# THEORY BEHIND MATHEMATICS

AUM
ψ]ισµ]}ινϖ]ϖ]τ]∗∴ π]δ⌡β∅ϕ]σ]∴Κ]/ψ⊕ ρεΚ⊕µ]ψ]∴ ιϖ] ϖ]µ]ν]ντ]Β◊δ⌡µ∫/ | τ]τ∫/ β ℵ⌡ πΝ]∗∴ π]ρ⌡µ]ι♥⌡τ∅ψ]∴ ιϖ]#⊕ν]µ⊕ν]νδ⌡ Γ]ν]∴ ν]µ⊕ιµ] ||

ψ]ισµ}ινϖωϖ]ρτ]∗∴ π]δ⌡β∅ϕ]σ]∴Κ]/ψ⊕ ρεΚ⊕µ]ψ]∴ ιϖ] ϖ]µ]ν]ντ]Β◊δ⌡∴∫/ | τ]τ∫/ β ℵ⌡ πΝ]∗∴ π]ρ⌡µ]ι♥⌡τ ψ]ισµ]}ινϖ]ϖ]τ]∗∴ π]δ⌡β∅ϕ]σ]∴Κ]/ψ⊕ ρεΚ⊕µ]ψ]∴ ιϖ ] ϖ]µ]ν]ντ]Β◊δ⌡µ∫/ |∅ψ]∴ ιϖ]#⊕ν]µ⊕ν]νδ⌡ Γ]ν]∴ ν]µ⊕ιµω ||

ABSTRACT
During the long period of growth of human civilization, the science of mathematics developed as one of the modes of communication along with another mode known as natural languages. Both of these modes of communications involved a visual representation in addition to spoken words. We call them numbers in mathematics and alphabets in the languages. The use of numbers is now universal irrespective of the wide variety of languages. Over a period of time, mathematics included a wide variety of subjects, in addition to the earliest symbols denoted as positive and negative integers and a symbol for what is called zero. Now, in general, the subject of mathematics includes the study of numbers, which are further classified as rational numbers and irrational numbers, algebraic numbers, transcendental numbers, complex numbers. It also includes the topics like algebra, geometry, topology, scalars, vectors, tensors, matrices and so on. These became indispensable tools in formulating mathematical relations between different observed and measurable properties of both microscopic and macroscopic physical world. It helped us to verify the consequences of those models by appropriate experiments. We could thus understand the properties of air, fire, water and earth, sensations like sound, light, heat and cold. The utility of mathematics extended also to understand the nature of the astronomical objects. And what is most surprising is that the mathematical scientist could predict the truths of the physical world, and verify the predictions by accurate experiments. One famous example is the nature of electromagnetic radiation which revolutionized our communication skills. There are several examples of such predictions in the history of science. Thus, we developed a strong faith in the utility of mathematics in our civilized life.

It raises the hope that we can enlarge the scope of mathematics by a careful interpretation of mathematical symbols and operations to interpret our metaphysical notions.2 In the present talk. ϖ≥ ]µ∅ ϖ]ρ and π]δ⌡β∅ϕ]σ]∴Κψ⊕ρεΚ⊕Ν⊕µ∂ ]ρο ]ρ⌡∴ ∴ β]λ∅ψ]:.H Jagadguru Kalyanananda Bharati. A few examples are given to illustrate the efficacy of mathematical approach in understanding truths stated in the Bhagavadgita. This scrutiny discloses incidentally some aspects of our mental faculties which are active while we use numbers. . I shall first take a close scrutiny at some of our elementary notions of numbers and operations we do with them. This talk in particular is an elaboration (prakaranagrantha) for two of his Aphorisms. The chief inspiration for this investigation was provided by the Aphorisms of PurΝ]µΩµ∫}σ⊕δ⌡ρξ]ν]∴ written by H.

