This article was downloaded by: [151.32.254.

162]
On: 04 October 2012, At: 09:49
Publisher: Routledge
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954
Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,
UK
Cultural Studies
Publication details, including instructions for authors
and subscription information:
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rcus20
THE INTELLECTUAL IN QUESTION
Emanuele Saccarelli
Version of record first published: 16 May 2011.
To cite this article: Emanuele Saccarelli (2011): THE INTELLECTUAL IN QUESTION,
Cultural Studies, 25:6, 757-782
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2011.567420
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE
Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-
and-conditions
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.
Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-
licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly
forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any
representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to
date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be
independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable
for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages
whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection
with or arising out of the use of this material.
Emanuele Saccarelli
THE INTELLECTUAL IN QUESTION
Antonio Gramsci and the crisis of academia
Although contemporary scholars in various disciplines readily appropriate many of
his ideas, Antonio Gramsci’s theory of intellectuals remains curiously unappre-
ciated. From the standpoint of the oft-lamented crisis of the contemporary
intellectual, however, it represents a resource that is both indispensable and
difficult to retrieve. In this article the historical and sociological nuances of
Gramsci’s theory, as well as the powerful, yet unheeded lessons of his own life as
an intellectual will be examined. In particular, Gramsci’s analysis of the social
affiliation and political agency of the intellectual provides the framework
necessary to explain the rise and ongoing crisis of the academic intellectual as a
historically unprecedented figure. This point will be illustrated by examining the
case of influential academic intellectuals such as Michael Walzer and Michel
Foucault. The article concludes with some reflections on the merits of Gramsci’s
distinctive way of being an intellectual.
Keywords intellectuals; academia; Gramsci; Walzer; Churchill;
Foucault
[T]his position assumed by the social complex of intellectuals . . . can be
defined as the expression of that social utopia by which the intellectuals
think of themselves as ‘independent’, autonomous, endowed with a
character of their own, etc.
(Antonio Gramsci 1971, p. 8)
If, however, the . . . reader . . . shrugs his shoulder . . . I must plainly tell
him, De te fabula narratur!
(Karl Marx 1990, p. 90)
In a recent opinion piece on the state of the university system, a prominent
Ivy-league professor declared on the pages of the New York Times that, ‘graduate
education is the Detroit of higher learning’ (Taylor 2009, Saccarelli 2009).
This statement, which several decades earlier would have been received as a
compliment, now has the ring of a cruel and unappealable sentence. The article
fulminated against chronic bankruptcy, redundancy and inefficiency, in a way
Cultural Studies Vol. 25, No. 6 November 2011, pp. 757Á782
ISSN 0950-2386 print/ISSN 1466-4348 online # 2011 Taylor & Francis
http://www.tandfonline.com http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2011.567420
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

t|»t woulc |c i»uili»: to t|osc w|o still t:, to u»|c » livi:g i: t|c »utouotivc
i:cust:, lt sou:ccc » cc»t||:cll io: » wo:lc |it|c:to c|»:»ctc:izcc |, »
¡:ccict»|lc, ii :ot cx»ctl, couio:t»|lc st»|ilit, co:sisti:g oi g:»cu»tc sc|ool,
» tc:u:c t:»c| |o|, »:c » liiclo:g cu¡lo,uc:t i: t|c u:ivc:sit, ·i:cc t|c
¡u|lic»tio: oi t|c »:ticlc, uc:»ci:gl, titlcc ‘l:c t|c D:ivc:sit, »s Wc l:ow
lt’, t|c:c |»s |cc: »: o:sl»ug|t oi |ucgct cuts, l»,oiis, iu:loug|s, »:c tuitio:
|i|cs, ¡»:ticul»:l, co:cc:t:»tcc i: ·»liio::i», |ut ¡»i:iull, visi|lc cvc:,w|c:c
clsc lut t|c stc»c,, »:c :ow succc:l, »cutc cctc:io:»tio: oi |ig|c: ccuc»tio:,
¡:cciscl, |cc»usc it is |ou:c u¡ wit| » uo:c ¡:oiou:c soci»l »:c cco:ouic
iu¡»ssc, |»s »: »ccitio:»l »:c l»:gcl, u:|ccccc iu¡lic»tio: it is »t t|c s»uc
tiuc t|c c:isis oi t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»l
l: 1-!0, »c»ccuics i: t|c D:itcc ·t»tcs :uu|c:cc » uoccst .0,000 »:c
co:stitutcc o:l, » i:»ctio: oi t|c iigu:cs t|»t wc:c soci»ll, :ccog:izcc »s
i:tcllcctu»ls ;¡»co|, 1-·¯, ¡¡ 1!Á1+, l, t|c 1-¯0s, t|c iigu:c |»c g:ow:
tc:iolc, »:c is cu::c:tl, cstiu»tcc to |c 1+ uillio: ;·:,cc: s Dillow !010,
I|is w»s :ot » ¡u:cl, qu»:tit»tivc, ccuog:»¡|ic cx¡»:sio:, |ut :»t|c: t|c
st»:c»:ciz»tio: oi |it|c:to civc:sc io:us oi i:tcllcctu»l l»|o: »:c c:g»gcuc:t
I|c ¡ostWo:lc W»: ll ¡c:ioc s»w t|c :isc :ot |ust oi » :cw uicclc cl»ss wit|
uo:c :cli»|lc »tt»c|uc:ts »:c »s¡i:»tio:s, |ut »lso oi » :cl»tivcl, st»|lc »:c
|ouogc:cous l»,c: oi i:tcllcctu»ls i:c:c»si:gl, clustc:cc, ii :ot co::»llcc, i:to
t|c u:ivc:sit, I|c |o|cui»:s, t|c i:ccl»:cc w:itc:s, t|c cclcctic c:itics »:c t|c
¡»:t, i:tcllcctu»ls wc:c :c¡l»ccc |, » uo:c ¡:os»ic »:c cc¡c:c»|lc iigu:c t|c
u:ivc:sit, ¡:oicsso:
1
I|c li:| |ctwcc: Dct:oit »:c »c»ccui», t|c:, is :o uc:c
»:»log, I|c o:igi:»l lo:cisu t|»t :co:g»:izcc soci»l :cl»tio:s |cgi::i:g wit|
t|c i»cto:,, iou:c i: t|c ‘i:tcllcctu»l lo:cisu’ oi t|c u:ivc:sit, » ¡:ccict»|lc
|,¡:ocuct, »:c t|c i»ct t|»t toc», |ot| uoccls »:c i: s|»u|lcs is :o coi:cicc:cc
Accustoucc to ci»g:osi:g »:c ¡»ssi:g |ucguc:t o: ot|c: ¡co¡lc’s
¡:o|lcus, t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»l is :ow i: t|c u:couio:t»|lc
¡ositio: oi u»|i:g sc:sc oi |is o: |c: ow: iu¡c:ci:g ccuisc I|is situ»tio:
|»s t:iggc:cc :ot |ust » |»::»gc oi wo:| o: t|c cccli:c oi t|c u:ivc:sit, Á »
¡»:ti»l list oi :ccc:t i:st:uctivc titlcs i:cluccs, Ivory Tower Blues, The Last
Professors, The University in Chains, Unmaking the Public University, The University in
Ruins Á |ut »lso »: cxistc:ti»l u»l»isc t|»t, io: t|osc w|o i:|»|it »c»ccuic
ci:clcs, is »s :c»l »s is it ciiiicult to io:u»ll, cocuuc:t
I|c ¡l»cc oi i:tcllcctu»ls, i: »c»ccui» »:c |c,o:c, is »l:c»c, |ci:g
:c:cgoti»tcc |c|i:c t|ci: |»c|s |, |u:c»uc:»ts, ¡olitici»:s, »:c c:t:c¡:c:cu:s
At t|c s»uc tiuc, t|c i:cc¡c:cc:cc cultiv»tcc »:c il»u:tcc |, »c»ccuic
i:tcllcctu»ls tu::cc out to |c » iictio: io: w|ic| t|c, |c»: cc:t»i: |isto:ic»l
:cs¡o:si|ilitics l: o:cc: to u»|cs sc:sc oi t|is iu¡»ssc, »:c to co:t:i|utc to
»: o:goi:g »:c ¡:cssi:g co:vc:s»tio:, it is |cl¡iul to tu:: to A:to:io
G:»usci’s ¡:oiou:c :cilcctio:s o: t|c i:tcllcctu»l l: coi:g so o:c is
cou¡cllcc to :cgistc: » cu:ious cis|u:ctu:c ©: t|c o:c |»:c, G:»usci |»s
lo:g »go »scc:ccc to t|c :c»lu oi » u:ivc:s»ll, ¡:»iscc »:c quotcc ‘t|co:ist’,
»s co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»ls co:ti:uc to i:tc::og»tc |is tcxts to
7 5 8 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

»cc:css t|c |:o»ccst :»:gc oi qucstio:s ©: t|c ot|c: |»:c, »s l will »:guc,
co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»ls i»il to :ccog:izc i: G:»usci’s »:»l,sis
w|»t is i: i»ct » ¡itilcss cisscctio: »:c ccv»st»ti:g c:iticisu oi t|ci: ow:
:outi:cs »:c |»|its, »:c oi t|ci: co:scious »:c scuico:scious cou¡licit, wit|
t|c st»tus quo G:»usci’s icc»s »:c cccucc c»¡»|lc oi cx¡l»i:i:g t|c
:co:g»:iz»tio: oi t|c wo:lc cco:ou,, t|c t:»:sio:u»tio: oi i:tc::»tio:»l
:cl»tio:s, »:c t|c l»tcst s|iits i: t|c cultu:»l l»:csc»¡c, |ut :ot ·|»:t»l
\ouiic Ag»i:st t|c i:tcllcctu»l’s ¡:cu»tu:c »u|itio:s to |:ow t|c wo:lc,
G:»usci’s w:iti:gs cc|o t|c olc Dcl¡|ic i:tiu»tio:, ‘|:ow t|,scli’ Á |ut wit|
¡olitic»l u:gc:c, :»t|c: t|»: cl»ssic»l cct»c|uc:t
I|c su|st»:cc oi G:»usci’s t|co:, oi i:tcllcctu»ls is oi cou:sc quitc
cou¡lcx, c:cou¡»ssi:g » |isto:ic»l sociolog, ;t|c »gg:cg»tio: »:c cis»gg:cg»
tio: oi soci»l cl»sscs ¡:ocuci:g i:tcllcctu»l st:»t» t|:oug| v»:ious c¡oc|s,, »
soci»l gcog:»¡|, ;t|c :cgio:»l »:c :»tio:»l ciiic:c:ti»tio: oi v»:ious s¡ccics oi
i:tcllcctu»ls,, » sociolog, oi |:owlccgc ;t|c soci»ll, st:»tiiicc c|»:»ctc: oi t|c
¡:ocuctio: oi icc»s,, »:c » t|co:, oi co:scious:css ;i:cluci:g t|c ‘ictis|istic’
¡l», oi uisi:tc:¡:ct»tio: oi o:c’s ow: i:tcllcctu»l ¡:ocucts, l: t|is css»,,
l will iocus o: two s¡cciiic qucstio:s t|»t »:c »t t|c |c»:t oi t|c co:tcu¡o:»:,
c:isis t|c soci»l »iiili»tio: »:c t|c ¡olitic»l »gc:c, oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l
I|c ii:st qucstio: :cic:s to t|c w»,s i: w|ic| »: i:tcllcctu»l |clo:gs,
»ctu»ll, o: iu:ctio:»ll,, ci:cctl,, o: t|:oug| cou¡lcx ucc|»:isus oi
t:»:suissio:s, to » ¡»:ticul»: cl»ss ©: t|is sco:c, G:»usci’s sig:»l
co:t:i|utio: w»s to ccuo:st:»tc »:c |isto:icizc t|c cu»l :»tu:c oi
i:tcllcctu»ls w|ilc t|c, »¡¡c»:, »:c i:cccc u:cc:st»:c t|cusclvcs to |c »
tiuclcss »:c i:cc¡c:cc:t c»stc, t|ci: o:g»:iz»tio: »:c :co:g»:iz»tio: is i: i»ct
t|c ¡:ocuct oi cvolvi:g cl»ss :cl»tio:s i: socict, I|c scco:c qucstio: co:cc::s
t|c ¡olitic»l sig:iiic»:cc oi t|c »ctio:s, »s wcll »s t|c i:»ctio:s oi i:tcllcctu»ls
l »:guc t|»t G:»usci’s ¡c:so:»l t:»|ccto:, »s »: i:tcllcctu»l, » u»ttc: t|»t is
oitc: c:ti:cl, |,¡»sscc o: quic|l, cisuisscc, is i: i»ct oi g:c»t sig:iiic»:cc o:
t|is sco:c A :cvicw oi cc:t»i: »s¡ccts oi G:»usci’s ¡olitic»l |iog:»¡|, c»sts t|c
i:stitutio:»l »iiili»tio:s oi t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»l i: » ciiic:c:t
lig|t »:c sc:vcs »s »: i:vit»tio: to :ct|i:| t|c ¡:cv»ili:g ¡»:»uctc:s :cgul»ti:g
t|c ¡:ocuctio: »:c cist:i|utio: oi icc»s
I|c o:goi:g ccuisc oi t|c »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»l, i:soi»: »s it t»|cs t|c
io:u oi u::clc:ti:g »tt»c|s »g»i:st » sig:iiic»:t scctio: oi t|c w»gcc»::i:g
¡o¡ul»tio:, is :o cou|t » :cg:ctt»|lc occu::c:cc lut it will »lso cou¡cl t|c
i:tcllcctu»l to »t l»st i»cc wit| so|c: sc:scs |is o: |c: :c»l co:citio:s oi liic
lt will |c ¡ossi|lc to clc»: out t|c iccologic»l iog oi ¡:oicssio:»l »:c soci»l
cct»c|uc:t, »:c to co:sicc: i: » :cw lig|t uoccls oi i:tcllcctu»l c:g»gcuc:t
outsicc t|c u:ivc:sit, t|»t wc:c o:cc u:cc:st»:c»|l, cccucc to |c outuoccc
»:c i::ct:icv»|lc As wc scc| » ¡»t| out oi t|c cu::c:t c:isis Á i:tcllcctu»l
»:c ot|c:wisc Á » ¡:o¡c: »¡¡:cci»tio: oi G:»usci’s co:t:i|utio: is
i:cis¡c:s»|lc
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 5 9
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind
·o:tcu¡o:»:, soci»l c:itics, t|c:, »:c . . . t|c uost :ccc:t ucu|c:s, :o
cou|t wit| t|ci: ow: :itcs »:c s,u|ols, oi t|c A:cic:t »:c lo:o:»|lc
·ou¡»:, oi ·oci»l ·:itics
;\ic|»cl W»lzc: 1-··, ¡ ·,
G:»usci’s :cilcctio: o: t|c soci»l c|»:»ctc: »:c »iiili»tio:s oi i:tcllcctu»ls »:c
st:uctu:cc |, »: iu¡o:t»:t ¡:cliui:»:, qucstio: ‘A:c i:tcllcctu»ls »:
»uto:ouous »:c i:cc¡c:cc:t soci»l g:ou¡ o: cocs cvc:, soci»l g:ou¡ |»vc
its ow: ¡»:ticul»: s¡cci»lizcc c»tcgo:, oi i:tcllcctu»ls·’ ;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡ .,
I|is qucstio: l»,s out two »ltc::»tivc |,¡ot|cscs co:cc::i:g t|c :cl»tio:
|ctwcc: i:tcllcctu»ls »:c soci»l cl»sscs, »s wcll »s its |isto:ic»l c|»:»ctc: I|c
l»ttc: |,¡ot|csis iu¡lics t|»t i:tcllcctu»ls »:c ¡:oiou:cl, co::cctcc to |isto:,
»:c i: ¡»:ticul»: t|c |isto:, oi soci»l cl»sscs I|is cocs :ot uc»: t|»t t|c:c
cxists » siu¡lc :cl»tio:s|i¡ |ctwcc: t|c two, i:cc oi cou¡lcx ucci»tio:s »:c
ccvclo¡uc:t»l ccl»,s »s wcll »s »ccclc:»tio:s :cvc:t|clcss, |:»c|cti:g cc:t»i:
cou¡lic»tio:s, t|c ¡oi:t :cu»i:s t|»t »s soci»l cl»sscs cuc:gc »:c ccc»,, t|c,
gc:c:»tc, o: c:»g cow: wit| t|cu s¡cciiic t,¡cs oi i:tcllcctu»ls ©:, ¡ut
ciiic:c:tl,, c|»:gcs i: t|c uocc oi ¡:ocuctio: i: socict, s|»¡c t|c uocc oi
¡:ocuctio: oi icc»s |, c:c»ti:g cisti:ct t,¡cs oi i:tcllcctu»ls, c:cowcc wit|
|isto:ic»ll, ¡cculi»: t:»its i:ou t|ci: i:stitutio:»l »:c o:g»:iz»tio:»l io:us oi
¡:ocuctio: »:c :c¡:ocuctio: ;cl»ssic»l »c»ccu,, uo:»stc:,, ¡olitic»l ¡»:t,,
uocc:: u:ivc:sit,, ctc, cow: to t|c vc:, io:us »:c co:tc:t oi t|ci:
co:scious:css ;t|c |isto:, oi ¡olitic»l t|oug|t, t|c ccvclo¡uc:t oi v»:ious
t|cologic»l »:c ¡|iloso¡|ic»l coct:i:cs, ctc,
I|c io:uc: |,¡ot|csis, t|c c»stcli|c i:cc¡c:cc:cc oi i:tcllcctu»ls, |»s t|c
o¡¡ositc iu¡lic»tio: i:ou » |isto:ic»l st»:c¡oi:t I|c i:cc¡c:cc:t c|»:»ctc: oi
i:tcllcctu»ls woulc c:cow t|cu wit| » cc:t»i: tiuclcss:css Io t|c cxtc:t t|»t
t|c, »:c i:sul»tcc i:ou t|c v»g»:ics oi t|c soci»l wo:lc, i:tcllcctu»ls woulc
t|c: |»vc :o |isto:, ©: »t lc»st t|c, woulc |»vc t|ci: ow: ¡cculi»: |isto:,,
c|»:»ctc:izcc |, cc:t»i: ¡:oiou:c co:ti:uitics, »:c, »lt|oug| i:tcllcctu»l
:cvolutio:s u:cou|tccl, co occu:, |, » :cl»tivcl, slow ¡»cc oi ccvclo¡uc:t
;G:»usci 1-¯¯, ¡ +o!,
G:»usci :»¡icl, :csolvcs i: i»vo: oi t|c scco:c |,¡ot|csis st»tcc i: |is
o:igi:»l qucstio: i:tcllcctu»ls »:c i: i»ct i:tiu»tcl, co::cctcc to soci»l cl»sscs,
»:c t|ci: ccii:itc |isto:ic»l, »l|cit cou¡lcx »:c u:cvc:, ccvclo¡uc:t is
i:t:i:sic»ll, co::cctcc to t|c ccvclo¡uc:t oi t|csc cl»sscs
!
Alt|oug| G:»usci
:c|ccts it, t|c ii:st |,¡ot|csis cocs :ot cis»¡¡c»:, |owcvc:, io: it :cu»i:s
»¡¡lic»|lc to t|c w», i: w|ic| i:tcllcctu»ls »ctu»ll, tc:c to scc t|cusclvcs
!
W|ilc »s » g:ou¡ t|c, »:c vc:, uuc| c:t»:glcc i: soci»l |isto:,, t|c scli
¡c:cc¡tio: oi i:tcllcctu»ls ¡»:»coxic»ll, u»:iicsts » cc:t»i: c:cu:i:g qu»lit,
t|:oug| t|c c¡oc|s t|c |clici i: t|ci: ow: tiuclcss:css »:c cct»c|uc:t As
G:»usci cx¡l»i:s
7 6 0 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

