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BEST MINING PRACTICES

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MEANING
Utmost feeling of respect and gratitude (Shradhaa & Aabhaar) is to be exercised while exploiting
wood

(Kaashthaa), stone (Paashaan) metal (Dhaatu) In the same way as if, it is divine blessing and offering (Prasaadaa) of LORD VISHNU .

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Aims

at meeting the needs of present generation without adversely affecting its availability for future Rate of depletion of non-renewable resources should be judicious. Minimum adverse impact to the environment Maintaining equilibrium in ecosystem.

SALIENT FEATURES OF MINING


PROSPECTING & EXPLORATION MINE DEVELOPMENT WASTE DISPOSAL DRAINAGE TRANSPORT END USE OF MINERAL PRODUCED BENIFICIATION PRACTICE SITE SRVICES ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT POST MINING LAND USE

PROSPECTING & EXPLORATION


It is the most important exercise, to be carried out very faithfully because entire fate of future lies up-on this

PROSPECTING vs. EXPLORATION

Prospecting is premining stage operation mainly confines to establishing sufficient evidence of mineral occurrence in respect of shape, size, quantity, quality & economics

It

is a dynamic process & continues during subsistence of mining period. It is expected it should lead ahead of mining operation for consistent updating the mineral reserve

It should includes
Identification of various litho-units occurring in & around the proposed mining site Establishing sufficient evidence of mineral occurrence in respect of shape, size, quantity, quality & economics Correct assessment of geo-technical properties of rock mass including their toxic values.

CONCEPTUAL MINING PLAN


Long-term

Perspective view of mining Time frame for assessing the true potentiality of area Visualization & determination of ultimate pit limit Waste disposal management Post-mining land use Ensuing mining operation are part of it.

MINE DEVELOPMENT
Selection of mining method correctly Opencast Underground Mixed

Mode of Mining

Mechanized Semi-mechanized Manual Conventional Non-conventional

OPEN CAST MINING


Precise

assessment of optimum stripping ratio for amenability by open pit mining Determination of ultimate pit limit precisely in advance Separate removal of top soil, minewaste. Advance removal of waste to avoid any possibility of interruption in work or ore dilution/contamination

OPEN CAST MINING continued.


Proper

laying of mine faces for winning of different grades simultaneously to ensure judicious blending of ROM Aiming to mine up to optimum depth Minimum mineral loss Safe, secure & energy saving haul road

UNDERGROUND MINES
1.

Selection & location proper mode of entry & exit i.e. Vertical shaft Inclined Shaft Decline/Ramp Auxiliary/staple/ventilation shaft System of winding & access

UNDERGROUND MINES continued


2.

Selection of proper method of work in relation toOptimum recovery Geotechnical properties of ore & wall rocks Adequate size of openings, blocks, pillars etc & long-term sustainability. Complete width of ore body is to be worked Least surface damage

MINERAL CONSERVATION
Waste should not be allowed to mixed with nonsaleable fraction. Ground selected for waste disposal is to be proven for mineral occurrence and should be away from ultimate pit limit. Separate stacking of sub-grade mineral Judicious blending by different combination In case of underground mine, subgrade mineral is to be brought to the surface.

BENIFICIATION OPERATION
All

attempts are to be made for upgradation of low-grade mineral to make it saleable fraction. Beneficiation Investigation are to be carried out Regular analysis of feed, product & tailings

PLANT & MACHINARY


Selection of matching machinery to the mine design parameters & local conditions. Optimum utilization Time & motion study Least waiting/idle time

PLANT & MACHINARY continue..


Energy

saving & conformity to emission standards Attenuation of noise at the source itself Dust suppression at the source of generation Planned preventive maintenance Minimum re-handling

BLASTING
Proper

Blast design Optimum utilization of blast energy Desired fragmentation Neither under break nor over break Least ground vibration Least air blast Least fly rock Least nuisance attracting public annoyance Regular scientific investigation

BLASTING continued..
In case of public annoyance against the blasting, ORGANIZATIONS should not hesitate in exploring the possible & effective use of nonexplosive techniques e.g. Use of rock breaker Deployment of surface miner etc.

SOLID WASTES GENERATED


MINE WASTES Large in quantity Mostly inert Large in size- Solids

MILL/PLANT WASTE Less in quantity Can be toxic Fine particlesSlurry


Represents in-situ

Altered Product

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
Leaching

& wash off - heavy metals & toxic elements -acid mine drainage Dust pollution with toxic metals Phyto-accumulation of heavy metals Effect on vegetation & aquatic ecosystem, Entry into food chain Effect on landscape

WASTE DUMP DESIGN


Height, area & shape with regard to the area available, topography & vegetation. Avoid Proliferation of dumps. Surfaces should be stable & resist long term erosion. Peripheral dumping, with simultaneous afforestation. Toxic waste dumps to be contoured and/or sealed to minimize water penetration. Potentially acid forming material to be sealed by inactive waste that has a buffering capacity.