Religion and Science are not independent of our daily life. Further. and search for. It does not need to be told that Mathematics is the basis of modern science. as we know now. Philosophy is a way of thinking about the world in which we live. And hopefully our present civilization would be more enlightened civilization in the coming years by the knowledge that science of mathematics is both universal and eternal. Broadly speaking. Religion and Science are like vector forces. and Science is a way of working with the things of the world. 1. who were basically thinkers of abstract notions. the three pillars of modern civilization have mathematics as a common denominator. which is the welfare of humanity. INTRODUCTION Before I enter into the main subject of my talk. wisdom. My firm conviction is that human civilization. were the earliest founders of the science of mathematics. Hence. each of which is ultimately directed to the same goal. was built on a structure supported by three pillars. (See Fig. . we understand that Philosophy is love of. Stated in a simpler language applicable to our daily life. Religion and Science. I would like to make a few preliminary remarks which would serve as a proper back ground. and Science is systematized knowledge derived from observation and study. Religion is any specific system of belief and worship and conduct. Philosophy. mathematical notions were employed in all religions to explain metaphysical ideas. Religion is a way of living with the things in the world. A mathematically trained philosopher would consider that the three disciplines of Philosophy. These three pillars are called Philosophy. The philosophers. the triad of Philosophy. at end) Now.3 THEORY BEHIND MATHEMATICS AUM ϖ≥ ]ϖψ⊕σ⊕ιϖ∫}ϖ] σ]∴π≥ Ο ϖ≥ ]ϖψ]]σ] π ιτ∫}π] ]ψ◊ ϕ]γ]τ ιπ]τ]ρΟ ϖ]νδε ξ⊕ρ⌡δ↑χ]ν♦ ⌡µλ∅ξϖ]ρΟ || ϖ≥ ]ϖψ⊕σ⊕ιϖ∫}ϖ] σ]∴π≥ Ο ϖ≥ ]ϖψ]]σ] π ιτ∫}π] ]ψ◊ ϕ]γ]τ ιπ]τ]ρΟ ϖ]νδε ξ⊕ρ⌡δ↑χ]ν♦⌡µλ∅ξϖ]ρΟ || § 1. the subject of Mathematics is such that it has both roots and ramifications in all the three disciplines. That would also reveal to you my attitude to the subject under discussion. Religion and Science. Thus.

it is the geometrical figure that we recognize as a square. More multiplications create more dimensions 1 1 . Even there. I shall pay special attention to one operation. the abstract symbol 1 has been used with triple meanings. We shall take another example in the following form: Eq. multiplication of a number by itself. Let us look at the following equation. The second meaning is that there is an operation called multiplication of numbers. Therefore. 1. it must be realized that in our consciousness there are at least two independent streams of thought processes. we learn to see more and more in this equation. It is also written as 12 = 1. The first meaning is that it is a measure of length. 1 Fig. 2 1×1×1 = 1.4 In this talk I shall restrict myself to only one aspect of mathematics. In this example. The reason for doing so is the fact that. and read as “one raised to the power of two equals one”. which is one the earliest equations that we learnt: Eq. 2: Multiplication creates new dimension 1 1×1 1 In the Eq. 1 1×1 = 1. 2) Fig. namely. One is that of the abstract concept of a number and the other is that of the meaning of a number with reference to our experience of shapes in the world. there is also a meaning to Eq. the concept of a number. Similarly I shall also consider the inverse operation of finding the root of a number. All this cannot be taught to the child. to my mind. The meaning of an equation in mathematics involves a confluence of these two streams in our consciousness. The third meaning is that it also represents the area of geometrical figure called square. But as we grow. 3. In either way. It is pronounced as: “one multiplied by one equals one”. these operations contain some deep seated philosophical issues that need to be highlighted. The important point to realize is that the meaning of a number involves an experience independent of the number.1 which is shown geometrically below: (Fig. apart from their role in the growth of mathematical science.

The operation of repeated multiplications corresponds to creation of spaces of larger dimensions. The operation of multiplication of two numbers corresponds to creation of two-dimensional space. that of line. Here is a noteworthy philosophical feature. finding “the root of a number”. 4. A given number basically corresponds to the simplest space. Let us consider the reverse of multiplication. but in the reverse operation of finding a square root we created a new number which is a negative number? What does this all mean for us? A philosophically minded mathematician would say: “Surely. . 3) These examples are given to show that the operation of multiplication of numbers increases the number of dimensions of space. which we call a line.” He would illustrate his point by means of diagrams like (Fig. The simplest root is called square root. As we are living members of a three dimensional space. and it would create its image space of higher dimensions of space. If the numbers are equal. Negative numbers are images of positive numbers. Zero.) The simplest space is a one-dimensional space. (The word dimension should not be confused with size. We thus become conscious of our capabilities and limitations which is an important lesson from mathematics. The simplest example is again 1. These statements are taken as fundamental rules and so we accepted the rule (−1) × (−1) = (+1). the two-dimensional space is called a square. fourth root and so on. (See Fig. When we multiplied 1 with 1. There are also higher roots. Otherwise. The square root of 1 is 1. cube root. we are able to imagine their existence. 0. called an area. because 1 multiplied by 1 equals 1.5 The product 1×1×1 corresponds to a geometrical figure called cube whose edges are taken as one unit. is its own image. the result corresponded to creation of a space of higher dimensions. it is called a rectangle. we created a new number which we can accept as the image of the given number. 4) −1 ITS IMAGE 0 +1 THE NUMBER Fig. But in higher classes we are taught that it has two values. 1 and (−1) also. What is a square root of a given number? The square root of a given number is that number which when multiplied by itself equals the given number. we are able to see the one-dimensional space as well as the two and three-dimensional spaces. Though we cannot see spaces with dimensions larger than three.