. . . jl¡vc:, ‘cssc:ti»l’ soci»l g:ou¡ w|ic| cuc:gcs i:to |isto:, out oi t|c
¡:cccci:g cco:ouic st:uctu:c, »:c »s »: cx¡:cssio: oi » ccvclo¡uc:t oi
t|is st:uctu:c, |»s iou:c . . . c»tcgo:ics oi i:tcllcctu»ls »l:c»c, i: cxistc:cc
»:c w|ic| sccucc i:cccc to :c¡:csc:t »: |isto:ic»l co:ti:uit, u:i:
tc::u¡tcc cvc: |, t|c uost cou¡lic»tcc »:c :»cic»l c|»:gcs i: ¡olitic»l
»:c soci»l io:us
;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡¡ oÁ¯,
I|c:c is t|c:cio:c »: i:tc::»l co:ti:uit, i: t|c |isto:ic»l ccvclo¡uc:t oi
i:tcllcctu»ls, »lt|oug| it is l»:gcl, illuso:, »:c i:cicc:t»l I|c sou:cc oi t|is
co:ti:uit,, i»: i:ou |ci:g t|ci: »ctu»l i:cc¡c:cc:cc is i: i»ct cx»ctl, t|ci:
su|o:ci:»tio: to uo:c ‘cssc:ti»l’ soci»l io:ccs »:c i:tc:csts
+
Alt|oug| t|c, co
:ot co:stitutc » sc¡»:»tc c»stc, |, vi:tuc oi |ci:g scco:c»:, »:c c¡i¡|c:o
uc:»l i: t|c sc:sc t|»t t|c, »:c io:ucc »:c uo|ilizcc »s t|c »¡¡c:c»gc to
soci»l cl»sscs, i:tcllcctu»ls :ct»i:, i: t|ci: ow: ui:c, |isto:ic»l co:ti:uit, »:c
i:cc¡c:cc:cc
I|c:cio:c, w|ilc i:tcllcctu»ls scc t|cusclvcs »s |lissiull, ilo»ti:g »|ovc
soci»l |isto:,, t|c, »ctu»ll, »:c :ootcc i: it lollowi:g G:»usci, t|is
c|»:»ctc:istic oi t|c i:tcllcctu»ls :cccs to |c iu:t|c: |isto:icizcc lt »¡¡lics
i: ¡»:ticul»: to ‘t:»citio:»l’ i:tcllcctu»ls Á t|osc w|o cxistcc i: |isto:ic»l o:
gcog:»¡|ic»l co:citio:s l»:gcl, u:cistu:|cc |, t|c ccvclo¡uc:t oi c»¡it»lisu
Wit| t|c o:sct oi c»¡it»lisu, |owcvc:, t|c ‘c:t:c¡:c:cu: c:c»tcs »lo:gsicc
|iuscli t|c i:cust:i»l tcc|:ici»:, t|c s¡cci»list i: ¡olitic»l cco:ou,, t|c
o:g»:izc: oi » :cw cultu:c, oi » :cw lcg»l s,stcu, ctc’ ;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡ 1o,
At t|is ¡oi:t t|c soci»l »iiili»tio: »:c o:igi: oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l |ccoucs i: »:
o||cctivc sc:sc ci:cct »:c u:ucci»tcc c»¡it»l ccu»:cs, givcs liic, ¡uts to usc,
»:c cisc»:cs » |:o»c »::», oi s¡cci»lists lt is i: t|is sc:sc t|»t t|c ¡cculi»: scli
¡c:cc¡tio: oi tiuclcss:css »:c i:cc¡c:cc:cc u», sccu uo:c ciiiicult to
sust»i: Á t|us cx¡l»i:i:g t|c i»ct t|»t, »cco:ci:g to G:»usci, it »¡¡lics
¡»:ticul»:l, to t:»citio:»l i:tcllcctu»ls lut t|is qu»liiic»tio: cocs :ot iu¡l,
t|»t t|c :cw, ‘o:g»:ic’ i:tcllcctu»ls gc:c:»tcc |, c»¡it»lisu :cccss»:il, cc»sc
to suiic: i:ou suc| cisto:tcc scli¡c:cc¡tio: k»t|c:, it co:ti:ucs to »¡¡l,,
»lt|oug| i: :cw io:us, suc| »s st»:c»:cs »:c cx¡cct»tio:s oi scic:tiiic
cct»c|uc:t, ¡:oicssio:»l co:cuct, ct|ic»l :o:us, ctc
A |:ici illust:»tio: oi t|is uocc:: co:citio: c»: |c iou:c i: \ic|»cl
W»lzc:’s The Company of Critics As st»tcc i: t|c c¡ig:»¡| »t t|c |cgi::i:g oi
t|is scctio:, W»lzc:’s ¡ositio: is t|»t i:tcllcctu»ls |»vc »lw»,s cxistcc
.
Acco:ci:g to W»lzc:, ‘soci»l c:iticisu’, t|c |:o»c »ctivit, t|»t uost
i:tcllcctu»ls c:g»gc i:, ‘uust |c »s olc »s socict, itscli’ ;1-·¯, ¡ !,
\o:covc:, »lt|oug| i:tcllcctu»ls »:c |:ow: to »cqui:c »:c iu:ctio: »cco:ci:g
to cc:t»i: ‘c:itic»l s¡cci»liz»tio:s’, suc| »s ‘¡olitic»l cc:su:c, uo:»l i:cictuc:t,
s|c¡tic»l qucstio:, s»ti:ic couuc:t, »:g:, ¡:o¡|cc,, uto¡i»: s¡ccul»tio:’,
u:cc:l,i:g t|csc ciiic:c:t io:us t|c:c is » ‘couuo: »ctivit,’, w|ic| cst»|lis|cs
t|ci: iu:c»uc:t»l |isto:ic»l cogc:c, »:c co:ti:uit, ;¡ -,
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 6 1
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

D:cou|tccl,, W»lzc: »t o:c lcvcl :ccog:izcs t|c |isto:ic»l c|»:»ctc: oi
i:tcllcctu»l liic, »:c i: i»ct i:sists u¡o: it »g»i:st co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»ls,
»tt»c|i:g t|ci: cclusio:s oi :ovclt, »:c oi :c¡:csc:ti:g »: u:¡:ccccc:tcc
soci»l t,¡c
o
lut t|is ‘|isto:,’ is t|c |i:c ci»g:oscc |, G:»usci » sc¡»:»tc,
l»:gcl, iictio:»l |isto:, oi t|c c:itici:tcllcctu»l »s »: i:cc¡c:cc:t c»stc
Acco:ci:g to W»lzc:, t|is |isto:, i:cluccs t|c ¡:o¡|cts oi ls:»cl, ·oc:»tcs, »:c
u»:, uo:c s»i:ts »:c si::c:s ;1-·¯, ¡¡ +Á., At t|c s»uc tiuc, W»lzc: »lso
cu¡|»sizcs t|c i»ct t|»t t|c i:tcllcctu»l is » soci»l »gc:t lut |c uc»:s t|is i: »
vc:, wc»| sc:sc Ag»i:st t|c ¡ictu:c oi t|c :»cic»ll, »lic:»tcc t,¡c, W»lzc:
i:sists t|»t t|c i:tcllcctu»l, ¡»:ticul»:l, t|c i:tcllcctu»l»sc:itic, is »lw»,s
iuuc:scc i: soci»l :cl»tio:s, c:g»gcc i: »:c :cs¡o:ci:g to soci»l stiuuli, soci»l
¡:o|lcus, ctc I|c i:tcllcctu»l, t|»t is, is :ot »ltogct|c: :cuovcc i:ou
‘socict,’ lut t|is is :ot » ¡»:ticul»:l, co:t:ovc:si»l cl»iu outsicc oi cc:t»i:
cxt:cuc »touistic tc:cc:cics »uo:g co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»ls W|»t
:cu»i:s out oi vicw is t|c soci»l qucstio: i: t|c st:o:gc: »:c uo:c s¡cciiic
sc:sc cx¡l»i:cc |, G:»usci t|c ¡:occss |, w|ic| soci»l cl»sscs ¡:ocucc »:c
uo|ilizc t|c i:tcllcctu»l
W»lzc: :c¡:csc:ts o:c oi u»:, ¡ossi|lc illust:»tio:s oi G:»usci’s t|co:, oi
i:tcllcctu»ls lis c»sc is ¡»:ticul»:l, i:tc:csti:g |cc»usc |c c:g»gcs wit|
G:»usci ci:cctl, W»lzc: ii:cs u»:, i:t:igui:g »:c usciul clcuc:ts i: t|c
lcg»c, oi t|c lt»li»: \»:xist, |ut ¡:ccict»|l, sto¡s s|o:t oi » iull c:co:scuc:t
|, u»:|i:g out o:c c:uci»l ¡oi:t oi co:tc:tio: »:c ciiic:c:cc l,
su|o:ci:»ti:g |iuscli co:sciousl, to » cl»ss, »:c i: ¡»:ticul»:l, to » ¡olitic»l
¡»:t, cl»iui:g to :c¡:csc:t it, G:»usci ultiu»tcl, s»c:iiiccc »:c cou¡:ouiscc
|is i:tcg:it, »s »: i:tcllcctu»l »:c » c:itic Alt|oug| W»lzc: cx¡:csscs t|is
t»ctiull, »:c :»iscs » :uu|c: oi cxtc:u»ti:g ci:cuust»:ccs, i: t|c c:c t|is
:cu»i:s io: |iu » iu:c»uc:t»l liuit»tio: t|»t u»|cs G:»usci, io: »ll |is
|:illi»:cc, » c»utio:»:, t»lc ‘lc cic :ot :csolvc t|osc cilcuu»s, :ot io:
|iuscli, :ot io: us lc :cvc: g»vc u¡ |is couuituc:t to t|c ¡»:t, »:c to t|c
t:uc coct:i:c t|»t it cu|ocicc’ ;W»lzc: 1-·¯, ¡ 100,
¯
W»lzc:’s c:iticisu
i»lls |»c| »:c cc¡c:cs o: t|c so:t oi su¡:»cl»ss ;»s wcll »s su¡:»¡olitic»l,
cct»c|uc:t t|»t »cco:ci:g to G:»usci cxists o:l, »s iictio: I|c c»stc oi
i:tcllcctu»ls Á t|c ‘A:cic:t »:c lo:o:»|lc ·ou¡»:, oi ·oci»l ·:itics’ Á u»,
|»vc its ow: |isto:, »:c o¡c:»tc ‘soci»ll,’, |ut it cocs iu:ctio: »cco:ci:g to
cc:t»i: t:»:s|isto:ic»l :o:us »:c uust :c»iii:u its soci»l cct»c|uc:t |,
c|»stisi:g, uo:c o: lcss gc:tl,, t|osc w|o st:», »w», i:ou it
W»lzc:’s cx»ui:»tio: oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l, w|ic| is ¡»:tl, » sclicx»ui:»
tio:, »:c w|ic| :o cou|t ic»tu:cs cc:t»i: cou¡lic»tio:s, c»: sc:vc »s » usciul
illust:»tio: oi t|c soci»l »s¡cct oi G:»usci’s t|co:,, i: ¡»:t, »s |ust :otcc,
|cc»usc it cc»ls wit| G:»usci ci:cctl,
·
l:ou W»lzc:’s ¡c:s¡cctivc, G:»usci’s
¡cculi»: uocc oi |ci:g »: i:tcllcctu»l ultiu»tcl, ¡:ovcs i:cigcsti|lc, i: s¡itc oi
t|c u»:, »¡¡c»li:g ic»tu:cs oi |is liic »:c t|oug|t A:c i: i»ct, »cco:ci:g to
G:»usci’s t|co:, oi i:tcllcctu»ls, to t|c cxtc:t t|»t W»lzc: ccic:cs »
|isto:ic»ll, gc:c:ic »:c su¡:»cl»ss ‘c:iticisu’, t|c ultiu»tc :c|cctio: oi t|is
7 6 2 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

