scores.

16.8 16.6 16.4 16.2 MEAN 16 15.8 15.6 15.4

16.72

15.9

Computer assisted method

Traditional

Tenability of the hypothesis The t-test between the means of experimental and control group girls revealed that experimental and control group girls do not differ significantly with regard to pre test achievement scores. Hence the hypothesis is rejected.

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Table 4.4 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at post test level for Total sample

Group Computer assisted method

Mean

SD

Mean Difference

Sig.level

40.17

7.80

30 8.74 4.23 0.000 0.01

Traditional 31.43

8.19

30

The obtained t value( 4.23) is significant at 0.01 level. This shows there is a significant difference between the means of posttest scores of the experimental and control groups. This result shows ,that the two groups differ significantly with respect to their posttest achievement scores .

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Figure 4.4 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at post test level for Total sample

45 40 35 30 MEAN 25 20 15 10 5 0

40.17 31.43

Computer assisted method

Traditional

Tenability of the hypothesis :

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The t-test between the means of experimental and control group revealed that both groups differ significantly with regard to post test achievement scores . hence the hypothesis is accepted.

Table : 4.5 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at post test level for Boys

Group Computer assisted method

Mean

SD

Mean Difference

Sig.level

37.25

9.42

12 12.92 3.18 0.005 0.01

Traditional 24.33

8.90

The obtained t value (3.18) is significant at 0.01 levels. This shows there is a significant difference between the means of posttest scores of the

58

experimental and control group boys. This result shows that the two group boys differ significantly with respect to their posttest achievement scores.

Figure: 4.5 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at post test level for Boys

40 35 30 25 MEAN 20 15 10 5 0

37.25

24.33

Computer assisted method

Traditional

59

Tenability of the hypothesis The t-test between the means of experimental and control group boys revealed that both group boys differ significantly with regard to post test achievement scores. Hence the hypothesis is accepted.

Table: 4.6 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at post test level for Boys The obtained t value (4.04) is significant at 0.01 levels. This shows there is a significant difference between the means of posttest scores of the experimental and control group girls. This result shows that the two group girls differ significantly with respect to their posttest achievement scores.

Group Computer assisted method

Mean 42.11

SD 6.04

N 18

Mean Difference 7.63

t 4.04

p 0.000

Sig.level 0.01

60

Traditional 34.48

5.75

21

Figure: 4.6 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method at post test level for Boys

45 40 35 30 MEAN 25 20 15 10 5 0

42.11 34.48

Computer assisted method

Traditional

Tenability of the hypothesis


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The t-test between the means of experimental and control group girls revealed that both group girls differ significantly with regard to post test achievement scores. Hence the hypothesis is accepted

Table : 4.7 Effectiveness of Computer assisted method in Language learning for Total sample The obtained t value (20.92) is significant at 0.01 levels. This shows there is a significant difference between the effectiveness of CALL in pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group. This result shows, that the effectiveness of CALL in pretest and post test scores differ significantly with respect to their achievement scores.

62

Mean

SD

Mean Difference

Paired t

Sig.

Sig.level

Pre Post

15.20 40.17

4.92 7.80

30 24.97 30 20.92 0.000 0.01

Figure : 4.7 Effectiveness of Computer assisted method in Language learning for Total sample

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45 40 35 30 MEAN 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pre 15.2

40.17

Post

Tenability of the hypothesis The t-test between the means of pretest and post test scores of experimental group shows that both scores differ significantly with regard to the effectiveness of CALL . hence the hypothesis is accepted.

Table : 4.8 Effectiveness of Computer assisted method in Language learning for Boys

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The obtained t value( 10.67) is significant at 0.01 level. This shows there is a significant difference between the effectiveness of CALL in pretest and posttest scores of boys in the experimental group. This result shows ,that the post test scores of boys shows the effectiveness of CALL than in pretest scores .

Mean

SD

Mean Difference

Paired t

Sig.

Sig.level

Pre Post

12.92 37.25

3.82 9.42

12 24.33 12 10.67 0.000 0.01

Figure : 4.8 Effectiveness of Computer assisted method in Language learning for Boys

65

40 35 30 25 MEAN 20 15 10 5 0 Pre 12.92

37.25

Post

Tenability of the hypothesis The t-test between the means of pretest and post test scores of experimental group boys shows that the post test scores differ significantly than pretest scores with regard to the effectiveness of CALL . Hence the hypothesis is accepted.

Table : 4.9 Effectiveness of Computer assisted method in Language learning for Girls
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Mean

SD

Mean Difference

Paired t

Sig.