i 8 = 1 and so on for higher powers of i. the products of i are defined by the relations: √(−1) = i.and chose i. There is a negative number for every positive number. Mathematicians encountered such questions while solving algebraic equations. and that there exists what is called ZERO. 5) Fig. i3 = −i.6 and explains that (−1) is the image of (+1). because (−1) × (−1) = +1. i4 = 1. Unable to get a meaning of the solutions. Negative numbers also create new space +1 −1 −1 in which. 5. The other constant. We shall discuss more about π later in this lecture. which separates the positive and negative numbers. i × i = (−1) and therefore ( i × i ) × ( i × i ) = +1.etc. and i5 = i. § 2. denoted by the Greek symbol π called Pi. there is square like (+1) × (+1) and also like (−1) × (−1). represented by a symbol “0”.3 .2. One constant is the well-known ratio of the circumference of a circle and its diameter. . the mystery of a negative number was deepened when one asks for the “square root of (−1)”. MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS There are two important mathematical constants which we need to understand. We shall see the importance of the unit of imaginary numbers as we go along. Even a quadratic equation like x2 + x + 1 = 0 leads to solutions x = [−1±√(−3)]/2. i2 = −1. which needs a square root of a negative number. mathematicians decided to accept √(−1) itself as a unit of what they called imaginary numbers. In all the arithmetic operations involving i. This turned out to be very useful. is the limit of a sequence of numbers defined as: e = Limit of [1 +(1/n)]n as n → ∞ (n = 1. +1 However. i6 = −1. i 7 = − i. which is the first letter of the word “imaginary” to represent that unit. denoted by the English letter e. Not only this. . tends to infinitely large values). the negative number allows creation of space of higher dimensions like (Fig. The reflected numbers are put on the left side of “0” with a negative sign. It is like a mirror that creates an image of the right-side numbers. because there is a cyclic property involved in the products of “i" as: i 1 = i.

In the limit n → ∞. when n → ∞. There is a small difference given by +1/n tending to very small values. A∞ represents a space of infinite dimensions. Let us ponder a little at this stage about the philosophical implications of these numbers. According to the rules of multiplication. Hence we will designate the limit e = A ∞ as the outer volume of an infinite dimensioned space with all edges equal to 1. First of all. Thus. In the case of A n . where Bn = {1 − (1/n)}n . Now we shall consider a variation in the definition of e. A1 represents one-dimensional space. It is one of the special skills of a good mathematician that he/she can handle problems involving extremely small and extremely large numbers. there is a condition controlling the small (defined by 1/n) and the large (defined by n) limits..7 Let us look at the individual terms of the sequence. the definitions of An and Bn are such that the size of the unit changes with the . It remains a non-zero number. For this. 3…. For a mathematician. It can be verified that B∞ is the inverse of A∞. The numbers Bn are qualitatively similar to An because they represent spaces of increasing dimensions. represents a space of increasing dimension. It is customary to describe this feature mathematically as 1 + 0+. the edge of the infinitely dimensioned cube is almost but not exactly equal to 1. let us define a new sequence of numbers denoted by the symbol Bn. We shall define them as: An = {1 + (1/n)}n . However. each of the terms in the sequence. A 1. n = 1. A2 and A3 etc. 1/n should not be equated to zero even when n tends to infinitely large values. B∞ = (1/e) = 0. The reason is that as n→ ∞. Suppose there is no such control. (1 − 0− ). ∞. A3 represents three dimensional space and so on. the product A∞ × B∞ = 1. 2. Their numerical values are A∞ = e = 2. As n → ∞. the number 1/n tends to zero but never becomes zero. Following the arguments applicable to A ∞.367879 944….718281827……. for all values of n. n = 1. 0+ is not the same as 0. The suffix to 0 indicates that the limit is reached from the negative side of 0. and therefore. 2. Then 1/n can be equated to zero and A n = 1n =1. however small it may be. A2 represents two-dimensional space. Therefore. 3…. the value of (1 − 1/n) represents the inner side of 1. the number B∞ represents the inner volume of an infinite dimensioned space with all edges equal to 1.