co:s¡icuous »ltc::»tivc uoccl is c:ti:cl, ¡:ccict»|lc »:c :cccss»:, ·o:sicc:
i:g |is i:stitutio:»l li:|s »: i:tcllcctu»l Á » ¡:cstigious »¡¡oi:tuc:t »t t|c
l:stitutc io: Acv»:ccc ·tucics »t l:i:ccto:, ucu|c:s|i¡ i: t|c lo»:c oi
I:ustccs oi two u:ivc:sitics, » lo:gst»:ci:g ¡ositio: »s coccito: oi Dissent,
w|ic| sc:vcc »s » |ulw»:| oi ·olc W»: »:ticouuu:isu Á o:c c»: |c
io:givc: io: »cv»:ci:g t|c ¡c:|»¡s i:cclic»tc suggcstio: t|»t W»lzc:’s
»iiili»tio: to » ccii:itc cl»ss wc:c »s :o|ust »:c »s co:scious »s G:»usci’s
W»lzc: is quitc co::cct w|c: |c u»:|s out t|c u»::c: i: w|ic| |c ciiic:s
i:ou G:»usci »s »: i:tcllcctu»l I|c l»ttc: vc:, ccli|c:»tcl, t:icc to c»:vc out
i:stitutio:»l s¡»ccs t|»t stooc :ot |ust outsicc, |ut ci:cctl, o¡¡oscc to t|c
ci:cuits oi c»¡it»l, w|ilc io:uc: w»s ¡:ocuccc »:c :c¡:ocuccc |, it, w|ilc, »t
t|c s»uc tiuc, ¡:oicssi:g tiuclcss »:c su¡:»cl»ss i:cc¡c:cc:cc
lc»vi:g »sicc t|c cou¡»:iso: wit| W»lzc:, it is iu¡o:t»:t to ¡oi:t out t|»t
G:»usci’s t|co:, oi t|c soci»l »iiili»tio:s oi i:tcllcctu»ls is :ot siu¡l, »iii:ucc
»s » sociologic»l »|st:»ctio:, |ut is »ctu»ll, ccvclo¡cc |, uc»:s oi » closc
cx»ui:»tio: oi t|c co:c:ctc co:citio: »iiccti:g lt»li»: socict, i: t|c 1-!0s
G:»usci ¡oscs t|c qucstio: oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l, ¡»:ticul»:l, t|c ·out|c::
i:tcllcctu»l, i: t|»t co:tcxt W|»t »:c |is soci»l »iiili»tio:s, |is soci»l iu:ctio:s·
W|»t »:c t|c co:c:ctc ucc|»:isus oi t:»:suissio: |, w|ic| |c »:ticul»tcs »:c
»cv»:ccs s¡cciiic soci»l i:tc:csts· low »:c |is ¡cculi»: io:us oi co:scious:css
co::cctcc to t|is·
G:»usci’s »:swc:s c»: |c sc|cu»tic»ll, suuu»:izcc i: t|c iollowi:g
u»::c: I|c:c »:c two t,¡cs oi ·out|c:: i:tcllcctu»ls t|c g:c»t i:tcllcctu»l,
co::cctcc to t|c |ig l»:cow:c:s, »:c »: u:cc:|:us| oi uiccli:g t,¡cs,
cuc:gi:g out oi t|c ¡ctt, :u:»l |ou:gcoisic ¡oi:tl,, t|c, ¡l», » c:uci»l :olc i:
¡:csc:vi:g cx¡loit»tivc cl»ss :cl»tio:s i: t|c cou:t:,sicc, »s ¡»:t oi »
‘uo:st:ous »g:»:i»: |loc’, w|ic| i: tu:: sc:vcs »s t|c ‘i:tc:ucci»:, »:c
ovc:scc:’ oi uocc:: :o:t|c:: lt»li»: c»¡it»lisu I|c uicclc l»,c:s oi
i:tcllcctu»ls, io: »ll t|ci: u»:, ciiic:c:ccs, s|»:c » cou¡lcx soci»l ¡s,c|olog,
t|c, :cccivc iu¡ulscs i:ou t|c ¡c»s»:t:,, |ut »lso u»:iicst » ‘iic:cc »:ti¡»t|,’
»:c ‘i:sti:ctivc . . . ic»: oi t|c ¡c»s»:t’ ;G:»usci 1-¯¯, ¡¡ +.+Á+..,
-
I|c
g:c»t i:tcllcctu»ls sct t|c gc:c:»l cultu:»l ¡»:»uctc:s i:iluc:ci:g t|c uiccli:g
st:»t», »:c i: t|is w», ¡l», » c:uci»l soci»l iu:ctio: I|csc uc:, uost
iu¡o:t»:tl, »t t|c tiuc lc:ccctto ·:occ »:c Giusti:o lo:tu:»to, ucci»tc »:c
cis¡l»cc t|c ¡s,c|ologic»l co:cc::s »:c soci»l »tt»c|uc:ts oi t|c uiccli:g
i:tcllcctu»l st:»t» ·¡cciiic»ll,,
jI¡|c, |»vc scc: to it t|»t t|c ¡:o|lcus oi t|c ·out| woulc |c ¡oscc i:
» w», w|ic| cic :ot go |c,o:c cc:t»i: liuits, cic :ot |ccouc
:cvolutio:»:, \c: oi t|c |ig|cst cultu:c »:c i:tclligc:cc, w|o »:osc
o: t|c t:»citio:»l tc::»i: oi t|c ·out| |ut wc:c li:|cc to lu:o¡c»: »:c
|c:cc to wo:lc cultu:c, t|c, |»c »ll t|c :cccss»:, giits to s»tisi, t|c
i:tcllcctu»l :cccs oi t|c uost si:cc:c :c¡:csc:t»tivcs oi t|c cultu:cc ,out|
i: t|c ·out|, to couio:t t|ci: :cstlcss iu¡ulscs to :cvolt »g»i:st cxisti:g
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 6 3
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

co:citio:s, to stcc: t|cu »lo:g » uicclc w», oi cl»ssic»l sc:c:it, i:
t|oug|t »:c »ctio:
;G:»usci 1-¯¯, ¡¡ +.-Á+o0,
G:»usci’s »ccou:t is u:s¡»:i:g t|c cct»c|uc:t oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l is u:u»s|cc
»s » co:scious, ii cclic»tc iccologic»l o¡c:»tio: I|c i:tcllcctu»l, i: ot|c:
wo:cs, is »ctivcl, detached i: t|c sc:sc oi » vc:|, :ot »: »c|cctivc A:c ,ct t|is
o¡c:»tio: cocs :ot t»|c ¡l»cc i: iull vicw, o: i: » :»tio:»l »:c u:ucci»tcc, lct
»lo:c ¡olitic»l i»s|io:, |ut is cis¡l»ccc i: » cou¡lcx ¡l», oi ui::o:s oi
¡|iloso¡|ic»l icc»s, ct|ic»l ¡ostu:cs, »:c ¡:oicssio:»l cx¡cct»tio:s
G:»usci’s cisti:ctio: |ctwcc: t|c g:c»t i:tcllcctu»l »:c t|c uicclc st:»t»
»lso ¡oi:ts to t|c ¡cculi»: :cs¡o:si|ilit, »:c co:scious:css oi t|c io:uc:
l»vi:g »voiccc t|is i»tc |iuscli »itc: |ci:g su||cctcc to t|c s»uc t:c»tuc:t,
G:»usci |l»ucs ¡co¡lc li|c ·:occ vc:, ci:cctl,, |:»:ci:g t|cu ‘t|c uost
»ctivc :c»ctio:»:ics oi t|c w|olc ¡c:i:sul»’ ;G:»usci 1-¯¯, ¡ +.-, I|csc
uc: s,stcu»tic»ll, uislc»c ,ou:g »:c t»lc:tcc i:tcllcctu»ls ‘·:occ |»s . . .
cct»c|cc t|c :»cic»l i:tcllcctu»ls oi t|c ·out| i:ou t|c ¡c»s»:t u»sscs . . . |c
|»s sccu:cc t|ci: »|so:¡tio: |, t|c :»tio:»l |ou:gcoisic »:c |c:cc |, t|c
»g:»:i»: |loc’ ;¡ +o0,
10
Acco:ci:gl,, t|c g:c»t i:tcllcctu»ls »:c :cl»tivcl,
uo:c co:scious oi t|ci: soci»l iu:ctio:, cx»ctl, |cc»usc t|c, »:c t|c »ctivc
ucc|»:isu oi cct»c|uc:t
jI¡|c i:tcllcctu»ls t|i:| oi t|cusclvcs »s ‘i:cc¡c:cc:t’, »uto:ouous,
c:cowcc wit| » c|»:»ctc: oi t|ci: ow:, ctc ©:c s|oulc :otc, |owcvc:,
t|»t ii t|c lo¡c »:c t|c lc»ci:g |ic:»:c|, oi t|c ·|u:c| co:sicc:
t|cusclvcs uo:c li:|cc to ·|:ist »:c to t|c »¡ostlcs t|»: t|c, »:c to
sc:»to:s Ag:clli »:c lc::i j:oto:ious :c¡:csc:t»tivcs oi t|c lt»li»:
|ou:gcoisic¡ t|c s»uc cocs :ot |olc io: . . . ·:occ, jw|o¡ iccls |iuscli
closcl, li:|cc to A:istotlc »:c ll»to, |ut . . . cocs :ot co:cc»l . . . |is li:|s
wit| sc:»to:s Ag:clli »:c lc::i
;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡ ·,
Acco:ci:g to G:»usci, t|c soci»l »s¡cct ccsc:i|cc |, t|is t|co:, oi
i:tcllcctu»ls Á t|ci: scli¡c:cc¡tio: oi tiuclcss:css »:c i:cc¡c:cc:cc Á is »
¡|c:ouc:o: oi g:c»t iu¡o:t»:cc
·i:cc t|csc v»:ious c»tcgo:ics oi t:»citio:»l i:tcllcctu»ls cx¡c:ic:cc
t|:oug| »: ‘esprit de corps’ t|ci: u:i:tc::u¡tcc |isto:ic»l co:ti:uit, »:c
t|ci: s¡cci»l qu»liiic»tio:, t|c, t|us ¡ut t|cusclvcs io:w»:c »s »uto:o
uous »:c i:cc¡c:cc:t oi t|c coui:»:t soci»l g:ou¡ I|is scli»sscssuc:t
is :ot wit|out co:scquc:ccs i: t|c iccologic»l »:c ¡olitic»l iiclc,
co:scquc:ccs oi wicc:»:gi:g iu¡o:t
;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡ ¯,
7 6 4 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

lo: »ll t|c cccc¡tio: »:c sclicccc¡tio: i:volvcc i: t|c io:u»tio: oi t|ci:
co:scious:css, i: t|c c»sc oi t|c ·out|c:: i:tcllcctu»ls, t|c ‘co:scquc:ccs’
G:»usci »lluccs to, »:c clc»: I|csc i:tcllcctu»ls sc:vcc »s » c:uci»l ¡:o¡ oi
lt»li»: c»¡it»lisu
lt woulc |c tcu¡ti:g to s|iclc t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»l i:ou t|is so:t
oi u:s¡»:i:g »ccou:ti:g o: t|c g:ou:cs oi its |isto:ic»l s¡cciiicit, lc:|»¡s
G:»usci’s »:»l,sis oi t|c soci»l »iiili»tio:s oi i:tcllcctu»ls s|oulc :ot |c
gc:c:»lizcc |c,o:c t|c ¡»:ticul»: |isto:ic»l co:citio:s i: w|ic| it w»s
ccvclo¡cc l: t|is s¡i:it, it uig|t |c :otcc t|»t G:»usci, w:iti:g i: t|c
1-!0s, w»s cc»li:g wit| i:tcllcctu»ls w|o coulc still |c :cg»:ccc »s
‘t:»citio:»l’ ·i:cc t|»t tiuc, oi cou:sc, ccii:itc c|»:gcs »iiccti:g t|c st»tus
oi i:tcllcctu»ls i: socict, |»vc t»|c: ¡l»cc I|csc c|»:gcs, |owcvc:, i»: i:ou
wo:|i:g to u»|c t|c i:tcllcctu»l uo:c ¡l»usi|l, o: i»ctu»ll, i:cc¡c:cc:t, |»vc
wo:|cc i: t|c o¡¡ositc ci:cctio: I|c ‘t:»citio:»l’ ¡|iloso¡|c:s, uc: oi
cultu:c li|c ·:occ, w|o coulc o¡c:»tc i: cis¡»:»tc i:stitutio:»l sctti:gs Á
·:occ |iuscli :cvc: ii:is|cc |is u:ivc:sit, ccg:cc, »:c ,ct w»s » ¡:oui:c:t
¡|iloso¡|c:, ccito: oi » u»|o: cultu:»l |ou::»l, »:c, »t o:c ¡oi:t, ui:istc: oi
ccuc»tio: Á |»vc |cc: s,stcu»tic»ll, i:tcg:»tcc »s w»gcc»::i:g ¡:oicsso:s
i:to t|c uo:c io:u»l st:uctu:c oi t|c uocc:: u:ivc:sit, s,stcu G:»usci’s
»:»l,sis is v»lu»|lc :ot |ust |cc»usc it »lc:ts us to t|c u»::c: i: w|ic| socio
cco:ouic t:»:sio:u»tio:s »ltc: t|c |»sc u¡o: w|ic| io:us oi i:tcllcctu»l
c:g»gcuc:t t»|c ¡l»cc, |ut »lso |cc»usc it ci»g:oscs t|c ¡cculi»: t:»:s|isto:ic»l
co:ti:uit, i: t|c co:scious:css oi i:tcllcctu»ls t|»t c:cu:cs i:cc¡c:cc:tl, oi
t|osc t:»:sio:u»tio:s
Io u:cc:st»:c t|c co:ti:ui:g »¡¡lic»|ilit, oi G:»usci’s »:»l,sis to t|c
co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»l, co:sicc: t|c wcll|:ow:, ii :»t|c: cxt:cuc
cx»u¡lc oi W»:c ·|u:c|ill’s :cu»:|s o: t|c -11 »tt»c|s ·|u:c|ill i»uousl,
iu¡lic»tcc t|c victius oi t|c Wo:lc I:»cc ·c:tc: »s ‘littlc lic|u»::s
i:|»|iti:g t|c stc:ilc s»:ctu»:, oi t|c twi: towc:s’ I|csc ¡co¡lc i:cluccc
|»:|c:s, u»:»gc:s, |:o|c:s Á » |:o»c :»:gc oi t|osc s¡cci»lizcc o:g»:ic
i:tcllcctu»ls gc:c:»tcc |, c»¡it»lisu »s » cisti:ctivc uocc oi ¡:ocuctio: l:
t|ci: c»sc, t|ci: soci»l »iiili»tio: w»s |»:cl, » ¡oi:t oi co:tc:tio: I|c sou:cc
oi t|c iu:o: »:c co:t:ovc:s, w»s i:cccc :ot t|c :otio: t|»t t|csc ¡co¡lc wc:c
‘¡»:t oi t|c s,stcu’, |ut t|c uo:c ¡:ovoc»tivc |ucguc:t t|»t t|c, got w|»t
t|c, ccsc:vcc I|c ·|u:c|ill c»sc is » cou¡lcx »:c cclic»tc u»ttc:,
¡»:ticul»:l, co:sicc:i:g t|c u»::c: i: w|ic| |c w»s ultiu»tcl, ¡u:is|cc
11
:cvc:t|clcss, it is » cu:ious i»ct t|»t ·|u:c|ill, w|o »t t|c tiuc w»s »:
cu¡lo,cc oi t|c D:ivc:sit, oi ·olo:»co c»::i:g closc to » sixiigu:c s»l»:,, »:c
t|us i: » tcc|:ic»l sc:sc ¡»:t oi t|c st»tc »¡¡»:»tus, :cvc: iou:c it :cccss»:, to
cvc: »:guc w|, |c |iuscli s|oulc :ot |c co:sicc:cc » ‘littlc lic|u»::’
Io |c clc»:, t|c ¡oi:t |c:c is :ot t|»t t|c »ll »c»ccuics »:c i: i»ct
:cccss»:il, »:c co:sciousl, cou¡licit i: t|c o¡c:»tio:s oi iu¡c:i»lisu
;»lt|oug|, to |c su:c, u»:, »:c,, o: t|»t t|ci: st:uctu:»l ¡ositio: »s :cl»tivcl,
¡:ivilcgcc s»l»:icc cu¡lo,ccs oi t|c c»¡it»list st»tc, o: i: u»:, c»scs oi ¡:iv»tc
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 6 5
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

