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# Chapter 2

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Forces And Motion

12

The Effects Of A Force
A force acting on an object can change its • speed • shape • direction • size • Frictional force • Mechanical force • Nuclear force

Types of force

• Gravitational force • Electrical force • Magnetic force

Balanced Forces
upwards on the person.

Unbalanced Forces
table/book surfaces exerts a leftward force upon the R rightward-moving book.

The forces on the person are balanced. The forces acting on the book are not balanced. R The floor pushes The friction between the
The table pushes upwards on the book.

mg = R
Gravity pulls downwards on the person.

F

mg

mg = R

Gravity pulls mg downwards on the book.

Newtonʼs Second Law Of Motion
Force is directly proportional to the rate of change of momentum and it occurs in the direction of the force. F = ma F = ma mv – mu v–u F∝ = m ( t ) = ma t F F = kma The same force exerted on a larger F = ma (k = 1) Force of 1 N = 1 kg m s–2
F
mass produces a correspondingly smaller acceleration

Question The figure shows that one end of a string is attached to a 3 kg load and the other end is attached to a 2 kg load that is placed on a smooth table. What is the tension of the string? (Acceleration due to gravity = 10 m s–2) a Solution T For 2 kg mass, T = m1a ……... (1) m1 = 2 kg For 3 kg mass, m2g – T = m2a …...… (2) T (1) + (2), m2g = m1a + m2a a m2 = 3 kg = (m1 + m2)a m2g m2g Acceleration a = = 3 × 10 = 6 m s–2 2+3 m1 + m2 Substitute a into (1), Tension of string T = 2 × 6 = 12 N
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