6) Fig. = 1 + z /1 + z2/2! + z3/3! + z4/4! + z5/5! + … . Circle is locus of ‘A’ keeping ‘O’ fixed. That locus is called circumference of the circle. “Is the relation between our external and internal worlds analogous to that of A∞ and B∞? Is there any significance of the mathematical result A∞ × B∞ = 1? We shall come back to these questions again. If we imagine that O is fixed and OA rotates. and OA is called radius of the circle. the point A traces a curve called its locus. while the external volume of an infinite dimensional cube is equal to the inverse of the internal volume of that cube. The change in the size of the unit with the number of dimensions is outside our experience. analogous to the definition of the mathematical constant.8 number of dimensions. is like an image of a city seen in a mirror. However. The curved line is called the circumference. O A In this figure O is called the center. there is still something more we can understand if we accept Vedanta. we are taught that the Universe we are aware of. r = OA. One may ask. as existing outside of us. the change in the unit is almost negligible. n → ∞. called exponential function. In Vedanta. § 3. Our intuition is basically accustomed to finite dimensional world and cannot comprehend the nature of the infinite. though it is not obvious to our intuition. e. just like objects seen in a dream. we arrive at an interesting result that as the number of dimensions increases to infinitely large values. 6. The circumference of a circle is 2 π r. But it is felt as if it is outside due to power of Maya. It is proved by mathematicians that. one can define a function of z. denoted as exp (z). This is a mathematical truth. Actually it is seen inside. MATHEMATICS OF UNIT CIRCLE A circle is defined as a plane figure bounded by a single curved line every point of which is equally distant from the point at the center. These ideas are illustrated in the figure below. as follows: exp (z) = Limit of [1 + (z/n)]n . A mathematician accepts it. for all bounded values of z (not tending to infinity). (See Fig. where. But if admit it as a mathematical possibility.

i5 = i. These definitions are valid for all numbers. i4 = 1. are the trigonometric functions. i3 = −i. 3. and sin θ = θ − θ3/3! + θ5/5! − θ7/7!. It may be noted here for clarity that exp (1) = A∞(1) = e. is measured anti-clockwise from the positive x-axis. a + i b can be represented by a Cartesian coordinate system in which the horizontal axis represents real part. Euler’s equation (Leonhard Euler 1707-1783) exp (2nπ i) = 1 . In general any complex number. real. the geometrical number π. known as. the modulus of exp (iθ). and b = OP sin θ. Since the trigonometric functions are periodic with period 2π.9 In view of the definitions of A∞ and B∞. The quantity √(a2 + b2) is called modulus of the complex number. for all n = 1. it can be shown. i 2 = −1. that exp (iθ) = cos θ + i sin θ. we see an intimate relation between two constants. 7) Fig. using the periodic nature of the powers of i. Definition of angle θ O Q P θ Here. imaginary and complex numbers. Let OP = √(a2 + b2). and the central role of the unit of imaginary numbers i. for all values of angle θ. This is called unit circle. Then. and exp (−iθ) = cos θ − i sin θ where cos θ = 1 − θ2/2! + θ4/4! − θ6/6! …. Similarly. we can rewrite their new form A∞(z) = exp (z) and B∞(−z) = exp (−z). and the mathematical constant e. is equal to 1. a. These can be represented geometrically. denoted as ‌│exp (iθ)│. Therefore. meaning a circle whose radius is 1. let us take z = iθ. and exp( −1) = B∞(−1) = 1/e. we have the equation. 7. and the vertical axis represents imaginary part. ……. and O is the origin of the coordinate system (See Fig. All these results are well . and θ. and so on. b. Then a = OP cos θ. 2.