u:ivc:sitics, is t|c |cgi::i:g »:c t|c c:c oi »:, ciscussio: co:cc::i:g t|ci:
soci»l »iiili»tio: :cvc:t|clcss, t|c ·|u:c|ill c»sc cocs |ig|lig|t » ¡:cv»ili:g
»:c s,stcuic |li:c:css Ac»ccuic i:tcllcctu»ls, w|o »:c t|cusclvcs ¡:ocuccc
»:c :c¡:ocuccc |, c»¡it»l, tc:c to :cg»:c t|ci: ow: i:stitutio:»l »iiili»tio: »s »
|»:»l »:c :cut:»l i»ct, cvc: »s t|c, »:c :c»c, to i:cict ot|c:, uo:c o|viousl,
o:g»:ic i:tcllcctu»ls oi c»¡it»l io: t|c s»uc :c»so:
l: t|c i»cc oi suc| ¡:cv»ili:g tc:cc:cics, G:»usci’s co:t:i|utio: oug|t to
|c :cg»:ccc :ot »s uc:c cct»c|cc t|co:,, |ut »s »: »ctivc »:c co:scious
cx¡osu:c lowcvc:, to cx¡osc wit| G:»usci t|c i:»uculc:cc oi t|c tiuclcss
»:c cct»c|cc c|»:»ctc: oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l is itscli » ¡»:ti»l »:c i:suiiicic:t
o¡c:»tio: I|c :c»so:cc, :c»so:»|lc :c»liz»tio: oi t|c |isto:ic»l s¡cciiicit, oi
t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»l, »:c t|c u:couio:t»|lc clucic»tio: oi |is o: |c:
»tt»c|uc:t to » ccii:itc soci»l o:cc: cocs :ot »utou»tic»ll, cis¡cl t|is io:u oi
co:scious:css I|is is t:uc cx»ctl, |cc»usc t|ci: cisto:tcc scli»w»:c:css is :ot
» uc:cl, su||cctivc uist»|c, |ut is ccc¡l, :ootcc i: t|c co:citio:s oi
¡:ocuctio: Á w|ct|c: t|c, »:c t|osc c|»:»ctc:izi:g c»:l,twc:tict| cc:tu:,
lt»l, o: co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccui»
l:ou t|is st»:c¡oi:t, \»:x’s ictis|isu oi couuocitics sc:vcs »s » usciul
»:»log, li:st, »:c uost o|viousl,, t|is is t:uc i: t|c sc:sc oi t|c s,stcu»tic
co:cc»luc:t oi t|c soci»l c|»:»ctc: oi i:tcllcctu»l ¡:ocuctio:, cvc: to t|c
iuucci»tc ¡:ocucc:s t|cusclvcs I|c co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»l is
t|c ¡:ocuct oi » ¡:oiou:c sociocco:ouic t:»:sio:u»tio: |, w|ic| i:tcllcctu»l
l»|o: |»s |cc: :co:g»:izcc »cco:ci:g to ccii:itc ¡:oicssio:»l »:c i:stitutio:»l
¡»:»uctc:s lut t|is iu:c»uc:t»l i»ct, »lo:g wit| its u:couio:t»|lc
iu¡lic»tio:s, is s,stcu»tic»ll, o|scu:cc |, ccc¡sc»tcc sc:tiuc:ts oi tiuc
lcss:css »:c i:cc¡c:cc:cc lowcvc:, i: t|c s»uc w», »s t|c ictis|isu oi
couuocitics su:vivcs t|c co:scious »:c c:itic»l »:»l,sis oi its o¡c:»tio:
|cc»usc t|c ¡:cv»ili:g soci»l co:citio:s t|cusclvcs su:vivc, G:»usci’s t|co:,
oi i:tcllcctu»l ictis|isu c»::ot i: »:c oi itscli »|olis| it I|c iull iu¡o:t »:c
¡:»ctic»l »s¡cct oi G:»usci’s t|co:,, t|c:cio:c, ¡:csu¡¡oscs » ccii:itc ¡olitic»l
¡:o|cct »iucc :ot |ust »t cx¡osi:g cxisti:g soci»l :cl»tio:s, |ut iu:c»uc:t»ll,
t:»:sio:ui:g t|cu
The discreet charm of the bourgeoisie
l t|i:| l |»vc |cc: situ»tcc i: uost oi t|c squ»:cs oi t|c ¡olitic»l
c|cc|c:|o»:c, o:c »itc: »:ot|c: »:c souctiucs siuult»:cousl, »s
»:»:c|ist, lcitist, ostc:t»tious o: cisguiscc \»:xist, :i|ilist, cx¡licit o:
scc:ct »:ti\»:xist, tcc|:oc:»t i: t|c sc:vicc oi G»ullisu, :cw li|c:»l, ctc
. . . :o:c oi t|csc ccsc:i¡tio:s is iu¡o:t»:t |, itscli, t»|c: togct|c:, o:
t|c ot|c: |»:c, t|c, uc»: souct|i:g A:c l uust »cuit t|»t l :»t|c: li|c
w|»t t|c, uc»: lt’s t:uc t|»t l ¡:cic: :ot to icc:tii, u,scli »:c t|»t l’u
7 6 6 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

»uuscc |, t|c civc:sit, oi t|c w»,s l’vc |cc: |ucgcc »:c cl»ssiiicc
·ouct|i:g tclls uc t|»t |, :ow » uo:c o: lcss »¡¡:oxiu»tc ¡l»cc s|oulc
|»vc |cc: iou:c io: uc . . . l |»vc to |c co:vi:ccc t|»t t|ci: i:»|ilit, to
situ»tc uc |»s souct|i:g to co wit| uc
;\ic|cl louc»ult 1-·+, ¡¡ !·!Á!·+,
l: »:, givc: socict, :o|oc, is ciso:g»:izcc »:c wit|out ¡»:t,, ¡:oviccc
t|»t o:c t»|cs o:g»:iz»tio: »:c ¡»:t, i: » |:o»c »:c :ot » io:u»l sc:sc
;A:to:io G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡ !o+,
I|c soci»l »s¡cct oi G:»usci’s t|co:, oi i:tcllcctu»l ciscusscc c»:lic: u», »t
ii:st gl»:cc »¡¡c»: to |c »: c:ti:cl, st:uctu:»l »ii»i: Á » closcc »:c ¡:c
cctc:ui:cc s,stcu c:cou¡»ssi:g o:g»:iz»tio:»l io:us »s wcll »s t|c »ctu»l
co:tc:t oi t|c co:scious:css oi i:tcllcctu»ls lut i: i»ct it is :ot » closcc
s,stcu l: t|c css», o: t|c ·out|c:: qucstio:, io: cx»u¡lc, t|c »ccou:t oi t|c
soci»l »iiili»tio:s oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l »¡¡c»:s i:iti»ll, »s » givc: i»ct, cu¡i:ic»ll,
¡:csc:t »:c :ootcc i: t|c |isto:, »:c st:uctu:»l ic»tu:cs oi t|c :cgio:»l,
:»tio:»l, »:c i:tc::»tio:»l cco:ou, lowcvc:, t|c »ccou:t oi t|c ‘uo:st:ous
»g:»:i»: |loc’ »:c oi t|c iu:ctio: oi t|c g:c»t i:tcllcctu»ls is iollowcc |, »:
iu¡o:t»:t »uto|iog:»¡|ic»l :otc l: it, G:»usci ccsc:i|cs t|c ¡:occss |, w|ic|
|c iclt o: |is ow: s|i: t|c so:t oi ¡:cssu:c cxc:tcc |, ·:occ »s » g:c»t
i:tcllcctu»l \o:c iu¡o:t»:tl,, G:»usci ccsc:i|cs |is co:scious |:c»| wit|
·:occ’s icc»s »s wcll »s wit| t|c uocc oi ¡:ocuctio: oi icc»s |c ¡:»cticcc »:c
c:cou:»gcc
1!
l:ou » soci»l st»:c¡oi:t, t|is uc»:t t|»t G:»usci w»s »|lc to :csist » :»:gc
oi su|tlc »:c :otsosu|tlc cl»ss ¡:cssu:cs I|csc i:cluccc t|c uc»gc:, ,ct
t»:gi|lc ¡:ivilcgcs oi |is ow: cl»ss |»c|g:ou:c, t|c »u:» oi ¡:cstigc »:c
»ut|o:it, oi t|c g:c»t i:tcllcctu»ls »:c t|ci: lcssc: :c¡:csc:t»tivcs »t t|c
u:ivc:sit, |c »ttc:ccc, »:c uo:c
1!
·o:vc:scl,, |c w»s »|lc to :ccog:izc ‘t|c
uocc:: ¡:olct»:i»t »s t|c uocc:: ¡:ot»go:ist oi lt»li»: |isto:,’ ;G:»usci
1-¯¯, ¡ +o0, I|is ¡:occss w»s :ot t|c :csult oi » ¡u:cl, logic»l cccuctio:,
i:s¡i:cc |, » ¡»:ticul»: tcxt o: |, »: cs¡cci»ll, ¡c:su»sivc ¡ostul»tc oi :»cic»l
soci»l t|co:, lt w»s :ot, i: ot|c: wo:cs, » ¡u:cl, i:tcllcctu»l »ii»i:, »:c
G:»usci w»s »|lc to cx¡c:ic:cc it to t|c cxtc:t t|»t |is liic »s » u:ivc:sit,
stucc:t i: Iu:i: w»s ‘cistu:|cc’ |, t|c cx¡losivc ¡olitic»l cliu»tc oi t|c
¡c:ioc Á t|c cl»ss st:ugglc co:vulsi:g t|c i:cust:i»l cit,, t|c o:sct oi Wo:lc
W»: l, »:c ultiu»tcl, t|c kussi»: kcvolutio:
W|ilc t|c soci»l »s¡cct oi G:»usci’s cx¡c:ic:cc »s » ,ou:g i:tcllcctu»l w»s
iu¡o:t»:t, co:stituti:g »s it wc:c t|c o||cctivc tc::»i: i: w|ic| |c w»s
cou¡cllcc to o:ic:t |iuscli, i: t|c c:c t|is cx¡c:ic:cc »lso ic»tu:cc »: o¡c:,
¡olitic»l »s¡cct l, t|is l uc»: t|»t it w»s »lso » st:ugglc »uo:g livi:g io:ccs,
i:cluci:g t|c willi:g:css »:c c»¡»cit, oi i:civicu»ls, i: t|is c»sc i:tcllcctu»ls,
to |ct:», t|ci: ow: i:tc:csts u:cc:stooc i: » :»::ow sc:sc, to scvc: t|c
t|ous»:cs oi visi|lc »:c i:visi|lc wi:cs co::ccti:g t|cu to » ccii:itc soci»l
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 6 7
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