Sig.level

Pre Post

16.72 42.11

5.06 6.04

18 25.39 18 19.04 0.000 0.01

The obtained t value (19.04) is significant at 0.01 level. This shows there is a significant difference between the effectiveness of CALL in pretest and posttest scores of girls in the experimental group. This result shows ,that the post test scores of girls shows the effectiveness of CALL than in pretest scores

Figure : 4.9 Effectiveness of Computer assisted method in Language learning for Girls

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45 40 35 30 MEAN 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pre 16.72

42.11

Post

Tenability of the hypothesis The t-test between the means of pretest and post test scores of experimental group girls shows that the post test scores differ significantly than pretest scores with regard to the effectiveness of CALL, hence the hypothesis is accepted.

Table 4.10 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method for Total sample

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Mean Expl Traditional

Source

Sum of Mean df Squares Square 1 5 8 5 9 1 5 8 5 9 21.60 25.22

Sig. level

Pre-test (X)

15.2 0

14.00

Between 21.60 Groups Within 1462.80 Groups Total 1484.40

0.856

0.35 9

NS

Post-test (Y)

40.1 7

31.43

Between 1144.07 Groups Within 3709.53 Groups Total 4853.60

1144.0 7 63.96 17.88 8 0.00 0 0.01

Sum of codeviates (SCxy)

Adjusted Post-test (Y.X)

39.4 9

32.11

Within 1649.00 Groups Total 1806.20 Between 805.21 Groups Within 1850.63 Groups Total 2655.84

1 5 7 5 9

805.21 32.47 24.80 1 0.00 0 0.01

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used to determine whether the groups differ in average achievement at post test level as a result of the methods of teaching applied A preliminary analysis of variance (ANCOVA) carried out for pre test and post test taken separately. The average achievement at pre test

level is 14.00 and 15.20 respectively for students in the control group and experimental group .The F test applied to the initial achievement scores
69

(Fx=0.586) shows that there is no significant

difference in achievement

between the groups at pre test level .the F statistics of the final score (fy=17.888) is significant even at 0.01 level of significance , means that the average achievement of experimental (40.17) group is significantly higher than that of control group (31.43)at post test level. After correcting the final achievement for difference in initial scores ,F statistics applied to the final score . The value of ANCOVA (Fyx=24.801)is significant at 0.01 levels. From Fy.x it is clear the final average score on achievement after adjusted for the initial difference in experimental group (39.49) is significantly differ from that in the control

group (32.11)so it can be concluded that the method of CALL is statistically effective than the conventional method.

Table 4.10 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method for Total sample

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45 40 35 Mean Score 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pre 15.20 14.00

40.17 31.43

39.49 32.11

Post Expl traditional

Adjusted Post

Tenability of the hypothesis: On the basis of results and interpretation, this hypothesis is rejected.

Table : 4.11 Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method for Boys

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Mean Expl Traditional

Source Between Groups Within Groups Total

Sum of Mean df Squares Square 58.10 255.14 313.24 1 1 9 2 0 1 1 9 2 0 58.10 13.43

Sig. level

Pre-test (X)

12.9 2

9.56

4.327

0.05 1

NS

Post-test (Y)

37.2 5

24.33

Between 858.04 Groups Within 1610.25 Groups Total 2468.29 429.58 652.86 220.64 886.95 1107.59

858.04 84.75 10.12 4 0.00 5 0.01

Sum of codeviates (SCxy)

Adjusted Post-test (Y.X)

34.4 2

27.16

Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total

1 1 8 2 0

220.64 49.28 4.478 0.04 9 0.05

A preliminary analysis of variance (ANCOVA) carried out for pre test and post test taken separately. the average achievement at pre test level is 9.56 and 12.92 respectively for students in the control group and experimental group .The F test applied to the initial achievement scores (Fx=4.327) shows that there is no significant difference in achievement

between the groups at pre test level .the F statistics of the final score (fy=10.124) is siginificant even at 0.01 level of significance , means that the

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average achievement of experimental (37.25) group is significantly higher than that of control group (24.33)at post test level After correcting the final achievement for difference in initial scores ,F statistics applied to the final score . the value of ANCOVA (Fyx=4.478)is significant at 0.01 levels.From Fy.x it is clear the final average score on achievement after adjusted for the initial difference in experimental group (34.42) is significantly differ from that in the control

group (27.16)so it can be concluded that the method of CALL is statistically effective than the conventional method.

Figure : 4.11

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Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method for Boys

40 35 30 Mean Score 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pre 12.92 9.56

37.25 34.42 27.16 24.33

Post Expl traditional

Adjusted Post

Tenability of the hypothesis: On the basis of results and interpretation, this hypothesis is rejected.