. as far as the property of circle is concerned. for all n = 1. We shall now take up the Philosophical issues underlying the growth of these mathematical concepts. each of which is a root. n −1. § 4. and so on without any limit. we know that the Hindu system of numerals spread into the West through the Middle East only in the 13th century. ω2 = cos (4π/3) + i sin (4π/3). we get the proof for a negative root of 1. The nature of that possibility should be. . …. p. ωs = cos (2sπ/n) + i sin (2sπ/n). Here. the interval 0 to 2π is the same as that 2π to 4π. 6π to 8π. 1. We denote these roots by ωs. exp (2nπ i) = 1. We shall in fact see that such possibility exists.pp. Now. Revolving as it does about issues of transcendental truth.. Historically. they are: ω0 = 1. In particular for n =3. specified. 4π to 6π. though we are unable to see them individually. s = 1. 3.1 The phrase ‘unit circle’ came into existence in the 18th century. John Allen Paulos. It is given by exp (2sπ i/n) for values of s = 0. One meaning is that a circle repeats itself with a period of 2π without any limit.10 known and they form bulk of mathematics taught in college. √ exp (2π i) = ±exp (2π i/2 ) = ±exp (π i) = ±(− 1). 2. and therefore. we can also admit that there are infinitely large number of circles superposed on each other. 1993. If so.2 The mathematical truth that. 177. etc. Explicitly. This argument allows the possibility that the interval 0 to 2π is not the same as that 2π to 4π. Let us consider the roots of unity. the philosophy of mathematics also has a certain natural resonance with religious thought. 8 . 3. We know that exp (2π i) = 1.9. has two meanings. There will be n solutions. however. we have three roots are called cube roots given by ω0 = 1. numbers were known since times immemorial. … . We shall examine whether the unit circle has any message to us now other than being just a mathematical concept. The other meaning is that. whatever n may be. ω1 = cos (2π/3) + i sin (2π/3). 2. Also. suppose we ask for nth root of 1. They were recited in the Vedic hymns by the sages. PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES OF ROOTS OF UNITY The evolution of mathematics starting from the concept of the number 1 to the unit circle is a long and inscrutable one. provided it is a real integer. and so on. 2. The Mystery of Numbers. Oxford University Press. Beyond Numeracy. 3. 1 2 Annemario Schimmel. n −1.

11 They are located on the circumference of unit circle as shown in Fig. is the fact that the arcs of the circle between successive roots. it is very encouraging to find an independent source of inspiration for that search.8 (See at end). Lord Krishna states that this power is under His control. we can conclude that roots of 1. These results hold good for any number of roots of 1. Daivi hyesha gunamayi mama maya duratyaya mameva ye prapadyante mayametam taranti te. however large the number may be. If the roots are joined to the center of the circle by straight lines. actually produced as many multiples of 2π as the number of roots. ω2 to ω3 . which apparently divided the circumference into equal parts. 2π to 4π and 4π to 6π. the cube roots of 1 are located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle. +1 and the rest of them will be complex. etc correspond to equal ranges of θ from 0 to 2π. § 5. They form an equilateral triangle. The generation of innumerable intervals each of which is a copy of a given interval and superpose all of them on the given interval is a marvelous result. The power underlying the universe is called Maya comprised of three guna-s. Thus 1 remains a root of 1. beginning from ω0 to ω1. They represent a polygon with minimum number of sides inscribed in a circle. ω1 to ω2. In metaphysics. Simply. A string is called guna in Sanskrit. a few comments are in order here. The geometrical importance of the roots of 1. etc. there will be one real root. The cube roots of 1 have a special significance.H Jagadguru Kalyanananda Bharati wrote in his book a number of Aphorisms among which there is one which is of special interest to us. If n is even. Before we go further. . And that is the Aphorism . They actually form an equilateral triangle if joined by straight lines. This brings to our mind the sentence of Lord Krishna “Mayi sarvamidam protam sutremaniganaviva”. Therefore. If n is an odd number. there will be two real roots +1 and −1 and the rest of them being complex. all the n roots of 1 will be vertices of regular polygon with n sides. INQUIRY INTO NATURE OF TIME In the context of searching for a possibility of mathematical truth reflecting metaphysical notions. Here again we see another feature of mathematics echoing metaphysical notions in the language of geometry. H. it is stated that the Nature is composed of three qualities.vrittameeswar. they look like three strings connecting the triangle to the center. Thus. it means a large number of unit circles are reproduced on the unit circle. In general.