o:cc:, »:c to |c co:sciousl, wo: ovc: |, »: u:cou¡:ouisi:gl, ciiic:c:t,
:cvolutio:»:, ¡c:s¡cctivc
Io t|c cxtc:t t|»t G:»usci ccvclo¡cc » t|co:, oi i:tcllcctu»ls, t|c:, it w»s
o:c t|»t :cccssit»tcc » ccii:itc io:u oi ¡olitic»l ¡:»cticc t»|i:g ¡l»cc i: »
s¡cciiic i:stitutio:»l io:u Alt|oug| »t souc lcvcl t|is is » ¡c:icctl, i:tclligi|lc
¡oi:t, :ootcc i: cvc:,t|i:g G:»usci t|oug|t o: cic »s »: i:tcllcctu»l, :cco:ccc
i: uulti¡lc tcxts, »:c u»:iicstcc i: » lo:g :cco:c oi ¡olitic»l »ctivit,, it is »lso
» tc::i|l, ciiiicult ¡oi:t to g:»s¡ i:ou t|c st»:c¡oi:t oi t|c co:tcu¡o:»:,
i:tcllcctu»l Á cvc: t|osc w|o ¡:oicss ‘G:»usci»:’ sc:si|ilitics ;·»cc»:clli
!00·, I|c uocc oi ¡:ocuctio: oi |is icc»s w»s :»cic»ll, ciiic:c:t i:ou t|»t oi
co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuics l will |:icil, :ctu:: to t|is ¡oi:t s|o:tl,, w|ilc
:cvicwi:g t|c |»sic t:»|ccto:, oi G:»usci’s u»tu:»tio: »s »: i:tcllcctu»l, i:ou
» collcgc stucc:t to » couuu:ist, ¡»:t, i:tcllcctu»l lut ii:st uo:c :cccs to |c
s»ic »|out t|c ¡olitic»l »s¡cct oi G:»usci’s t|co:, oi i:tcllcctu»l
G:»usci i:sists t|»t i:tcllcctu»ls »:c »lw»,s ¡olitic»l »gc:ts I|is is t:uc, »s
wc |»vc scc:, i: s¡itc oi t|c i»ct t|»t t|c, »:c oitc: c»¡tivc oi t|c uost
i»:t»stic cclusio:s oi cct»c|uc:t l: souc c»scs, ¡»:ticul»:l, t|»t oi t|c g:c»t
i:tcllcctu»ls, t|c:c is oitc: » co:scious clcuc:t i:volvcc, »:c w|»t is
¡:csc:tcc »s ¡olitic»l :»ivctc´ »:c i::occ:cc, cisi:tc:cst o: i:c¡titucc, c»: i:
i»ct |c » uc»su:c oi ¡olitic»l so¡|istic»tio: li G:»usci’s ¡oi:t wc:c » uc:c
»c|:owlccguc:t oi t|c iu¡ossi|ilit, oi ¡olitic»l :cut:»lit,, it coulc |c c»sil,
s|:uggcc oii i: ‘c:itic»l’ »c»ccuic ci:clcs »s |»:»l »:c sclicvicc:t G:»usci’s
»ctu»l i:tuitio: is |owcvc: i»: uo:c c|»llc:gi:g t|c i:tcllcctu»l coucs i:to
|ci:g by default wit|i: t|c ¡olitic»l o:|it oi t|c :uli:g cl»ss, cx»ctl, |cc»usc o:
t|c soci»l ¡l»:c |c o: s|c is |o:: wit| u»:iiolc »tt»c|uc:ts to it l: t|c c»sc oi
t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»l, |c o: s|c is quitc litc:»ll, ¡:ocuccc Á
t:»i:cc, :cgul»tcc, cu¡lo,cc Á |, c»¡it»l ·cvc:i:g t|csc u»:iiolc li:|s,
»cco:ci:g to G:»usci, is :o uc:c u»ttc: oi »co¡ti:g » gc:c:ic ‘lcitist’
cis¡ositio:, o: cvc: »ctivisu
1+
I|is ¡oi:t is toc», :cgul»:l, ovc:loo|cc i: s¡itc oi t|c i»ct t|»t it is
i:sc:i|cc i: G:»usci’s ¡olitic»l |iog:»¡|,, »:c uo:covc: »¡¡c»:s :c¡c»tccl,
»:c i: ciiic:c:t io:us t|:oug|out |is w:iti:gs lo: i:st»:cc, w|c: G:»usci
i:cictcc ·:occ »:c lo:tu:»to io: c:su:i:g t|»t lcssc: ·out|c:: i:tcllcctu»ls
woulc co:sicc: t|c soci»l ¡:o|lcus oi t|ci: »gc o:l, wit|i: cc:t»i: liuits, i: »
:o::cvolutio:»:, u»::c:, |c w»s :ot c:iticizi:g ovc:t :c»ctio:»:ics |ut souc
oi t|c uost visi|lc »:c i:iluc:ti»l :c¡:csc:t»tivcs oi lt»li»: »:tii»scisu
1.
I|c
iuliiluc:t oi suc| iu:ctio:s cocs :ot :cqui:c out:ig|t co:s¡i:»cics o: |»c|:oou
cc»ls |ut uc:cl, t|c lcss co:s¡icuous, ‘:o:u»l’ ¡:occss oi soci»l ¡:ocuctio:
»:c :c¡:ocuctio: oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l, »:c is ¡c:icctl, cou¡»ti|lc wit| c»::cst
¡olitic»l i:tc:tio:s l: i»ct, »cco:ci:g to G:»usci, i:tcllcctu»ls wc:c »|lc to
¡c:io:u » usciul »:c o:g»:ic ¡olitic»l :olc io: t|c |ou:gcoisic cx»ctl, w|c:
t|c, wc:c :ot so ci:cctl, iu¡lic»tcc wit| its i:tc:csts »:c o¡c:»tio:s
I|c l»st ¡oi:t is wcll cx¡:csscc i: G:»usci’s couuc:ts »|out ·i:cl»i:
lcwis’ Babbitt I|c :ovcl s»ti:izcc » :cw, ‘st»:c»:cizcc’ Auc:ic»: ¡ctt,
7 6 8 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

|ou:gcois t,¡c, cx¡osi:g |is co:io:uisu »s wcll »s |is |o¡clcss »ttcu¡ts to
csc»¡c i:ou it G:»usci i:sistcc t|»t lcwis’ |oo|, »lt|oug| »:tistic»ll,
uccioc:c, w»s oi ¡:oiou:c sig:iiic»:cc ·o:sicc:i:g lcwis’ soci»list
s,u¡»t|ics »:c t|c i»ct t|»t t|c |oo| o|viousl, cx¡:csscc » cc:t»i: ‘lcitist’
c:iticisu oi Auc:ic»: socict,, o:c uig|t |»vc cx¡cctcc G:»usci to |»il it »s »
s,u¡tou oi t|c c:osio: oi |ou:gcois |cgcuo:, o: i:tcllcctu»ls G:»usci’s
»ctu»l |ucguc:t, |owcvc:, w»s quitc t|c o¡¡ositc lcwis’ |oo| »:c t|c
|:o»cc: cultu:»l cu::c:t oi w|ic| it w»s ¡»:t,
. . . i:cic»tcs t|»t sclic:iticisu is |ci:g cxtc:ccc Á t|»t is, it i:cic»tcs t|c
|i:t| oi » :cw Auc:ic»: civiliz»tio: co:scious oi its st:c:gt|s »:c
wc»|:csscs t|c i:tcllcctu»ls cct»c| t|cusclvcs i:ou t|c :uli:g cl»ss i:
o:cc: to u:itc wit| it uo:c i:tiu»tcl,, to co:stitutc » :c»l su¡c:st:uctu:c,
:ot |ust »: i:o:g»:ic »:c u:cisti:guis|cc ¡»:t oi t|c co:¡o:»tist|»sc
lu:o¡c»: i:tcllcctu»ls |»vc »l:c»c, i: ¡»:t lost t|is iu:ctio: t|c, :o
lo:gc: :c¡:csc:t t|c cultu:»l scli»w»:c:css, t|c sclic:iticisu oi t|c :uli:g
cl»ss, t|c, |»vc :cvc:tcc to |ci:g t|ci: iuucci»tc »gc:ts
;G:»usci 1-¯., ¡¡ o!!Áo!+,
G:»usci’s |ucguc:t s¡c»|s to t|c st:c:gt| oi |ou:gcois ¡olitic»l |cgcuo:,
ovc: t|c i:tcllcctu»ls, cvc: w|c: t|c, c:iticizcc »:c u»:iicstcc t|ci:
ciscouio:t wit| cxisti:g soci»l :cl»tio:s \o:c t|»: t|»t, » ‘c:itic»l’ cist»:cc,
» :cstlcss ciss»tisi»ctio: Á c»:ciull, u»:»gcc to c:su:c t|»t it ‘cic :ot go
|c,o:c cc:t»i: liuits’ Á w»s »ctu»ll, »: »ssct i:ou t|c st»:c¡oi:t oi t|c
¡olitic»l iu:ctio: »: i:tcllcctu»l coulc ¡l», io: t|c :uli:g cl»ss
1o
lut G:»usci’s »:»l,sis oi t|c ¡olitic»l iu:ctio: oi i:tcllcctu»ls cut ccc¡c:
still lc :cg»:ccc u»:, io:us oi ¡olitic»l »ctivisu, :ot |ust c:iticisu »:c
ciss»tisi»ctio:, »s cou¡»ti|lc wit| |ou:gcois |cgcuo:, As G:»usci cx¡l»i:cc,
‘t|c »ctio:s »:c o:g»:is»tio:s oi ‘‘volu:tcc:s’’ uust |c cisti:guis|cc i:ou t|c
»ctio:s »:c o:g»:iz»tio:s oi |ouogc:cous soci»l |locs, »:c |ucgcc |, ciiic:c:t
c:itc:i»’ l: t|is ciscussio:, G:»usci w»s t»|i:g uc»su:c oi » cc:t»i: |i:c oi
‘ciss»tisiicc i:tcllcctu»ls’ t|»t cic :ot siu¡l, c:iticizc, |ut c:g»gcc i: » w|olc
|ost oi ostc:si|l, sccitious ¡olitic»l »ctivitics G:»usci :cg»:ccc t|csc t,¡cs »s
‘:c»c, ‘‘volu:tcc:s’’ io: »:, c:tc:¡:isc ;cvc: t|c uost |iz»::c, w|ic| is
v»gucl, su|vc:sivc ;to t|c lcit o: to t|c kig|t,’ I|is ¡|c:ouc:o:
c:cou¡»sscc :ot |ust i:civicu»l ¡olitic»l i:iti»tivcs, |ut »lso ad hoc »lli»:ccs
»:c g:ou¡i:gs G:»usci c|»:»ctc:izcc t|csc i:tcllcctu»ls »:c t|ci: sc»ttc:s|ot
»ctivisu i: »: u:il»ttc:i:g u»::c: I|c, wc:c t|c ‘¡olitic»l cquiv»lc:t oi
g,¡s, |»:cs o: :ou»cs’ :o »uou:t oi ciio:t oi t|is |i:c woulc succccc i:
¡ulli:g i:tcllcctu»ls out oi t|c ¡olitic»l o:|it oi t|c |ou:gcoisic, »:c i: i»ct,
givc: c:oug| tiuc, t|is cclccticisu w»s |ou:c to ¡:ocucc :c»ctio:»:, :csults
G:»usci i:sistcc o: t|c :ccc to ‘st:ugglc »g»i:st jt|csc¡ i»lsc |c:oisus . . . »:c
stiuul»tc t|c io:u»tio: oi |ouogc:cous, cou¡»ct soci»l |locs’, »:c co:cluccc
|is ciscussio: wit| » c»ustic :cui:cc: oi t|c cl»ss :»tu:c »:c liuit»tio:s oi t|is
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 6 9
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

so:t oi »ctivisu ‘. . . l»:is bohe´me too w»s i:tcllcctu»ll, »t t|c :oot oi u»:,
co:tcu¡o:»:, uoccs oi t|oug|t w|ic| »¡¡c»: :o:ct|clcss to cc:icc t|osc
bohemians’ ;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡¡ !0!Á!0.,

A:c it is i: l:»:cc t|»t t|c ¡olitic»l »s¡ccts oi G:»usci’s t|co:, oi
i:tcllcctu»ls |ci:g ciscusscc |c:c ii:c » usciul illust:»tio: \ic|cl louc»ult is
»: c:o:uousl, i:iluc:ti»l, »:c cvc: ico:ic iigu:c lc is i:cccc t|c |i:c oi
g:c»t i:tcllcctu»l ciscusscc |, G:»usci Á t|c so:t w|o i:iluc:ccc t|c uoocs
»:c o:ic:t»tio:s oi t|ous»:cs oi lcssc: o:cs lcw woulc co:sicc: |is ¡olitic»l
:olc »s souc|ow iu¡lic»tcc wit| c»¡it»lisu, »:c, i: i»ct, uc:cl, ¡osi:g t|c
qucstio: i: suc| » u»::c: is li|cl, to |c cisuisscc »s » c:ucc »:c ¡:ovoc»tivc
gcstu:c A:c ,ct, w|c: cx»ui:i:g |iu t|:oug| t|c ¡:isu oi G:»usci’s »:»l,sis
oi i:tcllcctu»ls, t|is co:clusio: is i:csc»¡»|lc Alt|oug| t|is is :o su|stitutc io:
» t|o:oug| cx»ui:»tio: oi t|is cou¡lcx iigu:c, l will |c:c |:icil, |ig|lig|t
t|:cc ¡c:ti:c:t »s¡ccts oi louc»ult’s liic »s »: i:tcllcctu»l |is ¡cculi»: u»::c:
oi ccsc:i|i:g |is ow: ¡ositio: »s »: i:tcllcctu»l, |is ¡cculi»: |i:c oi ¡olitic»l
»ctivisu, »:c |is :ot »t »ll ¡cculi»: i:stitutio:»l »iiili»tio: »s »: »c»ccuic
i:tcllcctu»l
As illust:»tcc i: t|c c¡ig:»¡| »t t|c |cgi::i:g oi t|is scctio:, louc»ult
ccli|c:»tcl, :ciuscc to ¡:ovicc » ¡olitic»l »ccou:ti:g oi |is »ctio:s »:c
i:»ctio:s lc too| ¡:icc »:c cclig|t i: ¡:csc:ti:g |iuscli »s st»:ci:g »|ovc t|c
‘¡olitic»l c|cc|c:|o»:c’, »:c w|c:cvc: co:i:o:tcc wit| qucstio:s co:cc::i:g
|is »llcgi»:cc, louc»ult woulc :cgul»:l, ccilcct t|cu

I|is w»s :o uc:c
¡c:so:»l qui:|, |ut » t|co:ctic»l ¡ositio: ¡ositivcl, »:ticul»tcc i: ciiic:c:t
w»,s, »s i: t|c c»sc oi |is »uto¡s, oi t|c i:civicu»l »ut|o:i»l iu:ctio: i: ‘W|»t
is »: »ut|o:·’ I|c williul scli»|:cg»tio: oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l i: louc»ult w»s
oitc: ¡»i:cc to ¡o¡ulist |os»::»s io: t|c u»sscs’ c»¡»cit, to t|i:| »:c »ct io:
t|cusclvcs
1-
I|is is t|c so:t oi ¡ositio: t|»t, ¡»:ticul»:l, »s it ¡c:t»i:cc to
g:c»t i:tcllcctu»ls, G:»usci cx¡oscc :ot |ust »s »: iu¡ossi|lc co:ccit, |ut »s »
|:owi:g :cius»l to t»|c o: t|c st:ugglc to i:cc o:cscli »:c ot|c:s i:ou
|ou:gcois |cgcuo:,
!0
l:culgi:g i: w|»t ·¡iv»| c»llcc t|c ‘t:»:s¡»:c:c, oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l’ cic
:ot ¡:cvc:t louc»ult i:ou »ctivcl, ¡»:tici¡»ti:g i: ¡olitics ;·¡iv»| 1-··, ¡
!·0, ©vc: t|c cou:sc oi |is liic, |c w»s i:volvcc i: » uultitucc oi c»uscs »:c
coulc »t tiucs cis¡l», g:c»t c:c:g, »:c »ctivisu A:c ,ct |is ¡olitic»l ¡:»cticc
w»s ccsulto:, i: t|c s¡cciiic sc:sc c:iticizcc |, G:»usci louc»ult w»s, io:
cx»u¡lc, i»uousl, »|sc:t i:ou l:»:cc cu:i:g t|c c:uci»l cvc:ts oi \», 1-o·
lc too| o: v»:ious st:ugglcs |ut i: » u»::c: t|»t stuciousl, »voiccc
su|o:ci:»ti:g |is outst»:ci:g i:civicu»lit, »s »: i:tcllcctu»l to t|c iig|t io:
‘|ouogc:cous, cou¡»ct soci»l |locs’, »cvoc»tcc |, G:»usci lc |:icil, |oi:cc
t|c ·t»li:ist Parti Communiste Franc ¸ais, |ut :cvc: :c»ll, ¡»:tici¡»tcc i: its
¡olitic»l wo:|
!1
lc w»s io: » tiuc closc to t|c \»oist Gauche Prole´tarienne
;Gl, |ut cx»ctl, |cc»usc t|ci: co:cc¡tio: oi t|c :olc oi t|c i:tcllcctu»l w»s
siuil»: to |is
!!
l: »:, c»sc |c »lw»,s |c¡t Gl »t »:u’s lc:gt| »:c ultiu»tcl,
¡ullcc »w», c:ti:cl, louc»ult »lso i»uousl, iou:ccc t|c l:iso: l:io:u»tio:
7 7 0 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

