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Hypothalamus o Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Cells of Origin: Paraventricular Chemical Structure Peptide of 3 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates secretion of TSH by thyrotropes What evokes or suppresses its secretion: Stimulated by cold. Inhibited by excitation of Sympathetic NS (stress), TRH receptor binding causes PLC activation, and Secretion of TSH by thyrotropes o Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Cells of Origin Arcuate Chemical Structure: Single chain of 10 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates secretion of FSH and LH by gonadotropes What evokes or suppresses its secretion. o Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Cells of Origin Paraventricular Chemical Structure: Single chain of 41 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates secretion of ACTH by corticotropes What evokes or suppresses its secretion o Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Cells of Origin: Arcuate Chemical Structure: Polypeptide composed of 44 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates the secretion of growth hormone by sornatotropes What evokes or suppresses its secretion o Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (somatosiatin) Cells of Origin: Anterior paraventricular Chemical Structure. Polypeptide composed of 14 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: Inhibits the secretion of growth hormone by somatotropes • What evokes or suppresses its secretion: o Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) (dopamine) Cells of Origin: Arcuate Chemical Structure: Dopamine (a catecholamine)
What evokes or suppresses its secretion: o Paraventricular Nucleus TRH CRH o Anterior Paraventricular GHIH (Somatostatin) o Arcuate Nucleus GnRH GHRH PIH (dopamine) .
T4 . and androgens by the adrenal cortex. Peptide Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates testosterone synthesis in leydig cells of testes. Glycoprotein of two subunits. alpha (89 amino acids) and beta (112 amino acids) Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates the. alpha (89 amino acids) and beta (112 amino acids) Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates production of thyroid hormones. Single chain of 191 ammo acids Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates postnatal body growth. proliferation of oligodendrocytes precursor cell. stimulates trielyceride lipolysis. Single chain 39 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates production of glucocorticoids. Glycoprotein of two subunits. maintains size of follicular cells What evokes or suppresses its secretion: TRH o ACTH Cells of Origin: Corticotropes Chemical Structure: PEPTIDE.development of ovarian follicle. fills breast with milk. by thyroid follicular cells. 200 amino acids.and T3. regulates spermatogenesis in the testis What evokes or suppresses its secretion: o LH Cells of Origin: Gonadotropes Chemical Structure. stimulates ovulation. formation of corpus luteum. Anterior Pituitary o Growth Hormone Cells of Origin: Somatotropes Chemical Structure: PEPTIDE. maintains size of Zona Fasciculata and Zona Reticularis of cortex What evokes or suppresses its secretion: 20% of the anterior pituitary 412) cells are corticotropes that secrete ACTH o Prolactin Cells of Origin: Leuteotrope Chemical Structure: peptide. bound to cell membrane. and estrogen and progesterone synthesis in the ovaries . cause of sexual refractory period stimulates milk production What evokes or suppresses its secretion: infant suckling produces oxytocin "milk-let down" reflex. stored in cytoplasm Main Physiological Actions: promote mammary gland development. inhibits actions of insulin on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism What evokes or suppresses its secretion: GHRH o TSH Cells of Origin: Thyrotropes Chemical Structure: PEPTIDE. stimulates secretion of IGF-1. intrinsic bursts of hormone Dopamine inhibits secretion Thyrotropin-releasing factor stimulates prolactin release VIP and peptide histidine isoleucine regulate secretion of prolactin o Too much=hyperprolactinaemia o Too little=hypoprolactinaemia o FSH Cells of Origin: Gonaditropes Chemical Structure: PEPTIDE.
Plasma concentration increases during labor • In Lactation . and Barbiturates o Oxytocin Cells of Origin: Paraventricular Nuclei (primarily) Chemical Structure: Peptide Bound to carrier proteins called neurophysins Contains 9 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: Stimulates milk ejections from the breasts and uterine contractions What evokes or suppresses it secretion: In Birth .Suckling stimulates sensory neurons in PVN and SON Oxytocin Feedback loop . Posterior Pituitary o Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) (vasopressin) Cells of Origin: primarily formed in the Supraoptic Nuclei Chemical Structure. Morphine. peptide o bound to carrier proteins called neurophysins o 9 amino acids Main Physiological Actions: increase water reabsorbtion by the kidneys and cause vasoconstriction and increase blood pressure VI Receptor: smooth muscles. increased blood pressure V2 Receptor: responsible for ADH What evokes or suppresses its secretion: most important controller is extracellular Osmolarity o Increase plasma Osmolarity large increase in ADH Baroreceptor (blood pressure) and Cardiopulmonary blood volume) o Increase blood pressure decrease ADH o Decrease—blood pressure/volume increase ADH Stimulates ADH secretion Pain Nausea/Vomiting Drugs: Nicotine.