both in English and Sanskrit. We recall that the unit circle is given by │exp (iθ)│ = 1. If so. It appeared in the form of what we denoted as the number θ. or in opposite direction. we did not encounter continuum explicitly at least. it is instructive to examine the exponential functions defined in A∞(iθ) = exp(iθ) and B∞(−iθ) = exp(− iθ). Let us remember that A∞ and B∞ correspond respectively to outer and inner volumes of infinite dimensional cube. identified as angle. the variable n. Jnanam and Anantam Brahma. In our analysis. However. Sri Srungeri Virupaksha Sree Peetham. and identify θ Jagadguru Sri Kalyanananda Bharati.12 which. we can interpret the change in the sign of θ as indicating a measurement of the angle either in clockwise direction. PurΝ]µΩµ∫}σ⊕δ⌡ρξ]ν]∴. is a discreet one which tends to infinitely large values. Among the three words. 1929 3 . means “Circle is God”. but we shall accept this Aphorism as it is and see its meaning in the light of the properties of a circle We accept the metaphysical meaning of the word God as expressed in the words Satyam. which is continuous and which can assume any value without any limit. we can accept this property as a correspondence between the internal and external sides of the infinite dimensional cube. there is also another aspect of Time which we can take into consideration. We shall try to understand these two aspects in terms of the properties of A∞ and B∞. Using these two numbers we could define the unit circle. translated literally. We do not know how to measure a decrease of Time. We have some experience of Time as past Time and future Time. But. If the variable θ is understood to be an angle. But. we face some difficulties though we are familiar with periodic phenomenon of rising sun and setting sun. And so. Guntur. In our previous discussions.3 He gave an extensive commentary on His Aphorisms. or a continuum that exists as an indivisible entity. either as a discrete infinity of numbers. we can extend the correspondence of outer and inner regions to the future and past nature of Time. where we see that increasing values of θ in A∞ correspond to decreasing values of θ in B ∞. Anantam comes closer to mathematics than the other two. A∞ and B∞ correspond respectively to the external and internal volumes of infinite dimensional unit cube. if we assume that θ corresponds to Time. The reason is that the mathematical discipline has the ability to handle Anantam.

Hence it is not absolute. what appears to be a small detail can be magnified in order to make it visible. What exists is only Unity. if we imagine that the unit circle is sufficiently enlarged. In this case. And so. But in its absence. In other words. But. the circumference appears locally like a straight line.13 as Time. the unit circle is the ETERNAL WITNESS OF TIME. (leaving aside the debate about the nature of time in philosophy) 4. Nature of Past and Future in relation to Eternal Being Implications of this result are interesting. that the properties of circle do not vary with the size of the circle. Time is a power controlling all the transient universe. Thus. swagunaih nigudham. As conscious individuals we are aware of future and past in a limited manner restricted by higher powers. It may be realized at this stage that the whole concept of time is intimately dependent on the existence of iθ. 9) Conscious Being Time (Future) Unit Circle (Eternal) Time (Past) Fig.Sri Satguru Publ.1992. Hari Shankar Prasad. 4 That is the Absolute EKAMEVA ADVITIYAM NA IHA NANASTI KINCHANA. Delhi. If we follow the Aphorism vrittameeswar. . Time is Unit Circle Ruth Reyna Metaphysics of Time in Indian Philosophy and its Relevance to Particle Science. When Lord Krishna declared that He knew all His previous incarnations. Nor can we ignore the doctrine of destiny which says that. “You reap as you sow”. IT IS ITSELF TIMELESS. pp723-734. we arrive at the conclusion: FUTURE TIME AND PAST TIME ARE INSEPARABLY CONNECTED TO GOD AS HIS EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR. Ed. It is called Devatma Sakti.e. if a circle is magnified. 9. but it has its ‘seat’ on A∞ and B∞ . Article in Time in Indian Philosophy. an eternal individual who is conscious of time. i. in the absence of Time. and Unit Circle is Time. can see clearly the unchanging straight line and pair of immediate neighborhoods that correspond to the future and the past. Publ. the imaginary number. We arrive at the conclusion that what appears as the past to the exterior of the infinite dimensional cube is the future of the interior of it. we cannot dismiss it as a fiction. What this means is. We can further illustrate this concept utilizing the principle of invariance of mathematical truth with change of scale. the future and past are inseparably connected to the infinite dimensional cube. there is no unit circle either. as indicated below: (Fig. Following this logic.