G:ou¡ ;Gll, Á »: iccologic»l g:»| |»g oi ‘volu:tcc:s’ i: t|c G:»usci»:
sc:sc
!!
I|is is t|c |i:c oi ¡olitic»l :ou»cisu oi t|c ‘ciss»tisiicc i:tcllcctu»l’
:cg»:ccc |, G:»usci »s »: cx¡:cssio: oi |ou:gcois |cgcuo:, Alt|oug| |c
w»s :ot ¡»:ticul»:l, co:sistc:t o: t|is cit|c:, w|c: co:sicc:i:g louc»ult’s
¡olitic»l »ctivisu i: t|c »gg:cg»tc o:c uust co:clucc t|»t it w»s co:sciousl,
¡:ccic»tcc o: t|c |ctc:ogc:cit, oi u»:iiolc g:icv»:ccs
li souco:c s|oulc »s| uc w|»t it is l t|i:| l »u coi:g, l woulc »:swc: ii
t|c st:»tcgist is » u»: w|o s»,s, ‘w|»t iu¡o:t»:cc cocs » ¡»:ticul»: cc»t|,
» ¡»:ticul»: c:,, » ¡»:ticul»: u¡:isi:g |»vc i: :cl»tio: to t|c g:c»t :cccssit,
oi t|c w|olc, »:c oi w|»t iu¡o:t»:cc to uc is suc|»:csuc| » gc:c:»l
¡:i:ci¡lc i: t|c s¡cciiic situ»tio: i: w|ic| wc ii:c ou:sclvcs·’ t|c: it is
i:ciiic:c:t to uc w|ct|c: t|c st:»tcgist is » ¡olitici»:, » |isto:i»:, »
:cvolutio:»:,, souco:c w|o su¡¡o:ts t|c ·|»| o: »,»toll»| \,
t|co:ctic»l uo:»lit, is t|c o¡¡ositc lt is ‘»:tist:»tcgic’
;louc»ult 1-¯-,
As G:»usci |»c :otcc, :»cic»l u»:iicst»tio:s oi ciss»tisi»ctio: o: t|c ¡»:t oi
t|csc i:tcllcctu»ls woulc oitc: givc w», to uo:c o:t|ocox cx¡:cssio:s oi
|ou:gcois ¡olitics l: louc»ult’s liic, t|is too| t|c io:u oi » :co:ic:t»tio:
tow»:c |uu»: :ig|ts co:cc::s »:c uo:c t:»:s¡»:c:t io:us oi li|c:»l
i:civicu»lisu Á cvc: t|oug| louc»ult, oi cou:sc, co:ti:ucc to s|u: »ll
l»|cls
!+
li:»ll,, it is iu¡o:t»:t to :otc t|»t, »s uuc| »s louc»ult li|cc to ¡:csc:t
|is ¡olitic»l :cvc:ics »s t»|i:g ¡l»cc outsicc oi »:, i:stitutio:»l sctti:g, i:ou |is
c»:l, cx¡c:ic:ccs i: lol»:c »:c Gc:u»:,, to » liictiuc »¡¡oi:tuc:t »t t|c
¡:cstigious ·ollcgc cc l:»:cc, |c w»s i: i»ct iull, »:c|o:cc i: t|c ccii:itc
i:stitutio:»l i:»ucwo:| oi »c»ccui» I|csc c»:cc: uovcs oitc: too| ¡l»cc i: »
ccii:itc ¡olitic»l co:tcxt lo: cx»u¡lc, louc»ult’s »¡¡oi:tuc:t to |c»c t|c
¡|iloso¡|, cc¡»:tuc:t »t t|c :cw cx¡c:iuc:t»l u:ivc:sit, »t Vi:cc::cs,
loc»tcc |ust outsicc oi l»:is, w»s » c»lcul»tcc uovc o: t|c ¡»:t oi » l:c:c|
govc::uc:t t|»t w»s still :ccli:g i:ou t|c soci»l cx¡losio:s oi 1-o· ·iuil»:l,,
it w»s t|c l:c:c| ui:istc: oi ccuc»tio: w|o cccucc it usciul to ovc::ulc »:
u:i»vo:»|lc votc c»st |, t|c Ac»ccu, oi \o:»l »:c lolitic»l ·cic:ccs i: o:cc:
to c:su:c louc»ult’s »¡¡oi:tuc:t »t t|c ·ollcgc cc l:»:cc ;\»cc, 1--!, ¡¡
!1-Á!!., !!o,
l: s¡itc, o: :»t|c: |cc»usc oi its u»:iiolc cou¡lic»tio:s, louc»ult’s liic is
»: i:st:uctivc illust:»tio: oi t|c ¡cculi»: u»::c: i: w|ic| i:tcllcctu»ls,
¡»:ticul»:l, ‘g:c»t’ »c»ccuic o:cs, o¡c:»tc wit|i: t|c i:»ucwo:| oi |ou:gcois
¡olitic»l |cgcuo:, I|is co:clusio: |owcvc:, is |ou:c to |c u:scttli:g li
cvc: suc| » wiccl, :cs¡cctcc »:c i:iluc:ti»l ‘o¡¡ositio:»l’ iigu:c is i: i»ct »t
|ottou » iu:ctio:»:, oi |ou:gcois |cgcuo:,, to co:cc¡tu»lizc, lct »lo:c
¡u:suc » ¡l»usi|lc »ltc::»tivc woulc sccu to |c » c»u:ti:g t»s| lut i:
G:»usci Á u:cc:stooc :ot »s cxcc¡tio:»l »:c u:iquc, |ut »s », so to s¡c»|,
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 7 1
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

‘:o:u»l’ ucu|c: oi » :cvolutio:»:, ¡olitic»l ¡»:t, Á o:c ii:cs » :c»cil,
»v»il»|lc uoccl As l :otcc c»:lic:, t|c cou:sc oi co:cuct t|»t is co:cciv»|lc
io: »: i:tcllcctu»l is o|viousl, |ou:c u¡ wit| t|c |isto:ic»l co:citio:s i: w|ic|
|c o: s|c o¡c:»tcs
!.
lut i: t|c s»uc w», »s t|c ¡:o¡ulsivc cx¡»:sio: oi ¡ost
Wo:lc W»: ll ¡c:ioc lcit » ccii:itc u»:| o: t|c co:scious:css oi i:tcllcctu»ls
i: t|c io:u oi :cl»tivcl, ‘i:cc¡c:cc:t’ »:c :cl»tivcl, couio:t»|lc sctti:g io:
t|ci: »ctivitics, it is ¡ossi|lc t|»t t|c o:goi:g c:isis will i:cucc » wiccs¡:c»c
:c»sscssuc:t oi t|c olc ¡»:»uctc:s l: t|is co:tcxt, it is i:st:uctivc to
cx»ui:c, |owcvc: |:icil,, G:»usci’s ow: t:»|ccto:, »s »: i:tcllcctu»l, w|ic|
c»: |c |:o»cl, civiccc i:to iou: ¡c:iocs
Old school
I|»t »ll ucu|c:s oi » ¡olitic»l ¡»:t, s|oulc |c :cg»:ccc »s i:tcllcctu»ls is
»: »iii:u»tio: t|»t c»: c»sil, lc:c itscli to uoc|c:, »:c c»:ic»tu:c lut ii
o:c t|i:|s »|out it :ot|i:g coulc |c uo:c cx»ct
;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡ 1o,
G:»usci’s liic »s »: i:tcllcctu»l |cg»: i: 1-11 wit| |is u:ivc:sit, stucics I|c
|iog:»¡|ic»l u»tc:i»l »v»il»|lc, to s», :ot|i:g oi G:»usci’s l»tc: »ccou¡lis|
uc:ts, suggcsts t|»t |c w»s » |:illi»:t stucc:t i: li:guistics »uo:g ot|c:
cisci¡li:cs I|»t, i: su»ll ¡»:t, »ccou:ts io: t|c i»ct t|»t |c c»: »¡¡c»: »s
i»uili»: »:c i:tclligi|lc to t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»l lut t|c
qucstio: is :»:cl, ¡oscc toc», W|, cic G:»usci givc u¡ o: » ¡:ouisi:g
u:ivc:sit, c»:cc:· I|c qucstio: is :ot ¡oscc i: ¡»:t |cc»usc it ¡oi:ts to cc:t»i:
o||cctivc, t|oug| l»:gcl, u:cigcstcc i»cts »|out t|c |isto:ic»l t:»:sio:u»tio: oi
t|c uocc oi ¡:ocuctio: oi icc»s I|osc i»cts, :cl»ti:g to t|c u»ssivc cx¡»:sio:
oi »c»ccui» |»vc |cc: |:icil, touc|cc u¡o: c»:lic: I|c, »:c iu¡o:t»:t »:c
¡c:ti:c:t |cc»usc t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»l is, ¡:»ctic»ll, |, ccii:itio:, »:
»c»ccuic I|is |»s ccii:itc co:scquc:ccs, i:cluci:g t|c i»ct t|»t t|c w», i:
w|ic| G:»usci ¡:ocuccc icc»s, w|ic| w»s :ot »:, uo:c |isto:ic»ll, ¡cculi»:
t|»: t|c o:c ¡:cv»ili:g toc»,, |ccoucs cii»ccc t|:oug| » sc:ics oi cou¡lcx
t:»:sl»tio:s t|»t u»|c |iu »¡¡c»: »s » i»uili»: iigu:c Á io: cx»u¡lc, »
‘t|co:ist’, »lt|oug|, to |c su:c, » ‘c:itic»l’ o:c
©: t|c o:c |»:c, t|c:, t|c qucstio: oi G:»usci c:o¡¡i:g out oi sc|ool is
:ot ¡oscc |cc»usc it is siu¡l, i:co:cciv»|lc i:ou t|c st»:c¡oi:t oi t|c
co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»l, si:cc t|c u:ivc:sit, sctti:g is :»tu:»lizcc »s t|c o:l,
¡ossi|lc |»|it»t io: t|i:|i:g ©: t|c ot|c: |»:c, t|c qucstio: is :ot ¡oscc
|cc»usc G:»usci’s |»::i:gl, ciiic:c:t »¡¡:o»c| to t|c qucstio: oi ¡olitic»l
c:g»gcuc:t t:iggc:s »: iuucci»tc ciscouio:t W|»t ¡»sscs io: »: ‘c:g»gcc
i:tcllcctu»l’ toc», »:c i: t|c :ccc:t ¡»st is oi »: c:ti:cl, ciiic:c:t o:cc: oi
u»g:itucc i:ou w|»t G:»usci :c¡:csc:tcc Io usc t|c cx»u¡lc »t |»:c,
7 7 2 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

\ic|cl louc»ult is oitc: uc:tio:cc »s » ¡»:»cigu»tic ‘c:g»gcc’ »:c ‘c:itic»l’
i:tcllcctu»l, » t|o:: i: t|c sicc oi t|c cxisti:g o:cc:, »:c uo:c lut t|is o:l,
»¡¡lics to t|c cxtc:t t|»t wc t»|c io: g:»:tcc t|»t »c»ccui» is t|c :»tu:»l
c:vi:o:uc:t io: t|c i:tcllcctu»l W|c: wc co t|is, louc»ult’s ¡:cstigious
i:stitutio:»l »iiili»tio: wit| t|c ·ollcgc cc l:»:cc »¡¡c»:s »s » |»:»l »:c
:cut:»l i»ct, |»:cl, wo:t| ciscussi:g low clsc, »itc: »ll, coulc souco:c
iu:ctio: »s »: i:tcllcctu»l· A:c t|is is cx»ctl, t|c sig:iiic»:cc oi G:»usci’s ow:
cvolutio: ©:c woulc |c i»: uo:c i:cli:cc to t»|c :oticc oi louc»ult’s
i:stitutio:»l »iiili»tio:s, »:c ¡c:|»¡s |c i:cli:cc to c:»w cc:t»i: iu¡c:ti:c:t
co:clusio:s, wc:c o:c to |cc¡ i: ui:c t|c co:s¡icuous i»ct t|»t A:to:io
G:»usci co:sciousl, c:o¡¡cc out oi t|c »c»ccuic wo:lc |cc»usc |c c»uc to
:c»lizc t|»t |is ¡olitic»l couuituc:ts »:c :cs¡o:si|ilitics »s »: i:tcllcctu»l
ccu»:ccc »: c:ti:cl, ciiic:c:t i:stitutio:»l sctti:g
I|c :cxt ¡c:ioc oi G:»usci’s liic »s »: i:tcllcctu»l cxtc:cs i:ou t|c c:c
oi |is stucics »t t|c u:ivc:sit, i: Iu:i: to |is c:c»tio: oi t|c Ordine Nuovo
wcc|l, :cvicw I|is ¡c:ioc siuult»:cousl, u»:|cc G:»usci’s coui:g i:to
|ci:g »s » ,ou:g i:tcllcctu»l, t|c |cgi::i:g oi |is ¡olitic»l u»tu:»tio:, »:c |is
ii:st cx¡c:ic:cc wit| » |i:c oi soci»l coll»|o:»tio: t|»t w»s ciiic:c:t i:ou
w|»t o:c t,¡ic»ll, c:cou:tc:s i: » u:ivc:sit, Alo:g wit| ot|c: |:ig|t ,ou:g
uc:, i:cluci:g t|c iutu:c lc»cc: oi t|c lt»li»: ·ouuu:ist l»:t, l»lui:o
Iogli»tti, G:»usci iou:ccc » |ou::»l t|»t :cvicwcc »:c ciscusscc u»:iiolc
lu:o¡c»: i:tcllcctu»l cc|»tcs lut t|is w»s :ot t|c c:c»tio: oi »: »c»ccuic
¡u|lic»tio:, s¡u::cc |, souc :cg:ctt»|lc g»¡ i: ou: cisci¡li:»:, |:owlccgc,
:uui:»ti:g t|c l»tcst t:c:cs oi ‘c:itic»l t|co:,’, o:, i:cicc:t»ll,, |»c|cc |, »
couuc:ci»l ¡u|lis|i:g ii:u oi »u¡lc uc»:s G:»usci’s :ccollcctio: oi w|»t
|c w»s coi:g i: t|is ¡c:ioc is i:st:uctivc ‘I|c o:l, sc:tiuc:t w|ic| u:itcc
us, i: ou: uccti:gs oi t|»t ¡c:ioc, w»s |»scc o: » v»guc c:t|usi»su io: »
v»guc ¡:olct»:i»: cultu:c, wc w»:tcc to »ct, to »ct, to »ct, wc iclt t:»¡¡cc,
wit|out ¡c:s¡cctivc, »uic t|c icvc:is| liic oi t|osc uo:t|s iollowi:g t|c
»:uisticc, w|c: t|c c»t»cl,su oi lt»li»: socict, sccucc iuui:c:t’ ;G:»usci
1-¯1, ¡ xxxvii, I|c ¡»ss»gc c:c»¡sul»tcs souc oi t|c clcuc:ts t|»t »¡¡c»:
to |c u:»v»il»|lc to t|c co:tcu¡o:»:, i:tcllcctu»l lo: cx»u¡lc, t|is |i:c oi
soci»l coll»|o:»tio: is :ot t|c :o:u, »s »c»ccuic wo:| is oitc: ¡c:io:ucc
t|:oug| » cc:t»i: |i:c oi :csig:cc solitucc W|c: collcctivc ciio:ts »:c »ctivc
coll»|o:»tio: cocs t»|c ¡l»cc, »s is :outi:cl, t|c c»sc i: t|c scic:tiiic
cisci¡li:cs, it tc:cs to |c »:iu»tcc |, vc:, ciiic:c:t sc:si|ilitics G:»usci
|iuscli :ccog:izcc t|»t t|c ciio:t oi Ordine Nuovo w»s »: »ttcu¡t to ‘ccvclo¡
cc:t»i: io:us oi :cw i:tcllcctu»lisu’ ;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡¡ -Á10, :cvc:
t|clcss, t|c ¡»ss»gc s|ctc|cs out » iigu:c t|»t toc», is :ot cou¡lctcl,
u::ccog:iz»|lc, »s souc oi t|c sc:tiuc:ts cx¡:csscc i: it c»: still |c iou:c
·c:t»i:l, v»guc lcitist sc:tiuc:ts co:ti:uc to »|ou:c, i: »:c »:ou:c
»c»ccui» »uo:g u»:, i:tcllcctu»l st:»t» lut it s|oulc |c :otcc t|»t w|»t
G:»usci ccsc:i|cs, loo|i:g |»c|, »s ¡olitic»l i:cx¡c:ic:cc »:c :»ivctc´ is i:
i»ct i: uost co:tcu¡o:»:, c»scs t|c |cst t|»t c»: |c cx¡cctcc i:ou »:
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 7 3
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