WASTE DUMP DESIGN


Construction

rainfalls. Topsoil scraped out from dumpsite in advance, to be preserved, spread over surface & re-vegetated. Provision of garland drains surrounding the dumps Provision of Retaining walls/Toe walls. Completed overall out-slopes do not exceed 20o Provision of benches/berms.

of drainage to handle heavy

DUMP INSTABILITIES
Long-term instability
REASON Due to saturation with water & reduction in strength of material due to water action. SOLUTION Growth of permanent vegetation over dump surface & establishment of proper drainage

DUMP INSTABILITIES
short-term instability
REASON
poor material strength, improper heights & slope angles. Long unbroken slopes produce rill & gully erosion
SOLUTION benches, of heights not more than 10 to 15 m, with min. berm width of 4 m. Berm to have gentle slope, say 0.5%, towards highwall side, with toe wall along periphery of dump.

Estimated relationship between the angle of dump slope and soil erosion & efficiency of revegetation

VARIOUS TYPE OF DUMPS

Management of Waste Dumps Physical Stability

ISSUES
Steep

slopes Unstable surfaces Erosion Drainage Dust Generation Hazardous waste Control

Management of Waste Dumps Physical Stability


Control Methods

Site selection Peripheral dumping, Retaining walls/Toe walls Internal drains & garland drain Gentle slopes & heights Berms, with rock-lined drains Cover & secure containment of hazardous waste, Cap with soil Settling ponds Vegetation along slopes Green barriers

Management of Waste Dumps Chemical Stability


Issues
Metal

leaching Seepage Acid drainage Contaminants Effects on surface and groundwater Dump design

Management of Waste Dumps Chemical Stability


Control Methods Analyze the samples Isolation of reactive material No deterioration in groundwater Cap/enclose toxic material with inert & impervious material Control surface drainage & runoff Collect and treat effluent Cap with topsoil & vegetate Effective water management Monitor

Management of Waste Dumps Land-use


Issues Productivity Visual impacts Restore to original or accepted alternative use Establish land drainage
Control Methods Marketing/reuse of waste Back-filling Avoid dump proliferation Design for minimum area Re-contour Establish vegetation Landscaping

Management of Waste Dumps Biological Stability


Issues

Control Methods

Re-vegetation Bio-diversity Survival of vegetation Phyto-accumulation of toxic & heavy metals Entry of toxic & heavy metals into food chain Development of selfsustaining plant community Forestry

Soil Fertilization/stabilization Planting leguminous plants Draught resistant species Selection of Phytoresistant species. Successful re-vegetation with indigenous plants Protection for animal grazing Monitoring for soil quality Congenial environment for wildlife, with fodder &

water

TOP-SOIL MANAGEMENT
Recovery is essential for rehabilitation work. Sooner it is reused the better the results will be.
Soil Stacks: Low heights, Should not get washed off Leguminous plants are to be cultivated In areas of poor soils, nutrient levels is low Fertilizer application is soil cheaper than soil stabilizers Single application will suffice in all areas except those prone to high soil leaching - eg over tailings

TAILING IMPOUNDMENT
Design requirements of dam & impoundment: Impoundment to be competent to support Not to be located in recharge zone, establishing hydraulic with aquifer Relatively impervious, otherwise an impervious layer/dyke to be provided at bottom. Foundation soil of the dam & the dam it self be competent to support & relatively impervious, otherwise internal drainage to be provided in side the dam. Dam should have stable slopes- downstream slopes 1:3

Design requirements of dam & impoundment


Adequate

provided. As much as water must be re-cycled Conduits from decant towers passing below the dam be avoided. A floating or moveable pump hose located on the shore is better for water reclamation. At each stage, dam raising should be fast to stay ahead of the rising tailings in the pond.

drainage features to be

Management of Tailing Impoundment Physical Stability


Issues Dam wall stability & foundation Dust generation Erosion & Sediment deposit Dam drainage & Seepage Control on Phreatic line Overtopping of dam Earthquakes Access and security

Control Methods Site capacity & impervious Dam erected by competent rock Spillway/Adequate freeboard 1m Decant towers or floating pump Diversion of runoff to out side Stage-wise raising to be fast Tailing disposal Downstream Construction Final re-profile, Instrumentation Cap with soil & vegetate Plug intakes & decants

Management of Tailing Impoundment Chemical Stability


Issues Changes in tailings geochemistry Metal leaching Acid drainage Mill reagents Dam structure Groundwaterseepage effect past the dam & from impoundment base Surface water management

Control Methods Leaching tests Non-reactive material in dam wall Impervious layersseepage Establish drainage within dam Control reactions Divert run-offl Collect and treat effluent Acceptable water quality in downstream Monitor