§ 6. Chaturvyuga. Chaturatma. In summary. and are called empirical truths in English. Each one has the same knowledge and hence there is no ignorance for either of them. we noted that the three roots of unity correspond to three vertices of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the unit circle. Maya’s power is felt in the empirical world as Time. Then. They are like the four Sandhyas of a day. They are like identical twins indistinguishable from each other. called the morning. the circumference is divided into three equal parts. Though the circle appears to be divided into two semicircles. Chaturbahu. Situations like this are classified as Mithya or Vyavaharika Satta in Sanskrit. the mathematical constant e is the Space of infinite dimensions. 10) The As before. i . In duality each member of the diad is equal to the whole. it is not so in reality. and Chturvedavid etc. and iθ is the infinite Time. Let us assume we draw a circle taking one side of the inscribed equilateral triangle as diameter (call it secondary circle to distinguish it from the unit circle). the circle so drawn and the unit circle intersect outside the triangle making together a geometrical figure like crescent. In that case. Chaturgatih. It is seen and therefore it is not false. Time is the inscrutable Maya endowed with the twin attributes of Avarana and Vikshepa The fact that Maya is described in Vedanta as anirvachaneeya is due to the fact that it is not in the domain of real numbers but is the domain of imaginary numbers. both together make up the stage for universe of multiplicity. we saw that each half is equal to whole circle. It is an apparent division. −1. and − i. . evening and midnight. each of which corresponds to the whole circle. Both semicircles have the same diameter and also identical individually to the original circle. If we now consider a case of cube root. (See Fig. INQUIRY INTO NATURE OF MITHYA AND AVIDYA The operation of finding the roots of 1 resulted in the creation of a new numbers.14 The four roots of 1 are 1. But there is one additional feature in this case. That is the unit circle. noon. We can imagine the following is done. But. But it also corresponds to dividing unit circle into equal parts. the division of a circle into two semicircles is not a real division like cutting an apple into two halves. square root of 1 corresponds to dividing circle into two parts. For example. which is also called a lune. The Supreme is described as Chaturmurti. periodic phenomena.

The crescent is formed jointly by the arc of unit circle and the secondary circle. geometry which relies on our visual capability has the skill to bring to our consciousness the transcendental truth. this essay started with the prayer ϖ≥ ]ϖψ⊕σ⊕ιϖ∫}ϖ] σ]∴π≥ Ο ϖ≥ ]ϖψ]]σ] π ιτ∫}π] ]ψ◊ ϕ]γ]τ ιπ]τ]ρΟ ϖ]νδε ξ⊕ρ⌡δ↑χ]ν♦ ⌡µλ∅ξϖ]ρΟ || ϖ≥ ]ϖψ⊕σ⊕ιϖ∫}ϖ] σ]∴π≥ Ο ϖ≥ ]ϖψ]]σ] π ιτ∫}π] ]ψ◊ ϕ]γ]τ ιπ]τ]ρΟ ϖ]νδε ξ⊕ρ⌡δ↑χ]ν♦⌡µλ∅ξϖ]ρΟ || In this prayer. This need exists in all cases corresponding to the roots equal to three or larger than three. the Transcendental Divine Pair is compared to the Diad of Circle and Diameter. There is no Avidya in the diad. The nature of Avidya is the unawareness of the presence of arc of the unit circle. An individualised consciousness identified with the secondary circle would not be aware of the presence of the basis on which the secondary circle existed. Actually we cannot say we understand what a diameter of circle is and whether there is point common to them. Avidya is not total ignorance. But as a matter of mathematical truth. The relation between a spoken word and its meaning was used by the great poet Kalidasa in his prayer to the Inseparable Divine Pair. It is well known fact that the Theistic Philosophy considers the Almighty as Inseparable Divine Pair. This pair is not like anything we know of in this world. But we are so sure of their inseparable existence. the arcs made by the cube roots of 1 are all identical to the unit circle. To illustrate the Transcendental Nature of that Divine Pair in mathematical language. It may be translated as Incomplete Knowledge. This deficiency is rectified by the right knowledge.15 secondary circle is not identical to the unit circle. The fundamental faith of this essay is that the Empirical and the Absolute coexist in our consciousness. However. Therefore. the first manifestation of Avidya is in the triad. It is the ignorance of one’s own basis. Such is the realm of transcendence. § 7 CONCLUSION . This lack of awareness (or ignorance) of the basis is called Avidya in Sanskrit. whether we know it or not. Hence.