‘c:g»gcc’ »:c ‘¡:og:cssivc’ i:tcllcctu»l Á w:itc » ¡iccc io: The Nation, s|ow
u¡ »t » :»ll, w|c: tiuc ¡c:uits, o: cvc: t|:ow » :oc| »t ls:»cli t:oo¡s |cio:c
goi:g |»c| to tc»c| cou:scs »t ·oluu|i»
I|c :cxt ¡c:ioc oi G:»usci’s liic »s »: i:tcllcctu»l is t|»t w|ic| is
vi:tu»ll, i:»cccssi|lc i:ou t|c st»:c¡oi:t oi co:tcu¡o:»:, :outi:cs »:c
cx¡cct»tio:s G:»usci w»s » ¡»:t, u»: As t|c ciscussio: oi W»lzc: ¡»:tl,
illust:»tcc, t|is is :cg»:ccc »s »: i:»cuissi|lc viol»tio: oi t|c i:cc¡c:cc:cc oi
t|c i:tcllcctu»l, t»:t»uou:t to » su::c:cc:i:g oi o:c’s c:itic»l i»cultics
Ioc», t|c vc:, cx¡:cssio: co:vc,s u:¡lc»s»:t uc»:i:gs Á |»c|s wit|out
¡:i:ci¡lcs, »lltoo :cli»|lc clcuc:ts, ctc
!o
lut i: i»ct, »cco:ci:g to G:»usci,
t|is io:u oi co:scious su|o:ci:»tio: »:c cc¡c:cc:cc co:stitutcc :ot o:l, |is
¡c:so:»l cu»:ci¡»tio: i:ou t|c ¡:cv»ili:g soci»l o:cc:, |ut »lso, i:ou »
gc:c:»l st»:c¡oi:t, » :cw »:c :cccss»:, ¡»:»cigu io: i:tcllcctu»ls :o cou|t
t|is w»s » ¡:occss, :ot souct|i:g :c»cil, »v»il»|lc »:c iull, io:ucc, »s
»ttcstcc |, G:»usci’s ow: cvolutio: i:ou v»guc sc:tiuc:ts to soci»list
co:scious:css

:cvc:t|clcss io: G:»usci t|c co:scious co:st:uctio: oi t|c
¡olitic»l ¡»:t, oi t|c wo:|i:g cl»ss w»s »lso t|c co:scious co:st:uctio: oi |is
i:tcllcctu»l liic
G:»usci ccsc:i|cs t|c cu»lit, oi t|is ¡:occss cx¡licitl, l:ou » ¡olitic»l
st»:c¡oi:t, ‘I|c ¡olitic»l ¡»:t, io: souc soci»l g:ou¡s is :ot|i:g ot|c: t|»:
t|ci: s¡cciiic w», oi cl»|o:»ti:g t|ci: ow: c»tcgo:, oi o:g»:ic i:tcllcctu»ls
ci:cctl, i: t|c ¡olitic»l »:c ¡|iloso¡|ic»l iiclc . . . I|csc i:tcllcctu»ls »:c
io:ucc i: t|is w», »:c c»::ot |c io:ucc i: »:, ot|c: w»,’ ;G:»usci 1-¯1,
¡ 1., lt is iu¡o:t»:t to cu¡|»sizc t|»t i: G:»usci’s soucw|»t c:,¡tic
io:uul»tio:, ‘souc soci»l g:ou¡s’ cocs :ot :cic: to t|c c»¡it»list cl»ss, w|ic|,
»s cx¡l»i:cc c»:lic:, |»s u»:iiolc su|tlc »:c :otsosu|tlc uc»:s to io:u t|ci:
o:g»:ic i:tcllcctu»ls ©:l, t|c wo:|i:g cl»ss, |»scc o: its su|o:ci:»tc cultu:»l
»:c iccologic»l ¡ositio:, is :cst:ictcc to t|is »:cuous ¡»t| At t|c s»uc tiuc, i:
ccsc:i|i:g t|c :cw i:tcllcctu»l G:»usci »lso ccsc:i|cc » ¡:occss oi scli
c:c»tio:
I|c uocc oi |ci:g oi t|c :cw i:tcllcctu»l c»: :o lo:gc: co:sist i:
cloquc:cc, w|ic| is »: cxtc:io: »:c uouc:t»:, uovc: oi iccli:gs »:c
¡»ssio:s, |ut i: »ctivc ¡»:tici¡»tio: i: ¡:»ctic»l liic, »s co:st:ucto:,
o:g»:izc:, ‘¡c:u»:c:t ¡c:su»cc:’ »:c :ot |ust » siu¡lc o:»to: . . . i:ou
tcc|:iquc»swo:| o:c ¡:occccs to tcc|:iquc»sscic:cc »:c to t|c
|uu»:istic co:cc¡tio: oi |isto:,, wit|out w|ic| o:c :cu»i:s ‘s¡cci»liscc’
»:c cocs :ot |ccouc ‘ci:cctivc’ ;s¡cci»liscc »:c ¡olitic»l,
;G:»usci 1-¯1, ¡ 10,
l»: i:ou |ci:g » s¡ccul»tivc »ccou:t oi »|st:»ct t,¡cs, t|is ¡»ss»gc :c¡:csc:ts »
co:cisc »uto|iog:»¡|, oi G:»usci »s »: i:tcllcctu»l l: |oi:i:g t|c ¡olitic»l
¡»:t, oi t|c wo:|i:g cl»ss, G:»usci w»s »|lc to t:»:scc:c :ot |ust t|c ‘uc:cl,
cloquc:t’ cct»c|cc i:tcllcctu»l, |ut »lso t|c sc»ttc:s|ot »ctivisu ccsc:i|cc i:
7 7 4 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

t|c ¡:cvious scctio: I|is su|o:ci:»tio: to » ccii:itc, »:c i: u»:, w»,s t»xi:g
i:stitutio:»l io:u w»s :cg»:ccc |, G:»usci :ot »s » s»c:iiicc to |c c:cu:cc out
oi co:cc:: io: ¡olitic»l :cccssit,, |ut » ¡ositivc gooc i:ou t|c st»:c¡oi:t oi |is
ow: ccvclo¡uc:t »s i:tcllcctu»l
G:»usci’s ¡c:so:»l ccvclo¡uc:t, |owcvc:, w»s »::cstcc i: 1-!o, lc»ci:g
us to t|c l»st ¡»:t oi G:»usci’s liic »s »: i:tcllcctu»l lis ¡:iso: w:iti:gs »:c
t|c uost iu¡o:t»:t »:c ¡»:»coxic»l sou:cc oi G:»usci’s ¡o¡ul»:it, i:
»c»ccui» Io t|c cxtc:t t|»t G:»usci w»s » iu:ctio:i:g couuu:ist »:c ¡»:t,
i:tcllcctu»l, |c is ciiiicult to :ccog:izc »s » ¡c:ti:c:t su||cct oi stuc,, lct
»lo:c »s » icllow i:tcllcctu»l |, co:tcu¡o:»:, s¡cciuc: I|us |is c»:l,
w:iti:gs »:c t,¡ic»ll, ig:o:cc, o: »t lc»st |:oug|t i: »s »t |cst » gc:c»logic»ll,
sig:iiic»:t su¡¡lcuc:t to |is i»: uo:c u»tu:c »:c iu¡o:t»:t ¡:iso:
:otc|oo|s ;lcui» 1-·!, ¡ !!·, lc o:l, |ccoucs i:tclligi|lc, i»uili»:,
»:c i:tc:csti:g, cx»ctl, »s |c w»s io:ci|l, ¡:cvc:tcc i:ou iu:ctio:i:g »s »:
i:tcllcctu»l i: t|c u»::c: to w|ic| |c w»s »ccustoucc I|is c:ucl i:o:, is
t,¡ic»ll, lost o: co:tcu¡o:»:, ‘G:»usci»:’ sc|ol»:s, io: »ll t|c :c»so:s
cct»ilcc i: t|is css», lut G:»usci u:cc:stooc t|is co:citio: quitc wcll, »:c
ccsc:i|cc it »s » ¡:occss oi |uu»: »:c i:tcllcctu»l c:osio: iu¡oscc |, t|c
¡:iso: :cgiuc
lt sccus to uc t|»t ii l wc:c to |c :clc»scc i:ou ¡:iso: :ow, l woulc :o
lo:gc: |c »|lc to o:ic:t u,scli i: t|c v»st wo:lc, l woulc :ot |c »|lc to
|oi: »:, sc:tiuc:t»l cu::c:t l woulc co:ti:uc to livc uc:cl, wit| t|c
|:»i: . . . scci:g i: »ll ¡co¡lc, cvc: t|osc w|ou l s|oulc :cg»:c »s closc to
uc, :ot »s livi:g |ci:gs, |ut »s ¡uzzlcs to |c solvcc . . . I|c i»ct is t|»t l
ii:c u,scli u:»|lc to ovc:couc t|is co:citio: |ut i: o:c w», t»|i:g
:ciugc i: t|c ¡u:c cou»i: oi »|st:»ct i:tcllcct, u»|i:g t|us oi u,
isol»tio: t|c cxclusivc io:u oi u, cxistc:cc
;G:»usci 1-¯., ¡¡ !+!oÁ!+!¯,
I|c sig:iiic»:cc oi t|is ¡»ss»gc c»::ot |c ovc:st»tcc I|c sic|l, sil|oucttc
s|ctc|cc out i: it :cgistc:s, o: t|c o:c |»:c, t|c ccv»st»ti:g ¡s,c|ologic»l
c:osio: suiic:cc |, G:»usci »itc: |is io:ci|lc :cuov»l i:ou t|c iiclc oi
¡olitics At t|c s»uc tiuc, o: t|c ot|c: |»:c, it i:vo|cs t|c co:citio: oi t|c
co:tcu¡o:»:, »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»l Alt|oug| it is oitc: :ot ¡c:ccivcc »s »
|u:cc:, t|c illuso:, i:cc¡c:cc:cc iou:c i: t|c ‘¡u:c cou»i: oi »|st:»ct
i:tcllcct’ is i: i»ct ou: ow: ·o lo:g »s t|c soci»l co:citio:s ¡:ocuci:g »:c
:c¡:ocuci:g »c»ccuic i:tcllcctu»ls c:cu:cc, G:»usci’s t|co:ctic»l i:sig|ts »:c
¡:»ctic»l cx»u¡lc :cu»i:cc ciicctivcl, i::ct:icv»|lc I|c co:tcu¡o:»:, c:isis
will cou¡cl i:tcllcctu»ls to :ccx»ui:c t|c ‘cxclusivc io:u’ oi t|ci: cxistc:cc
W|c: t|»t |»¡¡c:s, G:»usci will still |c i:iluc:ti»l »:c ¡o¡ul»:, |ut »t l»st io:
t|c :ig|t :c»so:s
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 7 5
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

Acknowledgements
I|c »ut|o: wis|cs to t|»:| A::» \»:i» Acc»:i, \»:, Dictz, »:c l»t|»
V»:»c»:»|»: io: t|ci: suggcstio:s »:c su¡¡o:t
Notes
1 ·cc ¡»co|,’s i:sig|tiul »:»l,sis oi t|is t:»:sio:u»tio:, w|ic| cului:»tcc i:
t|c |isto:ic»ll, u:¡:ccccc:tcc i»ct t|»t toc», ‘to |c »: i:tcllcctu»l c:t»iljs¡
|ci:g » ¡:oicsso:’ ;1-·¯, ¡ 1o, ¡»co|,’s scui:»l |oo| w»s w:ittc: o: t|c
cvc oi t|c uouc:tous ccvclo¡uc:t oi t|c i:tc::ct, w|ic| u:cou|tccl,
o¡c:cc t|c w», io: :cw ¡ossi|ilitics »:c io:us oi i:tcllcctu»l c:g»gcuc:t
:cvc:t|clcss, :ccu::i:g »:c |:c»t|lcss cclc|:»tio:s oi t|c ‘|logos¡|c:c’, oi
ccuoc:»tic ‘vi:tu»l ¡u|lic s¡|c:cs’, oi cuc:gi:g ‘:ctwo:| cultu:cs’, ctc
t,¡ic»ll, »:c, o:c uig|t s»,, iccologic»ll, ovc:cstiu»tc t|c ccg:cc to w|ic|
:ccc:t tcc|:ologic»l ccvclo¡uc:ts |»vc solvcc lo:gst»:ci:g ¡:o|lcus i:
t|c soci»l ¡:ocuctio: »:c cist:i|utio: oi icc»s Alt|oug| t|is is o|viousl, :o
su|stitutc io: » iull »:»l,sis oi t|csc cou¡lcx issucs, l will siu¡l, :otc |c:c
t|»t t|c gc:c:»l io:us t|»t s|»¡c t|c ¡:ocuctio: »:c cist:i|utio: oi icc»s i:
socict, »t l»:gc Á ¡:iv»tc ¡:o¡c:t,, t|c ¡:ofit uotivc, uo:o¡olistic
tc:cc:cics, ctc Á cxc:t t|c s»uc ¡:cssu:cs o: t|c ¡:ocuctio: oi icc»s
o:li:c, »s t|c, co oifli:c lt is :ot »: »ccicc:t t|»t, io: »ll t|c cui:c:tl,
usciul »:c i:tc:csti:g u»tc:i»l it ¡:oviccs, t|c i:tc::ct :cu»i:s qu»:tit»
tivcl, coui:»tcc |, cou:tlcss uo:c,u»|i:g sc|cucs, |, i:»:c »:c
souctiucs g:otcsquc cx¡:cssio:s oi |»c|w»:c:css »:c sclii:culgc:cc,
»:c |, its ow: cisti:ctivc u»:iicst»tio:s oi cst:»:gcuc:t »:c »lic:»tio:
G:»usci’s |:illi»:t c¡ig:»uu»tic |ucguc:t, o:igi:»ll, ci:cctcc t|c c»¡it»list
wo:lc »s » w|olc, »¡¡lics |ust »s wcll to t|c vi:tu»l o:c ‘t|c olc is c,i:g,
»:c t|c :cw c»::ot |c |o:: l: t|is i:tc::cg:uu » g:c»t v»:ict, oi uo:|ic
s,u¡tous »¡¡c»:’ ;1-¯1, ¡ !¯o,
! I|c »ltc::»tivc |,¡ot|csis :c|cctcc |, G:»usci cc|occ » :uu|c: oi
i:fluc:ti»l »:guuc:ts t|»t wc:c i: ci:cul»tio: »t t|c tiuc, i:cluci:g \»x
Wc|c:’s »:c l»:l \»::|ciu’s l»c| wit| t|ci: ow: cisti:ctivc ic»tu:cs,
t|csc »:guuc:ts ¡ositcc t|c soci»l i:cc¡c:cc:cc oi i:tcllcctu»ls, o: cvc:
t|ci: st»:ci:g »s » cisti:ct soci»l cl»ss
! lo: cx»u¡lc,
©:c oi t|c c|»:»ctc:istics oi t|c i:tcllcctu»ls »s » c:,st»llizcc soci»l c»tcgo:,
;»s » soci»l c»tcgo:, t|»t u:cc:st»:cs itscli »s co:ti:ui:g u:i:tc::u¡tccl,
t|:oug| |isto:, »:c t|us st»:ci:g »|ovc t|c st:ugglc oi g:ou¡s :»t|c: t|»: »s
t|c cx¡:cssio: oi » ci»lcctic»l ¡:occss t|:oug| w|ic| c»c| coui:»:t soci»l
g:ou¡ cl»|o:»tcs its ow: c»tcgo:, oi i:tcllcctu»ls, is ¡:cciscl, t|»t oi
co::ccti:g itscli, i: t|c iccologic»l s¡|c:c, wit| » ¡:cccci:g i:tcllcctu»l
7 7 6 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