Table: 10.12

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Comparison of Language learning under Computer assisted method and Traditional method for Girls Mean Expl Traditional Source Between Groups Pre-test (X) 16.7 2 15.90 Within Groups Total Between Groups Post-test (Y) 42.1 1 34.48 Within Groups Total Within Sum of codeviates (SCxy) Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Sum of Squares 6.48 df Mean Square 6.48 0.59 8 F p Sig. level

1 3 7 3 8 1 3 7 3 8

849.42

22.96

0.282

NS

855.90

564.98

564.98 16.31 34.62 9 0.00 0 0.01

1281.02 1846.00 680.51 741.00 468.64 735.83 1204.47

1 3 6 3 8

468.64 20.44 22.92 8 0.00 0 0.01

Adjusted Post-test (Y.X)

41.7 8

34.80

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A preliminary analysis of variance (ANCOVA) carried out for pre test and post test taken separately. The average achievement at pre test level is 15.90 and 16.72. respectively for students in the control group and experimental group .The F test applied to the initial achievement scores (Fx=0.282) shows that there is no significant difference in achievement

between the groups at pre test level .the F statistics of the final score (fy=16.319) is significant even at 0.01 level of significance, means that the average achievement of experimental (42.11) group is significantly higher than that of control group (34.48)at post test level . After correcting the final achievement for difference in initial

scores ,F statistics applied to the final score . the value of ANCOVA (Fyx=22.928)is significant at 0.01 levels. From Fy.x it is clear the final average score on achievement after adjusted for the initial difference in experimental group (41.78) is significantly differ from that in the control

42.11 group (34.80)so45it can be concluded that the method 41.78 of CALL is statistically

effective than the conventional method. 34.48


35 30 Mean Score 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pre Post 76 Expl traditional 16.72 15.90

40

34.80

Adjusted Post

Tenability of the hypothesis: On the basis of results and interpretation, this hypothesis is rejected.

CHAPTER V

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CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The investigator through the present study has the Effectiveness of computer assisted language learning among the ninth standard students in Govt. Higher secondary school, valayappatty at Namakkal district. The findings of the study are based on the analysis of data collected through the administration of questionnaire on the sample 60 XI students. The findings of the present study are summarized below. Objectives of the Study 1. To find out the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method in English teaching. 2. To compare the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method and traditional method in English language teaching.

3. To compare the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method and traditional method in teaching English among boys. 4. To compare the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning method and traditional method in teaching English among girls.

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Hypotheses 1. There will be significant difference between the experimental group and control group with regard to post test achievement. 2. There will be significant difference between means of pretest achievement and post test achievement scores of experimental group. 3. There will be significant difference between the means of post test scores of experimental group and control group among boys.
4. There will be significant difference between the means of post test scores of experimental group and control group among girls.

Suggestion for further research 1. To get complete, clear picture of the effectiveness of CALL approach. The study may be conducted by taking samples from different schools. 2. The study may be conducted at different levels primary, higher secondary and college level etc. 3. Comparison of CALL approach with other teaching strategies in English language can be made. 4. A study may be conducted to find out how animations in multimedia entrance learning and retention.

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5. Multimedia based CALL lesson were prepare only on English language. A study may be conducted for other languages also. 6. A study can be conducted to evolve suitable remedial programmes to overcome the barriers to CALL integration. 7. A study can be conducted to find out the role of CALL co-ordinates in successful CALL integration. 8. New strategies can be developed for using computer in teaching English.

Recommendations 1. The study revealed that majority of the government school English language teacher had a positive attitude towards the use of computer in teaching English. Hence teacher should be made more aware of the potential benefits of CALL integration. They should be encouraged to use computer in classrooms and be provided with more opportunity to enhance their computer skills. Experts are invited to more explosive to teachers. 2. Personal interest of teachers attitude of school authority and adequate training were found to be the crucial factors that influenced teachers. Considerably in using computer assisted language learning. So teacher and

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authority should be made aware the significance of influencing factors in promoting CALL integration. Seminars, workshops and special training programs organized. 3. Majority of school possessed basic computer facilities; but only a few school used the available effectively. Apt measure must be taken by the school authority to ensure that available facilities are used effectively. 4. Lack of technology culture often prompts teacher to compromise with traditional method of teaching measures must be taken to restructure teacher education programs by giving importance to computer assisted language learning. 5. Lack of access to resources often impedes the acquisition of computer skills. So all teachers and education institution should be equipped with

state of the art ICT devices and English language lab specialties. 6. Familiarity with computer and English language lap devices will go a long way in instilling confidence and interest in teachers to use computer in teaching learning process. Teachers and students should be given ample opportunity to be familiar with the latest devices and trends. This measures and students to overcome the inhibitions use of computer devices and equipments in schools.

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Implications of the study The findings of the present study reveal that CALL technique of teaching and learning is superior to conventional method of teaching and learning. In these modern days the present teaching process is examination oriented and gives more effort to develop the memory of the learner. But this CALL technique gives more importance to develop the memory with reasoning and for the future use. If the CALL technique is adopted in the school means definitely help the learner to improve his learning power and memory. To achieve this, we should give proper training to the teachers in the form in service programme and seminars. If the teacher got the enough knowledge about the CALL technique it will helpful to teach the English language by using CALL technique. This will make the students achievement high. Conclusion The purpose of the present investigation was to study the level of Effectiveness of computer assisted language learning with reference to some selected variables. The study indicted significant relationship among the variables. The study is found to be useful in the field of education.

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