purpose.S. we impoverish ourselves needlessly and empower others excessively.6 The chief source of inspiration for this effort came from the Aphorisms of H. . Beyond Numeracy. 177 For further discussion of the role of Mathematics in Metaphysics. To bring out the relation between the Empirical and the Absolute. Seed Syllables. the Jagadguru wrote an invocation. and story telling in it as it has calculation and formulas. Motilalal Banarsidass. ψ]ισµ]}ινϖ]ϖ]τ]∗∴ π]δ⌡β∅ϕ]σ]∴Κ]/ψ⊕ ρεΚ⊕µ]ψ]∴ ιϖ] ϖ]µ]ν]ντ]Β◊δ⌡µ∫/ | τ]τ∫/ β ℵ⌡ πΝ]∗∴ π]ρ⌡µ]ι♥⌡τ∅ψ]∴ ιϖ]#⊕ν]µ⊕ν]νδ⌡ Γ]ν]∴ ν]µ⊕ιµ] || ψ]ισµ}ινϖωϖ]ρτ]∗∴ π]δ⌡β∅ϕ]σ]∴Κ]/ψ⊕ ρεΚ⊕µ]ψ]∴ ιϖ] ϖ]µ]ν]ντ]Β◊δ⌡∴∫/ | τ]τ∫/ β ℵ⌡ πΝ]∗∴ π]ρ⌡µ]ι♥⌡τ∅ψ]∴ ιϖ]#⊕ν]µ⊕ν]νδ⌡ Γ]ν]∴ ν]µ⊕ιµω || Η ξ⊕ιντω: ξ⊕ιντω: ξ⊕ιντω: 5 6 John Allen Paulos. a task admirably initiated in the Upanishads. He wrote π]δ⌡β∅ϕ]σ]∴Κψ⊕ρεΚ⊕Ν⊕µ∂ ]ρο ]ρ⌡∴ ∴ β]λ∅ψ]: . its potential is not restricted to that activity only. This essay does not claim to have solved all riddles.Murty.” This statement puts Geometry as the most useful mathematical science. reference may be made to G. Numbers. Though it is true that mathematics was initially a tool for material needs. each succeeding one is superior to the former. whose approach to mathematics is largely influenced by the world in which he/she lives.H Jagadguru Kalyanananda Bharati. We already referred to one Aphorism of H. ‘Mathematics has just as much narrative. If we fail to see this and remain ignorant of mathematics but blindly reverent toward its techniques. There is another which states the status of geometry for philosophical knowledge. Jagadguru Kalyanananda Bharati. quoting which this essay comes to an end. Paratattvaganitadarsanam.H. which broadly means that “Among the four means (of knowledge) comprising of Words. Delhi.16 The nature of mathematics is not a fixed property.’ 5 We attempted to understand some metaphysical concepts on the basis of mathematical knowledge. It changes with the way it originates and used by a conscious individual. p. and Lines. It utilizes all of our faculties simultaneously and therefore enhances the scope of comprehending transcendental truths which otherwise remain obscure and incoherent. It is a modest attempt to extend the scope of comprehending ourselves.

6π . 1 THREE PILLARS OF CIVILIZATION OF THE WORLD THINK ABOUT THINGS OF 1 PHILOSOPHY THE WORLD & UNIVERS E LIVE IN RELIGION 2 3 WORK WITH THINGS OF SCIENCE Fig.4π ω0 ω2 4π . 8 Location of CUBE ROOTS OF exp (2πi ) On the circumference of Unit Circle ω1 0 .17 Fig.2π 2π .

Avidya is that state of knowledge of the crescent. G. Illustration of Avidya: A circle. Knowledge of arc of thick line alone. Taking one side as diameter. The triangle has no existence without the circle in thin line. The crescent has no existence without the triangle. a new circle is drawn in thick line.18 Fig. is designated as Avidya. 2005 . 10.Murty Hyderabad April 28. The two circles make up a crescent-shaped figure called lune outside the triangle. has an inscribed equilateral triangle. unaware of the existence of the arc in thin line and the existence of an equilateral triangle. in thin line.S.