category by means of a common conceptual nomenclature. A new historical
situation creates a new ideological superstructure, whose representatives
(the intellectuals) must be understood as themselves being ‘new intellec-
tuals’ born out of the new situation, not a continuation of the preceding
intellectual milieu.
(Gramsci 1975, pp. 1043Á1044)
All translations from the Italian edition of the Prison Notebooks are mine.
4 ‘There is no such thing as an independent class of intellectuals. Rather, each
class has its own intellectuals; but those belonging to the historically
progressive class exercise such a power of attraction that they ultimately
subordinate to themselves the intellectuals of other classes and create in the
process a climate of solidarity of all intellectuals featuring ties of a
psychological character (such as vanity, etc.) and often of a caste character
(technical-juridical, corporative)’ (Gramsci 1975, p. 42).
5 Walzer’s ‘critic’ is defined very broadly, and his critical activity is not
understood in a strong sense of a self-conscious, alienated and hostile
attitude toward social life and existing institutions. Walzer’s ‘critic’, in
other words, is merely a thinking man, an intellectual engaged to some
degree with social life and with a modicum of ‘critical’ attitude. Walzer’s
discussion of the ‘critic’ can be taken therefore as a discussion of
‘intellectuals’, and in fact the two terms are at times used interchangeably.
See for example Walzer (1987, p. 4).
6 For example, ‘[I]t is important to stress that social criticism has a history, for
some critics today announce themselves newborn’ (Walzer 1987, p. 4).
7 The fact that Walzer prefers Ignazio Silone, another Italian communist, is
intriguing. Silone did abandon the party, with its alleged stultifying and
compromising discipline, taking on a more proper activity of criticism: ‘No
doubt this new understanding doesn’t have the analytic power . . . of Marxist
theory, but it has the considerable advantage of moral relevance . . . Like
Camus, some years later, Silone comes to recognize the moral importance
of limits Á a doctrine at once simple and sophisticated’ (1987, p. 116).
Ironically, Silone, this ‘ideological refugee’, was not only a crucial figure of
anti-communism in Italy (of the ‘measured’ and ‘sensible’, rather than
hysterical kind) but, as was recently discovered, a fascist spy (Foot 2000).
8 Edward Said’s ‘secular critic’ is similar to Walzer in content and in its
carefully calibrated ‘Gramscian’ features (Said 1994).
9 In addition, these intellectuals ‘practice a refined hypocrisy and a highly
refined art of deceiving and taming the peasant masses’. Typically, this
intellectual is ‘Democratic in its peasant face; reactionary in the face turned
towards the big landowner and the government: politicking, corrupt and
faithless’ (Gramsci 1977, pp. 454Á455). The most brilliant literary account
of this type is found in Silone’s novel Fontamara, which, in depicting the
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 7 7
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

depth of these hypocrisies, undoubtedly draws from the personal reserves of
the author.
10 This sort of distinction between the great intellectual and the underbrush
growing in his shadow remains pertinent and important, and should be kept
in mind in thinking about the more recent manifestations of the processes
described by Gramsci. In the post-1968 epoch, for example, one could draw
similar distinctions between Michel Foucault and the later and lesser
Foucauldians.
11 Churchill was removed from his tenured position at the University of
Colorado after an open-ended fishing expedition scrutinizing the scholarly
integrity of his work. This was a blatant attack against democratic rights and
no one, least of all the jury that decided his case in civil court after he sued,
was fooled by the claim that political considerations had nothing to do with
his dismissal.
12 ‘. . . [T]he Turin communists Á if in a certain sense they can be related to the
intellectual formations to which we have alluded; and if, therefore, they too
have felt the intellectual influence of Giustino Fortunato or of Benedetto
Croce Á nevertheless represent at the same time a complete break with that
tradition and the beginning of a new development, which has already borne
fruit and which will continue to do so’ (Gramsci 1977, p. 460).
13 Gramsci’s father was a state employee, although a disgraced one. Gramsci
himself was admitted to the university on a scholarship, although it was
inadequate to cover his financial needs.
14 A good illustration of this point comes from the ‘Gramscian’ academic
literature. Consider the following assessment found in a book that in all
other respects presents Gramsci as an indispensable theoretical resource for
our time:
It seems to me that these categories which have increased so greatly in all the
advanced capitalist countries Á such as school and university teachers . . . Á
do not fit into Gramsci’s category of organic intellectuals, and certainly
cannot be traditional intellectuals. They are subject to conflicting forces. In
so far as they passively carry out the orders of their superiors they are acting
as agents of the leading intellectuals and may perhaps be considered to be
subordinate organic intellectuals. But in so far as they join trade unions and
become drawn towards the labour movement, it makes no sense to describe
them as organic to the capitalist class. In addition, many of them are subject
to important influences arising from professional traditions. It is surely best
to exclude them from the category of organic intellectuals of the capitalist
class, and to confine this category to the leading personnel whose links with
the ruling class justify the description of organic . . . If this is right, then we
have to accept that Gramsci does not provide a comprehensive theory of
intellectuals.
(Simon 1982, pp. 97Á98)
7 7 8 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

This passage illustrates the instinctive discomfort and sheer unintelligibility
of Gramsci’s criticism from the standpoint of the contemporary intellectual.
It completely effaces the history of the communist opposition to manifold
forms of reformism as a manifestation of bourgeois hegemony over the
working class Á a history in which Gramsci himself played a considerable
role. The idea that a vague sense of sympathy toward the ‘labor movement’,
or union membership safely removes an intellectual from the field of
bourgeois hegemony flies in the face of countless political experiences in the
twentieth, and even more obviously twenty-first century Á as would be
demonstrated, for example, by an even cursory review of the long political
trajectory of European social democracy and trade unions. Simon’s
statement is not just completely at odds with Gramsci’s actual understanding
the question. It is itself a concise illustration of how the process of the
maintenance and consolidation of bourgeois hegemony takes place exactly
and most decisively in the milieu of the political ‘left’.
15 This is particularly true of Croce, who, although not strictly speaking a man
of the left and initially supportive of Mussolini, nonetheless came to inspire
generations of anti-fascists.
16 The rest of Gramsci’s note deepens his criticism of the European
intellectual’s scorn for the ‘standardized’ American Babbitt:
[I]n Europe standardized petty bourgeois do exist . . . but the European
Babbitt is from a historical standpoint inferior to the American Babbitt . . .
the conformism of the former is based on a putrid and debilitating
superstition, whereas the conformism of the latter is naı ve and spontaneous,
based on a progressive and energetic superstition.
(Gramsci 1975, p. 634)
Here and in many other notes Gramsci anticipated the historical necessity, if
not the specific form, of intellectual Fordism and the attendant ‘standardiza-
tion’ of the contemporary academic intellectual.
17 It is significant that in his critique of political nomadism Gramsci went as far
as to include Amadeo Bordiga, the founder of the Italian Communist Party,
whose politics he regarded as ‘formalistic’ and ‘not directed towards social
homogeneity’.
18 The introduction to David Macey’s largely sympathetic biography includes
multiple examples of this attitude, detecting in it a strand of narcissism. For
instance:
To the imaginary interlocutor who complains: ‘Are you saying yet again that
you have never been what you have been reproached with being? You are
already preparing the get-out that will enable you in your next book to
spring up somewhere else and to mock at us as you are doing now: ‘‘No,
no, I am not where you are lying in wait for me, but over there, laughing at
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 7 9
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

you’’’, Foucault replies: ‘I am no doubt the only one who writes in order to
have no face. Do not ask who I am and do not ask me to remain the same’.
(Macey 1993, p. xiii)
See also pages xiv, xvi.
19 ‘The intellectual discovered that the masses no longer need him to gain
knowledge: they know perfectly well, without illusion; they know better
than he and they are certainly capable of expressing themselves’ (Foucault
1977, p. 207).
20 Gramsci criticized both the professed political transparency of the
intellectual, and the facile populist gestures toward the self-sufficiency of
the masses. Although the educator had to be educated as well, the
intellectual could not simply smuggle his or her peculiar self in the broad
stream of the autonomous masses:
The philosophy of praxis does not tend to leave the ‘simple’ in their
primitive philosophy of common sense, but rather to lead them to a higher
conception of life. If it affirms the need for contact between intellectuals and
simple it is not in order to restrict scientific activity and preserve unity at the
low level of the masses, but precisely in order to construct an intellectual-
moral bloc which can make politically possible the intellectual progress of
the mass and not only of small intellectual groups.
(Gramsci 1971, pp. 332Á333)
21 Macey’s presentation of these matters is euphemistic: ‘Foucault displayed a
curious attitude toward organized politics’ (Macey 1993, p. 27).
22 ‘Insofar as the intellectual had a role, it was one of self-abnegation’ (Macey
1993, p. 218).
23 Macey admires Foucault’s energy and activism with the GIP, but revealingly
notes how ‘attention to the prison problem . . . also offered an escape from
his boredom with ‘‘literary matters’’’ (Macey 1993, p. 262).
24 Consider, for example, Foucault’s account of his participation in 1981 in the
initiative to send ships into the Gulf of Thailand on behalf of the Vietnamese
boat people:
We are here only as private individuals, who have no other claim to speak,
and to speak together, than a certain shared difficulty in accepting what is
happening . . . Who, then, has commissioned us? No one. And that is
precisely what establishes our right . . . Amnesty International, Terres des
Hommes, Medicins du Monde are initiatives which have created this right:
that of private individuals actually to intervene in the order of international
politics and strategies. The will of individuals has to inscribe itself in a reality
7 8 0 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

over which governments have wanted to reserve a monopoly for themselves
Á a monopoly which we uproot little by little every day.
(Chandler 2006, pp. 116Á117)
Chandler’s political assessment of this episode is worth quoting: ‘This new
‘‘right’’ for self-appointed and unaccountable liberal intellectuals to
intervene in international affairs was premised on the postmodern dismissal
of the collective political subject’.
25 It is important note that Gramsci and Foucault emerged in very different
historical periods, which profoundly conditioned their political choices and
development as intellectuals. Gramsci’s entrance into the Communist Party
was in a certain sense a ‘natural’ outcome of his radicalization, particularly
on the heels of the Russian Revolution. In Foucault’s case the problem was
not simply the ‘normalization’ of the academic intellectual, but also a far
more fragmented and treacherous political landscape, beginning with the
fact that the ‘Communist Party’ was by then, and particularly in France, a
thoroughly conservative and reactionary organization. The fact that 1968
saw the proliferation of ‘autonomist’ tendencies in which intellectuals like
Foucault could cultivate their ‘independence’ as ‘volunteers’ in the
Gramscian sense, rather than fight for the organization of ‘homogeneous
social blocs’, was in large part a function of the political bankruptcy of
Stalinism.
26 Gramsci was already responding to this sort of reaction in writing the
passage at the beginning of this section.
27 ‘One’s critical self-awareness occurs . . . through a struggle of political
‘‘hegemonies,’’ of contrasting directions, first in the realm of ethics, then in
politics, arriving at a superior elaboration of one’s conception of the real. To
be conscious of being part of a specific hegemonic force (that is, political
consciousness) is the first phase toward a further and progressive self-
awareness in which theory and practice finally become one . . . the unity of
theory and practice is therefore not a mechanical, predetermined fact, but a
process of historical becoming’ (Gramsci 1975, p. 1385).
References
Chandler, D. (2006) From Kosovo to Kabul and Beyond: Human Right and International
Intervention, London, Pluto Press.
Femia, J. V. (1983) ‘Gramsci’s patrimony’, British Journal of Political Science, 13,
vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 327Á364.
Foot, J. (2000) ‘The secret life of Ignazio Silone’, New Left Review, vol. 3, pp.
146Á152.
Foucault, M. (1977) Language, Counter-Memory, Discourse, Ithaca, NY, Cornell
University Press.
THE I NTEL L ECTUAL I N QUESTI ON 7 8 1
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

Foucault, M. (1979) ‘Is it useless to revolt?’, Le Monde, 11 May.
Foucault, M. (1984) ‘Polemics, politics, and problemizations. An interview with
Michel Foucault’, in The Foucault Reader, ed. P. Rabinow, New York,
Pantheon Books, pp. 381Á390.
Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks, eds Q. Hoare & G. Novell
Smith, New York, International Publishers.
Gramsci, A. (1975) Quaderni del carcere Vol. IÁIV, Torino, Einaudi.
Gramsci, A. (1977) Selections from Political Writings 1921Á1926, ed. Q. Hoare,
Minneapolis, MN, University of Minnesota Press.
Jacoby, R. (1987) The Last Intellectuals: American Culture in the Age of Academe, New
York, Basic Books.
Macey, D. (1993) The Lives of Michel Foucault, New York, Pantheon Books.
Marx, K. (1990) Capital Vol. I, London, Penguin.
Saccarelli, E. (2008) Gramsci and Trotsky in the Shadow of Stalinism: The Political
Theory and Practice of Opposition, New York, Routledge.
Saccarelli, E. (2009) ‘Prominent academic offers modest proposal for reorganizing
universities’, World Socialist Website, [online] Available at: http://www.
wsws.org/articles/2009/jun2009/educ-j09.shtml
Said, E. (1994) Representations of the Intellectual, New York, Pantheon Books.
Simon, R. (1982) Gramsci’s Political Thought: An Introduction, London, Lawrence
and Wishart.
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2010) ‘Digest of education statistics, 2009’,
National Center for Education Statistics, [online] Available at: http://nces.
ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/ch_3.asp (accessed 8 April 2011).
Spivak, G. C. (1988) ‘Can the subaltern speak?’, in Marxism and the Interpretation of
Culture, eds C. Nelson & L. Grossberg, Chicago, IL, University of Illinois
Press, pp. 271Á313.
Taylor, M. C. (2009) ‘End the university as we know it’, New York Times, 26
April.
Walzer, M. (1988) The Company of Critics: Social Criticism and Political Commitment in
the Twentieth Century, New York, Basic Books.
7 8 2 CULTURAL STUDI ES
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

[
1
5
1
.
3
2
.
2
5
4
.
1
6
2
]

a
t

0
9
:
4
9

0
4

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2