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Chapter 3


Forces And Pressure


Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure (I)
Atmospheric Pressure
Magdeburg hemispheres needed 18 horses to be pulled apart.
Pull Vacuum Atmospheric pressure Pull

Water vapour Metal can Water Heat Atmospheric pressure

Low pressure

Metal can is cooled by pouring cold water

Cyclone moving at high speed surrounding a centre of low atmospheric pressure.

The metal can becomes distorted on cooling as the atmospheric pressure is greater than the air pressure inside the can.

Atmospheric Pressure Decreases With Altitude
1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg = 10.3 m water = 101 300 Pa 1 millibar = 100 Pa
Decreasing atmospheric pressure

Gas Pressure In A Container
Temperature = T Gas pressure = P Temperature > T Gas pressure > P Velocity of molecules increases at higher temperature Temperature = T Gas pressure > P because more molecules collide with the wall of container

Ozone layer Stratosphere Cloud cirrus Mount Everest

40 km 30 km 20 km 10 km 0 km

Troposphere Cloud cumulus Sea level

The gas pressure inside a container depends on the rate of collision of gas molecules with the walls. At higher temperature, molecules move faster and the rate of collision increases. Hence, pressure increases.
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