Management of Tailing Impoundment land- use


Issues

Control Methods

Productivity Visual impacts Restore to accepted alternative use

Re-contour to mach surrounding landscape Provide soil capping Provide sedimentation tank Establish vegetation

Management of Tailing Impoundment Biological Stability


Re-vegetation Bio-diversity Survival of vegetation growth Phyto-accumulation of toxic & heavy metals Entry of toxic & heavy metals into food chain

Issues

Control Methods

Soil stabilization Planting leguminous plants Indigenous species Draught resistant species Selection of species resistant to phyto-accumulation & concentration of toxic elements Protection of re-vegetated area against animal grazing Monitoring for soil quality & for phyto-accumulation

WATER QUALITY
Quantitative & Qualitative studies, for Surface & Ground Water characteristics Available Site Water Sources Catchments area Water Management & upstream pollution sources Maximum & Lean Rainfall Runoff rate at Peak Rainfall Potable Water Supply Sources, Quality & Quantity Domestic & Process Waste Water discharge Discharge points, Quality & Quantity

WATER BALANCE AT SITE


Lean season water availability Source tapped with competing users (River, Lake, Ground, Public supply) Changes observed in quality & quantity of ground water present recharging & extraction details. Quantum of surface waste water to be released with treatment details Quantum of quality of water in receiving body, before & after disposal of waste /effluent Quantum of waste/effluent water released on land & type of land

Water balance diagram


Schematic diagram linking up flow of water to & from the facilities, showing water supply source (s), water discharge points), evaporation areas & potential seepage points, with step wise indication of flow rates, in cum/day & quality, into & out of facility

Management of Water Quality Physical Stability


Issues Erosion, wash-off & sediment deposit Blockage in natural flow Sewage & effluent treatment plants & sludge Discharge of drainage Structural Safety & flood capacity Intrusion of sea water Water balance, recharge

Control Methods

Remove/restore unwanted structures, Fill in ditches Plug intakes & decants Upgrade flood design Reinstall pre-mining drainage Dispose plants & plant sludge Install check dams/settling pond Develop re-charge wells/holes Re-vegetate Install pre-mining water balance for mine area

Management of Water Quality Chemical Stability


Issues

Control Methods

Contamination of surface and /or groundwater with Acid drainage Leaching of toxic metals

Prevent/remove contamination of surface &groundwater with: -Acid drainage -Leaching of toxic metals Install new settling ponds Erect stopping or flood the pit Drainage - treat & discharge Install barriers/grout curtains Establish phyto-accumulant vegetation Monitor

Management of Water Quality land-use


Issues

Control Methods

Interruption of water supply in catchment area Productivity of land drainage Sediment deposition (Nalla sediments) Return to appropriate land use

Avoid interruption of water supply Establish erosionresistant drainage Restore drainage patterns or establish effective alternatives Install retaining walls Stabilize and maintain dam or breach Establish vegetation Establish effective rehabilitation

Management of Air Quality Physical & Chemical Stability & Land-use


Issues Wind Erosion Effect on vegetation Pollution of air with toxic substance Contamination of surface Productivity of land Control Methods

Cap toxic & hazardous waste Remove or prevent contamination Land fill & capping Establish vegetation Develop thick green barriers Monitor Establish erosionresistant Structures Return to appropriate land use or establish alternatives

Monitoring of Water & Air Quality


To

demonstrate remedial/ restoration work is successful. To meet closure objectives & performance criteria. To compare results with earlier monitoring data. Monitoring for dry season, as per IBM/MoEF norms. Climactic data also to be coupled

RECLAMATION & REHABILITATION


Creation of adequate green belt in and around mining lease area It gives a green curtain is to be set against all scars i.e. excavation, dumps etc and improves aesthetic sense of the area It effectively arrests all the dust generated from mines It effectively attenuate unpleasant noise Lessens the adverse effect of green house gas emission

RECLAMATION & REHABILITATION continued.


Incase of availability of mine waste, voids are to be filled back & efforts are to be made to bring them near original shape Incase of partial availability of waste, possibility of part reclamation is to be thought. Remaining voids can be converted as water reservoir

RECLAMATION & REHABILITATION continued.


Possibility of filling by fly ash or other waste material available nearby is also to be thought but a prior study thereof is also to be undertaken for any apprehended adverse impact on water regime In case of shallow excavations, quarry floor plantation is to be undertaken along with adequate drainage arrangement

RECLAMATION & REHABILITATION continued.


Incase of arid region like Rajasthan & Gujarat converting the pits as water reservoir is best post mining land use. But its slope should be adequate & should also act as shield against drowning. Incase of hilly terrain dense plantation is to be undertaken on finalized bench.

Mankind should learn the correct egkHkkjr way of enjoying the natural wealth from the Honeybee as they continue to collect Honey from the flowers without causing any detrimental impact or deformation to the natures beautiful gifts.

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HONEY BEE & FLOWER