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# Chapter 2

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Forces And Motion

11

Momentum
Definition Momentum = Mass × Velocity p = mv

The Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum
For a system of colliding objects along a straight line, the total momentum before collision is equal to the total momentum after collision, provided that no external force acts on the system.

m1

u1

m2

u2

m1

v1

m2 v2

Before collision

After collision

Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 v1 + m2 v2

Examples And Applications
mu = mv 2mu = 2mv

mu

mv

2mu

2mv

Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision
Exhaust gas Balloon Moving forwards

Total momentum before explosion = Total momentum after explosion = Zero

Backward = Forward momentum momentum Question Object P of mass 6 kg moves horizontally with velocity 6 m s−1 and collides with object Q of mass 2 kg, moving with velocity 4 m s−1 in the same direction. After collision, the velocity of object P is 4 m s−1. What is the velocity of object Q?

Downward = Upward momentum momentum

Solution m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 v1 + m2 v2 6 × 6 + 2 × 4 = 6 × 4 + 2v2 Velocity of object Q, v2 = 10 m s−1

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