Thyroid o Thyroxin (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) Cells of Origin: The thyroid cells secrete thyroglobulin which is a large glycoprotein molecule in which T4 and T3 are synthesized Chemical Structure: T4 is composed of two Diiodotyrosine molecules T3 is composed of a Monoiodotyrosine molecule and a Diiodotyrosine molecule Majority of the hormone made is T4. but weaker heart. Causes menorrhagia and plymenorrhea (excessive and frequent menstrual bleeding) For a long period of time with Thyroid hormone causes a larger. but T4 is converted to T3 in the tissues because T3 is much more potent. Loss of libido in men and women 2. Does not increase blood pressure . but also increases the need of the tissues for the hormone Impotence in men T3 & T4 Glucogenesis Glycogenesis Normal [glucose] Synthesis Proteolysis Lipogenesis Lipolysis Serum [cholesterol] Parameter Basal Metabolic Rate Carbohydrate Metabolism Protein Metabolism Lipid Metabolism Thermogenesis Effects on cardiovascular system CNS Muscles Sleep Endocrine glands Depressed Always wants to sleep Sexual Function 1. 99% of T4 is bound to Thyroxin binding globulin when in plasma Main Physiological Actions: T3 & T4 Glucogenesis Glycogenesis Normal [glucose] Synthesis Proteolysis Muscle wasting Lipogenesis Lipolysis Serum [cholesterol] Blood flow and cardiac output Heart rate Heart Strength Excitatory Weakens muscles Difficult to sleep Increases the rates of secretion of several other glands.
60% bound to plasma protein Main Physiological Actions: Increases renal sodium reabsorption. and hydrogen ion secretion Aldosterone o ECF volume o MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure) o Hypokalemia and muscle weakness .A.A. Also has anti-inflammatory effects. transport into other cells What evokes or suppresses its secretion: Stress Inflammation ACTH (Draw feedback loop for inflammation) o Aldosterone Cells of Origin: Zona glomerulosa Chemical Structure: Steroid. What evokes or suppresses its secretion: It is evoked by the secretion of TSH by the anterior pituitary o Calcitonin Cells of Origin: Thyroid C Cells (parafollicular cells of thyroid) Chemical Structure: Peptide Main Physiological Actions: Promotes deposition of calcium in bones and decreases extracellular fluid calcium ion concentration. potassium secretion. transport into hepatocytes o A. Carbohydrate Metabolism o Gluconeogenesis in line o Glucose utilization by cells o Insulin sensitivity when cortisol is high Fat Metabolism o Lipolysis o FA oxidation in tissues o Cortisol fat deposition in head and chest “moon face” Protein Metabolism o Protein metabolism (except liver) o Protein synthesis o Synthesis of liver and plasma proteins o A. Activity of osteoclasts (rapid effect) Formation of new osteoclasts (prolonged effect) Minor effect on kidneys and intestines What evokes or suppresses its secretion: Extracellular fluid calcium ion concentration (>10% above normal) Calcitonin secretion Adrenal Cortex o Cortisol Cells of Origin: Zona fasciculata Chemical Structure: Steroid Main Physiological Actions: Has multiple functions for fats.
in ECF o ECF volume circulatory shock and death o Hyperkalemia (too much K+ in plasma) o Diarrhea What evokes or suppresses its secretion: K+ ANG II (Draw feedback loops) Adrenal Medulla o Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Cells of Origin: Chemical Structure: Catecholamine Main Physiological Actions: Perversion of energy for emergencies and exercise Effect on Blood Glucose: o Glycogenesis o Gluconeogenesis o Insulin secretion o Glucagon secretion Effect on blood fatty acid o Lipolysis Effect on blood amino acids o No effect Effect on muscle protein o No effect What evokes or suppresses its secretion: Sympathetic stimulation during stress or exercise Pancreas o Insulin ( cells) Cells of Origin: Islet of Langerhans (Beta Cells) Chemical Structure: Main Physiological Actions: Primary regulator of absorptive and post absorptive cycles Effect on blood glucose o Glucose uptake o Glycogenesis o Glycogenolysis o Gluconeogenesis Effects on blood fatty acids: o Triglycerides o Lipolysis Effects on blood amino acids o Amino acid uptake Effect on muscle protein o Protein synthesis o Protein degradation .excretion in urine Na+ and Cl. o H+ secretion mild alkalosis Aldosterone o Na+ and Cl.
protection against hypoglycemia Effect on blood glucose: o Glycogenolysis o Gluconeogenesis o Glycogenesis Effect on blood fatty acids: o Lipolysis o Triglyceride synthesis Effect on blood amino acids: o No effect Effect on muscle protein: o No effect What evokes or suppresses its secretion: Blood glucose Blood amino acids .What evokes or suppresses its secretion: o Blood glucose o Blood amino acids o Glucagon ( -cells ) Cells of Origin: Islet of Langerhans (Alpha cells) Chemical Structure: Main Physiological Actions Primary regulator of absorptive and post absorptive cycles in concert with insulin.